Sample records for weightlessness induces bone

  1. Effects of simulated weightlessness on the kinase activity of MEK1 induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Cao, X. S.; Yang, Z.

    Objective The mRNA expression of alpha 1 chain of type I collagen COL-I alpha 1 in rat osteosarcoma ROS17 2 8 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 BMP-2 was reduced under simulated microgravity The protein kinase MEK1 of MAPK signal pathway plays an important role in the expression of COL-I alpha 1 mRNA The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in ROS17 2 8 cells Methods ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G control and rotating clinostat simulated weightlessness for 24 h 48 h and 72 h BMP-2 500 ng ml was added into the medium 1 h before the culture ended There was a control group in which ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G condition without BMP-2 Then the total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of phosphated-ERK1 2 p-ERK1 2 protein was detected by means of Western Blotting to show the kinase activity of MEK1 Results There were no significant differences in the expression of total ERK1 2 among all groups The expression of p-ERK1 2 was unconspicuous in the control group without BMP-2 but increased significantly when BMP-2 was added P 0 01 The level of p-ERK1 2 in simulated weightlessness group was much more lower than that in 1G group in every time point P 0 01 The expression of p-ERK1 2 gradually decreased along with the time of weightlessness simulation P 0 01 Conclusions The kinase activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells was reduced under simulated weightlessness

  2. Simulated Space Radiation and Weightlessness: Vascular-Bone Coupling Mechanisms to Preserve Skeletal Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Delp, M. D.; Castillo, A. B.; Globus, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Weightlessness causes a cephalad fluid shift and reduction in mechanical stimulation, adversely affecting both cortical and trabecular bone tissue in astronauts. In rodent models of weightlessness, the onset of bone loss correlates with reduced skeletal perfusion, reduced and rarified vasculature and lessened vasodilation, which resembles blood-bone symbiotic events that can occur with fracture repair and aging. These are especially serious risks for long term, exploration class missions when astronauts will face the challenge of increased exposure to space radiation and abrupt transitions between different gravity environments upon arrival and return. Previously, we found using the mouse hindlimb unloading model and exposure to heavy ion radiation, both disuse and irradiation cause an acute bone loss that was associated with a reduced capacity to produce bone-forming osteoblasts from the bone marrow. Together, these findings led us to hypothesize that exposure to space radiation exacerbates weightlessness-induced bone loss and impairs recovery upon return, and that treatment with anti-oxidants may mitigate these effects. The specific aims of this recently awarded grant are to: AIM 1 Determine the functional and structural consequences of prolonged weightlessness and space radiation (simulated spaceflight) for bone and skeletal vasculature in the context of bone cell function and oxidative stress. AIM 2 Determine the extent to which an anti-oxidant protects against weightlessness and space radiation-induced bone loss and vascular dysfunction. AIM 3 Determine how space radiation influences later skeletal and vasculature recovery from prolonged weightlessness and the potential of anti-oxidants to preserve adaptive remodeling.

  3. Actual and Simulated Weightlessness Inhibit Osteogenesis in Long Bone Metaphysis by Different Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    Weightlessness and simulated weightlessness inhibit the rate of periosteal bone formation in long bones. Formation of preosteoblasts is suppressed in periodontal ligament (PDL) of maxillary molars, which suggests a generalized block in osteoblast histogenesis. Growth in length of long bones is decreased by simulated weightlessness, but there are no reliable data on the influence of actual weightlessness on metaphyseal growth. The nuclear size assay for assessing relative numbers of osteoblast precursor cells was utilized in the primary spongiosa of growing long bones subjected to actual and simulated weightlessness. It is found that: (1) Actual weightlessness decreases total number of osteogenic cells and inhibits differentiation of osteoblast precursor cells, (2) Simulated weightlessness suppresses only osteoblast differentation; and (3) The nuclear morphometric assay is an effective means of assessing osteogenic activity in the growing metaphysis or long bones.

  4. Effects of simulated weightlessness on rat osteocalcin and bone calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Buckendhal, Patricia; Globus, Ruth K.; Bikle, Daniel D.; Cann, Christopher E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1989-01-01

    The effect of weightlessness on the serum content of the mineral-binding protein osteocalcin (OC), bone OC, and bone Ca were investigated in rats subjected for periods from 2 to 28 days to a hindlimb unweighting procedure simulating weightlessness. It was found that serum OC decreased by 25 percent (consistent with a decreased rate of bone growth), during the first week of hindlimb suspension, but returned to normal levels after 15 days. The third lumbar vertebra (L3) and femur (analyzed in this study) lost 20 percent of weight after 10-28 days of suspension. Analysis of OC and Ca concentrations and content in L3 and femur suggest a temporal divergence of the metabolism of these two bone components. The OC and Ca concentrations were found to vary not only with respect to the duration of unweighting but also to differ from each other in the magnitude of their response. The data showed that unweighting affects the formation and deposition of OC and Ca differently, depending on the bone location and the duration of unweighting.

  5. Bone density in limb-immobilized beagles: An animal model for bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, Ira

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness is man in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. In order to seek and test preventative measures an appropriate ground based animal model simulating weightlessness is necessary. Use of the mature Beagle in limb immobilization has been documented as an excellent model for orthopedic research since this animal most closely simulates the phenomenom of bone loss with regards to growth, remodeling, structure, chemistry and mineralization. The purpose of this project is to develop a research protocol for the study of bone loss in Beagles during and after cast immobilization of a hindleg; research will then be initiated.

  6. [Effects of weightlessness on phosphorus and calcium metabolism and bone remodeling].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, C; Chappard, D; Vico, L; Minaire, P; Riffat, G

    1986-05-17

    Weightlessness results in negative calcium balance which can only reflect a redistribution of calcium in the body: the loss of calcium in the faeces and/or urine is constant, but an increase in urinary hydroxyproline indicating bone collagen destruction is not always detectable; moreover, a slowing down of collagen maturation may be suspected. Bone analysis by histomorphometry in animals and by indirect, non-invasive methods in man shows a decrease in bone mass. However, this bone tissue atrophy might only reflect excessive ageing of the bone during weightlessness, as suggested by slow bone formation and lack of variation in bone resorption. Since the experimental results obtained in men and animals during simulated weightlessness on earth are not strictly identical with those observed in space- flights, their validity may be questioned. Additional studies (notably histomorphometric studies) are therefore required for a better knowledge, as well as prevention, of the problems raised by human life in space. PMID:2940573

  7. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2005-01-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

  8. Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness.

    PubMed

    Zwart, S R; Davis-Street, J E; Paddon-Jones, D; Ferrando, A A; Wolfe, R R; Smith, S M

    2005-07-01

    High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group. PMID:15691900

  9. Bone Proteomics experiment (BOP): the first proteomics analysis of mammalian cells cultivated in weightlessness conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costessi, A.; Vascotto, C.; Pines, A.; Romanello, M.; Schonenborg, R.; Schiller, P.; Moro, L.; Tell, G.

    Bone mass loss is a major consequence of extended periods of weightlessness Many studies have been performed on astronauts and animal models establishing that a decrease of the maturation process and of the bone synthesising activity of osteoblast cells play a key role in microgravity-dependent bone mass loss Several experiments on single cells and tissues showed that weightlessness can also influence cells cultivated in vitro Many molecular mechanisms are affected among which the cytoskeleton and intracellular signal transduction cascades However the underlying mechanisms of these changes and their molecular consequences are far from being fully understood and the cellular gravisensing machinery is still unknown In contrast to weightlessness dynamic mechanical loading increases bone density and strength and promotes osteoblast proliferation differentiation and matrix production by acting at the gene expression level However the molecular mechanisms by which mechanical forces are converted into biochemical signalling in bone are also poorly understood A growing body of evidence points to extracellular nucleotides i e ATP and UTP as soluble factors that are released by several cell types in response to mechanical stimulation and that eventually trigger an intracellular signal We have recently demonstrated in the HOBIT osteoblast cell line that ATP and UTP treatments can activate two fundamental transcription factors that promote osteoblast differentiation and physiology Runx2 and Egr-1 as well as their target genes galectin-3 and

  10. Changes in bone structure and metabolism during simulated weightlessness: Endocrine and dietary factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Wronski, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of vitamin D, PTH and corticosterone in the skeletal alterations induced by simulated weightlessness was examined. The first objective was to determine if changes in the serum concentrations of Ca, P sub i, osteocalcin, 25-OH-D, 24,25(OH)2D or 1,25(OH)2D also occur following acute skeletal unloading. Animals were either suspended or pair fed for 2, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 days and the serum concentrations of Ca, P sub i, osteocalcin and the vitamin D metabolites measured. Bone histology was examined at day 5 after suspension. Acute skeletal unloading produced a transient hypercalcemia, a significant fall in serum osteocalcin and serum 1,25(OH)2D, a slight rise in serum 24,25(OH)2D, but did not affect the serum concentrations of P sub i or 25-OH-D. At the nadir in serum 1,25(OH)2D serum osteocalcin was reduced by 22%, osteoblast surface by 32% and longitudinal bone growth by 21%.

  11. Biochemical changes in bone in a model of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mechanic, Gerald L.

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of nonmineralized and mineralized collagen in bone from control, immobilized, and immobilized reambulated monkeys were examined. In order to understand structure function relationships of bone collagen and the reponse of a variety of conditions on control of the three dimensional structure of the collagen fibril, the stereochemistry of the cross-linking reactions as well as the stereospecific packing of the collagen molecules were studied.

  12. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  13. Selection of an appropriate animal model for study of bone loss in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolinsky, I.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged weightlessness in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. A number of preventative measures have been suggested, i.e., exercise during flight, dietary calcium supplements, use of specific prophylactic drugs. In order to facilitate research in these areas it is necessary to develop appropriate ground-based animal models that simulate the human condition of osteoporsis. An appropriate animal model would permit bone density studies, calcium balance studies, biochemical analyses, ground-based simulation models of weightlessness (bed rest, restraint, immobilization) and the planning of inflight experiments. Several animal models have been proposed in the biomedical research literature, but have inherent deficiencies. The purpose of this project was to evaluate models in the literature and determine which of these most closely simulates the phenomenon of bone loss in humans with regard to growth, bone remodeling, structural, chemical and mineralization similarities to human. This was accomplished by a comprehensive computer assisted literature search and report. Three animal models were examined closely for their relative suitability: the albino rat, monkey, and Beagle.

  14. Skeletal abnormalities in rats induced by simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    A hypokinetic model has been developed which attempts to simulate the weightlessness experienced during space flight. Male rats were suspended from the model with a head-down tilt for a two-week period. Total mechanical unloading of the hind limbs and partial unloading of the fore limbs occurred. In comparison to pair-fed control rats, the skeletal alterations in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses of suspended rats were determined to be a diminished rate of longitudinal bone growth, a reduced mass of mineralized tissue, and an accumulation of marrow fat. Also, suspended rats exhibited decreased numbers of osteoblasts and increased numbers of osteoclasts immediately adjacent to the growth plate-metaphyseal junction at both skeletal sites. Although the reduction in mineralized tissue and the fat accumulation were more marked in the tibia, the skeletal changes in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses were generally comparable. The observed abnormalities may be due to mechanical unloading and/or a hypersecretion of corticosteroids.

  15. Effects of spaceflight and simulated weightlessness on longitudinal bone growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Zhang, M.; Evans, G. L.; Westerlind, K. C.; Cavolina, J. M.; Morey-Holton, E.; Turner, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    Indirect measurements have suggested that spaceflight impairs bone elongation in rats. To test this possibility, our laboratory measured, by the fluorochrome labeling technique, bone elongation that occurred during a spaceflight experiment. The longitudinal growth rate (LGR) in the tibia of rats in spaceflight experiments (Physiological Space Experiments 1, 3, and 4 and Physiological-Anatomical Rodent Experiment 3) and in two models of skeletal unloading (hind-limb elevation and unilateral sciatic neurotomy) were calculated. The effects of an 11 day spaceflight on gene expression of cartilage matrix proteins in rat growth plates were also determined by northern analysis and are reported for the first time in this study. Measurements of longitudinal growth indicate that skeletal unloading generally did not affect LGR, regardless of age, strain, gender, duration of unloading, or method of unloading. There was, however, one exception with 34% suppression in LGR detected in slow-growing, ovariectomized rats skeletally unloaded for 8 days by hind-limb elevation. This detection of reduced LGR by hind-limb elevation is consistent with changes in steady-state mRNA levels for type II collagen (-33%) and for aggrecan (-53%) that were detected in rats unloaded by an 11 day spaceflight. The changes detected in gene expression raise concern that spaceflight may result in changes in the composition of extracellular matrix, which could have a negative impact on conversion of growth-plate cartilage into normal cancellous bone by endochondral ossification.

  16. Long-term potentiation in bone – a role for glutamate in strain-induced cellular memory?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J Spencer; Paul G Genever

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The adaptive response of bone cells to mechanical strain is a primary determinant of skeletal architecture and bone mass. In vivo mechanical loading induces new bone formation and increases bone mineral density whereas disuse, immobilisation and weightlessness induce bone loss. The potency of mechanical strain is such that a single brief period of loading at physiological strain magnitude is

  17. Calcium transport from the intestine and into bone in a rat model simulating weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R. K.; Morey, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a defect in transport of calcium in the duodenum was related to decreased bone formation in the suspended rat. Rats were suspended by the tail at a 40 deg angle for up to 15 days. Ca-45 was injected into the ligated duodenum in situ 15 minutes prior to sacrific. Blood, tibia, vertebra and humerus were obtained for total calcium and Ca-45 analyses. Intestinal calcium transport did not appear to be significantly altered by suspension. However, by 5 days of suspension a significant decrease in accumulation of Ca-45 into tibia and vertebra was observed. A trend of decreasing bone mineral and mass was established in tibia and vertebra by the fifth day of suspension. The humerus failed to demonstrate a significant weight decrease or change in Ca-45 accumulation after 15 days of suspension. Results from this simulated weightlessness model suggest that transport of calcium from intestine into bone is decreased within 5 days of suspension. This deficiency appears to be associated with a progressive decrease in total mass of non-weightbearing bones.

  18. Perspective on the impact of weightlessness on calcium and bone metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holick, M. F.

    1998-01-01

    As humans venture into space to colonize the moon and travel to distant planets in the 21st century, they will be confronted with a bone disease that could potentially limit their space exploration activities or put them at risk for fracture when they return to earth. It is now recognized that an unloading of the skeleton, either due to strict bed rest or in zero gravity, leads on average to a 1%-2% reduction in bone mineral density at selected skeletal sites each month. The mechanism by which unloading of the skeleton results in rapid mobilization of calcium stores from the skeleton is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to down regulation in PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Bone modeling and mineralization in chick embryos is not affected by microgravity, suggesting that bone cells adapt and ultimately become addicted to gravity in order to maintain a structurally sound skeleton. Strategies need to be developed to decrease microgravity-induced bone resorption by either mimicking gravity's effect on bone metabolism, or enhancing physically or pharmacologically bone formation in order to preserve astronauts' bone health.

  19. Experiment K305: Quantitative analysis of selected bone parameters. Supplement 1: Effects of weightlessness on osteoblast differentiation in rat molar periodontium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.; Mozsary, P. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1981-01-01

    The morphometric analysis of periodontal ligament (PDL), the osteogenic interface between tooth and bone, is described. Immediately post-flight, PDL width and total cell number were decreased. Frequency distributions of nuclear volume revealed that presumptive preosteoblasts were particularly depressed. Depleted numbers of preosteoblasts may be an important factor in the mechanism of inhibited bone formation during weightlessness.

  20. Mechanical Factors and Bone Health: Effects of Weightlessness and Neurologic Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shreyasee Amin

    2010-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue with homeostasis governed by many factors. Among them, mechanical stimuli appear to be particularly\\u000a critical for bone structure and strength. With removal of mechanical stimuli, a profound bone loss occurs, as best observed\\u000a in the extreme examples following exposure to space flight or neurologic impairment. This review provides an overview of the\\u000a changes in bone

  1. [Mechanisms of human osteopenia and some peculiarities of bone metabolism in weightlessness conditions].

    PubMed

    Oganov, V S; Grigor'ev, A I

    2012-03-01

    Systematically results and new analysis data on the investigation of human bone system in space flight, the orbital station Mir and International Space Station, are presented. The bone mineral density, bone mineral content, identified as bone mass and body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Theoretically, an expected bone mass loss in trabecular tissue of lower skeletal half may by described as a quickly developing but reversible osteopenia and considered as evidence of functional adaptation of bone tissue to the changing mechanical load. A hypothesis of main mechanisms of osteopenia in microgravity is presented. High individual variability of bone mass losses and stability of individual pattern of correlation between bone mass losses in different skeletal segments were found. It is not possible to identify the relationship between bone mass losses and duration of space missions. Therefore it is not a sufficient ground to calculate the probability of reaching the critical level of bone demineralization by prolonged space flight. The same relates to the probability of prognosis of bone quality changes. There is data about dual energy X-ray absorptiometry that is insufficient for this prognosis. The main direction of investigations is presented which might optimize the interplanetary mission from the point of view of skeletal mechanical functions preservation. PMID:22645949

  2. Is suppression of bone formation during simulated weightlessness related to glucocorticoid levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, E. R.; Bomalaski, M. D.; Enayati-Gordon, E.; Gonsalves, M. R.; Wronski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that suppression of bone formation in the suspended rat model was the result of increased levels of corticosterone, experiments were performed on young, growing, male rats exposed either to 4 C or suspended for two weeks. Rats suspended on the model system, designed to simulate certain aspects of spaceflight, gained weight at a rate at least equal to control animals but still showed a significant suppression of bone formation within 7 days. Cold-exposed rats gained less weight than their corresponding control group and did not demonstrate any suppression of bone formation. These findings suggest: (1) tail suspension is less stressful than previously used harness systems; (2) suspension in young, rapidly growing rats causes a significant suppression of cortical bone formation; (3) cold exposure does not alter bone formation rate in rats of a similar age and strain to those suspended in this study; and (4) suppression of bone formation provoked by unloading the rear limbs is not due solely to sustained stimulation of the pituitary-adrenal system.

  3. Weightless Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this physics activity (page 5 of the PDF), learners will witness the effects of free fall by observing falling water, and will gain a better understanding of the concept of weightlessness. Although this activity was created as a post-visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity!

  4. Studies of Intercellular Communication and Intracellular Metabolic Responses by Bone Cells to Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight affects the weight bearing skeletal tissues by reducing the rate of new bone formation. This effect on the long bones of flown rats has been quantitated but the effect at the cellular level and the mechanism(s) involved are not understood. We are applying electron microscopy, coupled with histochemistry and immunocytochemistry to determine the cellular functions most affected by spaceflight. The emphasis for study of these samples from SLS-1, a 9-day mission, is on the histochemical and structural changes of the endosteal and perivascular osteoblasts found in diaphyseal bone of femur and tibia. Work is still in progress but some findings are described: (1) An expected decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts from flight animals, but an increase in enzyme activity in the stromal stem cells adjacent to the osteoblast. (2) An increase in osteoclastic TRAP activity in the trabecular bone region in response to spaceflight. (3) A large increase in procollagen containing secretory granules in osteoblasts in the recovery group, and a significant decrease in granule numbers in the flight group.

  5. Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

  6. Bone growth and calcium balance during simulated weightlessness in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roer, Robert D.; Dillaman, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Rats, age 28 days, experiencing tail suspension in modified metabolic cages for 1, 2, and 3 wk were compared with littermate controls. Food and water consumption, urinary and fecal Ca excretion, and serum Ca were measured; hearts, fore- and hindlimb bones, skulls, and mandibles were removed for determination of wet, dry, and ash weights and Ca concentration and for histological examination. Weight gain and Ca intake and excretion were the same for both groups; both displayed net Ca gain. Suspended rats had significantly lower wet, dry, and ash weights of femora and tibiae. Dry weights of the humeri and radii/ulnae were moderately higher, and the skull and mandible dry and ash weights were significantly higher in suspended than in control rats. Cortical thickness of the femur, but not humerus, was less in suspended rats. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that bone growth is influenced by the cardiovascular changes associated with tail suspension.

  7. Random root movements in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsson, A.; Karlsson, C.; Iversen, T. H.; Chapman, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of root growth was studied in weightlessness. In the absence of the gravitropic reference direction during weightlessness, root movements could be controlled by spontaneous growth processes, without any corrective growth induced by the gravitropic system. If truly random of nature, the bending behavior should follow so-called 'random walk' mathematics during weightlessness. Predictions from this hypothesis were critically tested. In a Spacelab ESA-experiment, denoted RANDOM and carried out during the IML-2 Shuttle flight in July 1994, the growth of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) roots was followed by time lapse photography at 1-h intervals. The growth pattern was recorded for about 20 h. Root growth was significantly smaller in weightlessness as compared to gravity (control) conditions. It was found that the roots performed spontaneous movements in weightlessness. The average direction of deviation of the plants consistently stayed equal to zero, despite these spontaneous movements. The average squared deviation increased linearly with time as predicted theoretically (but only for 8-10 h). Autocorrelation calculations showed that bendings of the roots, as determined from the 1-h photographs, were uncorrelated after about a 2-h interval. It is concluded that random processes play an important role in root growth. Predictions from a random walk hypothesis as to the growth dynamics could explain parts of the growth patterns recorded. This test of the hypothesis required microgravity conditions as provided for in a space experiment.

  8. Inducible models of bone loss.

    PubMed

    Doucette, Casey R; Rosen, Clifford J

    2014-01-01

    Bone is an essential organ that not only confers structural stability to the organism, but also serves as a reservoir for hematopoietic elements and is thought to affect systemic homeostasis through the release of endocrine factors as well as calcium. The loss of bone mass due to an uncoupling of bone formation and bone resorption leads to increased fragility that can result in devastating fractures. Further understanding of the effects of environmental stimuli on the development of bone disease in humans is needed, and they can be studied using animal models. Here, we present established and novel methods for the induction of bone loss in mice, including manipulation of diet and environment, administration of drugs, irradiation, and surgically induced hormone deficiency. All of these models are directly related to human cases, and thus, can be used to investigate the causes of bone loss resulting from these interventions. PMID:25723184

  9. Endoscopic surgery in weightlessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Campbell; A. W. Kirkpatrick; R. D. Billica; S. L. Johnston; R. Jennings; D. Short; S. A. Dulchavsky

    2001-01-01

    Background: Performing a surgical procedure in weightlessness, also called 0-gravity (0-g), has been shown to be no more difficult than in a 1-g environment if the requirements for the restraint of the patient, operator, surgical hardware, are observed. The performance of laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures in weightlessness, if feasible, would offer several advantages over the performance of an open operation.

  10. Alendronate and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Against Bed Rest-Induced Bone Loss: Biochemical Markers of Bone and Calcium Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Weightlessness-induced bone loss must be counteracted to ensure crew health during extendedduration space missions. Studies were conducted to assess two bone loss countermeasures in a ground-based model: horizontal bed rest. Following a 3-wk ambulatory adaptation period, male and female subjects (aged 21-56 y) completed a 17-wk bed rest protocol. Subjects were assigned to one of three treatments: alendronate (ALEN; 10 mg/d, n=6), resistive exercise (RE; 1.5 h/d, 6 d/wk, n=8), or control (CN; no countermeasure, n=8). Dietary intake was adjusted to maintain body weight. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured in blood and urine using standard laboratory methods. All data reported are expressed as percent change from individual pre-bedrest data. Serum calcium changed little during bed rest, and tended to decrease (4-8%) in ALEN subjects. In RE subjects, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased >65 and >30%, respectively, during bed rest, while these were unchanged or decreased in ALEN and CN subjects. Urinary calcium was increased 50% in CN subjects, but was unchanged or decreased in both ALEN and RE groups. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion was increased 40-50% in CN and RE subjects, but decreased 20% in ALEN subjects. Pyridinium crosslink and deoxypyridinoline excretion were increased 20-50% during bed rest. These data suggest that RE countermeasures are effective at increasing markers of bone formation in an analog of weightlessness, while ALEN reduces markers of bone resorption. Counteracting the bone loss of space flight may require both pharmacologic and exercise countermeasures.

  11. Formation of ectopic osteogenesis in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    An ectopic osteogenesis experiment aboard the Cosmos-936 biosatellite is described. Decalcified, lyophilized femur and tibia were implanted under the fascia or in the anterior wall of the abdomen in rats. Bone formation before and after the tests is described and illustrated. The extent of formation of ectopic bone in weightlessness did not differ significantly from that in the ground controls, but the bone marrow of the ectopic bone of the flight rats consisted exclusively of fat cells. The deficit of support-muscle loading was considered to cause the disturbance in skeletal bone tissue development.

  12. Comparison between the weightlessness syndrome and aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J.

    1982-01-01

    The similarity of detrimental effects of normal aging and of exposure to space weightlessness is discussed. The effects include: the reduction in cardiac output, increase in blood pressure, decrease in respiratory vital capacity, decrease in lean body weight and muscle mass, collagen and fat infiltration of muscle, bone demineralization, and a decrease in urinary excretion of total 17-hydroxicorticosteroids. It is also noted that dispite the accelerated aging of organisms, if animals or human subjects were to spend their entire lives in weightlessness, their lifespans might be significantly increased because of a reduction in metabolic rate. Experimental results are cited.

  13. Effect of simulated weightlessness on the expression of Cbf?1 induced by fluid shear stress in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Sun, X. Q.

    Objective The role of mechanical load in the functional regulation of osteoblasts becomes an emphasis in osseous biomechanical researches recently This study was aim to explore the effect of flow shear stress on the expression of Cbf alpha 1 in human osteosarcoma cells and to survey its functional alteration in simulated weightlessness Method After cultured for 72 h in two different gravitational environments i e 1G terrestrial gravitational condition and simulated weightlessness condition human osteosarcoma cells MG-63 were treated with 0 5 Pa or 1 5 Pa fluid shear stress FSS in a flow chamber for 15 30 60 min respectively The total RNA in cells was isolated Transcription PCR analysis was made to examine the gene expression of Cbf alpha 1 And the total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of Cbf alpha 1 protein was detected by means of Western Blotting Results MG-63 cultured in 1G condition reacted to FSS treatment with an enhanced expression of Cbf alpha 1 Compared with no FSS control group Cbf alpha 1 mRNA and protein expression increased significantly at 30 and 60 min with the treatment of FSS P 0 01 And there was remarkable difference on the Cbf alpha 1 mRNA and protein expression between the treatments of 0 5 Pa and 1 5 Pa FSS at 30 min or 60 min P 0 01 As to the osteoblasts cultured in simulated weightlessness by using clinostat the expression of Cbf alpha 1 was significantly different between 1G and simulated weightlessness conditions at each test time P 0 05 Compared with no FSS

  14. Laparoscopic surgery in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Jennings, R.; Johnston, S. 3rd

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Performing a surgical procedure in weightlessness has been shown not to be any more difficult than in a 1g environment if the requirements for the restraint of the patient, operator, and surgical hardware are observed. The feasibility of performing a laparoscopic surgical procedure in weightlessness, however, has been questionable. Concerns have included the impaired visualization from the lack of gravitational retraction of the bowel and from floating debris such as blood. METHODS: In this project, laparoscopic surgery was performed on a porcine animal model in the weightlessness of parabolic flight. RESULTS: Visualization was unaffected due to the tethering of the bowel by the elastic mesentery and the strong tendency for debris and blood to adhere to the abdominal wall due to surface tension forces. CONCLUSIONS: There are advantages to performing a laparoscopic instead of an open surgical procedure in a weightless environment. These will become important as the laparoscopic support hardware is miniaturized from its present form, as laparoscopic technology becomes more advanced, and as more surgically capable crew medical officers are present in future long-duration space-exploration missions.

  15. Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein Induces Bone Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Wang; Vicki Rosen; Josephine S. D'Alessandro; Marc Bauduy; Paul Cordes; Tomoko Harada; David I. Israel; Rodney M. Hewick; Kelvin M. Kerns; Peter Lapan; Deborah H. Luxenberg; David McQuid; Ioannis K. Moutsatsos; John Nove; John M. Wozney

    1990-01-01

    We have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 mug of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day

  16. Oxidative stress and gamma radiation-induced cancellous bone loss with musculoskeletal disuse

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hisataka; Yumoto, Kenji; Alwood, Joshua S.; Mojarrab, Rose; Wang, Angela; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Searby, Nancy D.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of astronauts in space to radiation during weightlessness may contribute to subsequent bone loss. Gamma irradiation of postpubertal mice rapidly increases the number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and causes bone loss in cancellous tissue; similar changes occur in skeletal diseases associated with oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that increased oxidative stress mediates radiation-induced bone loss and that musculoskeletal disuse changes the sensitivity of cancellous tissue to radiation exposure. Musculoskeletal disuse by hindlimb unloading (1 or 2 wk) or total body gamma irradiation (1 or 2 Gy of 137Cs) of 4-mo-old, male C57BL/6 mice each decreased cancellous bone volume fraction in the proximal tibiae and lumbar vertebrae. The extent of radiation-induced acute cancellous bone loss in tibiae and lumbar vertebrae was similar in normally loaded and hindlimb-unloaded mice. Similarly, osteoclast surface in the tibiae increased 46% as a result of irradiation, 47% as a result of hindlimb unloading, and 64% as a result of irradiation + hindlimb unloading compared with normally loaded mice. Irradiation, but not hindlimb unloading, reduced viability and increased apoptosis of marrow cells and caused oxidative damage to lipids within mineralized tissue. Irradiation also stimulated generation of reactive oxygen species in marrow cells. Furthermore, injection of ?-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, mitigated the acute bone loss caused by irradiation. Together, these results showed that disuse and gamma irradiation, alone or in combination, caused a similar degree of acute cancellous bone loss and shared a common cellular mechanism of increased bone resorption. Furthermore, irradiation, but not disuse, may increase the number of osteoclasts and the extent of acute bone loss via increased reactive oxygen species production and ensuing oxidative damage, implying different molecular mechanisms. The finding that ?-lipoic acid protected cancellous tissue from the detrimental effects of irradiation has potential relevance to astronauts and radiotherapy patients. PMID:19875718

  17. Weightlessness on Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity, which introduces students to Einstein's equivalence principle, uses a plastic cup with a hole in the bottom to demonstrate how the water stops flowing from the hole while the cup is in free fall. The procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of weightlessness and the equivalence principle.

  18. The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.

    1985-01-01

    A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

  19. Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.

  20. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Klein-Nulend, J; Bacabac, R G; Veldhuijzen, J P; Van Loon, J J W A

    2003-01-01

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone. PMID:15000126

  1. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

    2003-10-01

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  2. Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

    The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

  3. [Thermoregulation under simulated weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Qiu, M; Liu, W; Liu, G; Wen, J; Liu, G; Chang, S

    1997-06-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness on thermoregulation was studied in 5 subjects. The experiment consisted of 3d baseline measurements, 7d head-down bed rest and 2d recovery. Circadian rhythm was assessed by continuous measurements of rectal temperature and skin temperature with 2h intervals. Heat Stress Protein 70 (HSP70) was measured by Western-blot Dot method and the facial surface temperature distribution was measured by HR-2 infrared thermography. The results showed that rectal temperature keeps the wake-sleep variation, but the circadian rhythm changed during bed rest, and the change of rectum temperature rhythm appeared mainly in the early-days of bed rest; HSP70 and facial surface temperature increased during bed rest. PMID:11540574

  4. An optimized index of human cardiovascular adaptation to simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, M.; Hassebrook, L.; Evans, J.; Varghese, T.; Knapp, C.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness is known to produce a variety of cardiovascular changes, some of which may influence the astronaut's performance during a mission. In order to find a reliable indicator of cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, we analyzed data from nine male subjects after a 24-hour period of normal activity and after a period of simulated weightlessness produced by two hours in a launch position followed by 20 hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt plus pharmacologically induced diuresis (furosemide). Heart rate, arterial pressure, thoracic fluid index, and radial flow were analyzed. Autoregressive spectral estimation and decomposition were used to obtain the spectral components of each variable from the subjects in the supine position during pre- and post-simulated weightlessness. We found a significant decrease in heart rate power and an increase in thoracic fluid index power in the high frequency region (0.2-0.45 Hz) and significant increases in radial flow and arterial pressure powers in the low frequency region (<0.2 Hz) in response to simulated weightlessness. However, due to the variability among subjects, any single variable appeared limited as a dependable index of cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness. The backward elimination algorithm was then used to select the best discriminatory features from these spectral components. Fisher's linear discriminant and Bayes' quadratic discriminant were used to combine the selected features to obtain an optimal index of adaptation to simulated weightlessness. Results showed that both techniques provided improved discriminant performance over any single variable and thus have the potential for use as an index to track adaptation and prescribe countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness.

  5. Radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth disturbances.

    PubMed

    Gevorgyan, Artur; La Scala, Giorgio C; Neligan, Peter C; Pang, Cho Y; Forrest, Christopher R

    2007-09-01

    Multimodality treatment, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery, is required for the management of head and neck cancer in pediatric patients. Despite the modern advances in radiation dosing and targeting techniques, the radiation damage to the growing craniofacial skeleton in children remains a significant clinical problem. The first part of this review summarizes the clinical effects of radiotherapy on craniofacial bone growth in children. Experimental evidence on therapeutic radiation effects on bone growth in in vivo and in vitro models is reviewed. The second part of this review focuses on prevention of radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition using radioprotective agents. PMID:17912072

  6. Role of digitalis-like substance in the hypertension of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and simulated weightlessness in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamnani, M. B.; Chen, S.; Haddy, F. J.; Yuan, C.; Mo, Z.

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the role of plasma Na+-K+ pump inhibitor (SPI) in the hypertension of streptozotocin induced insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in reduced renal mass rats. The increase in blood pressure (BP) was associated with an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and SPI and a decrease in myocardial Na+,K+ATPase (NKA) activity, suggesting that increased SPI, which inhibits cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell NKA activity, may be involved in the mechanism of IDDM-hypertension. In a second study, using prolonged suspension resulted in a decrease in cardiac NKA activity, suggesting that cardiovascular deconditioning following space flight might in part result from insufficient SPI.

  7. Human Cardiovascular Adaptation to Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Entering weightlessness (0 G) induces immediately a shift of blood and fluid from the lower to the upper parts of the body inducing expansion of the cardiac chambers (Bungo et al. 1986; Charles & Lathers 1991; Videbaek & Norsk 1997). For many years the effects of sudden 0 G on central venous pressure (CVP) was discussed, and it puzzled researchers that CVP compared to the 1-G supine position decreased during the initial hours of spaceflight, when at the same time left atrial diameter increased (Buckey et al. 1996). By measuring esophageal pressure as an estimate of inter-pleural pressure, it was later shown that this pressure decreases more than CVP does during 0 G induced by parabolic flights (Videbaek & Norsk 1997). Thus, transmural CVP is increased, which distends the cardiac chambers. This unique lung-heart interaction whereby 1) inter-pleural pressure decreases and 2) central blood volume is expanded is unique for 0 G. Because transmural CVP is increased, stroke volume increases according to the law of Frank-Starling leading to an increase in cardiac output, which is maintained increased during months of 0 G in space to levels of some 25% above that of the 1-G seated position (Norsk unpublished). Simultaneously, sympathetic nervous activity is at the level of the upright 1-G posture, which is difficult to explain based on the high stroke volume and decreased blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. This paradox should be explored and the mechanisms revealed, because it might have implications for estimating the cardiovascular risk of travelling in space.

  8. Vaccination against strontium-90-induced bone tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, A.E.; Triest, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    The thesis was tested that immunization against a murine osteosarcoma virus can reduce the incidence of bone tumors induced by /sup 90/Sr. C57BL/6J female mice (190) were divided into three sets of 2 groups. Each set consisted of a control group and an experimental group treated ip with 1.0 muCi /sup 90/Sr at 66 days of age. The three sets of groups received the following additional treatments: none (controls), 6 injections of Formalin-inactivated FBJ osteosarcoma virus (vaccinated group), or 6 injections of active FBJ virus (active virus controls). Only 1 bone tumor developed in a mouse not treated with /sup 90/Sr in the active virus controls. In /sup 90/Sr-treated mice, vaccination reduced bone tumor deaths during the first 600 days from 9 of 36 in controls to 1 of 33 in vaccinated mice (P less than .01), but bone tumor deaths during the entire life-span, 10 of 36 and 5 of 33, respectively, were not significantly different (P . .07). Thus the vaccination procedure delayed the development of bone tumors. In contrast, injection of active virus into /sup 90/Sr-treated mice increased the lifetime incidence of bone tumors from 10 of 36 in controls to 19 of 32 (P . .01).

  9. Rescuing loading induced bone formation at senescence.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Ausk, Brandon J; Prasad, Jitendra; Threet, Dewayne; Bain, Steven D; Richardson, Thomas S; Gross, Ted S

    2010-01-01

    The increasing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide requires anabolic treatments that are safe, effective, and, critically, inexpensive given the prevailing overburdened health care systems. While vigorous skeletal loading is anabolic and holds promise, deficits in mechanotransduction accrued with age markedly diminish the efficacy of readily complied, exercise-based strategies to combat osteoporosis in the elderly. Our approach to explore and counteract these age-related deficits was guided by cellular signaling patterns across hierarchical scales and by the insight that cell responses initiated during transient, rare events hold potential to exert high-fidelity control over temporally and spatially distant tissue adaptation. Here, we present an agent-based model of real-time Ca(2+)/NFAT signaling amongst bone cells that fully described periosteal bone formation induced by a wide variety of loading stimuli in young and aged animals. The model predicted age-related pathway alterations underlying the diminished bone formation at senescence, and hence identified critical deficits that were promising targets for therapy. Based upon model predictions, we implemented an in vivo intervention and show for the first time that supplementing mechanical stimuli with low-dose Cyclosporin A can completely rescue loading induced bone formation in the senescent skeleton. These pre-clinical data provide the rationale to consider this approved pharmaceutical alongside mild physical exercise as an inexpensive, yet potent therapy to augment bone mass in the elderly. Our analyses suggested that real-time cellular signaling strongly influences downstream bone adaptation to mechanical stimuli, and quantification of these otherwise inaccessible, transient events in silico yielded a novel intervention with clinical potential. PMID:20838577

  10. Calcium and Bone Metabolism During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to understand and counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after space station or exploration missions lasting months or years, respectively. Until its deorbit in 2001 , the Mir Space Station provided a valuable platform for long-duration space missions and life sciences research. Long-duration flights are critical for studying bone loss, as the 2- to 3-week Space Shuttle flights are not long enough to detect changes in bone mass. This review will describe human spaceflight data, focusing on biochemical surrogates of bone and calcium metabolism. This subject has been reviewed previously. 1-

  11. Calcium influx through stretch-activated channels mediates microfilament reorganization in osteoblasts under simulated weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Mingzhi; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Shengsheng; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Airong; Shang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    We have explored the role of Ca2+ signaling in microfilament reorganization of osteoblasts induced by simulated weightlessness using a random positioning machine (RPM). The RPM-induced alterations of cell morphology, microfilament distribution, cell proliferation, cell migration, cytosol free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and protein expression in MG63 osteoblasts were investigated. Simulated weightlessness reduced cell size, disrupted microfilament, inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, and induced an increase in [Ca2+]i in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Gadolinium chloride (Gd), an inhibitor for stretch-activated channels, attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]i and microfilament disruption. Further, the expression of calmodulin was significantly increased by simulated weightlessness, and an inhibitor of calmodulin, W-7, aggravated microfilament disruption. Our findings demonstrate that simulated weightlessness induces Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated channels, then results in microfilament disruption.

  12. Prevention of glucocorticoid induced bone changes with beta-ecdysone.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiwei; Jiang, Li; Lay, Yu-An Evan; Chen, Haiyan; Jin, Guoqin; Zhang, Hongliang; Kot, Alexander; Ritchie, Robert O; Lane, Nancy E; Yao, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Beta-ecdysone (?Ecd) is a phytoecdysteroid found in the dry roots and seeds of the asteraceae and achyranthes plants, and is reported to increase osteogenesis in vitro. Since glucocorticoid (GC) excess is associated with a decrease in bone formation, the purpose of this study was to determine if treatment with ?Ecd could prevent GC-induced osteoporosis. Two-month-old male Swiss-Webster mice (n=8-10/group) were randomized to either placebo or slow release prednisolone pellets (3.3mg/kg/day) and treated with vehicle control or ?Ecd (0.5mg/kg/day) for 21days. GC treatment inhibited age-dependent trabecular gain and cortical bone expansion and this was accompanied by a 30-50% lower bone formation rate (BFR) at both the endosteal and periosteal surfaces. Mice treated with only ?Ecd significantly increased bone formation on the endosteal and periosteal bone surfaces, and increased cortical bone mass were their controls to compare to GC alone. Concurrent treatment of ?Ecd and GC completely prevented the GC-induced reduction in BFR, trabecular bone volume and partially prevented cortical bone loss. In vitro studies determined that ?Ecd prevented the GC increase in autophagy of the bone marrow stromal cells as well as in whole bone. In summary, ?Ecd prevented GC induced changes in bone formation, bone cell viability and bone mass. Additional studies are warranted of ?Ecd for the treatment of GC induced bone loss. PMID:25585248

  13. Prolonged weightlessness and calcium loss in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Johnston, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data have been accumulated from a series of studies in which men have been subjected to weightlessness in orbital space flight for periods of up to 12 weeks. These data are used to predict the long term consequences of weightlessness upon the skeletal system. Space flight induced a loss of calcium which accelerated exponentially from about 50 mg/d at the end of 1 week to approx. 300 mg/d at the end of 12 weeks. The hypercalciuria reached a constant level within 4 weeks while fecal calcium losses continued to increase throughout the period of exposure. This apparent diminution of gastrointestinal absorptive efficiency was accompanied by a slight decline in the plasma level of parathyroid hormone and a slight elevation in the plasma level of calcium and phosphorus. Although losses in mineral from the calcaneus were closely correlated with the calcium imbalance, no changes were detected in the mineral mass of the ulna and radius. From the data presented it is concluded that the process of demineralization observed in space flight is more severe than would be predicted on the basis of observations in immobilized, bed rested, or paralyzed subjects. It is, moreover, suggested that the process may not be totally reversible.

  14. From Milk to Bones, Moving Calcium Through the Body: Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Did you know that when astronauts are in space, their height increases about two inches? This happens because the weightlessness of space allows the spine, usually compressed in Earth's gravity, to expand. While this change is relatively harmless, other more serious things can happen with extended stays in weightlessness, notably bone loss. From previous experiments, scientists have observed that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of about one percent per month during flight. Scientists know that bone is a dynamic tissue - continually being made and repaired by specialized bone cells throughout life. Certain cells produce new bone, while other cells are responsible for removing and replacing old bone. Research on the mechanisms of bone metabolism and the effects of space flight on its formation and repair are part of the exciting studies that will be performed during STS-107. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. Ninety-nine percent of calcium in the body is stored in the skeleton. However, calcium may be released, or resorbed, from bone to provide for other tissues when you are not eating. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts will participate in a study of calcium kinetics - that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  15. Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, Stein E.

    1989-01-01

    Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

  16. Surgical Instrument Restraint in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Dawson, David L.; Melton, Shannon; Hooker, Dona; Cantu, Hilda

    2000-01-01

    Performing a surgical procedure during spaceflight will become more likely with longer duration missions in the near future. Minimal surgical capability has been present on previous missions as the definitive medical care time was short and the likelihood of surgical events too low to justify surgical hardware availability. Early demonstrations of surgical procedures in the weightlessness of parabolic flight indicated the need for careful logistical planning and restraint of surgical hardware. The consideration of human ergonomics also has more impact in weightlessness than in the conventionall-g environment. Three methods of surgical instrument restraint - a Minor Surgical Kit (MSK), a Surgical Restraint Scrub Suit (SRSS), and a Surgical Tray (ST) were evaluated in parabolic flight surgical procedures. The Minor Surgical Kit was easily stored, easily deployed, and demonstrated the best ability to facilitate a surgical procedure in weightlessness. Important factors in this surgical restraint system include excellent organization of supplies, ability to maintain sterility, accessibility while providing secure restraint, ability to dispose of sharp items and biological trash, and ergonomical efficiency.

  17. Mechanical stimulation of bone marrow in situ induces bone formation in trabecular explants.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, E; Kreipke, T C; Dolan, E B; Coughlin, T R; Owens, P; McNamara, L M; Niebur, G L; McHugh, P E

    2015-04-01

    Low magnitude high frequency (LMHF) loading has been shown to have an anabolic effect on trabecular bone in vivo. However, the precise mechanical signal imposed on the bone marrow cells by LMHF loading, which induces a cellular response, remains unclear. This study investigates the influence of LMHF loading, applied using a custom designed bioreactor, on bone adaptation in an explanted trabecular bone model, which isolated the bone and marrow. Bone adaptation was investigated by performing micro CT scans pre and post experimental LMHF loading, using image registration techniques. Computational fluids dynamic models were generated using the pre-experiment scans to characterise the mechanical stimuli imposed by the loading regime prior to adaptation. Results here demonstrate a significant increase in bone formation in the LMHF loaded group compared to static controls and media flow groups. The calculated shear stress in the marrow was between 0.575 and 0.7 Pa, which is within the range of stimuli known to induce osteogenesis by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Interestingly, a correlation was found between the bone formation balance (bone formation/resorption), trabecular number, trabecular spacing, mineral resorption rate, bone resorption rate and mean shear stresses. The results of this study suggest that the magnitude of the shear stresses generated due to LMHF loading in the explanted bone cores has a contributory role in the formation of trabecular bone and improvement in bone architecture parameters. PMID:25281407

  18. Acupuncture for Cancer-Induced Bone Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Paley, Carole A.; Bennett, Michael I.; Johnson, Mark I.

    2011-01-01

    Bone pain is the most common type of pain in cancer. Bony metastases are common in advanced cancers, particularly in multiple myeloma, breast, prostate or lung cancer. Current pain-relieving strategies include the use of opioid-based analgesia, bisphosphonates and radiotherapy. Although patients experience some pain relief, these interventions may produce unacceptable side-effects which inevitably affect the quality of life. Acupuncture may represent a potentially valuable adjunct to existing strategies for pain relief and it is known to be relatively free of harmful side-effects. Although acupuncture is used in palliative care settings for all types of cancer pain the evidence-base is sparse and inconclusive and there is very little evidence to show its effectiveness in relieving cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). The aim of this critical review is to consider the known physiological effects of acupuncture and discuss these in the context of the pathophysiology of malignant bone pain. The aim of future research should be to produce an effective protocol for treating CIBP with acupuncture based on a sound, evidence-based rationale. The physiological mechanisms presented in this review suggest that this is a realistic objective. PMID:21799687

  19. Evaluation of the three-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takayuki Hoson; Seiichiro Kamisaka; Yoshio Masuda; Masamichi Yamashita; Brigitte Buchen

    1997-01-01

    .   Concerns regarding the reliability of slow- and fast-rotating uni-axial clinostats in simulating weightlessness have induced\\u000a the construction of devices considered to simulate weightlessness more adequately. A new three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat\\u000a equipped with two rotation axes placed at right angles has been constructed. In the clinostat, the rotation achieved with\\u000a two motors is computer-controlled and monitored with encoders attached to

  20. Bone Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

  1. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  2. Influence of short-term aluminum exposure on demineralized bone matrix induced bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlen R. Severson; Craig F. Haut; Conrad E. Firling; Thomas E. Huntley

    1992-01-01

    The effects of aluminum exposure on bone formation employing the demineralized bone matrix (DBM) induced bone development model were studied using 4-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats injected with a saline (control) or an aluminum chloride (experimental) solution. After 2 weeks of aluminum treatment, 20-mg portions of rat DBM were implanted subcutaneously on each side in the thoracic region of the control and

  3. Lower body negative pressure treadmill exercise as a countermeasure for bed rest-induced bone loss in female identical twins

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Sara R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Macias, Brandon R.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Tse, Kevin; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Supine weight-bearing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) alleviates some of the skeletal deconditioning induced by simulated weightlessness in men. We examined the potential beneficial effect in women. Because dietary acid load affected the degree of bone resorption in men during bed rest, we also investigated this variable in women. Subjects were 7 pairs of female identical twins assigned at random to 2 groups, sedentary bed rest (control) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise within LBNP. Dietary intake was controlled and monitored. Urinary calcium and markers of bone resorption were measured before bed rest (BR) and on BR days 5/6, 12/13, 19/20, and 26/27. Bone mineral content was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after bed rest. Data were analyzed by repeated measures two-way analysis of variance. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to define the relationships between diet and markers of bone metabolism, and to estimate heritability of markers. During bed rest, all markers of bone resorption and urinary calcium and phosphorus increased (P < 0.001); parathyroid hormone (P = 0.06), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.06), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (P = 0.09) tended to decrease. LBNP exercise tended to mitigate bone density loss. The ratio of dietary animal protein to potassium was positively correlated with urinary calcium excretion for all weeks of bed rest in the control group, but only during weeks 1 and 3 for the exercise group. Pre-bed rest data suggested that many markers of bone metabolism have strong genetic determinants. Treadmill exercise within LBNP had less of a protective effect on bone resorption during bed rest in women than previously-published results had shown for its effect in men, but the same trends were observed for both sexes. Dietary acid load of these female subjects was significantly correlated with calcium excretion but not with other bone resorption markers. PMID:17070743

  4. Osteoblast histogenesis in periodontal ligament and tibial metaphysis during simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, Paul J.; Morey, Emily R.; Roberts, W. Eugene

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing the nuclear morphometric assay for osteoblast histogenesis, the effect of simulated weightlessness (SW) on the relative numbers of the periodontal ligament (PDL) osteoblast progenitors and on the total number of osteogenic cells was determined in rats. Weightlessness was simulated by subjecting rats to continuous 30-deg head-down posture using a modified back-harness device of Morey (1979). The response of a partially unloaded, weight-bearing bone, tibial primary spongiosa (PS), was compared to a normally loaded, nonweight-bearing PDL bone. Data indicated a similar differentiation sequence in PS and PDL, which suggests that these bones might be sensitive to the same systemic factors. Preosteoblast numbers were seen to decrease in both nonweight-bearing and weight-bearing bones during SW (compared with rats not exposed to SW), indicating the importance of systemic mediators, such as cephalad fluid shift, physiological stress, and/or growth retardation.

  5. Mechanical stretch induced calcium efflux from bone matrix stimulates osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuanhao; McLamore, Eric; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Slipchenko, Mikhail; Porterfield, D Marshall; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-03-01

    The mechanisms by which bone cells sense critically loaded regions of bone are still a matter of ongoing debate. Animal models to investigate response to microdamage involve post mortem immunohistological analysis and do not allow real-time monitoring of cellular response during the emergence of the damage in bone. Most in vitro mechanical stimulation studies are conducted on non-bone substrates, neglecting the damage-related alterations in the pericellular niche and their potential effects on bone cells. The current study reports spontaneous efflux of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) (1.924±0.742 pmol cm(-2)s(-1)) from regions of devitalized bone matrix undergoing post-yield strains, induced by a stress concentrator. When these samples are seeded with MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, the strain-induced Ca(2+) efflux from bone elicits cell response at the stress concentration site as manifested by activation of intracellular calcium signaling (increase in fluorescence by 52%±27%). This activity is associated with extracellular calcium because the intracellular calcium signaling in response to mechanical loading subsides when experiments are repeated using demineralized bone substrates (increase in fluorescence by 6%±10%). These results imply a novel perspective where bone matrix acts as an intermediary mechanochemical transducer by converting mechanical strain into a chemical signal (pericellular calcium) to which cells respond. Such a mechanism may be responsible for triggering repair at locations of bone matrix undergoing critical deformation levels. PMID:22227434

  6. ANA Deficiency Enhances Bone Morphogenetic Protein-induced Ectopic Bone Formation via Transcriptional Events*

    PubMed Central

    Miyai, Kentaro; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Hasegawa, Urara; Toita, Sayaka; Izu, Yayoi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Ezura, Yoichi; Mizutani, Shuki; Miyazono, Kohei; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Noda, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic bone formation after joint replacement or brain injury in humans is a serious complication that causes immobility of joints and severe pain. However, mechanisms underlying such ectopic bone formation are not fully understood. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMPs) are defined as inducers of ectopic bone formation, and they are regulated by several types of inhibitors. ANA is an antiproliferative molecule that belongs to Tob/BTG family, but its activity in bone metabolism has not been known. Here, we examined the role of ANA on ectopic bone formation activity of BMP. In ANA-deficient and wild-type mice, BMP2 was implanted to induce ectopic bone formation in muscle. ANA deficiency increased mass of newly formed bone in vivo compared with wild-type based on 3D-?CT analyses. ANA mRNA was expressed in bone in vivo as well as in osteoblastic cells in vitro. Such ANA mRNA levels were increased by BMP2 treatment in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Overexpression of ANA suppressed BMP-induced expression of luciferase reporter gene linked to BMP response elements in these cells. Conversely, ANA mRNA knockdown by small interference RNA enhanced the BMP-dependent BMP response element reporter expression. It also enhanced BMP-induced osteoblastic differentiation in muscle-derived C2C12 cells. Immunoprecipitation assay indicated that ANA interacts with Smad8. Thus, ANA is a suppressor of ectopic bone formation induced by BMP, and this inhibitory ANA activity is a part of the negative feedback regulation of BMP function. PMID:19234306

  7. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Koslovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  8. Loading Configurations and Ground Reaction Forces During Treadmill Running in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Blazine, Kristi; Bentley, Jason; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Studies have shown losses in bone mineral density of 1-2% per month in critical weight bearing areas such as the proximal femur during long-term space flight (Grigoriev, 1998). The astronauts currently onboard the International Space Station (ISS) use a treadmill as an exercise countermeasure to bone loss that occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to weightlessness. A crewmember exercising on the treadmill is attached by a harness and loading device. Ground reaction forces are obtained through the loading device that pulls the crewn1ember towards the treadmill surface during locomotion. McCrory et al. (2002) found that the magnitude of the peak ground reaction force (pGRF) during horizontal suspension running, or simulated weightlessness, was directly related to the load applied to the subject. It is thought that strain magnitude and strain rate affects osteogenesis, and is a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the ground reaction force. While it is not known if a minimum stimulus exists for osteogenesis, it has been hypothesized that in order to replicate the bone formation occurring in normal gravity (1 G), the exercise in weightlessness should mimic the forces that occur on earth. Specifically, the pGRF obtained in weightlessness should be comparable to that achieved in 1 G.

  9. Mechanically induced changes in trabecular bone architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Squire; R. Garman; C. Rubin; S. Judex

    2002-01-01

    Bone adapts its structure to accommodate altered mechanical environments. We have previously demonstrated that adult female BALB\\/cByJ mice subjected to hindlimb suspension lost 58% of the fractional trabecular bone volume (BV\\/TV) in the distal femur. To determine sex-related differences in bone's response to the loss of mechanical stimuli, we tested the effects of hindlimb suspension on male BALB\\/cByJ mice. Sixteen-week

  10. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  11. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri,Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

  12. Novel analgesic interventions in cancer-induced bone pain 

    E-print Network

    Currie, Gillian Laura

    2012-06-22

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP), due to bony metastases, is a major clinical problem, significantly reducing quality of life in cancer patients. Current therapies often provide inadequate analgesia or unacceptable side ...

  13. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  14. Musculoskeletal adaptations to weightlessness and development of effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.

  15. Acute hemodynamic responses to weightlessness in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.; Elton, K. F.; Holt, T. A.; Mukai, C.; Bennett, B. S.; Bungo, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    As NASA designs space flights requiring prolonged periods of weightlessness for a broader segment of the population, it will be important to know the acute and sustained effects of weightlessness on the cardiovascular system since this information will contribute to understanding of the clinical pharmacology of drugs administered in space. Due to operational constraints on space flights, earliest effects of weightlessness have not been documented. We examined hemodynamic responses of humans to transitions from acceleration to weightlessness during parabolic flight on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Impedance cardiography data were collected over four sets of 8-10 parabolas, with a brief rest period between sets. Each parabola included a period of 1.8 Gz, then approximately 20 seconds of weightlessness, and finally a period of 1.6 Gz; the cycle repeated almost immediately for the remainder of the set. Subjects were semi-supine (Shuttle launch posture) for the first set, then randomly supine, sitting and standing for each subsequent set. Transition to weightlessness while standing produced decreased heart rate, increased thoracic fluid content, and increased stroke index. Surprisingly, the onset of weightlessness in the semi-supine posture produced little evidence of a headward fluid shift. Heart rate, stroke index, and cardiac index are virtually unchanged after 20 seconds of weightlessness, and thoracic fluid content is slightly decreased. Semi-supine responses run counter to Shuttle crewmember reports of noticeable fluid shift after minutes to hours in orbit. Apparently, the headward fluid shift commences in the semi-supine posture before launch. is augmented by launch acceleration, but briefly interrupted immediately in orbit, then resumes and is completed over the next hours.

  16. Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scano, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.

  17. Quantitative measurement of bone remodeling rates induced by mechanical stress

    E-print Network

    Tarr, Richard Robert

    1977-01-01

    QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF BONE REMODELING RATES INDUCED BY MECHANICAL STRESS A Thesis by RICHARD ROBERT TARR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major Subj cot: Bioengineering QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT OF BONE REMODELING RATES INDUCED BY MECHANICAL STRESS A Thesis by RICHARD ROBERT TARR Approved as to style and content by: p (Chairman of Co ittee) (H a of Departmen...

  18. Periarticular Bone Loss in Antigen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Engdahl, Cecilia; Lindholm, Catharina; Stubelius, Alexandra; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans; Lagerquist, Marie K

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bone loss in arthritis is a complex process characterized by bone erosions and periarticular and generalized bone loss. The antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model is mainly used to study synovitis and joint destruction, including bone erosions; however, periarticular bone loss has been less extensively investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterize and establish AIA as a model for periarticular bone loss, and to determine the importance of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX-2)–derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in periarticular bone loss. Methods Arthritis was induced in mice by local injection of antigen in one knee; the other knee was used as a nonarthritis control. At study termination, the knees were collected for histologic assessment. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Flow cytometric analyses were performed using synovial and bone marrow cells. Results AIA resulted in decreased periarticular trabecular BMD and increased frequencies of preosteoclasts, neutrophils, and monocytes in the arthritic synovial tissue. Arthritis induction resulted in an increased capability to produce ROS. However, induction of arthritis in Ncf1*/* mice, which lack NOX-2–derived ROS, and control mice resulted in similar reductions in periarticular trabecular BMD. Conclusion The initiation of AIA resulted in periarticular bone loss associated with local effects on inflammatory cells and osteoclasts. Furthermore, based on our observations using this model, we conclude that NOX-2–derived ROS production is not essential for inflammation-mediated periarticular bone loss. Thus, AIA can be used as a model to investigate the pathogenesis of local inflammation–mediated bone loss. PMID:23918694

  19. Botox induced muscle paralysis rapidly degrades bone

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Sarah E.; Sanford, David A.; Becker, Blair A.; Bain, Steven D.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Gross, Ted S.

    2006-01-01

    The means by which muscle function modulates bone homeostasis is poorly understood. To begin to address this issue, we have developed a novel murine model of unilateral transient hindlimb muscle paralysis using botulinum toxin A (Botox). Female C57BL/6 mice (16 weeks) received IM injections of either saline or Botox (n = 10 each) in both the quadriceps and calf muscles of the right hindleg. Gait dysfunction was assessed by multi-observer inventory, muscle alterations were determined by wet mass, and bone alterations were assessed by micro-CT imaging at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and tibia mid-diaphysis. Profound degradation of both muscle and bone was observed within 21 days despite significant restoration of weight bearing function by 14 days. The muscle mass of the injected quadriceps and calf muscles was diminished ?47.3% and ?59.7%, respectively, vs. saline mice (both P < 0.001). The ratio of bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV) within the distal femoral epiphysis and proximal tibial metaphysis of Botox injected limbs was reduced ?43.2% and ?54.3%, respectively, while tibia cortical bone volume was reduced ?14.6% (all P < 0.001). Comparison of the contralateral non-injected limbs indicated the presence of moderate systemic effects in the model that were most probably associated with diminished activity following muscle paralysis. Taken as a whole, the micro-CT data implied that trabecular and cortical bone loss was primarily achieved by bone resorption. These data confirm the decisive role of neuromuscular function in mediating bone homeostasis and establish a model with unique potential to explore the mechanisms underlying this relation. Given the rapidly expanding use of neuromuscular inhibitors for indications such as pain reduction, these data also raise the critical need to monitor bone loss in these patients. PMID:16185943

  20. Sclerostin Inhibition Prevents Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cancellous Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Luke A; Ye, Fan; Ghosh, Payal; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Balaez, Alexander; Miller, Julie R; Phillips, Ean G; Zheng, Nigel; Williams, Alyssa A; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Wronski, Thomas J; Bose, Prodip K; Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2014-10-31

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in rapid and extensive sublesional bone loss. Sclerostin, an osteocyte-derived glycoprotein that negatively regulates intraskeletal Wnt-signaling, is elevated after SCI and may represent a mechanism underlying this excessive bone loss. However, it remains unknown whether pharmacologic sclerostin inhibition ameliorates bone loss subsequent to SCI. Our primary purposes were to determine whether a sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) prevents hindlimb cancellous bone loss in a rodent SCI model and to compare the effects of a Scl-Ab to that of testosterone-enanthate (TE), an agent that we have previously shown prevents SCI-induced bone loss. Fifty-five (n?=?11-19/group) skeletally-mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive: (A) SHAM surgery (T8 laminectomy), (B) moderate-severe (250 kilodyne) SCI, (C) 250 kilodyne SCI?+?TE (7.0mg/week, i.m.), or (D) 250 kilodyne SCI?+?Scl-Ab (25mg/kg, twice weekly, s.c.) for three weeks. Twenty-one days post-injury, SCI animals exhibited reduced hindlimb cancellous bone volume at the proximal tibia (via µCT and histomorphometry) and distal femur (via µCT), characterized by reduced trabecular number and thickness. SCI also reduced trabecular connectivity and plate-like trabecular structures, indicating diminished structural integrity of the remaining cancellous network, and produced deficits in cortical bone (femoral diaphysis) strength. Scl-Ab and TE both prevented SCI-induced cancellous bone loss, albeit via differing mechanisms. Specifically, Scl-Ab increased osteoblast surface and bone formation, indicating direct bone anabolic effects, whereas TE reduced osteoclast surface with minimal effect on bone formation, indicating antiresorptive effects. The deleterious microarchitectural alterations in the trabecular network were also prevented in SCI?+?Scl-Ab and SCI?+?TE animals, while only Scl-Ab completely prevented the reduction in cortical bone strength. Our findings provide the first evidence indicating that sclerostin inhibition represents a viable treatment to prevent SCI-induced cancellous and cortical bone deficits and provides preliminary rationale for future clinical trials focused on evaluating whether Scl-Ab prevents osteoporosis in the SCI population. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:25359699

  1. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sibonga, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

    2011-01-01

    This poster reviews the possibility of using Bisphosphonates to counter the bone loss that is experienced during space flight. The Hypothesis that is tested in this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will attenuate space flight induced loss in bone mass and strength and reduce renal stone risk. The experiment design, the status and the results are described.

  2. Nanostructured thick 3D nanofibrous scaffold can induce bone.

    PubMed

    Eap, Sandy; Morand, David; Clauss, François; Huck, Olivier; Stoltz, Jean-François; Lutz, Jean-Christophe; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Keller, Laetitia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Designing unique nanostructured biomimetic materials is a new challenge in modern regenerative medicine. In order to develop functional substitutes for damaged organs or tissues, several methods have been used to create implants able to regenerate robust and durable bone. Electrospinning produces nonwoven scaffolds based on polymer nanofibers mimicking the fibrillar organization of bone extracellular matrix. Here, we describe a biomimetic 3D thick nanofibrous scaffold obtained by electrospinning of the biodegradable, bioresorbable and FDA-approved polymer, poly(?-caprolactone). Such scaffold presents a thickness reaching one centimeter. We report here the demonstration that the designed nanostructured implant is able to induce in vivo bone regeneration. PMID:25538059

  3. Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ai-Min [Department of Orthopedics, The 5th Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, The 5th Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Tian, Ai-Xian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Rui-Xue [Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Sun, Xuan [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Cao, Xu-Chen, E-mail: caoxuch@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  4. Blood circulation under conditions of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kastyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental materials and published data on the problem of blood circulation in man and animals under conditions of short and long term weightlessness are summarized. The data obtained allow the conclusion, that when humans spent 5 days in a weightless state their blood circulation was not essentially distributed. Some features of the functioning of the cardiovascular system are pointed out: delay of adaptation rate, increase in lability, etc. There is a discussion of the physiological mechanisms for the direct and indirect effect of weightlessness. The direct effect comprise the complex of reactions caused by the significant fall in hydrostatic pressure and the indirect embraces all the reactions arising in the organism resulting from disturbance of the systematic character of the analyzers that take part in the analysis of space realtions and the body's orientation in space.

  5. The Effects of Simulated Weightlessness on Susceptibility to Viral and Bacterial Infections Using a Murine Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Certain immunological responses may be compromised as a result of changes in environmental conditions, such as the physiological adaptation to and from the weightlessness which occurs during space flight and recovery. A murine antiorthostatic model was developed to simulate weightlessness. Using this model, the proposed study will determine if differences in susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections exist among mice suspended in an antiorthostatic orientation to simulate weightlessness, mice suspended in an orthostatic orientation to provide a stressful situation without the condition of weightlessness simulation, and non-suspended control mice. Inbred mouse strains which are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) and the lethal effects of Salmonella typhimurium will be evaluated. Glucose tolerance tests will be performed on all EMC-D-infected and non-infected control groups. The incidence of EMC-D-induced diabetes and the percentage survival of S. typhimurium-infected animals will be determined in each group. An additional study will determine the effects of simulated weightlessness on murine responses to exogenous interferon.

  6. Engineering bone tissue substitutes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Marcos-Campos, Iván; Kahler, David John; Alsalman, Dana; Shang, Linshan; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2013-01-01

    Congenital defects, trauma, and disease can compromise the integrity and functionality of the skeletal system to the extent requiring implantation of bone grafts. Engineering of viable bone substitutes that can be personalized to meet specific clinical needs represents a promising therapeutic alternative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for bone tissue engineering. We first induced three hiPSC lines with different tissue and reprogramming backgrounds into the mesenchymal lineages and used a combination of differentiation assays, surface antigen profiling, and global gene expression analysis to identify the lines exhibiting strong osteogenic differentiation potential. We then engineered functional bone substitutes by culturing hiPSC-derived mesenchymal progenitors on osteoconductive scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors and confirmed their phenotype stability in a subcutaneous implantation model for 12 wk. Molecular analysis confirmed that the maturation of bone substitutes in perfusion bioreactors results in global repression of cell proliferation and an increased expression of lineage-specific genes. These results pave the way for growing patient-specific bone substitutes for reconstructive treatments of the skeletal system and for constructing qualified experimental models of development and disease. PMID:23653480

  7. A dosimetric study of Beta induced bremsstrahlung in bone.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, H C

    2014-12-01

    A dosimetric study of beta-induced bremsstrahlung in bone is important in the field of radiation protection. The beta-induced bremsstrahlung spectra produced by 113 pure beta nuclides in the bone are computed. The spectral shapes are primarily responsible for variations in the shapes by depth-dose distributions. They are intended to provide a quick and convenient reference for spectral shapes and to give an indication of the wide variation in these shapes. The computed bremsstrahlung spectrum is used in the evaluation of bremsstrahlung dose in bone. The evaluated beta bremsstrahlung dose as a function of distance for the studied nuclides is also presented. The beta bremsstrahlung dose decreases with the increase in distance. Present work also estimates the dosimetric parameters of bremsstrahlung such as yield, intensity and dose rate of bremsstrahlung by various pure beta nuclides in tissues of human skeleton such as cortical bone, red marrow, yellow marrow, spongiosa and cartilage. The yield, intensity and dose rate of bremsstrahlung in the cortical bone are higher than that of red marrow, yellow marrow, spongiosa and cartilage. Hence cortical bone is more beta/bremsstrahlung radiosensitive than that of other tissues of human skeleton. The estimated bremsstrahlung efficiency, intensity, photon spectra and photon track-length distributions determine the quality and quantity of the radiation. Precise estimation of this source term is very important in planning for radiotherapy and diagnosis. PMID:25261767

  8. Leg Vascular Responsiveness During Acute Orthostasis Following Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blamick, Cynthia A.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Convertino, Victor A.

    1988-01-01

    Ten men (35-49 years old) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exposures before and offer 10 d of continuous 6 degrees head-down bedrest in order to predict the effect of weightlessness on the responsiveness of leg vasculature to an orthostatic stress. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and Impedance rheographic indices of arterial pulse volume (APV) of the legs were measured during rest and at 1 min at -30 mm Hg LBNP. Bedrest-induced deconditioning was manifested by decreases (p less than 0.06) in plasma volume (17%), peak oxygen uptake (16%), and LBNP tolerance (17%). Resting HR was unchanged after bedrest, but HR was higher (p less than 0.05) at 1 min of -30 mm Hg LBNP after, compared with before bedrest. Responses of MAP to -30 mm Hg LBNP were not altered by bodrest. Resting APV was decreased (p less than 0.05) by simulated weightlessness. However, APV was reduced (p less than 0.05) from rest to 1 min -30 mm Hg LBNP by the same relative magnitude before and after bodrest (-21.4 +/- 3.4% and -20.5 +/- 2.7%, respectively). We conclude that peripheral arterial vasoconstriction, as indicated by reductions in APV during LBNP, was not affected by bedrest. These results suggest that there was no apparent alteration in responsiveness of the leg vasculature following simulated weightlessness. Therefore, it appears unlikely that control mechanisms of peripheral resistance contribute significantly to reduced orthostatic tolerance following space-flight.

  9. Alterations in calcium homeostasis and bone during actual and simulated space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal alteration in experimental animals induced by actual and simulated spaceflight are discussed, noting that the main factor contributing to bone loss in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Mechanical unloading is seen as the most obvious cause of bone loss in a state of weightlessness. Reference is made to a study by Roberts et al. (1981), which showed that osteoblast differentiation in the periodontal ligament of the maxilla was suppressed in rats flown in space. Since the maxilla lacks a weight-bearing function, this finding indicates that the skeletal alterations associated with orbital flight may be systemic rather than confined to weight-bearing bones. In addition, the skeletal response to simulated weightlessness may also be systemic (wronski and Morey, 1982). In suspended rats, the hindlimbs lost all weight-bearing functions, while the forelimbs maintained contact with the floor of the hypokinetic model. On this basis, it was to be expected that there would be different responses at the two skeletal sites if the observed abnormalities were due to mechanical unloading alone. The changes induced by simulated weightlessness in the proximal tibia and humerus, however, were generally comparable. This evidence for systemic skeletal responses has drawn attention to endocrine factors.

  10. Recombinant biglycan promotes bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miguez, P A; Terajima, M; Nagaoka, H; Ferreira, J A R; Braswell, K; Ko, C C; Yamauchi, M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glutathione-S-transferase-fused recombinant biglycan (GST-BGN) on craniofacial bone regeneration. We recently demonstrated a positive effect of tissue-derived BGN on bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) function, which is exerted likely via the BGN core protein. Here, we investigated the effects of GST-BGN lacking any posttranslational modifications on BMP-2 function in vitro and in vivo. In the C2C12 cell culture system, BMP-2-induced Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and alkaline phosphatase activity were both enhanced by the addition of GST-BGN. For the in vivo effect, we employed a Sprague-Dawley rat mandible defect model utilizing 1 µg (optimal) or 0.1 µg (suboptimal) of BMP-2 combined with 0, 2, 4, or 8 µg of GST-BGN. At 2 weeks post-surgery, newly formed bone was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histologic analyses. The results revealed that the greatest amounts of bone within the defect were formed in the groups of suboptimal BMP-2 combined with 4 or 8 µg of GST-BGN. Also, bone was well organized versus that formed by the optimal dose of BMP. These results indicate that recombinant BGN is an efficient substrate to promote low-dose BMP-induced osteogenesis. PMID:24482033

  11. External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

    2004-01-01

    Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

  12. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process.

  13. A hypomagnetic field aggravates bone loss induced by hindlimb unloading in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Xie, Li; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Peng-fei; Zhang, Wei-ju; Ding, Chong; Qian, Ai-rong; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    A hypomagnetic field is an extremely weak magnetic field--it is considerably weaker than the geomagnetic field. In deep-space exploration missions, such as those involving extended stays on the moon and interplanetary travel, astronauts will experience abnormal space environments involving hypomagnetic fields and microgravity. It is known that microgravity in space causes bone loss, which results in decreased bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether hypomagnetic fields affect the skeletal system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the complex effects of a hypomagnetic field and microgravity on bone loss. To study the effects of hypomagnetic fields on the femoral characteristics of rats in simulated weightlessness, we established a rat model of hindlimb unloading that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field. We used a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber to generate a hypomagnetic field of <300 nT. The results show that hypomagnetic fields can exacerbate bone mineral density loss and alter femoral biomechanical characteristics in hindlimb-unloaded rats. The underlying mechanism might involve changes in biological rhythms and the concentrations of trace elements due to the hypomagnetic field, which would result in the generation of oxidative stress responses in the rat. Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species would stimulate osteoblasts to secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand and promote the maturation and activation of osteoclasts and thus eventually cause bone resorption. PMID:25157571

  14. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; de Maeztu, Miguel Ángel

    2014-08-01

    Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40-80 keV), fluence (1-2 e17 ion/cm2) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted surfaces, without surface chemistry modification, are in the same range and that such modifications, in certain conditions, do have a statistically significant effect on bone tissue forming cell adhesion.

  15. Simulated weightlessness - Effects on bioenergetic balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    As a prelude to a flight experiment, an attempt was made to separate energy requirements associated with gravity from all other metabolic needs. The biological effects of weightlessness were simulated by suspending animals in a harness so that antigravity muscles were not supporting the body. Twelve pairs of rats were allowed to adapt to wearing a harness for 5 d. Experimental animals were then suspended in harness for 7 d followed by recovery for 7 d. Control animals were harnessed but never suspended. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and rate of (C-14)O2 expiration from radio-labeled glucose were monitored on selected days. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily. Metabolic rate decreased in experimental animals during 7 d of suspension and returned to normal during recovery. Although some of the metabolic changes may have related to variation in food intake, simulated weightlessness appears to directly affect bioenergetic balance.

  16. Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

    1986-01-01

    A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

  17. Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to ensure that the beneficial effects are seen in space flight. As we begin to plan for missions to go back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions are yet to be answered. Maintaining bone is one of the greatest challenges, but with a better understanding of the mechanical processes of bone loss, countermeasures can be designed more efficiently, and the solution (or solutions) may be just over the horizon.

  18. Amylin and bone metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Horcajada-Molteni, M N; Chanteranne, B; Lebecque, P; Davicco, M J; Coxam, V; Young, A; Barlet, J P

    2001-05-01

    Amylin (AMY) is a 37 amino acid peptide cosecreted with insulin (INS) by pancreatic beta-cells and absent in type 1 diabetes, a condition frequently associated with osteopenia. AMY binds to calcitonin receptors, lowers plasma calcium concentration, inhibits osteoclast activity, and stimulates osteoblasts. In the present study, we examined the effects of AMY replacement on bone loss in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rodent model type 1 diabetes. Of 50 male Wistar rats studied, 40 were made diabetic with intraperitoneal STZ (50 mg/kg; plasma glucose concentrations > 11 mM within 5 days). Ten nondiabetic control (CONT) rats received citrate buffer without STZ. Diabetic rats were divided into four groups (n = 10/group) and injected subcutaneously with rat AMY (45 mg/kg), INS (12 U/kg), both (same doses), or saline (STZ; diabetic controls) once per day. After 40 days of treatment and five 24-h periods of urine collection for deoxypyridinoline (DPD), the animals were killed, blood was sampled, and femurs were removed. The left femur was tested for mechanical resistance (three-point bending). The right femur was tested for total, diaphyseal (cortical bone), and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) bone densities using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone was ashed to determine total bone mineral (calcium) content. None of the treatments had any significant effect on femoral length and diameter. Untreated diabetic rats (STZ; 145+/-7N) had lower bone strength than did nondiabetic CONT (164+/-38; p < 0.05). Total bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2) was significantly lower in STZ (0. 2523+/-0.0076) than in CONT (0.2826+/-0.0055), as were metaphyseal and diaphyseal densities. Diabetic rats treated with AMY, INS, or both had bone strengths and bone densities that were indistinguishable from those in nondiabetic CONT. Changes in bone mineral content paralleled those for total BMD (T-BMD). Plasma osteocalcin (OC) concentration, a marker for osteoblastic activity, was markedly lower in untreated diabetic rats (7. 6+/-0.9 ng/ml); p < 0.05) than in nondiabetic CONT (29.8+/-1.7; p < 0.05) or than in AMY (20.1+/-0.7; p < 0.05). Urinary DPD excretion, a marker for bone resorption, was similar in untreated and AMY-treated diabetic rats (35.0+/-3.1 vs. 35.1+/-4.4 nmol/mmol creatinine), intermediate in rats treated with INS (49.9+/-2.7), and normalized in diabetic rats treated with both agents (58.8+/-8.9 vs. 63.2+/-4.5 in CONT). Thus, in our STZ rat model of diabetic osteopenia, addition of AMY improved bone indices apparently by both inhibiting resorption and stimulating bone formation. PMID:11341342

  19. ACTH protects against glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of bone

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Mone; Sun, Li; Robinson, Lisa J.; Tourkova, Irina L.; Liu, Li; Wang, Yujuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Liu, Xuan; Peng, Yuanzhen; Yang, Guozhe; Shi, Xingming; Levine, Alice; Iqbal, Jameel; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Isales, Carlos; Blair, Harry C.

    2010-01-01

    We report that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) protects against osteonecrosis of the femoral head induced by depot methylprednisolone acetate (depomedrol). This therapeutic response likely arises from enhanced osteoblastic support and the stimulation of VEGF by ACTH; the latter is largely responsible for maintaining the fine vascular network that surrounds highly remodeling bone. We suggest examining the efficacy of ACTH in preventing human osteonecrosis, a devastating complication of glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:20421485

  20. Biomechanical analysis of running in weightlessness on a treadmill equipped with a subject loading system.

    PubMed

    Gosseye, Thierry P; Willems, Patrick A; Heglund, Norman C

    2010-11-01

    One countermeasure used during long-duration spaceflight to maintain bone and muscle mass is a treadmill equipped with a subject loading system (SLS) that simulates gravity. To date, little is known about the biomechanics of running in weightlessness on such a treadmill-SLS system. We have designed an instrumented treadmill/force plate to compare the biomechanics of running in weightlessness to running on Earth. Gravity was simulated by two pneumatic pistons pulling downward on a subject's harness, with a force approximately equal to body weight on Earth. Four transducers, mounted under the treadmill, measured the three components of the reaction force exerted by the tread belt under the foot. A high-speed video camera recorded the movements of limb segments while the electromyography of the four lower limb muscles was registered. Experiments in weightlessness were conducted during the European Space Agency parabolic flight campaigns. Control experiments were performed on the same subjects on Earth. When running on the treadmill with an SLS, the bouncing mechanism of running is preserved. Depending on the speed of progression, the ground reaction forces, contact and aerial times, muscular work and bone stress differed by a maximum of ± 5-15% during running on the treadmill with an SLS, as compared to that on Earth. The movements of the lower limb segments and the EMG patterns of the lower limb muscles were also comparable. Thus, the biomechanics of running on Earth can reasonably be duplicated in weightlessness using a treadmill with an SLS that generates a pull-down force close to body weight on Earth. PMID:20582597

  1. Effect of weightlessness on cytoskeleton architecture and proliferation of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassy, J.; Portet, S.; Beil, M.; Millot, G.; Fauvel-Lafeve, F.; Gasset, G.; Schoevaert, D.

    Because cells are sensitive to mechanical forces, weightlessness might act on stress- dependent cell changes. We hypothesized that the integration of environmental factors might induce specific cytoskeletal architecture patterns, characterized by quantitative image analysis. Human breast cancer cells MCF-7, flown in space in a Photon capsule, were fixed after 1.5, 22 and 48 h in orbit. Cells subjected to weightlessness were compared to 1g in-flight and ground controls. Post-flight, fluorescent labelings were performed to visualize cell proliferation (Ki-67), three cytoskeleton components (microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments) and chromatin structure. Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify cycling cells and mitosis, modifications of the cytokeratin network and chromatin structure. Two main phenomenons were observed in weightlessness: - The perinuclear cytokeratin network and chromatin structure were looser. Theseresults are in agreement with basic predictions of cellular tensegrity. - More cells were cycling and mitosis was prolonged. Finally, cell proliferation wasreduced as a consequence of a cell-cycle blockade. Microtubules were altered inmany cells.The prolongation of mitosis can be explained by an alteration of microtubule self-organization in weightlessness, involving reaction-diffusion processes. This couldbe considered as an example function of microtubules in gravisensing.

  2. Effects of microstructure and water on the electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.; Matsukawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced electrical potentials in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced electrical potentials changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The potentials of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.

  3. Effects of etidronate-mediated suppression of bone remodeling on aluminum-induced de novo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Quarles, L D; Drezner, M K

    1992-07-01

    The mechanism by which aluminum chloride stimulates de novo bone formation is unknown. To evaluate the role of bone remodeling and mature osteoblastic function in aluminum-induced neoosteogenesis, we compared the osteogenic effects of aluminum in normal beagles to those in animals with low turnover osteomalacia induced by treatment with etidronate [1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphoric acid (HEBP)]. As assessed by quantitative bone histomorphology, beagles treated with HEBP developed low turnover osteomalacia characterized by a 78% reduction in osteoblast number, a 5.5-fold increase in osteoid volume, complete absence of active mineralization, and diminished resorption surfaces compared to untreated controls. The iv administration of aluminum chloride to normal dogs generated new trabecular structures in the marrow cavity consistent with induction of de novo bone formation. This response consisted of increased trabecular bone volume and number, accumulation of woven osteoid, and increased number of bone-forming cells. The concomitant administration of HEBP failed to prevent induction of de novo bone formation by aluminum. Instead, the neoosteogenic process was superimposed on low turnover osteomalacia in HEBP-treated dogs. Serum aluminum concentrations were increased 2-fold, whereas bone aluminum accumulation was reduced by 58% in HEBP- and aluminum-treated dogs compared to that in aluminum-treated controls. These findings indicate that aluminum stimulation of neoosteogenesis in beagles is independent of mature osteoblast function, normal bone remodeling, and total bone aluminum accumulation. Rather, aluminum-induced de novo bone formation appears to result from stimulation of mesenchymal precursors to form a primitive type of bone which is distinct from coupled bone formation. PMID:1611990

  4. Anabolic activity of ursolic acid in bone: Stimulating osteoblast differentiation in vitro and inducing new bone formation in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Ui Lee; Sang-Joon Park; Han Bok Kwak; Jaemin Oh; Yong Ki Min; Seong Hwan Kim

    2008-01-01

    In the field of osteoporosis, there has been growing interest in anabolic agents that enhance bone mass and improve bone architecture. In this study, we demonstrated that the ubiquitous plant triterpenoid, ursolic acid, enhances differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro. We found that ursolic acid induced the expression of osteoblast-specific genes with the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear

  5. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  6. Changes in muscles accompanying non-weight-bearing and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jaspers, S. R.; Jacob, S.; Kirby, C.

    1989-01-01

    Results of hindlimb suspension and space flight experiments with rats examine the effects of weightlessness simulation, weightlessness, and delay in postflight recovery of animals. Parameters examined were body mass, protein balance, amino acid metabolism, glucose and glycogen metabolism, and hormone levels. Tables show metabolic responses to unweighting of the soleus muscle.

  7. The effects of prolonged weightlessness and reduced gravity environments on human survival.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R L

    1993-03-01

    The manned exploration of the solar system and the surfaces of some of the smaller planets and larger satellites requires that we are able to keep the adverse human physiological response to long term exposure to near zero and greatly reduced gravity environments within acceptable limits consistent with metabolic function. This paper examines the physiological changes associated with microgravity conditions with particular reference to the weightless demineralizatoin of bone (WDB). It is suggested that many of these changes are the result of physical/mechanical processes and are not primarily a medical problem. There are thus two immediately obvious and workable, if relatively costly, solutions to the problem of weightlessness. The provision of a near 1 g field during prolonged space flights, and/or the development of rapid transit spacecraft capable of significant acceleration and short flight times. Although these developments could remove or greatly ameliorate the effects of weightlessness during long-distance space flights there remains a problem relating to the long term colonization of the surfaces of Mars, the Moon, and other small solar system bodies. It is not yet known whether or not there is a critical threshold value of 'g' below which viable human physiological function cannot be sustained. If such a threshold exists permanent colonization may only be possible if the threshold value of 'g' is less than that at the surface of the planet on which we wish to settle. PMID:11539500

  8. Constitutively Active PTH/PTHrP Receptor Specifically Expressed in Osteoblasts Enhances Bone Formation Induced by Bone Marrow Ablation

    PubMed Central

    ONO, NORIAKI; NAKASHIMA, KAZUHISA; SCHIPANI, ERNESTINA; HAYATA, TADAYOSHI; EZURA, YOICHI; SOMA, KUNIMICHI; KRONENBERG, HENRY M.; NODA, MASAKI

    2013-01-01

    Bone is maintained by continuous bone formation by osteoblasts provided by proliferation and differentiation of osteoprogenitors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates bone formation, but because of the complexity of cells in the osteoblast lineage, how these osteoprogenitors are regulated by PTH in vivo is incompletely understood. To elucidate how signals by PTH in differentiated osteoblasts regulate osteoprogenitors in vivo, we conducted bone marrow ablation using Col1a1-constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor (caPPR) transgenic mice. These mice express caPPR specifically in osteoblasts by using 2.3 kb Col1a1 promoter and showed higher trabecular bone volume under steady-state conditions. In contrast, after bone marrow ablation, stromal cells recruited from bone surface extensively proliferated in the marrow cavity in transgenic mice, compared to limited proliferation in wild-type mice. Whereas de novo bone formation was restricted to the ablated area in wild-type mice, the entire marrow cavity, including not only ablated area but also outside the ablated area, was filled with newly formed bone in transgenic mice. Bone mineral density was significantly increased after ablation in transgenic mice. Bone marrow cell culture in osteogenic medium revealed that alkaline phosphatase-positive area was markedly increased in the cells obtained from transgenic mice. Furthermore, mRNA expression of Wnt-signaling molecules such as LRP5, Wnt7b, and Wnt10b were upregulated after marrow ablation in bone marrow cells of transgenic mice. These results indicate that constitutive activation of PTH/PTHrP receptor in differentiated osteoblasts enhances bone marrow ablation-induced recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoprogenitors. PMID:21866553

  9. Dexamethasone Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow- and Muscle-Derived Stromal Cells and Augments Ectopic Bone Formation Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Yuasa, Masato; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Takashi; Masaoka, Tomokazu; Xuetao, Wei; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Horie, Masaki; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Uemura, Toshimasa; Okawa, Atsushi; Sotome, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether dexamethasone augments the osteogenic capability of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) and muscle tissue-derived stromal cells (MuSCs), both of which are thought to contribute to ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and determined the underlying mechanisms. Rat BMSCs and MuSCs were cultured in growth media with or without 10-7 M dexamethasone and then differentiated under osteogenic conditions with dexamethasone and BMP-2. The effects of dexamethasone on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and also on ectopic bone formation induced by BMP-2, were analyzed. Dexamethasone affected not only the proliferation rate but also the subpopulation composition of BMSCs and MuSCs, and subsequently augmented their osteogenic capacity during osteogenic differentiation. During osteogenic induction by BMP-2, dexamethasone also markedly affected cell proliferation in both BMSCs and MuSCs. In an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, bone formation in muscle-implanted scaffolds containing dexamethasone and BMP-2 was more than two fold higher than that in scaffolds containing BMP-2 alone. Our results suggest that dexamethasone potently enhances the osteogenic capability of BMP-2 and may thus decrease the quantity of BMP-2 required for clinical application, thereby reducing the complications caused by excessive doses of BMP-2. Highlights: 1. Dexamethasone induced selective proliferation of bone marrow- and muscle-derived cells with higher differentiation potential. 2. Dexamethasone enhanced the osteogenic capability of bone marrow- and muscle-derived cells by altering the subpopulation composition. 3. Dexamethasone augmented ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2. PMID:25659106

  10. Sleep deprivation induces abnormal bone metabolism in temporomandibular joint

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Wei; Wu, Gaoyi; Huang, Fei; Zhu, Yong; Nie, Jia; He, Yuhong; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of experimental sleep deprivation (SD) on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats and the possible mechanism related to abnormal bone metabolism. Material and methods: SD was induced by a modified multiple platform method and assessed by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. TMJs were detached and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, H&E staining, immunohistochemical staining and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Compared with controls, SD significantly increased serum ACTH, indicating that the SD model was successful. In the SD group, H&E staining revealed greater vessel hyperplasia in the synovial membrane and thicker hypertrophic layers in condylar cartilages. Compared with controls, RNA and protein expression of the inflammatory factors IL-1? and TNF-? and the bone metabolism-related factor RANKL increased in condylar cartilage in the SD group, whereas OPG and the OPG/RANKL ratio decreased. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that OPG/RANKL immunopositive cells were mainly located in hypertrophic layers. Conclusions: These results suggest that sleep deprivation might play an important role in the occurrence and development of temporomandibular disorders, which may occur through abnormal secretion of inflammatory and bone metabolism-related factors.

  11. Control of bone mass by sclerostin: Inhibiting BMP and WNT-induced bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. J. Gorter; Carola Krause; Peter Dijke; Clemens W. G. M. Löwik; Rutger L. Bezooijen

    Bone is continuously replacing itself by the actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts, a process\\u000a called bone remodeling. Because both cell types control each other’s activity, there is a tight balance between bone resorption\\u000a and bone formation. However, when this delicate balance is disturbed by increased osteoclast or decreased osteoblast activity,\\u000a it can lead to diseases characterized by low

  12. Electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation in the megahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, M.; Coutelou, S.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.; Matsukawa, M.

    2013-09-01

    Low frequency mechanical studies have reported the contribution of stress-induced electrical potentials to bone metabolism. However, the healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity ultrasound is not yet clear. We demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. Electrical potentials were obtained from the output of bovine cortical bone transducers. In the range of 0.7-2.5 MHz, sensitivities of bone transducers were around 1/1000 of a poly (vinylidene fluoride) ultrasonic transducer and did not depend on magnitude and alignment of hydroxyapatite crystallites in bone.

  13. Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

  14. Influence of stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness on differentiation of preosteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of 18.5 days of weightlessness aboard a satellite, stress of restricted feeding, stress of noise and vibration to simulate space flight and 21 days of head down suspension via the Morey-Holton model for simulated weightlessness was studied. Nuclear size of fibroblastlike cells in PDL on the anterior surface of maxillary first molars was classified as: (1) A-cells, self perpetuating precursors with a nuclear volume 80 micron B-cells, nonosteogenic fibroblasts with a nuclear volume of 80-119 micron 3, C-cells, preosteoblasts that are in G1 stage of the cell cycle with a nuclear size of 120-170 micro, and D-cells, preosteoblasts that are in G2 stage of the cell cycle with a nuclear size 170 micro.

  15. Radiation-Induced Osteosarcoma Might Mimic Metastatic Bone Lesions: A Case With Bone Scan and FDG PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Umayahara, Kenji; Takeshima, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Shunji

    2015-05-01

    We report on a 53-year-old woman with osteosarcoma of the skull who underwent radiation therapy for metastatic brain tumor. She had a history of uterine endometrial cancer treated with chemotherapy and surgery 9 years previously. FDG PET/CT for surveillance showed nodular accumulation at the right suprainguinal region and very avid accumulation at the left side of the occipital bone. Bone scan showed increased accumulation at the same portion of the occipital bone. The occipital tumor was surgically removed and diagnosed as radiation-induced osteosarcoma. PMID:25608153

  16. Biomedical research on the International Space Station postural and manipulation problems of the human upper limb in weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Gianluca; Zolesi, Valfredo

    2000-01-01

    Accumulated evidence, based on information gathered on space flight missions and ground based models involving both humans and animals, clearly suggests that exposure to states of microgravity conditions for varying duration induces certain physiological changes; they involve cardiovascular deconditioning, balance disorders, bone weakening, muscle hypertrophy, disturbed sleep patterns and depressed immune responses. The effects of the microgravity on the astronauts' movement and attitude have been studied during different space missions, increasing the knowledge of the human physiology in weightlessness. The purpose of the research addressed in the present paper is to understand and to assess the performances of the upper limb, especially during grasp. Objects of the research are the physiological changes related to the long-term duration spaceflight environment. Specifically, the changes concerning the upper limb are investigated, with particular regard to the performances of the hand in zero-g environments. This research presents also effects on the Earth, improving the studies on a number of pathological states, on the health care and the rehabilitation. In this perspective, a set of experiments are proposed, aimed at the evaluation of the effects of the zero-g environments on neurophysiology of grasping movements, fatigue assessment, precision grip. .

  17. Antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ashwani; Leitzel, Kim; Ali, Suhail; Lipton, Allan

    2015-04-01

    Cancer treatment-induced bone loss treatment has an important role to prevent bone loss-related events like fracture, significant morbidity, mortality, disfigurement and loss of self-esteem, and health-care expenditure. Numerous factors, including treatment regimens and bone metastasis, increase the risk of osteoporosis or local bone destruction in most breast and prostate cancer patients. Cytotoxic chemotherapies, radiation, and hormonal therapies can lead to premature menopause and decrease bone mineral density. Over 60 % of breast cancer patients within 1 year of beginning postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy experience ovarian failure. Also, ovarian ablation and aromatase inhibitors used to treat breast cancer and orchiectomy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; to treat prostate cancer) cause substantial bone loss. In this article, we will focus mainly on antiresorptive therapy in the management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). An understanding of CTIBL is critical for determining how to assess the risk and identify which patients may benefit from preventive therapy. PMID:25575469

  18. New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Herlin, Maria, E-mail: maria.herlin@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Finnilä, Mikko A.J., E-mail: mikko.finnila@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Zioupos, Peter, E-mail: p.zioupos@cranfield.ac.uk [Biomechanics Laboratories, Department of Engineering and Applied Science, Cranfield University, Shrivenham SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Aula, Antti, E-mail: antti.aula@gmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Imaging Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland); Risteli, Juha, E-mail: juha.risteli@ppshp.fi [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna M., E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Jämsä, Timo, E-mail: timo.jamsa@oulu.fi [Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Tuukkanen, Juha, E-mail: juha.tuukkanen@oulu.fi [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Korkalainen, Merja, E-mail: merja.korkalainen@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Håkansson, Helen, E-mail: Helen.Hakansson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Viluksela, Matti, E-mail: matti.viluksela@thl.fi [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr{sup ?/?}) and wild-type (Ahr{sup +/+}) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200 ?g/kg bw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr{sup +/+} mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr{sup ?/?} mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr{sup +/+} mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr{sup ?/?} mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr{sup +/+} mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. - Highlights: • TCDD disrupts bone remodeling resulting in altered cortical and trabecular bone. • In trabecular bone an anabolic effect is observed. • Cortical bone is thinner, more porous, harder, stiffer and mechanically weaker. • AHR ablation results in increased trabecular bone and softer cortical bone. • TCDD does not affect the bones of Ahr{sup –/–} mice.

  19. Epoxyeicosanoids suppress osteoclastogenesis and prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hanfeng; Zhao, Libo; Cao, Huijuan; Chen, Anmin; Xiao, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are products of arachidonic acid metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. These small molecules are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators with important roles in inflammation, cardiovascular function, and angiogenesis. Recent evidence has highlighted EETs as potent promoters of organ regeneration and malignant metastasis. We speculated that EETs might impact osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, we observed that EETs significantly attenuated bone loss and inhibited osteoclast formation and activity, which were associated with a decreased receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL):osteoprotegerin ratio and serum levels of TNF-? and IL-1?. At the molecular level, EETs abrogated RANKL-induced activation of NF-?B, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and MAPKs, including ERK and JNK, but not p38, during osteoclast formation. EETs also prevented the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following RANKL stimulation. As a result, EETs suppressed osteoclast-specific gene expression, including tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK). In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that EETs inhibit osteoclastogenesis through modulation of multiple pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling. The administration or stabilized endogenous levels of EETs could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for osteoclast-related disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25466887

  20. The effect of biphosphonate on induced heterotopic bone.

    PubMed

    Hu, H P; Kuijpers, W; Slooff, T J; van Horn, J R; Versleyen, D H

    1991-11-01

    HEBP (1-hydroxy, ethylidene-1, 1-biphosphonate) inhibited mineralization and was observed in matrix-induced heterotopic bone in rabbits. In one group of rabbits, HEBP was administered continuously until sacrifice 20 weeks after the operation. Another group of animals received HEBP for the first four weeks only. The effect of HEBP on de novo bone formation was determined by histologic and biochemical analyses. Implant alkaline and acid phosphatase levels and implant calcium and phosphate contents were measured. The implants of HEBP-treated animals showed diminished implant resorption and, at the same time, formation of atypical osteoid tissue. Quantitative measurements revealed a decrease of acid phosphatase activity, whereas implant alkaline phosphatase activity was unaffected. The mineralization, as depicted by the implant calcium and phosphate content, was almost completely inhibited during HEBP-administration. These effects were completely reversible after the withdrawal of the drug. Remineralization began directly after discontinuation, and recovered only 12 weeks later. The results of this study confirm reports that HEBP cannot prevent the formation of heterotopic ossification. The only effect would be a delay of mineralization during its administration. PMID:1934742

  1. Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

  2. Reactions of animals and people under conditions of brief weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitayev-Smik, L. A.

    1975-01-01

    It has been shown that under brief weightlessness sensory reactions arise in a number of people, mainly those under these conditions for the first time, in the form of spatial and visual illusions, motor excitation, in which tonic and motor components can be distinguished, and vestibular-vegetative disturbances (nausea, vomiting, etc.). In repeated flights with creation of weightlessness, a decrease in the extent of expression and, then, disappearance of these reactions occurred in a significant majority of those studied. Experiments in weightlessness with the vision cut off and with the absence of vestibular functions in the subjects confirm the hypothesis that spatial conceptions of people in weightlessness depend on predominance of gravireceptor or visual afferent signals under these conditions.

  3. Changes of Elastic Constants and Anisotropy Patterns in Trabecular Bone During Disuse-Induced Bone Loss Assessed by Poroelastic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luis; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the approach most widely used to examine bone loss is the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, bone loss due to immobilization creates changes in bone microarchitecture, which in turn are related to changes in bone mechanical function and competence to resist fracture. Unfortunately, the relationship between microarchitecture and mechanical function within the framework of immobilization and antiresorptive therapy has not being fully investigated. The goal of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in trabecular bone in the real-world situations of a rapidly evolving osteoporosis (disuse), both with and without antiresorptive treatment. We evaluated the structure-function relationship in trabecular bone after bone loss (disuse-induced osteoporosis) and bisphosphonate treatment (antiresorptive therapy using risedronate) in canine trabecular bone using ?CT and ultrasound wave propagation. Microstructure values determined from ?CT images were used into the anisotropic poroelastic model of wave propagation in order to compute the apparent elastic constants (EC) and elastic anisotropy pattern of bone. Immobilization resulted in a significant reduction in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV), while risedronate treatment combined with immobilization exhibited a lesser reduction in Tb.Th and BV/TV, suggesting that risedronate treatment decelerates bone loss, but it was unable to fully stop it. Risedronate treatment also increased the tissue mineral density (TMD), which when combined with the decrease in Tb.Th and BV/TV may explain the lack of significant differences in vBMD in both immobilization and risedronate treated groups. Interestingly, changes in apparent EC were much stronger in the superior-inferior (SI) direction than in the medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) anatomical directions, producing changes in elastic anisotropy patterns. When data were pooled together, vBMD was able to explain 58% of ultrasound measurements variability, a poroelastic wave propagation analytical model (i.e., BMD modulated by fabric directionality) was able to predict 81% of experimental wave velocity variability, and also explained 91% of apparent EC and changes in elastic anisotropy patterns. Overall, measurements of vBMD were unable to distinguish changes in apparent EC due to immobilization or risedronate treatment. However, anisotropic poroelastic ultrasound (PEUS) wave propagation was able to distinguish functional changes in apparent EC and elastic anisotropy patterns due to immobilization and antiresorptive therapy, providing an enhanced discrimination of anisotropic bone loss and the structure-function relationship in immobilized and risedronate-treated bone, beyond vBMD. PMID:25412022

  4. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  5. Study of astronaut restraints and mobility aids in a weightless shirtsleeve environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loats, H. L., Jr.; Mattingly, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study, established to produce needed information about manual performance limits in intravehicular weightlessness such as the motions induced by the astronaut's direct application of force against the body of the vehicle or an object to be moved, is presented. Using both conventional and water immersion techniques, it was possible to develop realistic time estimates for astronaut station-to-station translation in Skylab, to simulate and analyze specific Skylab tasks involving force application and motion dynamics, and to evaluate certain thresholds of force application in weightlessness. The study was divided into three tasks. The first related to locomotion and verification or modification of present Skylab translation timelines. In all cases, translation times were less than the Skylab timelines indicated. The second task studied mass handling and transfer. Specifically, this involved measurement of the astronaut's ability to relocate the Skylab food lockers to stowage levels of three different heights and his ability to transfer the M509 PSS bottles between the OWS and the recharge station. The third task helped define the physical limits of man's ability to perform Skylab translation tasks under weightless conditions.

  6. Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

  7. Loss of Prostaglandin E2-induced Extra Cortical Bone after its Withdrawal in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE2-induced new cortical bone mass after withdrawal of PGE2 administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days (on/off treatment). Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). In a previous report we showed that after 60, 120 and 180 days of daily PGE2 (on)treatment, a new steady state was achieved marked by increased total bone area (+ 16%, +25% and + 34% with 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day) when compared to age-matched controls. The continuous PGE2 treatment stimulated periosteal and endocortical lamellar bone formation, activated endocortical woven trabecular bone formation and intracortical bone resorption. These responses increased cortical bone mass since the bone formation exceeded bone resorption. The current study showed that after withdrawal of PGE2 for 60 and 120 days, the extra endocortical bone, which was induced by the first 60-days treatment, was resorbed, but the new subperiosteal bone persisted resulting in a tibial shaft with larger cross sectional and marrow areas. Despite that, there was still the same amount of bone mass in these shafts as in age-related controls. A new steady state was achieved after 60 days of withdrawal, in which the bone mass and bone formation activity approximated that of age-related controls. It was concluded that maintaining the extra PGE2-induced cortical bone mass depends on continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  8. Loss of Prostaglandin E2-induced Extra Cortical Bone After its Withdrawal in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jee, Webster S. S.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine the fate of PGE2-(Prostaglandin E2) induced new cortical bone mass after withdrawal of PGE2 administration. Seven-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were given subcutaneous injections of 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day for 60 days and then withdrawn for 60 and 120 days (on/off treatment). Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). In a previous report we showed that after 60, 120 and 180 days of daily PGE2 (on)treatment, a new steady state was achieved marked by increased total bone area (+16%, +25% and +34% with 1, 3 and 6 mg PGE2/kg/day) when compared to age-matched controls. The continuous PGE2 treatment stimulated periosteal and endocortical lamellar bone formation, activated endocortical woven trabecular bone formation and intracortical bone resorption. These responses increased cortical bone mass since the bone formation exceeded bone resorption. The current study showed that after withdrawal of PGE2 for 60 and 120 days, the extra endocortical bone, which was induced by the first 60-days treatment, was resorbed, but the new subperiosteal bone persisted resulting in a tibial shaft with larger cross sectional and marrow areas. Despite that, there was still the same amount of bone mass in these shafts as in age-related controls. A new steady state was achieved after 60 days of withdrawal, in which the bone mass and bone formation activity approximated that of age-related controls. It was concluded that maintaining the extra PGE2-induced cortical bone mass depends on continuous daily administration of PGE2.

  9. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  10. Directly auto-transplanted mesenchymal stem cells induce bone formation in a ceramic bone substitute in an ectopic sheep model

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Anja M; Loew, Johanna S; Deschler, Gloria; Arkudas, Andreas; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Gulle, Heinz; Dragu, Adrian; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Bone tissue engineering approaches increasingly focus on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In most animal transplantation models MSC are isolated and expanded before auto cell transplantation which might be critical for clinical application in the future. Hence this study compares the potential of directly auto-transplanted versus in vitro expanded MSC with or without bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to induce bone formation in a large volume ceramic bone substitute in the sheep model. MSC were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and directly auto-transplanted or expanded in vitro and characterized using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and RT-PCR analysis before subcutaneous implantation in combination with BMP-2 and ?-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (?-TCP/HA) granules. Constructs were explanted after 1 to 12 weeks followed by histological and RT-PCR evaluation. Sheep MSC were CD29+, CD44+ and CD166+ after selection by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, while directly auto-transplanted MSC-populations expressed CD29 and CD166 at lower levels. Both, directly auto-transplanted and expanded MSC, were constantly proliferating and had a decreasing apoptosis over time in vivo. Directly auto-transplanted MSC led to de novo bone formation in a heterotopic sheep model using a ?-TCP/HA matrix comparable to the application of 60 ?g/ml BMP-2 only or implantation of expanded MSC. Bone matrix proteins were up-regulated in constructs following direct auto-transplantation and in expanded MSC as well as in BMP-2 constructs. Up-regulation was detected using immunohistology methods and RT-PCR. Dense vascularization was demonstrated by CD31 immunohistology staining in all three groups. Ectopic bone could be generated using directly auto-transplanted or expanded MSC with ?-TCP/HA granules alone. Hence BMP-2 stimulation might become dispensable in the future, thus providing an attractive, clinically feasible approach to bone tissue engineering. PMID:20636333

  11. Bone tissue engineering via human induced pluripotent, umbilical cord and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rat cranium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Xian; Zhao, Liang; Weir, Michael D; Sun, Jirun; Chen, Wenchuan; Man, Yi; Xu, Hockin H K

    2015-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are an exciting cell source with great potential for tissue engineering. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) have been used in clinics but are limited by several disadvantages, hence alternative sources of MSCs such as umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs) are being investigated. However, there has been no report comparing hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs for bone regeneration. The objectives of this pilot study were to investigate hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs for bone tissue engineering, and compare their bone regeneration via seeding on biofunctionalized macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in rat cranial defects. For all three types of cells, approximately 90% of the cells remained alive on CPC scaffolds. Osteogenic genes were up-regulated, and mineral synthesis by cells increased with time in vitro for all three types of cells. The new bone area fractions at 12weeks (mean±sd; n=6) were (30.4±5.8)%, (27.4±9.7)% and (22.6±4.7)% in hiPSC-MSC-CPC, hUCMSC-CPC and hBMSC-CPC respectively, compared to (11.0±6.3)% for control (p<0.05). No significant differences were detected among the three types of stem cells (p>0.1). New blood vessel density was higher in cell-seeded groups than control (p<0.05). De novo bone formation and participation by implanted cells was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, (1) hiPSCs, hUCMSCs and hBMSCs greatly enhanced bone regeneration, more than doubling the new bone amount of cell-free CPC control; (2) hiPSC-MSCs and hUCMSCs represented viable alternatives to hBMSCs; (3) biofunctionalized macroporous CPC-stem cell constructs had a robust capacity for bone regeneration. PMID:25712391

  12. Directly auto-transplanted mesenchymal stem cells induce bone formation in a ceramic bone substitute in an ectopic sheep model.

    PubMed

    Boos, Anja M; Loew, Johanna S; Deschler, Gloria; Arkudas, Andreas; Bleiziffer, Oliver; Gulle, Heinz; Dragu, Adrian; Kneser, Ulrich; Horch, Raymund E; Beier, Justus P

    2011-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering approaches increasingly focus on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). In most animal transplantation models MSC are isolated and expanded before auto cell transplantation which might be critical for clinical application in the future. Hence this study compares the potential of directly auto-transplanted versus in vitro expanded MSC with or without bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) to induce bone formation in a large volume ceramic bone substitute in the sheep model. MSC were isolated from bone marrow aspirates and directly auto-transplanted or expanded in vitro and characterized using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and RT-PCR analysis before subcutaneous implantation in combination with BMP-2 and ?-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (?-TCP/HA) granules. Constructs were explanted after 1 to 12 weeks followed by histological and RT-PCR evaluation. Sheep MSC were CD29(+), CD44(+) and CD166(+) after selection by Ficoll gradient centrifugation, while directly auto-transplanted MSC-populations expressed CD29 and CD166 at lower levels. Both, directly auto-transplanted and expanded MSC, were constantly proliferating and had a decreasing apoptosis over time in vivo. Directly auto-transplanted MSC led to de novo bone formation in a heterotopic sheep model using a ?-TCP/HA matrix comparable to the application of 60 ?g/ml BMP-2 only or implantation of expanded MSC. Bone matrix proteins were up-regulated in constructs following direct auto-transplantation and in expanded MSC as well as in BMP-2 constructs. Up-regulation was detected using immunohistology methods and RT-PCR. Dense vascularization was demonstrated by CD31 immunohistology staining in all three groups. Ectopic bone could be generated using directly auto-transplanted or expanded MSC with ?-TCP/HA granules alone. Hence BMP-2 stimulation might become dispensable in the future, thus providing an attractive, clinically feasible approach to bone tissue engineering. PMID:20636333

  13. The Role of GH/IGF-I Axis in Muscle Homeostasis During Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to reduced gravity during space travel profoundly alters the loads placed on bone and muscle. Astronauts suffer significant losses of muscle and bone strength during weightlessness. Exercise as a countermeasure is only partially effective in remedying severe muscle atrophy and bone demineralization. Similar wasting of muscles and bones affects people on Earth during prolonged bed rest or immobilization due to injury. In the absence of weight bearing activity, atrophy occurs primarily in the muscles that act in low power, routine movements and in maintaining posture. Hormonal disfunction could contribute in part to the loss of muscle and bone during spaceflight. Reduced levels of human Growth Hormone (hGH) were found in astronauts during space flight, as well as reduced GH secretory activity was observed from the anterior pituitary in 7-day space flight rats. Growth hormone has been shown to be required for maintenance of muscle mass and bone mineralization, in part by mediating the biosynthesis IGF-I, a small polypeptide growth factor. IGF biosynthesis and secretion plays an important role in potentiating muscle cell differentiation and has been shown to drive the expression of myogenin, a myogenic specific basic helix-loop-helix factor. IGF-I has also been shown to have an important role in potentiating muscle regeneration, repair and adult muscle hypertrophy.

  14. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. PMID:17021706

  15. MR imaging of therapy-induced changes of bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E; Henning, Tobias; Link, Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    MR imaging of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies provides non-invasive assays of bone marrow cellularity and vascularity to supplement the information provided by bone marrow biopsies. This article will review the MR imaging findings of bone marrow infiltration by hematologic malignancies with special focus on treatment effects. MR imaging findings of the bone marrow after radiation therapy and chemotherapy will be described. In addition, changes in bone marrow microcirculation and metabolism after anti-angiogenesis treatment will be reviewed. Finally, new specific imaging techniques for the depiction of regulatory events that control blood vessel growth and cell proliferation will be discussed. Future developments are directed to yield comprehensive information about bone marrow structure, function and microenvironment. PMID:17021706

  16. A potential therapeutic approach to overload-induced bone loss around implant: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaohua Zeng; Hao He; Liang Zhang; Yingying Wu; Yanying Wang; Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    The clinical use of dental implants has a high success rate, but overload-induced bone loss around implant is not uncommon in patients with implant-supported denture especially those with long cantilever designs and greatly harmful to the long-term implant success. The mechanism underlying the bone loss is thought to be the imbalance of bone remodeling involving a detrimental positive feedback activated

  17. Efficacy of radioprotection in the prevention of radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Christopher R; O'Donovan, David A; Yeung, Ivan; Zeman, Vlado; La Scala, Giorgio; Neligan, Peter C; Pang, Cho Y

    2002-04-01

    It has been reported that radiotherapy-induced craniofacial deformities can occur in 66 to 100 percent of survivors of childhood head and neck cancers. Recent interest in the effectiveness of radioprotectors in the protection of normal tissue against radiation injury led us to investigate a possible role of radioprotection in the prevention of radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the radioprotective agent amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721) as a probe to determine the effectiveness of radioprotection in the prevention of radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition after single-dose orthovoltage radiation to the infant rabbit orbital-zygomatic complex. Seven-week-old male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into three groups (n = 10 each): group 1, 0 Gy (sham radiation); group 2, 35-Gy single-dose orthovoltage radiation; and group 3, 35-Gy single-dose orthovoltage radiation and amifostine (300 mg/kg intravenously, given 20 minutes before radiation). Serial radiographs and computed tomographic scans were obtained for cephalometric analysis, bone volume, and bone density measurements until skeletal maturity at 21 weeks. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in orbital-zygomatic complex linear bone growth, bone volume, and bone density were observed after 35-Gy radiation compared with nonirradiated controls. No significant differences were noted between groups in cephalometric analysis of the nontreated (nonirradiated) left orbital-zygomatic complex, indicating no crossover effect from the radiation beam. However, pretreatment with amifostine, 20 minutes before 35-Gy radiation, resulted in significant (p < 0.05) preservation of linear bone growth, bone volume, and bone mineral density in the rabbit orbital-zygomatic complex compared with controls. This study demonstrated for the first time the effectiveness of a radioprotector in the prevention of radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition, and it paves the way for investigation into the pathogenic mechanism and prevention of radiotherapy-induced craniofacial deformities. PMID:11964983

  18. Impact of weightlessness on muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.

    1995-01-01

    The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent function of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.

  19. Glucocorticoid-induced changes in the geometry of osteoclast resorption cavities affect trabecular bone stiffness.

    PubMed

    Vanderoost, Jef; Søe, Kent; Merrild, Ditte Marie Horslev; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2013-03-01

    Bone fracture risk can increase through bone microstructural changes observed in bone pathologies, such as glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Resorption cavities present one of these microstructural aspects. We recently found that glucocorticoids (GCs) affect the shape of the resorption cavities. Specifically, we found that in the presence of GC osteoclasts (OCs) cultured on bone slices make more trenchlike cavities, compared to rather round cavities in the absence of GCs, while the total eroded surface remained constant. For this study, we hypothesized that trenchlike cavities affect bone strength differently compared to round cavities. To test this hypothesis, we cultured OCs on bone slices in the presence and absence of GC and quantified their dimensions. These data were used to model the effects of OC resorption cavities on bone mechanical properties using a validated beam-shell finite element model of trabecular bone. We demonstrated that a change in the geometry of resorption cavities is sufficient to affect bone competence. After correcting for the increased EV/BV with GCs, the difference to the control condition was no longer significant, indicating that the GC-induced increase in EV/BV, which is closely related to the shape of the cavities, highly determines the stiffness effect. The lumbar spine was the anatomic site most affected by the GC-induced changes on the shape of the cavities. These findings might explain the clinical observation that the prevalence of vertebral fractures during GC treatment increases more than hip, forearm and other nonvertebral fractures. PMID:23187898

  20. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  1. Combination therapies prevent the neuropathic, proinflammatory characteristics of bone marrow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, James M; Yorek, Mark A; Grant, Maria B

    2015-02-01

    We previously showed that peripheral neuropathy of the bone marrow was associated with loss of circadian rhythmicity of stem/progenitor cell release into the circulation. Bone marrow neuropathy results in dramatic changes in hematopoiesis that lead to microvascular complications, inflammation, and reduced endothelial repair. This series of events represents early pathogenesis before development of diabetic retinopathy. In this study we characterized early alterations within the bone marrow of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats following treatments that prevent experimental peripheral neuropathy. We asked whether bone marrow neuropathy and the associated bone marrow pathology were reversed with treatments that prevent peripheral neuropathy. Three strategies were tested: inhibition of neutral endopeptidase, inhibition of aldose reductase plus lipoic acid supplementation, and insulin therapy with antioxidants. All strategies prevented loss of nerve conduction velocity resulting from STZ-induced diabetes and corrected the STZ-induced diabetes-associated increase of immunoreactivity of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, and somatostatin. The treatments also reduced concentrations of interleukin-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 in STZ-induced diabetic bone marrow supernatant and decreased the expression of NADPH oxidase 2, nitric oxide synthase 2, and nuclear factor-?B1 mRNA in bone marrow progenitor cells. These therapies represent novel approaches to attenuate the diabetic phenotype within the bone marrow and may constitute an important therapeutic strategy for diabetic microvascular complications. PMID:25204979

  2. Role of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in bone acquisition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone. However, no GC anabolic effect mediator has been identified to date. In this report, we provide the first evidence that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a GC anti-inflammatory effect mediator, can enhance bone forma...

  3. Osteogenesis induced by a bone forming peptide from the prodomain region of BMP-7.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Keun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Dae Sung; Park, Kyung Soon; Kang, Seong Soo; Lee, Jun Sik; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Taek Rim

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a reduction in skeletal mass due to an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption. Many researchers have tried to develop adjuvants as specific suppressors of bone resorption and stimulators of bone formation for therapeutic purposes in patients with osteoporosis. Therefore, specific stimulators on bone formation are one of therapeutic significance in the treatment of osteoporosis. Until now, the regulation of bone generation has been the focus of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) investigation from mature form. However, new peptides from immature form which has osteogenic activity has not been reported and developments of these proteins are still remained. In this study, we found a new peptide sequence, called bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1) and have more high activities of osteogenic differentiation compared with BMP-7. BFP-1-treated multipotent bone marrow stromal stem cells (MBSCs) induced the expression levels and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Moreover, BFP-1 enhanced the levels of CD44, CD47 and CD51 expression as well as increased Ca(2+) content in MBSCs. In current study, radiography at 8 weeks revealed that BFP-1 pretreated-MBSC transplanted animals had strongly increased bone formation compared to that in the BMP-7 pretreated MBSC transplanted animals. Our finding indicates a new insight into peptides from the immature region of BMP-7 can also be useful in the development of adjuvant therapies for bone-related diseases. PMID:22795855

  4. NADPH oxidases are critical targets for prevention of ethanol-induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular mechanisms through which chronic alcohol consumption induce bone loss and osteoporosis are largely unknown. Ethanol increases expression and activates NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzymes (Nox) in osteoblasts leading to accumulation of reactive oxygen spe...

  5. Viscoelastic dissipation in compact bone: implications for stress-induced fluid flow in bone.

    PubMed

    Garner, E; Lakes, R; Lee, T; Swan, C; Brand, R

    2000-04-01

    Viscoelastic properties of wet and dry human compact bone were studied in torsion and in bending for both the longitudinal and transverse directions at frequencies from 5 mHz to 5 kHz in bending to more than 50 kHz in torsion. Two series of tests were done for different longitudinal and transverse specimens from a human tibia. Wet bone exhibited a larger viscoelastic damping tan delta (phase between stress and strain sinusoids) than dry bone over a broad range of frequency. All the results had in common a relative minimum in tan delta over a frequency range, 1 to 100 Hz, which is predominantly contained in normal activities. This behavior is inconsistent with an optimal "design" for bone as a shock absorber. There was no definitive damping peak in the range of frequencies explored, which could be attributed to fluid flow in the porosity of bone. PMID:10834157

  6. Weightlessness and the human skeleton: A new perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holick, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    It is now clear after more than two decades of space exploration that one of the major short- and long-term effects of microgravity on the human body is the loss of bone. The purpose of this presentation will be to review the data regarding the impact of microgravity and bed rest on calcium and bone metabolism. The author takes the position in this Socratic debate that the effect of microgravity on bone metabolism can be either reversed or mitigated. As we begins to contemplate long-duration space flight and habitation of Space Station Freedom and the moon, one of the issues that needs to be addressed is whether humans need to maintain a skeleton that has been adapted for the one-g force on earth. Clearly, in the foreseeable future, a healthy and structurally sound skeleton will be required for astronauts to shuttle back and forth from earth to the moon, space station, and Mars. Based on most available data from bed-rest studies and the short- and long-duration microgravity experiences by astronauts and cosmonauts, bone loss is a fact of life in this environment. With the rapid advances in understanding of bone physiology it is now possible to contemplate measures that can prevent or mitigate microgravity-induced bone loss. Will the new therapeutic approaches for enhancing bone mineralization be useful for preventing significant bone loss during long-term space flight? Are there other approaches such as exercise and electrical stimulation that can be used to mitigate the impact of microgravity on the skeleton? A recent study that evaluated the effect of microgravity on bone modeling in developing chick embryos may perhaps provide a new perspective about the impact of microgravity on bone metabolism.

  7. Induced electric and magnetic fields due to wave propagation in a tubular bone.

    PubMed

    Misra, J C; Bera, G C; Samanta, S

    1988-01-01

    Electric and magnetic fields in tubular bones induced due to the propagation of travelling axisymmetric torsional waves, are determined in the paper by accounting for the piezoelectricity, inhomogeneity and anisotropy of osseous tissues. Using the derived expressions and experimentally determined values of the involved physical constants, numerical values of the displacement and stress fields, and also the induced fields are computed for points at different locations of the bone specimen. PMID:3351392

  8. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cancellous Bone Loss in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Mei; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2, (PGE2) can prevent ovariectomy induced cancellous bone loss. Thirty-five 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the first group were ovariectomized (OVX) while the others received sham operation (sham-OVX). The OVX group was further divided into three treatment groups. The daily doses for the three groups were 0,1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg for 90 days. Bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). We confirmed that OVX induces massive cancellous bone loss (-80%) and a higher bone turnover (+143%). The new findings from the present study demonstrate that bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency can be prevented by a low-dose (1 mg) daily administration of PGE2. Furthermore, a higher-dose (6 mg) daily administration of PGE2 not only prevents bone loss but also adds extra bone to the proximal tibial metaphyses. PGE, at the 1-mg dose level significantly increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, ratio of node to free end, and thus significantly decreased trabecular separation from OVX controls. At this dose level, these same parameters did not differ significantly from sham-OVX controls. However, at the 6-mg dose level PGE2, there were significant increases in trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, and ratio of node to free end, while there was significant decrease in trabecular separation from both OVX and sham-operated controls. The changes in indices of trabecular bone microanatomical structure indicated that PGE2 prevented bone loss as well as the disconnection of existing trabeculae. In summary, PGE2, administration to OVX rats decreased bone turnover and increased bone formation parameters resulting in a positive bone balance that prevented bone loss (in both lower and higher doses) and added extra bone to metaphyses of OVX rats (in higher dose). These findings support the strategy of the use of bone stimulation agents in the prevention of estrogen depletion bone loss (postmenopausal osteoporosis).

  9. Antiresorptive Treatment for Spaceflight Induced Bone Atrophy - Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan J.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Detailed measurements from the Mir and ISS long duration missions have documented losses in bone mineral density (BMD) from critical skeletal sub-regions. The most important BMD losses are from the femoral hip, averaging about -1.6%/mo integral to -2.3%/mo trabecular. Importantly these studies have documented the wide range in individual BMD loss from -0.5 to -5%/mo. Associated elevated urinary Ca increases the risk of renal stone formation during flight, a serious impact to mission success. To date, countermeasures have not been satisfactory. The purpose of this study is to determine if the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus the standard in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect on preventing space flight induced bone loss (mass and strength) and reducing renal stone risk. To date, 4 crewmembers have completed the flight portion of the protocol in which crewmembers take a 70-mg alendronate tablet once a week before and during flight, starting 17 days before launch. Compared to previous ISS crewmembers (n=14) not taking alendronate, DXA measurements of the spine, femur neck and total hip were significantly improved from -0.8 +/- 0.5%/mo to 1.0 +/- 1.1%/mo, -1.1 +/- 0.5%/mo to -0.2 +/- 0.3%/mo, -1.1 +/- 0.5%/mo to 0.04 +/- 0.3%/mo respectively. QCT-determined trabecular BMD of the femur neck, trochanter and total hip were significantly improved from -2.7 +/- 1.9%/mo to -0.2 +/- 0.8%/mo, -2.2 +/- 0.9%/mo to -0.3 +/- 1.9%/mo and -2.3 +/- 1.0%/mo to -0.2 +/- 1.8%/mo respectively. Significance was calculated from a one-tailed t test. Resorption markers were unchanged, in contrast to measurements from previous ISS crewmembers that showed typical increases of 50-100% above baseline. Urinary Ca showed no increase compared to baseline levels, also distinct from the elevated levels of 50% or greater in previous crews. While these results are encouraging, the current n (4) is small, and the large SDs indicate that, while the means are improved, there is still high variability in individual response. Three additional crewmembers have been recruited to participate in this experiment, with expected completion in late 2011.

  10. Contributions of the host microenvironment to cancer-induced bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Olechnowicz, Sam W. Z.; Edwards, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow provides a specialised and highly supportive microenvironment for tumour growth and development of the associated bone disease. It is a preferred site for breast and prostate cancer bone metastasis and the haematological malignancy, multiple myeloma. For many years, researchers have focused upon the interactions between tumour cells and the cells directly responsible for bone remodelling, namely osteoclasts and osteoblasts. However, there is ever-increasing evidence for a multitude of ways in which the bone marrow microenvironment can promote disease pathogenesis, including via cancer-associated fibroblasts, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and the sympathetic nervous system. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of the host microenvironment to the development of cancer-induced bone disease. PMID:24599133

  11. Contributions of the host microenvironment to cancer-induced bone disease.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Edwards, Claire M

    2014-03-15

    The bone marrow provides a specialized and highly supportive microenvironment for tumor growth and development of the associated bone disease. It is a preferred site for breast and prostate cancer bone metastasis and the hematologic malignancy, multiple myeloma. For many years, researchers have focused upon the interactions between tumor cells and the cells directly responsible for bone remodeling, namely osteoclasts and osteoblasts. However, there is ever-increasing evidence for a multitude of ways in which the bone marrow microenvironment can promote disease pathogenesis, including via cancer-associated fibroblasts, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and the sympathetic nervous system. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of the host microenvironment to the development of cancer-induced bone disease. PMID:24599133

  12. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided. PMID:22733158

  13. A Computational Model for Simulating Spaceflight Induced Bone Remodeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    An overview of an initial development of a model of bone loss due to skeletal unloading in weight bearing sites is presented. The skeletal site chosen for the initial application of the model is the femoral neck region because hip fractures can be debilitating to the overall performance health of astronauts. The paper begins with the motivation for developing such a model of the time course of change in bone in order to understand the mechanism of bone demineralization experienced by astronauts in microgravity, to quantify the health risk, and to establish countermeasures. Following this, a general description of a mathematical formulation of the process of bone remodeling is discussed. Equations governing the rate of change of mineralized bone volume fraction and active osteoclast and osteoblast are illustrated. Some of the physiology of bone remodeling, the theory of how imbalance in remodeling can cause bone loss, and how the model attempts to capture this is discussed. The results of a preliminary validation analysis that was carried out are presented. The analysis compares a set of simulation results against bone loss data from control subjects who participated in two different bed rest studies. Finally, the paper concludes with outlining the current limitations and caveats of the model, and planned future work to enhance the state of the model.

  14. Minimum level of jumping exercise required to maintain exercise-induced bone gains in female rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Ooi; R. Singh; H. J. Singh; Y. Umemura

    2009-01-01

    Summary  This study determines the minimum level of exercise required to maintain 8 weeks of jumping exercise-induced bone gains in\\u000a rats. It was found that the minimum level of exercise required for maintaining the different exercise-induced bone gains varied\\u000a between 11% and 18% of the initial exercise intensity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  This study ascertains the minimum level of follow-up exercise required to maintain bone gains

  15. The regulation of fluid and electrolyte metabolism in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Endocrine and biochemical changes in astronauts caused by weightlessness are discussed. Translocation of fluid from the extremities to the head and chest at the onset of weightlessness is thought to lead to the establishment of a lower blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Results of Skylab experiments indicate that several other regulatory systems have lower homeostatic set points during space flight. Inflight blood samples from three Spacelab flights show increased antidiuretic hormone throughout these short flights and decreased aldosterone and cortisol after 3 days. Results help to explain blood hypoosmolality and hyponatremia but do not explain what happens between the onset of weightlessness and hormone changes. Other factors such as natriuretic peptides and changes in renal function are being studied to elucidate the physiologic adaptation mechanisms.

  16. Strain-induced optical changes in demineralized bone

    PubMed Central

    Hardisty, Michael R.; Kienle, Daniel F.; Kuhl, Tonya L.; Stover, Susan M.; Fyhrie, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Bone “stress-whitens,” becoming visibly white during mechanical loading, immediately prior to failure. Stress-whitening is known to make materials tougher by dissipating mechanical energy. A greater understanding of stress-whitening, both an optical and mechanical phenomenon, may help explain age-related increases in fracture risk that occur without changes in bone mineralization. In this work, we directly measure the optical properties of demineralized bone as a function of deformation and immersing fluid (with different hydrogen-bonding potentials, water, and ethanol). The change in refractive index of demineralized bone was linear: with deformation and not applied force. Changes in refractive index were likely due to pushing low-refractive-index fluid out of specimens and secondarily due to changes in the refractive index of the collagenous phase. Results were consistent with stress-whitening of demineralized bone previously observed. In ethanol, the refractive index values were lower and less sensitive to deformation compared with deionized water, corroborating the sensitivity to fluid hydration. Differences in refractive index were consistent with structural changes in the collagenous phase such as densification that may also occur under mechanical loading. Understanding bone quality, particularly stress-whitening investigated here, may lead to new therapeutic targets and noninvasive methods to assess bone quality. PMID:24604533

  17. Laboratory simulation of the action of weightlessness on the human organism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genin, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of attemps by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. to simulate weightlessness in the laboratory is presented. Model for laboratory modeling of weightlessness included the bed regimen, the clinostat, and water immersion. An outline of immediate physiological effects of weightlessness and long term effects is offered.

  18. Leukemia cells induce changes in human bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent cells that support angiogenesis, wound healing, and immunomodulation. In the hematopoietic niche, they nurture hematopoietic cells, leukemia, tumors and metastasis. BMSCs secrete of a wide range of cytokines, growth factors and matrix proteins which contribute to the pro-tumorigenic marrow microenvironment. The inflammatory cytokines IFN-? and TNF-? change the BMSC secretome and we hypothesized that factors produced by tumors or leukemia would also affect the BMSC secretome and investigated the interaction of leukemia cells with BMSCs. Methods BMSCs from healthy subjects were co-cultured with three myeloid leukemia cell lines (TF-1, TF-1? and K562) using a trans-well system. Following co-culture, the BMSCs and leukemia cells were analyzed by global gene expression analysis and culture supernatants were analyzed for protein expression. As a control, CD34+ cells were also cocultured with BMSCs. Results Co-culture induced leukemia cell gene expression changes in stem cell pluripotency, TGF-? signaling and carcinoma signaling pathways. BMSCs co-cultured with leukemia cells up-regulated a number of proinflammatory genes including IL-17 signaling-related genes and IL-8 and CCL2 levels were increased in co-culture supernatants. In contrast, purine metabolism, mTOR signaling and EIF2 signaling pathways genes were up-regulated in BMSCs co-cultured with CD34+ cells. Conclusions BMSCs react to the presence of leukemia cells undergoing changes in the cytokine and chemokine secretion profiles. Thus, BMSCs and leukemia cells both contribute to the creation of a competitive niche more favorable for leukemia stem cells. PMID:24304929

  19. Bone regeneration induced by an in situ gel-forming poloxamine, bone morphogenetic protein-2 system.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Evora, M; Reyes, R; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Delgado, A; Evora, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to confirm previously shown, in vitro osteogenic induction by the Tetronics T908 and T1307 in a critical-size, rat calvaria defect. In vivo, the osteogenic activity of the hydrogels was comparable to in vitro, but less pronounced. However, similar to in vitro, the system was strongly potentiated by incorporating 6.5 microg of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in solution or pre-encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres. These two systems extended the in vivo release of bone morphogenetic protein-2, determined with 125I- bone morphogenetic protein-2, for one and two additional weeks, respectively, time enough to fill approximately 40% and 90% of the defect with well-organized bone. Furthermore, the structural characteristics of Tetronic hydrogels together with their biocompatibility, injectability, and adaptability to multiple defect sizes and shapes suggest their role as new, potential bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery, low-cost scaffolds for minor as well as critical bone defects. PMID:24749391

  20. Germination of pine seed in weightlessness (investigation in Kosmos 782)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonova, R. N.; Parfenov, G. P.; Olkhovenko, V. P.; Karpova, N. I.; Pichugov, M. Y.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the orientation of aboveground and underground organs of pine plants grown from seed in weightlessness. Orientation was found to be caused by the position of the seeds relative to the substrate surface. Normal growth was manifest only for the plants grown from seed oriented with embryo toward the substrate. Differences were noted between experiment and control as to the quantitative content of nucleoli in the meristematic cells of the rootlets and the shape of cells in the cotyledonous leaflets. No complete agreement was found between data obtained in weightlessness and when gravity was compensated (clinostat treatment with horizontal rotation).

  1. A Systems Approach to the Physiology of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Rummel, John A.; Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    A systems approach to the unraveling of the complex response pattern of the human subjected to weightlessness is presented. The major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the role that each of the major components of the human system plays following the transition to and from space. The cornerstone of this approach is the utilization of a variety of mathematical models in order to pose and test alternative hypotheses concerned with the adaptation process. An integrated hypothesis for the human physiological response to weightlessness is developed.

  2. Effect of simulated weightlessness on the immune system in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caren, L. D.; Mandel, A. D.; Nunes, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats suspended in a model system designed to simulate many aspects of weightlessness were immunized with sheep red blood cells. Parameters measured on these and control rats included titers of anti-sheep red blood cell antibodies, serum immunoglobulin levels, spleen and thymus weights, hematocrits, and leukocyte differential counts on peripheral blood. No significant differences were found between test and weight-bearing, harnessed controls; however, the thymuses of animals in both these groups were significantly smaller than untreated cage controls. The lack of an effect of simulated weightlessness on the immune system is an interesting result, and its significance is discussed.

  3. Correlation of macro and micro cardiovascular function during weightlessness and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, P. M.; Marshburn, T. H.; Smith, T. L.; Osborne, S. W.; Lynch, C. D.; Moultsby, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    The investigation of cardiovascular function necessarily involves a consideration of the exchange of substances at the capillary. If cardiovascular function is compromised or in any way altered during exposure to zero gravity in space, then it stands to reason that microvascular function is also modified. We have shown that an increase in cardiac output similar to that reported during simulated weightlessness is associated with a doubling of the number of post-capillary venules and a reduction in the number of arterioles by 35%. If the weightlessness of space travel produces similar changes in cardiopulmonary volume and cardiac output, a reasonable expectation is that astronauts will undergo venous neovascularization. We have developed an animal model in which to correlate microvascular and systemic cardiovascular function. The microcirculatory preparation consists of a lightweight, thermo-neutral chamber implanted around intact skeletal muscle on the back of a rat. Using this technique, the performed microvasculature of the cutaneous maximus muscle may be observed in the conscious, unanesthetized animal. Microcirculatory variables which may be obtained include venular and arteriolar numbers, lengths and diameters, single vessel flow velocities, vasomotion, capillary hematocrit anastomoses and orders of branching. Systemic hemodynamic monitoring of cardiac output by electromagnetic flowmetry, and arterial and venous pressures allows correlation of macro- and microcirculatory changes at the same time, in the same animal. Observed and calculated hemodynamic variables also include pulse pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, aortic compliance, minute work, peak aortic flow velocity and systolic time interval. In this manner, an integrated assessment of total cardiovascular function may be obtained in the same animal without the complicating influence of anesthetics.

  4. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Peter S; O'Shea, Patrick J; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A; Escott, K Jane

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH1-34 or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. PMID:23872097

  5. [Bone Regeneration induced by stem cells--recent research and future outlook].

    PubMed

    Michaeli-Geller, G; Zigdon-Giladi, H

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is the consequence of periodontal diseases, trauma or malignancies. Regeneration of the lost bone is crucial for the patient rehabilitation of function, phonetics and aesthetics. The surgical techniques for jaw-bone augmentation include: distraction osteogenesis, bone blocks (autologic/allogenic or xenogenic) and guided bone regeneration (GBR). These techniques have low predictability and high morbidity. As an alternative to the classical surgical approaches, in recent years, there have been developments in the field of tissue engineering which integrates the use of different scaffolds, growth factors and stem cells. This method aims to induce bone augmentation of large defects essentially mimicking biological processes that occure during craniofacial development. This article will review recent studies and a future outlook for the use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)--in order to induce bone augmentation in cases of severe bone resorption. Regenerative therapy using stem cells may open a new horizon in periodontology, maxillofacial surgery and implantology. PMID:25799790

  6. Alteration patterns of trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics induced by osteoarthritis over time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Hyung; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Sang Ho; Han, Paul; Jun, Yongtae; Lim, Dohyung

    2012-01-01

    Information regarding the alteration of trabecular bone microarchitecture, which is one of the important criteria to estimate bone condition, induced by osteoarthritis (OA) is sparse. The current study therefore aimed to identify and quantify patterns of alterations in trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics at tibial epiphysis induced by OA using in vivo microcomputed tomography. Fourteen 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (n = 7) and OA (n = 7) groups. Rats in the OA group were administered monoiodoacetate into the knee-joint cavity. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo microcomputed tomography at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after administration. Two-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s honestly significant difference post hoc test was carried out for statistical analyses. The results showed that patterns of alterations in the trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics in the OA group were not different from those in the control group from 0 to 4 weeks (P > 0.05), but differed from 4 to 8 weeks (P < 0.05). In particular, both trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation distributions over time (4–8 weeks) differed significantly (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the patterns of bone microarchitecture changes brought about by OA should be periodically considered in the diagnosis and management of arthritic symptoms over time. Improved understanding of the alteration pattern on trabecular bone microarchitecture may assist in developing more targeted treatment interventions for OA. PMID:22956865

  7. Arthritis Induces Early Bone High Turnover, Structural Degradation and Mechanical Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Bruno; Cascão, Rita; Vale, Ana Catarina; Cavaleiro, Inês; Vaz, Maria Fátima; Brito, José Américo Almeida; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2015-01-01

    Background We have previously found in the chronic SKG mouse model of arthritis that long standing (5 and 8 months) inflammation directly leads to high collagen bone turnover, disorganization of the collagen network, disturbed bone microstructure and degradation of bone biomechanical properties. The main goal of the present work was to study the effects of the first days of the inflammatory process on the microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone. Methods Twenty eight Wistar adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats were monitored during 22 days after disease induction for the inflammatory score, ankle perimeter and body weight. Healthy non-arthritic rats were used as controls for compar-ison. After 22 days of disease progression rats were sacrificed and bone samples were collected for histomorphometrical, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopical analysis and 3-point bending. Blood samples were also collected for bone turnover markers. Results AIA rats had an increased bone turnover (as inferred from increased P1NP and CTX1, p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0002, respectively) and this was paralleled by a decreased mineral content (calcium p = 0.0046 and phos-phorus p = 0.0046). Histomorphometry showed a lower trabecular thickness (p = 0.0002) and bone volume (p = 0.0003) and higher trabecular sepa-ration (p = 0.0009) in the arthritic group as compared with controls. In addition, bone mechanical tests showed evidence of fragility as depicted by diminished values of yield stress and ultimate fracture point (p = 0.0061 and p = 0.0279, re-spectively) in the arthritic group. Conclusions We have shown in an AIA rat model that arthritis induc-es early bone high turnover, structural degradation, mineral loss and mechanical weak-ness. PMID:25617902

  8. Stem cell niches and other factors that influence the sensitivity of bone marrow to radiation-induced bone cancer and leukaemia in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reviews and reassesses the internationally accepted niches or ‘targets’ in bone marrow that are sensitive to the induction of leukaemia and primary bone cancer by radiation. Conclusions: The hypoxic conditions of the 10 ?m thick endosteal/osteoblastic niche where preleukemic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside provides a radioprotective microenvironment that is 2-to 3-fold less radiosensitive than vascular niches. This supports partitioning the whole marrow target between the low haematological cancer risk of irradiating HSC in the endosteum and the vascular niches within central marrow. There is a greater risk of induced bone cancer when irradiating a 50 ?m thick peripheral marrow adjacent to the remodelling/reforming portion of the trabecular bone surface, rather than marrow next to the quiescent bone surface. This choice of partitioned bone cancer target is substantiated by the greater radiosensitivity of: (i) Bone with high remodelling rates, (ii) the young, (iii) individuals with hypermetabolic benign diseases of bone, and (iv) the epidemiology of alpha-emitting exposures. Evidence is given to show that the absence of excess bone-cancer in atomic-bomb survivors may be partially related to the extremely low prevalence among Japanese of Paget's disease of bone. Radiation-induced fibrosis and the wound healing response may be implicated in not only radiogenic bone cancers but also leukaemia. A novel biological mechanism for adaptive response, and possibility of dynamic targets, is advocated whereby stem cells migrate from vascular niches to stress-mitigated, hypoxic niches. PMID:21204614

  9. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P < 0.05) in longitudinal bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  10. Zoledronic acid at the time of castration prevented castration-induced bone metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Paramita M; Gao, Allen C

    2014-10-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is known to cause bone loss in a majority of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A study published in this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer by Ottewell and colleagues shows that ADT increased bone resorption and triggered growth of disseminated prostate cancer (CaP) cells to form bone metastasis using an in vivo model. However, prevention of bone decay by weekly administration of zoledronic acid (ZOL) at the time of castration prevented ADT-induced tumor growth in bone. Recently, two publications from Japan have demonstrated that ZOL combined with ADT improved outcomes for patients with treatment-naïve CaP with bone metastasis. The mechanistic cause for these patients having an improved overall survival compared with those who were treated with ZOL after ADT initiation or before metastasis development was never explained. Ottewell and colleague's study now suggests that it is the bone loss caused by ADT that promoted bone metastasis, and if ZOL is administered at the time of ADT initiation, it would prevent this bone loss and prolong skeletal-related event-free survival. PMID:25183429

  11. Glucocorticoid-induced bone loss can be reversed by the actions of PTH and Risedronate on different pathways for bone formation and mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Pham, Aaron; Busse, Cheryl; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Ritchie, Robert O.; Lane, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) excess decreases bone mineralization and microarchitecture and lead to reduced bone strength. Both anabolic (PTH) and anti-resorptive agents are used to prevent and treat GC-induced bone loss, yet these bone active agents alter bone turnover by very different mechanisms. Our study objective was to determine how PTH and risedronate (Ris) alter bone quality following GC excess. Five-month-old Swiss-Webster male mice were treated with the glucocorticoid (GC) prednisolone (5 mg/kg 60-day slow-release pellet) or placebo (PL)]. At day 28?56, two groups of GC-treated animals had either PTH (5?g/kg, 5x/wk) or Ris (5?g/kg, 5x/wk) intervention. Bone quality and quantity measurements include x-ray tomography microscopy (XTM) for the degree of bone mineralization (DBM), microCT for bone microarchitecture, compression testing for trabecular bone strength, biochemistry and histomorphometry for bone turnover. In addition, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to monitor the expression of several key genes regulating Wnt signaling (bone formation) and mineralization. Results Compared to the placebo treated mice, GC treatment decreased trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and serum osteocalcin, but increased serum CTX and osteoclast surface with a peak at day 28. GC+PTH increased and GC+Ris restored BV/TV to the PL levels after a 28 day treatment period. Average DBM was lowered after GC treatment (?27%), and it was restored to PL level with GC+Ris and GC+PTH. At day 56, RT-PCR revealed that continuous exposure to GC and GC+PTH increased, while GC+Ris decreased the expression of genes that inhibit bone mineralization (Dmp1 and Phex), compared to the PL group. Wnt signaling antagonists Dkk1, Sost and Wif1 were up-regulated by GC treatment but were down-regulated after GC+PTH treatment. Immunohistochemistry of bone sections found GC increased N terminal dmp-1 while PTH treatment increased both N and C terminal dmp-1 staining around osteocytes. Summary GC excess reduced expression of genes that regulate mineralization and increased expression of genes that inhibit Wnt signaling which were associated with reduced bone formation and bone volume over a 60 day treatment period. The addition of both PTH and Ris improved bone mass, DBM and bone strength during concurrent GC treatment, with PTH lowering expression of Wnt inhibitors and increasing bone formation; while Ris lowered the expression of mineralization inhibitors and reversed the deterioration of bone mineralization induced by GC excess. PMID:18975341

  12. Severe pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain completely alleviated with loratadine: A case report.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Cristina; Li, Quan; Copeland, Larry

    2014-03-24

    Febrile neutropenia is an oncologic emergency that can result in serious consequences. Granulocyte colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs) are often used as prophylaxis for febrile neutropenia. Bone pain is the most notorious adverse effect caused by G-CSFs. Specifically, with pegfilgrastim (Neulasta®), the incidence of bone pain is higher in practice than was observed during clinical trials. Traditional analgesics, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids, can be ineffective in severe pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. With the high frequency of this adverse effect, it is clear that health practitioners need additional treatment options for patients who experience severe pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. The mechanisms of bone pain secondary to G-CSFs are not fully known, but research has shown that histamine release is involved in the inflammatory process. There is scant previous clinical data on antihistamine use in the management of G-CSF-induced pain. We present the first case report in which loratadine prophylaxis completely alleviated NSAID-resistant severe pain secondary to pegfilgrastim. The result showed that loratadine may be a promising option for severe, resistant pegfilgrastim-induced bone pain. Further clinical studies are warranted and ongoing. PMID:24664474

  13. Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Dijie; Arfat, Yasir; Chen, Zhihao; Liu, Zonglin; Lin, Yu; Ding, Chong; Sun, Yulong; Hu, Lifang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-12-01

    Skeletal unloading results in decreased bone formation and bone mass. During long-term space flight, the decreased bone mass is impossible to fully recover. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the effective countermeasures to prevent spaceflight-induced bone loss. Hindlimb Unloading (HLU) simulates effects of weightlessness and is utilized extensively to examine the response of musculoskeletal systems to certain aspects of space flight. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a 4-week HLU in rats and subsequent reloading on the bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties of load-bearing bones. After HLU for 4 weeks, the rats were then subjected to reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks, and then the BMD of the femur, tibia and lumbar spine in rats were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) every week. The mechanical properties of the femur were determined by three-point bending test. Dry bone and bone ash of femur were obtained through Oven-Drying method and were weighed respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum calcium were examined through ELISA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results showed that 4 weeks of HLU significantly decreased body weight of rats and reloading for 1 week, 2 weeks or 3 weeks did not recover the weight loss induced by HLU. However, after 2 weeks of reloading, BMD of femur and tibia of HLU rats partly recovered (+10.4%, +2.3%). After 3 weeks of reloading, the reduction of BMD, energy absorption, bone mass and mechanical properties of bone induced by HLU recovered to some extent. The changes in serum ALP and serum calcium induced by HLU were also recovered after reloading. Our results indicate that a short period of reloading could not completely recover bone after a period of unloading, thus some interventions such as mechanical vibration or pharmaceuticals are necessary to help bone recovery.

  14. Bion 11 Spaceflight Project: Effect of Weightlessness on Single Muscle Fiber Function in Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Robert H.; Romatowski, Janell G.; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; DeLaCruz, Lourdes

    1999-01-01

    Although it is well known that microgravity induces considerable limb muscle atrophy, little is known about how weightlessness alters cell function. In this study, we investigated how weightlessness altered the functional properties of single fast and slow striated muscle fibers. Physiological studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that microgravity causes fiber atrophy, a decreased peak force (Newtons), tension (Newtons/cross-sectional area) and power, an elevated peak rate of tension development (dp/dt), and an increased maximal shortening velocity (V(sub o)) in the slow type I fiber, while changes in the fast-twitch fiber are restricted to atrophy and a reduced peak force. For each fiber, we determined the peak force (P(sub o)), V(sub o), dp/dt, the force-velocity relationship, peak power, the power-force relationship, the force-pCa relationship, and fiber stiffness. Biochemical studies were carried out to assess the effects of weightlessness on the enzyme and substrate profile of the fast- and slow-twitch fibers. We predicted that microgravity would increase resting muscle glycogen and glycolytic metabolism in the slow fiber type, while the fast-twitch fiber enzyme profile would be unaltered. The increased muscle glycogen would in part result from an elevated hexokinase and glycogen synthase. The enzymes selected for study represent markers for mitochondrial function (citrate synthase and 0-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase), glycolysis (Phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase), and fatty acid transport (Carnitine acetyl transferase). The substrates analyzed will include glycogen, lactate, adenosine triphosphate, and phosphocreatine.

  15. States of weightlessness: cosmonauts in film and television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren Jorgensen

    2009-01-01

    This essay looks at post-Soviet constructions of Soviet cosmonauts in documentary and feature film. The cosmonaut is a figure of tragedy, tied to an ideological system that is doomed to fail, his heroism a futile venture into an empty void. It is, however, this tragedy that also makes the cosmonaut aesthetically appealing. The documentary Stan niewazkosci (State of Weightlessness; 1994)

  16. Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume consists of Appendices A and B to the report on the Weightless Environment Training Facility Materials Coating Evaluation project. The project selected 10 coating systems to be evaluated in six separate exposure environments, and subject to three tests for physical properties. Appendix A holds the coating system, surface preparation, and application data. Appendix B holds the coating material infrared spectra.

  17. Weightlessness acts on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassy, J.; Portet, S.; Beil, M.; Millot, G.; Fauvel-Lafève, F.; Gasset, G.; Schoevaert, D.

    2003-10-01

    Because cells are sensitive to mechanical forces, weightlessness might act on stress-dependent cell changes. Human breast cancer cells MCF-7, flown in space in a Photon capsule, were fixed after 1.5, 22 and 48 h in orbit. Cells subjected to weightlessness were compared to 1g in-flight and ground controls. Post-flight, fluorescent labeling was performed to visualize cell proliferation (Ki-67), three cytoskeleton components and chromatin structure. Confocal microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify cycling cells and mitosis, modifications of the cytokeratin network and chromatin structure. Several main phenomena were observed in weightlessness: The perinuclear cytokeratin network and chromatin structure were looser. More cells were cycling and mitosis was prolonged. Finally, cell proliferation was reduced as a consequence of a cell-cycle blockade. Microtubules were altered in many cells. The results reported in the first point are in agreement with basic predictions of cellular tensegrity. The prolongation of mitosis can be explained by an alteration of microtubules. We discuss here the different mechanisms involved in weightlessness alteration of microtubules: i) alteration of their self-organization by reaction-diffusion processes, and a mathematical model is proposed, ii) activation or desactivation of microtubules stabilizing proteins, acting on both microtubule and microfilament networks in cell cortex.

  18. Platinum nanoparticles reduce ovariectomy-induced bone loss by decreasing osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woon-Ki; Kim, Jin-Chun; Park, Hyun-Jung; Sul, Ok-Joo; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles (PtNP) exhibit remarkable antioxidant activity. There is growing evidence concerning a positive relationship between oxidative stress and bone loss, suggesting that PtNP could protect against bone loss by modulating oxidative stress. Intragastric administration of PtNP reduced ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss with a decreased level of activity and number of osteoclast (OC) in vivo. PtNP inhibited OC formation by impairing the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) signaling. This impairment was due to a decreased activation of nuclear factor-?B and a reduced level of nuclear factor in activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFAT2). PtNP lowered RANKL-induced long lasting reactive oxygen species as well as intracellular concentrations of Ca2+ oscillation. Our data clearly highlight the potential of PtNP for the amelioration of bone loss after estrogen deficiency by attenuated OC formation. PMID:22525805

  19. Botulinum toxin induces muscle paralysis and inhibits bone regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Recidoro, Anthony M; Roof, Amanda C; Schmitt, Michael; Worton, Leah E; Petrie, Timothy; Strand, Nicholas; Ausk, Brandon J; Srinivasan, Sundar; Moon, Randall T; Gardiner, Edith M; Kaminsky, Werner; Bain, Steven D; Allan, Christopher H; Gross, Ted S; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2014-11-01

    Intramuscular administration of Botulinum toxin (BTx) has been associated with impaired osteogenesis in diverse conditions of bone formation (eg, development, growth, and healing), yet the mechanisms of neuromuscular-bone crosstalk underlying these deficits have yet to be identified. Motivated by the emerging utility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a rapid, genetically tractable, and optically transparent model for human pathologies (as well as the potential to interrogate neuromuscular-mediated bone disorders in a simple model that bridges in vitro and more complex in vivo model systems), in this study, we developed a model of BTx-induced muscle paralysis in adult zebrafish, and we examined its effects on intramembranous ossification during tail fin regeneration. BTx administration induced rapid muscle paralysis in adult zebrafish in a manner that was dose-dependent, transient, and focal, mirroring the paralytic phenotype observed in animal and human studies. During fin regeneration, BTx impaired continued bone ray outgrowth, morphology, and patterning, indicating defects in early osteogenesis. Further, BTx significantly decreased mineralizing activity and crystalline mineral accumulation, suggesting delayed late-stage osteoblast differentiation and/or altered secondary bone apposition. Bone ray transection proximal to the amputation site focally inhibited bone outgrowth in the affected ray, implicating intra- and/or inter-ray nerves in this process. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the potential to interrogate pathological features of BTx-induced osteoanabolic dysfunction in the regenerating zebrafish fin, define the technological toolbox for detecting bone growth and mineralization deficits in this process, and suggest that pathways mediating neuromuscular regulation of osteogenesis may be conserved beyond established mammalian models of bone anabolic disorders. PMID:24806738

  20. Alendronate as an Effective Countermeasure to Disuse Induced Bone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Driscol, Theda B.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Evans, Harlan J.; Rianon, Nahid J.; Smith, Scott M.; Lai, Dejian

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity, similar to diuse immobilization on earth, causes rapid bone loss. This loss is believed to be an adaptive response to the reduced musculoskelatal forces in space and occurs gradually enough that changes occurring during short duration space flight are not a concern. Bone loss, however, will be a major impediment for long duration missions if effective countermeasures are not developed and implemented. Bed rest is used to simulate the reduced mechanical forces in humans and was used to test the hypothesis that oral alendronate would reduce the effects of long duration (17 weeks) inactivity on bone. Eight male subjects were given daily oral doses of alendronate during 17 weeks of horizontal bed rest and compared with 13 male control subjects not given the drug. Efficacy was evaluated based on measurements of bone markers, calcium balance and bone density performed before, during and after the bed rest. The results show that oral alendronate attenuates most of the characteristic changes associated with long duration bed rest and presumably space flight.

  1. Polymethylmethacrylate-induced release of bone-resorbing factors

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, J.H.; Sowder, W.G.; Anderson, D.; Appel, A.M.; Hopson, C.N. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1989-12-01

    A pseudomembranous structure that has the histological characteristics of a foreign-body-like reaction invariably develops at the bone-cement interface in the proximity of resorption of bone around aseptically loosened cemented prostheses. This study was an attempt to implicate polymethylmethacrylate in this resorptive process. Unfractionated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (consisting of lymphocytes and monocytes) and surface-adherent cells (monocyte-enriched) were prepared from control subjects who did and did not have clinical evidence of osteoarthrosis and from patients who had osteoarthrosis and were having a revision for failure of a cemented hip or knee implant. Cells were cultured for varying periods in the presence and absence of nonpolymerized methacrylate (one to two-micrometer spherules), pulverized polymerized material, or culture chambers that were pre-coated with polymerized cement. Conditioned media that were derived from both methacrylate-stimulated cell populations were shown to contain specific bone-resorbing mediators (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, or prostaglandin E2) and to directly affect bone resorption in 45Ca-labeled murine limb-bone assays.

  2. Pulsed electromagnetic fields inhibit bone loss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Xinhong; Liao, Ying; Feng, Weibing; Fu, Chengxiao; Guo, Xin

    2015-05-01

    Evidences have shown that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can partially prevent bone loss in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. However, the precise mechanisms accounting for these favorable effects are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PEMFs on bone mass and receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in STZ rats. Thirty 3-month-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following three groups (n = 10): control group (injection of saline vehicle), DM group (injection of STZ), and PEMFs group (injection of STZ + PEMFs exposure). One week following injection of STZ, rats in the PEMFs group were subject to PEMFs stimulus for 40 min/day, 5 days/week, and lasted for 12 weeks. After 12 week intervention, the results showed that PEMFs increased serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase level and bone mineral density, and inhibited deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength in STZ rats. Furthermore, PEMFs up-regulated the mRNA expressions of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, ?-catenin and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2), and down-regulated dickkopf1 in STZ rats. However, mRNA expressions of RANKL and OPG were not affected by PEMFs. PEMFs can prevent the diabetes-induced bone loss and reverse the deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength by restoring Runx2 expression through regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling, regardless of its no glucose lowering effect. PMID:25273319

  3. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Simske; A. R. Greenberg; M. W. Luttges

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength,

  4. Best5: a novel interferon-inducible gene expressed during bone formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TARLOCHAN SINGH GREWAL; PAUL G. GENEVER; ALEX C. BRABBS; MARK BIRCH; TIMOTHY M. SKERRY

    Regulation of bone formation is im- portant in the pathogenesis of many conditions such as osteoporosis, fracture healing, and loosening of orthopedic implants. We have recently identified a novel rat cDNA (best5) by differential display PCR that is regulated during osteoblast differentiation and bone formation in vitro and in vivo. Expression of best5 mRNA is induced in cultures of osteoblasts

  5. Severe hyperparathyroidism with bone abnormalities and metastatic calcification in rats with adenine-induced uraemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Tamagaki; Qunsheng Yuan; Hiroyuki Ohkawa; Ikuo Imazeki; Yoshiyuki Moriguchi; Nobuo Imai; Susumu Sasaki; Kazuo Takeda; Masafumi Fukagawa

    2006-01-01

    Background. Marked parathyroid hyperplasia with bone diseases and vascular calcification are unsolved issues in dialysis patients. In this study, we made azotemic model rats by adenine feeding and analyzed the development and progression of the abnormalities. Methods. Renal failure was induced in 8-week-old male Wistar rats by feeding 0.75% adenine-containing diet for 6 weeks. Serum parameters, parathyroid hyperplasia, bone changes

  6. Cell-induced response by tetracyclines on human bone marrow colonized hydroxyapatite and Bonelike ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Gomes; J. D. Santos; M. H. Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Semi-synthetic tetracyclines are commonly used antibiotics that also seem to play an important role in the modulation of the immuno-inflammatory imbalance, verified in several bone diseases. The association of a therapeutic agent (that prevents bacterial infection and induces tissue formation) to a biomaterial aiming to repair\\/regenerate bone defects could contribute to a more predictable clinical outcome. The present study intends

  7. Exercise-induced loss of bone density in athletes.

    PubMed

    Voss, L A; Fadale, P D; Hulstyn, M J

    1998-01-01

    In athletes, the rarely identified malady of osteoporosis differs from other chronic effects of exercise. The most obvious difference is that hormonal imbalance leads to compensatory mechanisms that in turn lead to osteoporosis and increased incidence of fracture. Most research on this subject has dealt with women, because hormonal imbalances in women are easier to detect than those in men. Endurance athletes are known to have decreased levels of sex hormones, which can cause physiologic changes that lead to bone loss. This may result in relative osteoporosis despite the loading of the bone during exercise, which would normally increase bone mineral density. Premature osteoporosis may be irreversible, causing young athletes to become osteoporotic at an earlier age and have an increased risk of fracture later in life. PMID:9826418

  8. A Blocking Antibody to Nerve Growth Factor Attenuates Skeletal Pain Induced by Prostate Tumor Cells Growing in Bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyle G. Halvorson; Kazufumi Kubota; Molly A. Sevcik; Theodore H. Lindsay; Julio E. Sotillo; Joseph R. Ghilardi; Thomas J. Rosol; Leila Boustany; David L. Shelton; Patrick W. Mantyh

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is unique in that bone is often the only clinically detectable site of metastasis. Prostate tumors that have metastasized to bone frequently induce bone pain which can be difficult to fully control as it seems to be driven simultaneously by inflammatory, neuropathic, and tumori- genic mechanisms. As nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to modulate inflammatory and

  9. NOD2 contributes to Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Prates, T P; Taira, T M; Holanda, M C; Bignardi, L A; Salvador, S L; Zamboni, D S; Cunha, F Q; Fukada, S Y

    2014-11-01

    The NOD-like receptors are cytoplasmic proteins that sense microbial by-products released by invasive bacteria. Although NOD1 and NOD2 are functionally expressed in cells from oral tissues and play a role triggering immune responses, the role of NOD2 receptor in the bone resorption and in the modulation of osteoclastogenesis is still unclear. We show that in an experimental model of periodontitis with Porphyromonas gingivalis W83, NOD2(-/-) mice showed lower bone resorption when compared to wild type. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that wild-type infected mice showed an elevated RANKL/OPG ratio when compared to NOD2(-/-) infected mice. Moreover, the expression of 2 osteoclast activity markers-cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 9-was significantly lower in gingival tissue from NOD2(-/-) infected mice compared to WT infected ones. The in vitro study reported an increase in the expression of the NOD2 receptor 24 hr after stimulation of hematopoietic bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. We also evaluated the effect of direct activation of NOD2 receptor on osteoclastogenesis, by the activation of this receptor in preosteoclasts culture, with different concentrations of muramyl dipeptide. The results show no difference in the number of TRAP-positive cells. Although it did not alter the osteoclasts differentiation, the activation of NOD2 receptor led to a significant increase of cathepsin K expression. We confirm that this enzyme was active, since the osteoclasts resorption capacity was enhanced by muramyl dipeptide stimulation, evaluated in osteoassay plate. These results show that the lack of NOD2 receptor impairs the bone resorption, suggesting that NOD2 receptor could contribute to the progression of bone resorption in experimental model of periodontitis. The stimulation of NOD2 by its agonist, muramyl dipeptide, did not affect osteoclastogenesis, but it does favor the bone resorption capacity identified by increased osteoclast activity. PMID:25239844

  10. The effect of simulated weightlessness on hypobaric decompression sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balldin, Ulf I.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Webb, James T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A discrepancy exists between the incidence of ground-based decompression sickness (DCS) during simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) at hypobaric space suit pressure (20-40%) and crewmember reports during actual EVA (zero reports). This could be due to the effect of gravity during ground-based DCS studies. HYPOTHESIS: At EVA suit pressures of 29.6 kPa (4.3 psia), there is no difference in the incidence of hypobaric DCS between a control group and group exposed to simulated weightlessness (supine body position). METHODS: Male subjects were exposed to a hypobaric pressure of 29.6 kPa (4.3 psi) for up to 4 h. The control group (n = 26) pre-oxygenated for 60 min (first 10 min exercising) before hypobaric exposure and walking around in the altitude chamber. The test group (n = 39) remained supine for a 3 h prior to and during the 60-min pre-oxygenation (also including exercise) and at hypobaric pressure. DCS symptoms and venous gas emboli (VGE) at hypobaric pressure were registered. RESULTS: DCS occurred in 42% in the control and in 44% in simulated weightlessness group (n.s.). The mean time for DCS to develop was 112 min (SD +/- 61) and 123 min (+/- 67), respectively. VGE occurred in 81% of the control group subjects and in 51% of the simulated weightlessness subjects (p = 0.02), while severe VGE occurred in 58% and 33%, respectively (p = 0.08). VGE started after 113 min (+/- 43) in the control and after 76 min (+/- 64) in the simulated weightlessness group. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in incidence of DCS was shown between control and simulated weightlessness conditions. VGE occurred more frequently during the control condition with bubble-releasing arm and leg movements.

  11. Vascularized Bone Tissue Formation Induced by Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cultured with Osteoblasts and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Hou, Chuanyong; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yelin; Guan, Guoping; Dong, Wei; Gao, Hongyang

    2013-01-01

    The repair of the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease was still a problem. Current strategies including the use of autografts and allografts have the disadvantages, namely, diseases transmission, tissue availability and donor morbidity. Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute damaged or diseased ones. The main limitation in engineering in vitro tissues is the lack of a sufficient blood vessel system, the vascularization. In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold which was reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells was fabricated. General observation, histological observation, detection of the degree of vascularization, and X-ray examination had been done to learn the effect of vascularized bone repair materials on the regeneration of bone. The results show that new vessel and bone formed using implant cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Nanofiber-reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation. PMID:24369019

  12. Bovine bone morphogenetic protein (bBMP) induced repair of skull trephine defects in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, T C; Lindholm, T S; Alitalo, I; Urist, M R

    1988-02-01

    An aggregate of partially purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein (bBMP) and bone matrix insoluble noncollagenous proteins (iNCP), weighing a total of 100 mg of lyophilized BMP/iNCP, was implanted using ultra thin gelatin capsules in skull trephine defects in adult sheep. One hundred milligram samples of freeze-dried bovine serum albumin (BSA) were similarly implanted for controls. In five sheep, the capsules were implanted in 18-20 mm trephine skull defects and also in posterior cervical muscle pouches for heterotopic controls. In two out of five sheep, the trephines were repaired with bone as early as four weeks after the operation. Eight to 12 weeks after surgery repair was complete in the other three sheep. In the control contralateral trephines, one-third to one-half of the defect was incompletely repaired. Neither the BMP nor the BSA control implants induced bone formation in the muscle. While the BMP/iNCP prepared from bovine bone consistently induced regeneration in skull trephine defects, only fibrous tissue and no extraskeletal bone was induced to form in cervical muscle pouches in sheep. PMID:3338215

  13. In silico investigations of potential anabolic treatments in multiple myeloma-induced bone disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Lin, Bo

    2013-07-01

    No anabolic drugs are currently approved to treat multiple myeloma (MM)-induced bone disease and the anti-MM agent bortezomib exhibits the anabolic effects in the clinic. In this study, we focus on investigating potential anabolic treatments of MM-induced bone disease using our previously proposed MM-bone model, with the goal for clarifying the underlying molecular/cellular mechanisms. Firstly, a variety of virtual drug treatments are explored by the parametric study to clarify the anabolic-related molecular/cellular mechanisms. The real drug (i.e., bortezomib) treatments are further examined by developing an integrated model with bortezomib to validate the clarified anabolic-related molecular/cellular mechanisms. The simulated responses to the bortezomib treatments that are validated by the clinical data are consistent with the simulated responses to the virtual drug treatments. Our study clarifies that the anabolic effects in the treatment of MM-induced bone disease are associated with promoting the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and inhibiting the apoptosis of active osteoblasts, while promoting the differentiation of osteoblast precursors is instead suggested to be associated with the anti-catabolic effects. Compared with the individual anabolic therapies, the anabolic therapies that promote the differentiation of BMSC in combination with the anti-MM/anti-catabolic therapies are found to induce a greater increase in the bone volume, while the anabolic therapies that inhibit the apoptosis of active osteoblasts in combination with the anti-MM/anti-catabolic therapies induce a lower increase in the bone volume. The simulations also suggest that the direct inhibition of bortezomib on the osteoclast activity is probably a redundant mechanism. PMID:23416846

  14. The Biologics Anakinra and Etanercept Prevent Cytokine-Induced Growth Retardation in Cultured Fetal Rat Metatarsal Bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Fernandez-Vojvodich; Elham Karimian; Lars Sävendahl

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Chronic inflammation during childhood often leads to impaired bone growth and reduced adult height. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? synergistically impair bone growth in vitro. We hypothesized that biologic agents may rescue bones from cytokine-induced growth impairment and that insulin growth factor (IGF)-I may potentiate such an effect. Methodology: Metatarsal bones from fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

  15. The relevance of leukotrienes for bone resorption induced by mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Moura, A P; Taddei, S R A; Queiroz-Junior, C M; Madeira, M F M; Rodrigues, L F D; Garlet, G P; Souza, D G; Machado, F S; Andrade, I; Teixeira, M M; Silva, T A

    2014-12-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolites are important pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. However, much still remains to be understood about the role of such mediators in bone remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs, in a model of mechanical loading-induced bone remodeling. Strain-induced tooth movement and consequently alveolar bone resorption/apposition was achieved by using a coil spring placed on molar and attached to incisors of C57BL6 (wild-type-WT), 5-LO deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)) and mice treated with 5-LO inhibitor (zileuton-ZN) or with antagonist of CysLTs receptor (montelukast-MT). The amount of bone resorption and the number of osteoclasts were determined morphometrically. The expression of inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in periodontium was analyzed by qPCR. Osteoclast differentiation and TNF-? production were evaluated in vitro using RAW 264.7 cells treated with LTB4 or LTD4. Bone resorption, TRAP(+) cells and expression of Tnfa, Il10 and Runx2 were significantly diminished in 5-LO(-/-), ZN- and MT-treated mice. The expression of Rank was also reduced in 5-LO(-/-) and MT-treated mice. Accordingly, LTB4 and LTD4 in association with RANKL promoted osteoclast differentiation and increased TNF-? release in vitro. These data demonstrate that the absence of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs reduces osteoclast recruitment and differentiation, consequently diminishing bone resorption induced by mechanical loading. Thus, 5-LO might be a potential target for controlling bone resorption in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25270168

  16. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S., E-mail: Peter.Gilmour@astrazeneca.com [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Pilling, James E. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Sanganee, Hitesh [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Wada, Hiroki [R and I IMed, AstraZeneca R and D, Molndal (Sweden); Courtney, Paul F. [DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A. [Safety Assessment, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom); Escott, K. Jane [New Opportunities Innovative Medicines group, AstraZeneca R and D, Alderley Park, Cheshire SK10 4TF (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/?CT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused ?-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/?CT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation produced by GSK-3 inhibition. • In rats, 3 GSK-3 inhibitors produced a unique serum bone turnover biomarker profile. • Enhanced bone formation was seen within 7 to 14 days of compound treatment in rats.

  17. Topical Treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) Alleviates Bone Destruction and Bone Cancer Pain in a Rat Model of Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain by Modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Du, Maobo; Hou, Wei; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Zheng, Honggang; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects and mechanisms of Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) on bone cancer pain, Wistar rats were inoculated with vehicle or prostate cancer PC-3 into the tibia bone and treated topically with inert paste, XZP at 15.75, 31.5, or 63?g/kg twice per day for 21 days. Their bone structural damage, nociceptive behaviors, bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and the levels of OPG, RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-? were examined. In comparison with that in the placebo group, significantly reduced numbers of invaded cancer cells, decreased levels of bone damage and mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency, lower levels of serum TRACP5b, ICTP, PINP, and BAP, and less levels of bone osteoblast and osteoclast activity were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05). Moreover, significantly increased levels of bone OPG but significantly decreased levels of RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-? were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05 for all). Together, XZP treatment significantly mitigated the cancer-induced bone damage and bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity and alleviated prostate cancer-induced bone pain by modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and bone cancer-related inflammation in rats. PMID:25691907

  18. OSTEOBLAST DIFFERENTIATION AND BONE FORMATION GENE EXPRESSION IN STRONTIUM-INDUCING BONE MARROW MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monnipha Sila-asna; Ahnond Bunyaratvej; Sakan Maeda; Hiromichi Kitaguchi; Narong Bunyaratavej

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastic differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) is an important step of bone formation. We studied the in vitro induction of hMSCs by using strontium ranelate, a natural trace amount in water, food and human skeleton. The mRNA synthesis of various osteoblast specific genes was assessed by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the hMSCs culture,

  19. Management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss in early breast and prostate cancer - a consensus paper of the Belgian Bone Club

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Body; P. Bergmann; S. Boonen; Y. Boutsen; J. P. Devogelaer; S. Goemaere; J. Y. Reginster; S. Rozenberg; J. M. Kaufman

    2007-01-01

    Cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) is one of the most important side effects of adjuvant antineoplastic treatment\\u000a in hormone-dependent neoplasms. Chemotherapy, GnRH analogs and tamoxifen can induce marked bone loss in premenopausal women\\u000a with early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are replacing tamoxifen as the preferred treatment for postmenopausal\\u000a women. As a class effect, steroidal (exemestane) and non-steroidal (anastrozole and

  20. BMP-2 impregnated biomimetic scaffolds successfully induce bone healing in a marginal mandibular defect

    PubMed Central

    DeConde, Adam S.; Sidell, Douglas; Lee, Min; Bezouglaia, Olga; Low, Kyle; Elashoff, David; Grogan, Tristan; Tetradis, Sotirios; Aghaloo, Tara; John, Maie St.

    2014-01-01

    Educational Objective: To investigate the ability of an osteoconductive scaffold to heal a clinically common mandibular defect with BMP-2 in an animal model. Objectives: To test the osteoregenerative potential and dosing of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) impregnated biomimetic scaffolds in a rat model of a mandibular defect. Study Design: Prospective study using an animal model. Methods: Varied doses of BMP-2 (0.5, 1, 0.5 and 0.5 in microspheres, 5, 15 ?g) were absorbed onto a biomimetic scaffold. Scaffolds were then implanted into marginal mandibular defects in rats. Blank scaffolds and unfilled defects were used as negative controls. Two months postoperatively, bone healing was analyzed with micro-computerized tomography (microCT). Results: MicroCT analysis demonstrated all doses of BMP-2 induced successful healing of marginal mandibular defects in a rat mandible. Increasing doses of BMP-2 on the scaffolds produced increased tissue healing with 15 ?g demonstrating significantly more healing than all other dosing (p < 0.01). Conclusions: BMP-2 impregnated biomimetic scaffolds successfully induce bone healing in a marginal mandibular defect in the rat. Percentage healing of defect, percentage of bone within healed tissue and total bone volume are all a function of BMP-2 dosing. There appears to be an optimal dose of 5 ?g beyond which there is no increase in bone volume. PMID:23553490

  1. Effects of suspension-induced osteopenia on the mechanical behaviour of mouse long bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Greenberg, A. R.; Luttges, M. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Whereas most studies of tail-suspension induced osteopenia have utilized rat femora, the present study investigated the effects of a 14 day tail-suspension on the mechanical behaviour of mice femora, tibiae and humeri. Force-deflection properties were obtained via three-point bending for long bones from suspended and control mice. Whole bone behaviour was characterized by converting the force-deflection values to stiffness, strength, ductility and energy parameters which were not normalized for specimen geometry. The effects of a systematic variation in the deflection rate over the range 0.1-10 mm min-1 were also evaluated. Statistical analysis indicated that the primary effect of the tail-suspension period was lowered bone mass which was manifested mechanically through lower values of the bone strength parameters. These effects were similar in the bones of both the fore and hind limbs. The results also demonstrated that the stiffness, ductility and energy characteristics were much less influenced by the tail-suspension. Whereas a significant dependence of the bone strength values upon deflection rate was observed for the femora and humeri, the other mechanical parameters were less sensitive. Based upon the nature of the physical and mechanical changes observed in the long bones following tail-suspension, the mouse appears to be a suitable animal model for the study of osteopenia.

  2. Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10 to the -6th M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th M with 77 percent inhibition observed at 10 to the -4th M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.

  3. Murine bone cell lines as models for spaceflight induced effects on differentiation and gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Reitz, G.

    Critical health factors for space crews especially on long-term missions are radiation exposure and the absence of gravity DNA double strand breaks DSB are presumed to be the most deleterious DNA lesions after radiation as they disrupt both DNA strands in close proximity Besides radiation risk the absence of gravity influences the complex skeletal apparatus concerning muscle and especially bone remodelling which results from mechanical forces exerting on the body Bone is a dynamic tissue which is life-long remodelled by cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineage Any imbalance of this system leads to pathological conditions such as osteoporosis or osteopetrosis Osteoblastic cells play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis and differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes Premature terminal differentiation has been reported to be induced by a number of DNA damaging or cell stress inducing agents including ionising and ultraviolet radiation as well as treatment with mitomycin C In the present study we compare the effects of sequential differentiation by adding osteoinductive substances ss -glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid Radiation-induced premature differentiation was investigated regarding the biosynthesis of specific osteogenic marker molecules and the differentiation dependent expression of marker genes The bone cell model established in our laboratory consists of the osteocyte cell line MLO-Y4 the osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the subclones 4 and 24 of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 expressing several

  4. Caspase-2 Maintains Bone Homeostasis by Inducing Apoptosis of Oxidatively-Damaged Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Callaway, Danielle; Vanegas, Difernando; Bendele, Michelle; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Horn, Diane; Guda, Teja; Fajardo, Roberto; Abboud-Werner, Sherry; Herman, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease, characterized by a porous bone micro-structure that enhances risk for fractures and associated disabilities. Senile, or age-related osteoporosis (SO), affects both men and women, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying senile osteoporosis are not fully known. Recent studies implicate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress as key factors in SO. Herein, we show that loss of caspase-2, a cysteine aspartate protease involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, results in total body and femoral bone loss in aged mice (20% decrease in bone mineral density), and an increase in bone fragility (30% decrease in fracture strength). Importantly, we demonstrate that genetic ablation or selective inhibition of caspase-2 using zVDVAD-fmk results in increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Conversely, transfection of osteoclast precursors with wild type caspase-2 but not an enzymatic mutant, results in a decrease in TRAP activity. We demonstrate that caspase-2 expression is induced in osteoclasts treated with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and that loss of caspase-2 enhances resistance to oxidants, as measured by TRAP activity, and decreases oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Moreover, oxidative stress, quantified by assessment of the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-HNE, is increased in Casp2-/- bone, perhaps due to a decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2. Taken together, our data point to a critical and novel role for caspase-2 in maintaining bone homeostasis by modulating ROS levels and osteoclast apoptosis during conditions of enhanced oxidative stress that occur during aging. PMID:24691516

  5. Computational Analysis of Artificial Gravity as a Possible Countermeasure to Spaceflight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.

  6. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  7. Float zone processing in a weightless environment. [Si crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowle, A. A.; Haggerty, J. S.; Strong, P. F.; Rudenberg, G.; Kronauer, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are given for investigations into: (1) the physical limits which set the maximum practical diameters of Si crystals that can be processed by the float-zone method in a near weightless environment, and (2) the economic impact of large, space-produced Si crystals on the electronics industry. The stability of the melt is evaluated. Heat transfer and fluid flow within the melt as dependent on the crystal size and the degree and type of rotation imparted to the melt are studied. Methods of utilizing the weightless environment for the production of large, stress-free Si crystals of uniform composition are proposed. The economic effect of large size Si crystals, their potential applications, likely utilization and cost advantages in LSI, integrated circuits, and power devices are also evaluated. Foreseeable advantages of larger diameter wafers of good characteristics and the possibilities seen for greater perfection resulting from stress-free growth are discussed.

  8. Space motion sickness and vestibular adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Theories of space motion sickness are discussed together with near future vestibular experiments for three Spacelab missions. The sensory conflict theory is covered, as well as theories involving unequal otolith masses, semicircular canals, cardiovascular adaptation and fluid shift toward the head, and extra-labyrinthine effects. Experiments will test the hypothesis that the sensitivity of the otolith organ response is shifted during weightlessness and that this shift carries over to the post-flight experience. Visual-vestibular-tactile interaction, vestibulo-ocular reflexes, ocular counterrolling, awareness of body position, otolith-spinal reflexes, and motion sickness susceptibility are among the parameters to be studied. Preflight and postflight tests will emphasize evaluation of any residual effects of the seven day weightless exposure on vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular pathways.

  9. Mathematical modeling of fluid-electrolyte alterations during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    Fluid electrolyte metabolism and renal endocrine control as it pertains to adaptation to weightlessness were studied. The mathematical models that have been particularly useful are discussed. However, the focus of the report is on the physiological meaning of the computer studies. A discussion of the major ground based analogs of weightlessness are included; for example, head down tilt, water immersion, and bed rest, and a comparison of findings. Several important zero g phenomena are described, including acute fluid volume regulation, blood volume regulation, circulatory changes, longer term fluid electrolyte adaptations, hormonal regulation, and body composition changes. Hypotheses are offered to explain the major findings in each area and these are integrated into a larger hypothesis of space flight adaptation. A conceptual foundation for fluid electrolyte metabolism, blood volume regulation, and cardiovascular regulation is reported.

  10. Automated potentiometric electrolyte analysis system. [for use in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is demonstrated of utilizing chemical sensing electrode technology as the basis for an automatically-controlled system for blood gas and electrolyte analyses under weightlessness conditions. The specific measurements required were pH, pCO2, sodium, chloride, potassium ions, and ionized calcium. The general electrode theory, and ion activity measurements are described along with the fluid transport package, electronics unit, and controller for the automated potentiometric analysis system.

  11. Weightlessness - A case history. [for Skylab 2 crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the average bodily systems functioning aboard Skylab II after 20 days of weightlessness is presented. Condition of eyes, ears, nose and throat, gastrointestinal tract, vestibular organs, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, sleep, general appearance, skin, abdomen, and extremities is summarized. The general health of the crewmen is good, although there are some slight anomalies, such as weight loss, dry skin, nasal speech, and paresthesia of the soles of the feet.

  12. Spatial orientation in weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

    1984-01-01

    Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements were used, including eye movements, postural control, perception of orientation, and susceptibility to space sickness.

  13. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  14. Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume consists of Appendices C, D, E, and F to the report on the Weightless Environment Training Facility Materials Coating Evaluation project. The project selected 10 coating systems to be evaluated in six separate exposure environments, and subject to three tests for physical properties. Appendix C is the photographic appendix of the test panels. Appendix D details methods and procedures. Appendix E lists application equipment costs. Appendix F is a compilation of the solicitation of the candidate coating systems.

  15. Antiosteoporosis Effect of Radix Scutellariae Extract on Density and Microstructure of Long Bones in Tail-Suspended Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50?mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2?mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. PMID:24223617

  16. Longitudinal live animal micro-CT allows for quantitative analysis of tumor-induced bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lindsay C; Johnson, Rachelle W; Munoz, Steve A; Mundy, Gregory R; Peterson, Todd E; Sterling, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer and prostate cancer patients with metastatic disease will go on to develop bone metastases, which contribute largely to the patient's morbidity and mortality. Numerous small animal models of cancer metastasis to bone have been developed to study tumor-induced bone destruction, but the advancement of imaging modalities utilized for these models has lagged significantly behind clinical imaging. Therefore, there is a significant need for improvements to live small animal imaging, particularly when obtaining high-resolution images for longitudinal quantitative analyses. Recently, live animal micro-computed tomography (?CT) has gained popularity due to its ability to obtain high-resolution 3-dimensional images. However, the utility of ?CT in bone metastasis models has been limited to end-point analyses due to off-target radiation effects on tumor cells. We hypothesized that live animal in vivo ?CT can be utilized to perform reproducible and quantitative longitudinal analyses of bone volume in tumor-bearing mice, particularly in a drug treatment model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the MDA-MB-231 osteolytic breast cancer model in which the tumor cells are inoculated directly into the tibia of athymic nude mice and imaged mice weekly by Faxitron (radiography), Imtek ?CT (in vivo), and Maestro (GFP-imaging). Exvivo ?CT and histology were performed at end point for validation. After establishing a high-resolution scanning protocol for the Imtek CT, we determined whether clear, measurable differences in bone volume were detectable in mice undergoing bisphosphonate drug treatments. We found that in vivo ?CT could be used to obtain quantifiable and longitudinal images of the progression of bone destruction over time without altering tumor cell growth. In addition, we found that we could detect lesions as early as week 1 and that this approach could be used to monitor the effect of drug treatment on bone. Taken together, these data indicate that in vivo ?CT is an effective and reproducible method for longitudinal monitoring of tumor-associated bone destruction in mouse models of tumor-induced bone disease. PMID:20685406

  17. [Glucocorticoid and Bone. Fracture risk of steroid-induced osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2014-09-01

    Bone loss occurred early after starting oral glucocorticoid (GC) therapy and the risk of fracture increased rapidly within 3 to 6 months. Fracture risk decreased rapidly after stopping GC therapy. Strong relationships were found between cumulative dose of GC and loss of BMD and between daily dose and fracture risk. Short term use, intermittent use, and inhaled use of higher dose of GC increased fracture risk. There are insufficient data to determine if short term use, intermittent use, or inhaled use of lower dose of GC increased the fracture risk. PMID:25177001

  18. Effects of bisphosphonates on joint damage and bone loss in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Harada; T. Nakayama; T. Nanaka; T. Katsumata

    2004-01-01

    Objective and design: Examination of the effects of bisphosphonates on joint damage and generalized bone loss. Materials: Adjuvant-arthritis was induced by injection of Mycobacterium butyricum into the footpad of the right hind paw of Lewis rats (8 animals\\/group) on day 0. Treatment: Arthritic rats were treated with the vehicle (saline), etidronate or alendronate (subcutaneously, daily 5 times a week for

  19. Ovariectomy Enhances Mechanical Load-Induced Solute Transport around Osteocytes in Rat Cancellous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Cesare; Sharma, Divya; Doty, Stephen B.; Fritton, Susannah P.

    2014-01-01

    To test if osteoporosis alters mechanical load-induced interstitial fluid flow in bone, this study examined the combined effect of estrogen deficiency and external loading on solute transport around osteocytes. An in vivo tracer, FITC-labeled bovine serum albumin, was injected into anaesthetized ovariectomized and control female Sprague Dawley rats before the right tibia was subjected to a controlled, physiological, non-invasive sinusoidal load to mimic walking. Tracer movement through the lacunar-canalicular system surrounding osteocytes was quantified in cortical and cancellous bone from the proximal tibia using confocal microscopy, with the non-loaded tibia serving as internal control. Overall, the application of mechanical loading increased the percentage of osteocyte lacunae labeled with injected tracer, and ovariectomy further enhanced movement of tracer. An analysis of separate regions demonstrated that ovariectomy enhanced in vivo transport of the injected tracer in the cancellous bone of the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis but not in the cortical bone of the metaphysis. These findings show that bone changes due to reduced estrogen levels alter convectional transport around osteocytes in cancellous bone and demonstrate a functional difference of interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes in estrogen-deficient rats undergoing the same physical activity as controls. The altered interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes is likely related to nanostructural matrix-mineral level differences recently demonstrated at the lacunar-canalicular surface of estrogen-deficient rats, which could affect the transmission of mechanical loads to the osteocyte. PMID:24316418

  20. Cadmium-induced bone loss: Increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sacco-Gibson, N.A.; Peterson, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone {sup 45}Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/L Cd in drinking water. The {sup 45}Ca response was greater in ovariecotomized (OV) animals than in sham-operated (SO) controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood Cd concentrations were 3--8 {mu}g/L during the earliest bone resorption response and 13--15 {mu}g/L at the end of the study. During 7 mo of Cd exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the OV animals exposed to Cd: {minus}15.4 {plus minus} 4.3% for the tibia distal end and {minus}7.2 {plus minus} 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean {plus minus} SE, n=4). Results indicate that Cd may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to Cd in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of Cd-induced bone loss. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1? pathway accelerates bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chao; Gilbert, Shawn R.; Wang, Ying; Cao, Xuemei; Shen, Xing; Ramaswamy, Girish; Jacobsen, Kimberly A.; Alaql, Zainab S.; Eberhardt, Alan W.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Deng, Lianfu; Clemens, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) pathway is the central regulator of adaptive responses to low oxygen availability and is required for normal skeletal development. Here, we demonstrate that the HIF-1? pathway is activated during bone repair and can be manipulated genetically and pharmacologically to improve skeletal healing. Mice lacking pVHL in osteoblasts with constitutive HIF-1? activation in osteoblasts had markedly increased vascularity and produced more bone in response to distraction osteogenesis, whereas mice lacking HIF-1? in osteoblasts had impaired angiogenesis and bone healing. The increased vascularity and bone regeneration in the pVHL mutants were VEGF dependent and eliminated by concomitant administration of VEGF receptor antibodies. Small-molecule inhibitors of HIF prolyl hydroxylation stabilized HIF/VEGF production and increased angiogenesis in vitro. One of these molecules (DFO) administered in vivo into the distraction gap increased angiogenesis and markedly improved bone regeneration. These results identify the HIF-1? pathway as a critical mediator of neoangiogenesis required for skeletal regeneration and suggest the application of HIF activators as therapies to improve bone healing. PMID:18184809

  2. Antigravity Suits For Studies Of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravik, Stein E.; Greenleaf, John

    1992-01-01

    Report presents results of research on use of "antigravity" suit, one applying positive pressure to lower body to simulate some effects of microgravity. Research suggests lower-body positive pressure is alternative to bed rest or immersion in water in terrestrial studies of cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes induced in humans by microgravity.

  3. Possible role of lymphocytes in glucocorticoid-induced increase in trabecular bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Grahnemo, Louise; Jochems, Caroline; Andersson, Annica; Engdahl, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Claes; Islander, Ulrika; Carlsten, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids is associated with osteoporosis. Many of the treated patients are postmenopausal women, who even without treatment have an increased risk of osteoporosis. Lymphocytes have been shown to play a role in postmenopausal and arthritis-induced osteoporosis, and they are targeted by glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind effects of glucocorticoids on bone during health and menopause, focusing on lymphocytes. Female C57BL/6 or SCID mice were therefore sham-operated or ovariectomized and 2 weeks later treatment with dexamethasone (dex), the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen, or vehicle was started and continued for 2.5 weeks. At the termination of experiments, femurs were phenotyped using peripheral quantitative computed tomography and high-resolution micro-computed tomography, and markers of bone turnover were analyzed in serum. T and B lymphocyte populations in bone marrow and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Dex-treated C57BL/6 mice had increased trabecular bone mineral density, but lower cortical content and thickness compared with vehicle-treated mice. The dex-treated mice also had lower levels of bone turnover markers and markedly decreased numbers of spleen T and B lymphocytes. In contrast, these effects could not be repeated when mice were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug carprofen. In addition, dex did not increase trabecular bone in ovariectomized SCID mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes. In contrast to most literature, the results from this study indicate that treatment with dex increased trabecular bone density, which may indicate that this effect is associated with corticosteroid-induced alterations of the lymphocyte populations. PMID:25359897

  4. Wnt signaling induces gene expression of factors associated with bone destruction in lung and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachelle W; Merkel, Alyssa R; Page, Jonathan M; Ruppender, Nazanin S; Guelcher, Scott A; Sterling, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important regulator of bone destruction in bone metastatic tumors. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) stimulates PTHrP production in part through the transcription factor Gli2, which is regulated independent of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in osteolytic cancer cells. However, inhibition of TGF-? in vivo does not fully inhibit tumor growth in bone or tumor-induced bone destruction, suggesting other pathways are involved. While Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 in development, the role of Wnt signaling in bone metastasis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 expression in tumor cells that induce bone destruction. We report here that Wnt activation by ?-catenin/T cell factor 4 (TCF4) over-expression or lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment increased Gli2 and PTHrP expression in osteolytic cancer cells. This was mediated through the TCF and Smad binding sites within the Gli2 promoter as determined by promoter mutation studies, suggesting cross-talk between TGF-? and Wnt signaling. Culture of tumor cells on substrates with bone-like rigidity increased Gli2 and PTHrP production, enhanced autocrine Wnt activity and led to an increase in the TCF/Wnt signaling reporter (TOPFlash), enriched ?-catenin nuclear accumulation, and elevated Wnt-related genes by PCR-array. Stromal cells serve as an additional paracrine source of Wnt ligands and enhanced Gli2 and PTHrP mRNA levels in MDA-MB-231 and RWGT2 cells in vitro and promoted tumor-induced bone destruction in vivo in a ?-catenin/Wnt3a-dependent mechanism. These data indicate that a combination of matrix rigidity and stromal-secreted factors stimulate Gli2 and PTHrP through Wnt signaling in osteolytic breast cancer cells, and there is significant cross-talk between the Wnt and TGF-? signaling pathways. This suggests that the Wnt signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor cell response to the bone microenvironment and at the very least should be considered in clinical regimens targeting TGF-? signaling. PMID:25359619

  5. Bone marrow Schwann cells induce hematopoietic stem cell hibernation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Satoshi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are clonogenic cells capable of both self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. In adult mouse bone marrow (BM), most HSCs remain in the non-dividing G0-phase of cell cycle, in close contact with supporting cells known as the HSC "niche". In the present study, we focused on signaling mechanisms that regulate stem cell dormancy in the BM niche. We show that TGF-? type II receptor deficiency causes reduced phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and impairs long-term repopulating activity in HSCs, suggesting a significant role for TGF-?/Smad signaling in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we aimed at defining the candidate BM niche responsible for homeostasis of hematopoiesis, and revealed that non-myelinating Schwann cells sustain HSC hibernation by converting TGF-? from its latent to its active form. PMID:24817152

  6. The G-factor as a tool to learn more about bone structure and function.

    PubMed

    Zerath, E

    1999-07-01

    In normal life on earth, the locomotor system is exposed to two types of stimulation: gravity (passive stimulation) and motion (active stimulation). Both permanently combine, and the interactions between locomotion and gravity induce an overall recruitment which is repeated daily and maintains the bone tissue structure within the range of constraints to which it is adapted. This range is one of the basic hypotheses underlying the mechanical concepts of bone structure control, and it has been considered as logical to assume that weightlessness of spaceflight should produce bone loss since astronauts are outside of the terrestrial gravitational field of forces, no longer relying on muscular work to change positions or move. But, thirty years after the first changes in phospho-calcium metabolism were observed in astronauts after spaceflight, current knowledge does not provide a full understanding of this pathogeny, and prove the G-factor is now considered as an essential component of the experimental tools available to study bone physiology. The study of the physiology of bone tissue usually consists in the investigation of its two fundamental roles, i.e. reservoir of inorganic elements (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and mechanical support for soft tissues. Together with the combined action of muscles, tendons, and ligaments, this support permits motion and locomotion. These two functions rely on a sophisticated bone tissue architecture, and on the adaptability of this structure, with modeling and remodeling processes, themselves associated with the coupled activity of specialized bone cell populations. PMID:11543035

  7. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on bone in HEBP-induced rachitic rats.

    PubMed

    Makihara, N; Hasegawa, Y; Sakano, S; Matsuda, T; Kataoka, Y; Iwata, H; Takahashi, H

    1996-03-01

    The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) treatment on rachitic change was studied using 4-wk-old, 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonic acid disodium (HEBP-EHDP)-induced rachitic rats. After treatment, the dry weight, ash weight, Ca and P content, and bone mineral density of the hind leg bones were measured in each rat. These parameters were significantly increased in the rats that were treated with HBO after HEBP administration compared with those parameters in the rats that received HEBP alone. However, there was no significant differences between the rats treated simultaneously with HEBP and HBO and those that were treated with HEBP alone. These results were consistent with radiologic and histologic findings. Marked calcification in the center of the growth plate was revealed in the rats treated with HBO after HEBP administration. We suggest that intermittent high-pressure pure oxygen has a beneficial effect on osteogenesis in rachitic bone but does not prevent rachitic change. PMID:8653059

  8. Prolonged immobilization-induced stress delays alveolar bone healing. A histometric study in rats.

    PubMed

    Prado, K F; Carvalho, T L; Franci, J A; Brentegani, L G

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of prolonged immobilization-induced stress on reparative bone formation, using the rat alveolar healing as an experimental protocol. Stress was attained by immobilization for 2 hours a day, beginning three days before extraction of the upper right incisors and continuing until sacrifice. The stress condition was assayed on the basis of plasma corticosterone concentration (measured by double-antibody radioimmunoassay), which increased by 2.5 to 4 times in rats submitted to immobilization. The volume density of neoformed bone filling the alveolar socket was quantified by a histometric differential point-counting method 7 to 21 days following tooth extraction. Stress caused a significant delay in reparative bone increment, somewhat related to impairment of coagulum remission and/or organization. PMID:11332704

  9. PTH1-34 alleviates radiotherapy-induced local bone loss by improving osteoblast and osteocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Tribble, Mary Beth; Zhu, Ji; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Zhang, Yejia; Akintoye, Sunday O; Cengel, Keith; Liu, X Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2014-10-01

    Cancer radiotherapy is often complicated by a spectrum of changes in the neighboring bone from mild osteopenia to osteoradionecrosis. We previously reported that parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1-34), an anabolic agent for osteoporosis, reversed bone structural deterioration caused by multiple microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans in adolescent rats. To simulate clinical radiotherapy for cancer patients and to search for remedies, we focally irradiated the tibial metaphyseal region of adult rats with a newly available small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) and treated these rats with intermittent injections of PTH1-34. Using a unique 3D image registration method that we recently developed, we traced the local changes of the same trabecular bone before and after treatments, and observed that, while radiation caused a loss of small trabecular elements leading to significant decreases in bone mass and strength, PTH1-34 preserved all trabecular elements in irradiated bone with remarkable increases in bone mass and strength. Histomorphometry demonstrated that SARRP radiation severely reduced osteoblast number and activity, which were impressively reversed by PTH treatment. In contrast, suppressing bone resorption by alendronate failed to rescue radiation-induced bone loss and to block the rescue effect of PTH1-34. Furthermore, histological analyses revealed that PTH1-34 protected osteoblasts and osteocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis and attenuated radiation-induced bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, our data strongly support a robust radioprotective effect of PTH on trabecular bone integrity through preserving bone formation and shed light on further investigations of an anabolic therapy for radiation-induced bone damage. PMID:24998454

  10. Regulation of bone formation using rapamycin-induced BMP2 expression system: influence of implanted cell number

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Jin Lim; Bae Keun Park; Won Gu Jang; Kkot-Nim Lee; Renny Franceschi; Sun-Hun Kim; Shee-Eun Lee; Jeong-Tae Koh

    2010-01-01

    A rapamycin (RPM)-inducible fibroblast cell line expressing BMP2, BLK-RapBMP2, was previously developed using a stringent\\u000a dimerizer-regulated transcription system to achieve more kinetic control of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression for\\u000a exogenous bone regeneration. This study examined the precise control of BMP2 synthesis and the induction of bone formation\\u000a using various amounts of cells and rapamycin. The response to the rapamycin

  11. Induced Refractive Anomalies Affect Chick Orbital Bone Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. WILSON; J. G. SIVAK; M. G. CALLENDER

    1997-01-01

    Experiments have shown that it is possible to induce ametropias (myopia and hyperopia) in the eyes of young animals by distorting early visual experience through the use of negative and positive defocussing lenses mounted over the eye. Defocus lenses (+15 and ?15 diopters) were mounted unilaterally over one eye of day old broiler chicks using a contact lens—goggle and velcro

  12. A mesoscale study of the degradation of bone structural properties in modeled microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Cosmi, Francesca; Steimberg, Nathalie; Mazzoleni, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important alterations that occur in man and experimental animals during spaceflight concerns the skeletal system, and entails important bone loss and degradation of mechanical properties. In the present work we investigate ex vivo the long-term effects of weightlessness (simulated microgravity) on bone tissue, by comparing the mesoscale structural properties of weight-bearing rat tibial epiphyseal cancellous structures of healthy animals (ground controls) with those of identical bone explants maintained ex vivo in the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS) bioreactor, used to model, on ground, microgravity conditions. Bone structures were reconstructed by synchrotron radiation micro-CT, morphometric analyses were performed, and the apparent elastic properties were computed by means of a numerical model based on the Cell Method. Two novel results were achieved in this study. First of all, the skeletal modifications found in bone explants after 3-4 weeks of culture in the RCCS bioreactor are in perfect agreement with those observed in vivo after a long-term spaceflight (Mice Drawer System mission, 2009), thus confirming the relevance of our model in reproducing the effects of microgravity on whole bone tissue. Secondly, but not less importantly, our study points out that the degradation in bone structural performance (apparent mechanical properties) must be considered in order to achieve an accurate representation of trabecular bone modifications not only in osteoporotic bone diseases, but also in the microgravity-induced bone alterations. In conclusion, our findings, by proving that the association of the RCCS bioreactor-based culture method, used to model microgravity conditions, with numerical simulations able to quantify bone quality, represents the first ground-based reliable model for investigating, ex vivo, some of the spaceflight effects on bone tissue, and open new perspectives to basic research and clinical applications. PMID:25621850

  13. Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Members of the TGF-beta superfamily appear to modulate mesenchymal differentiation, including the processes of cartilage and bone formation. Nothing is yet known about the function of the TGF-beta- related factor vgr-1, also called bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), and only limited studies have been conducted on the most closely related factors BMP-5, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) or BMP-7, and OP-2. Because vgr-1 mRNA has been localized in hypertrophic cartilage, this factor may play a vital role in endochondral bone formation. We developed antibodies to vgr-1, and documented that vgr-1 protein was expressed in hypertrophic cartilage of mice. To further characterize the role of this protein in bone differentiation, we generated CHO cells that overexpressed recombinant murine vgr-1 protein. Western blot analysis documented that recombinant vgr-1 protein was secreted into the media and was proteolytically processed to yield the mature vgr-1 molecule. To assess the biological activity of recombinant vgr-1 in vivo, we introduced the vgr-1-expressing CHO cells directly into the subcutaneous tissue of athymic nude mice. CHO-vgr-1 cells produced localized tumors, and the continuous secretion of vgr-1 resulted in tumors with a strikingly different gross and histological appearance as compared to the parental CHO cells. The tumors of control CHO cells were hemorrhagic, necrotic, and friable, whereas the CHO-vgr-1 tumors were dense, firm, and fibrotic. In contrast with control CHO tumors, the nests of CHO-vgr-1 tumor cells were surrounded by extensive connective tissue, which contained large regions of cartilage and bone. Further analysis indicated that secretion of vgr-1 from the transfected CHO tumor cells induced the surrounding host mesenchymal cells to develop along the endochondral bone pathway. These findings suggest that endochondral bone formation. PMID:8089189

  14. Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

    Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: p<0.02; hypocaloric: p<0.005). UCaV increased significantly over time (p<0.01) but no difference between HDBR or hypocaloric nutrition or both (p<0.26) occurred. Both CTX and NTX excretion significantly increased with HDBR (CTX: p<0.05; NTX: p<0.05), but were unaffected by hypocaloric nutrition in ambulatory and HDBR phases. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

  15. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2013-04-15

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 ?g/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 ?M) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ? SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ? SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ? SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP.

  16. BREAST CANCER-INDUCED BONE REMODELING, SKELETAL PAIN AND SPROUTING OF SENSORY NERVE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Aaron P.; Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M.; Taylor, Reid N.; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Kaczmarska, Magdalena J.; Freeman, Katie T.; Coughlin, Kathleen A.; Ghilardi, Joseph R.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Mantyh, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis to bone is frequently accompanied by pain. What remains unclear is why this pain tends to become more severe and difficult to control with disease progression. Here we test the hypothesis that with disease progression sensory nerve fibers that innervate the breast cancer bearing bone undergo a pathological sprouting and reorganization, which in other non-malignant pathologies has been shown to generate and maintain chronic pain. Injection of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231-BO) into the femoral intramedullary space of female athymic nude mice induces sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+) sensory nerve fibers. Nearly all CGRP+ nerve fibers that undergo sprouting also co-express tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA+) and growth associated protein-43 (GAP43+). This ectopic sprouting occurs in periosteal sensory nerve fibers that are in close proximity to breast cancer cells, tumor-associated stromal cells and remodeled cortical bone. Therapeutic treatment with an antibody that sequesters nerve growth factor (NGF), administered when the pain and bone remodeling were first observed, blocks this ectopic sprouting and attenuates cancer pain. The present data suggest that the breast cancer cells and tumor-associated stromal cells express and release NGF, which drives bone pain and the pathological reorganization of nearby CGRP+ / TrkA+ / GAP43+ sensory nerve fibers. PMID:21497141

  17. Laser Light Induced Photosensitization Of Lymphomas Cells And Normal Bone Marrow Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Nealon, Don G.; VanderMeulen, David L.

    1988-06-01

    Dye mediated, laser light induced photosensitization was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating the contaminating tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Daudi and U-937 cells (3 x 106/ml) in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 0.25% human albumin were mixed with 20 µg/ml and 25 µg/ml of MC-540, respectively. These cell-dye mixtures were then exposed to 514 nm argon laser light. Identical treatment was given to the normal bone marrow cells. Viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 irradiation, 99.9999% Daudi cells were killed while 87% of the normal bone marrow cells survived. No regrowth of Daudi cells was observed for 30 days in culture. However, a light dose of 93.6 J/cm2 was required to obtain 99.999% U-937 cell kill with 80% normal bone marrow cell survival. Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with an equal number of lymphoma cells did not interfere with the photodynamic killing of lymphoma cells. Exposure of cells to low doses of recombinant interferon-alpha prior to photodynamic therapy increased the viability of lymphoma cells.

  18. Regression of Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats Following Bone Marrow Transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bekkum, Dirk W.; Bohre, Els P. M.; Houben, Paul F. J.; Knaan-Shanzer, Shoshan

    1989-12-01

    Total body irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation was found to be an effective treatment for adjuvant arthritis induced in rats. This treatment is most effective when applied shortly after the clinical manifestation of arthritis--i.e., 4-7 weeks after administration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transplantation of bone marrow at a later stage results in a limited recovery, in that the inflammatory reaction regresses but the newly formed excessive bone is not eliminated. Local irradiation of the affected joints had no effect on the disease. It could also be excluded that the recovery of arthritis following marrow transplantation is due to lack of available antigen. Transplantation of syngeneic bone marrow is as effective as that of allogeneic bone marrow from a rat strain that is not susceptible to induction of adjuvant arthritis. The beneficial effect of this treatment cannot be ascribed to the immunosuppressive effect of total body irradiation, since treatment with the highly immunosuppressive drug Cyclosporin A resulted in a regression of the joint swelling but relapse occurred shortly after discontinuation of the treatment.

  19. Residual inhibition of tinnitus induced by 30-kHz bone-conducted ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Toshizo; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamashita, Akinori; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imamura, Tomoaki; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Sounds at frequencies of >24-kHz are classified as ultrasound which cannot be heard by humans if presented by air conduction, but can be perceived if presented by bone conduction. Some research studies involving ultrasonic hearing have reported that tinnitus is masked by bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU). However, little is known about residual inhibition (RI), which is a continuous reduction or disappearance of tinnitus after presentation of BCU. This study investigated whether RI could be induced by BCU. Five types of the masker sounds were used to measure RI in 21 subjects with tinnitus. A bone-conducted 30-kHz pure tone was used as a BCU, and an air-conducted 4-kHz pure tone, narrow-band noise, white noise, and a bone-conducted 4-kHz pure tone were used as controls of audible sounds. The masker intensities of the 30-kHz BCU and audible sounds were set at the minimum masking levels of tinnitus plus 3 and 10 dB, respectively, considering the narrow dynamic range of BCU. The duration of RI induced by the 30-kHz BCU was significantly longer than those induced by the 4-kHz sounds, but was not significantly different from that induced by the white noise. BCU activates the cochlear basal turn in response to the high frequency, which may broadly overlap with the frequency range that included the dominant tinnitus pitch in most of our subjects. The longer RI duration for the 30-kHz BCU was probably derived from this characteristic. These results suggested that the peripheral stimulation characteristic of BCU probably contributed to inducing long RI durations. PMID:24530434

  20. Macrophage depletion abates Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced alveolar bone resorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Lam, Roselind S; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Brammar, Gail C; Walsh, Katrina A; McNaughtan, Judith E; Rowler, Dennis K; Van Rooijen, Nico; Reynolds, Eric C

    2014-09-01

    The role of the macrophage in the immunopathology of periodontitis has not been well defined. In this study, we show that intraoral inoculation of mice with Porphyromonas gingivalis resulted in infection, alveolar bone resorption, and a significant increase in F4/80(+) macrophages in gingival and submandibular lymph node tissues. Macrophage depletion using clodronate-liposomes resulted in a significant reduction in F4/80(+) macrophage infiltration of gingival and submandibular lymph node tissues and significantly (p < 0.01) less P. gingivalis-induced bone resorption compared with controls in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In both mouse strains, the P. gingivalis-specific IgG Ab subclass and serum cytokine [IL-4, IL-10, IFN-?, and IL-12 (p70)] responses were significantly (p < 0.01) lower in the macrophage-depleted groups. Macrophage depletion resulted in a significant reduction in the level of P. gingivalis infection, and the level of P. gingivalis infection was significantly correlated with the level of alveolar bone resorption. M1 macrophages (CD86(+)), rather than M2 macrophages (CD206(+)), were the dominant macrophage phenotype of the gingival infiltrate in response to P. gingivalis infection. P. gingivalis induced a significant (p < 0.01) increase in NO production and a small increase in urea concentration, as well as a significant increase in the secretion of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-? and -?, and TNF-? in isolated murine macrophages. In conclusion, P. gingivalis infection induced infiltration of functional/inflammatory M1 macrophages into gingival tissue and alveolar bone resorption. Macrophage depletion reduced P. gingivalis infection and alveolar bone resorption by modulating the host immune response. PMID:25070844

  1. Regeneration of bone and periodontal ligament induced by Recombinant amelogenin after periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Haze, Amir; Taylor, Angela L.; Haegewald, Stefan; Leiser, Yoav; Shay, Boaz; Rosenfeld, Eli; Gruenbaum-Cohen, Yael; Dafni, Leah; Zimmermann, Bernd; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Fisher, Larry W.; Young, Marian F.; Blumenfeld, Anat; Bernimoulin, Jean P.; Deutsch, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration of mineralized tissues affected by chronic diseases comprises a major scientific and clinical challenge. Periodontitis, one such prevalent disease, involves destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, alveolar bone, periodontal-ligament and cementum, often leading to tooth loss. In 1997, it became clear that, in addition to their function in enamel formation, the hydrophobic ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) play a role in the regeneration of these periodontal tissues. The epithelial enamel matrix proteins are a heterogeneous mixture of polypeptides encoded by several genes. It was not clear, however, which of these many EMPs induces the regeneration and what mechanisms are involved. Here we show that a single recombinant amelogenin protein (rHAM+), induced in-vivo regeneration of all tooth-supporting tissues after creation of experimental periodontitis in a dog model. To further understand the regeneration process, amelogenin expression was detected in normal and regenerating cells of the alveolar bone (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts), periodontal ligament, cementum and in bone marrow stromal cells. Amelogenin expression was highest in areas of high bone turnover and activity. Further studies showed that during the first two weeks after application, rHAM+ induced, directly or indirectly, significant recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, which later differentiated to form the regenerated periodontal tissues. The ability of a single protein to bring about regeneration of all periodontal tissues, in the correct spatio-temporal order, through recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, could pave the way for development of new therapeutic devices for treatment of periodontal, bone and ligament diseases based on recombinant amelogenin proteins. PMID:19228267

  2. Regeneration of bone and periodontal ligament induced by recombinant amelogenin after periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Haze, Amir; Taylor, Angela L; Haegewald, Stefan; Leiser, Yoav; Shay, Boaz; Rosenfeld, Eli; Gruenbaum-Cohen, Yael; Dafni, Leah; Zimmermann, Bernd; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Gibson, Carolyn W; Fisher, Larry W; Young, Marian F; Blumenfeld, Anat; Bernimoulin, Jean P; Deutsch, Dan

    2009-06-01

    Regeneration of mineralized tissues affected by chronic diseases comprises a major scientific and clinical challenge. Periodontitis, one such prevalent disease, involves destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, alveolar bone, periodontal-ligament and cementum, often leading to tooth loss. In 1997, it became clear that, in addition to their function in enamel formation, the hydrophobic ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) play a role in the regeneration of these periodontal tissues. The epithelial EMPs are a heterogeneous mixture of polypeptides encoded by several genes. It was not clear, however, which of these many EMPs induces the regeneration and what mechanisms are involved. Here we show that a single recombinant human amelogenin protein (rHAM(+)), induced in vivo regeneration of all tooth-supporting tissues after creation of experimental periodontitis in a dog model. To further understand the regeneration process, amelogenin expression was detected in normal and regenerating cells of the alveolar bone (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts), periodontal ligament, cementum and in bone marrow stromal cells. Amelogenin expression was highest in areas of high bone turnover and activity. Further studies showed that during the first 2 weeks after application, rHAM(+) induced, directly or indirectly, significant recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, which later differentiated to form the regenerated periodontal tissues. The ability of a single protein to bring about regeneration of all periodontal tissues, in the correct spatio-temporal order, through recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, could pave the way for development of new therapeutic devices for treatment of periodontal, bone and ligament diseases based on rHAM(+). PMID:19228267

  3. Bone Marrow Injury Induced via Oxidative Stress in Mice by Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    McHale, Cliona; Li, Rui; Zhang, Luoping; Wu, Yang; Ye, Xin; Yang, Xu; Ding, Shumao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant has been classified as a human leukemogen. However, toxicity of formaldehyde in bone marrow, the target site of leukemia induction, is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate bone marrow toxicity (bone marrow pathology, hematotoxicity) and underlying mechanisms (oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis) in formaldehyde-exposed mice. Male Balb/c mice were exposed to formaldehyde (0, 0.5, and 3.0 mg/m3) by nose-only inhalation for 8 hours/day, over a two week period designed to simulate a factory work schedule, with an exposure-free “weekend” on days 6 and 7, and were sacrificed on the morning of day 13. Counts of white blood cells, red blood cells and lymphocytes were significantly (p<0.05) decreased at 0.5 mg/m3 (43%, 7%, and 39%, respectively) and 3.0 mg/m3 (52%, 27%, and 43%, respectively) formaldehyde exposure, while platelet counts were significantly increased by 109% (0.5 mg/m3) and 67% (3.0 mg/m3). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species, glutathione depletion, cytochrome P450 1A1 and glutathione s-transferase theta 1 expression), inflammation (nuclear factor kappa-B, tomour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta), and apoptosis (activity of cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in bone marrow tissues were induced at one or both formaldehyde doses mentioned above. Conclusions/Significance Exposure of mice to formaldehyde by inhalation induced bone marrow toxicity, and that oxidative stress, inflammation and the consequential apoptosis jointly constitute potential mechanisms of such induced toxicity. PMID:24040369

  4. Hwangryun-Haedok-Tang Fermented with Lactobacillus casei Suppresses Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; Ha, Hyunil; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Han Sung; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2012-01-01

    Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is the common recipe in traditional Asian medicine, and microbial fermentation is used for the conventional methods for processing traditional medicine. We investigated the inhibitory effect of the n-butanol fraction of HRT (HRT-BU) and fHRT (fHRT-BU) on the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone-marrow-derived macrophages. mRNA expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes were evaluated by real-time QPCR. The activation of signaling pathways was determined by western blot analysis. The marker compounds of HRT-BU and fHRT-BU were analyzed by HPLC. The inhibitory effect of HRT or fHRT on ovariectomy-induced bone loss were evaluated using OVX rats with orally administered HRT, fHRT (300, 1000?mg/kg), or its vehicle for 12 weeks. fHRT-BU significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis, and phosphorylation of p38, IKK?/?, and NF-?Bp65 compared to HRT-BU. In addition, fHRT-BU also significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Nf?b2, TNF-?, NFATc1, TRAP, ATPv0d2, and cathepsin K. Furthermore, administration of fHRT had a greater effect on the increase of BMD, and greater improved bone microstructure of the femora than that of HRT in ovariectomy rats. This study demonstrated that bacterial fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial effects on bone disease by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23082080

  5. Simvastatin inhibits LPS-induced alveolar bone loss during metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Machado, E R; Yu, H; Zhang, X; Lu, Z; Li, Y; Lopes-Virella, M F; Kirkwood, K L; Huang, Y

    2014-03-01

    Studies in recent years have shown a positive relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and periodontal disease (PD). Given that patients with MS take statins to reduce cholesterol, and statins also have anti-inflammatory effects, it is important to determine if statin intake hinders the progression of MS-associated PD. In this study, PD was induced in Zucker fat rats (ZFRs), an animal model for MS, and in control lean rats by periodontal injection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while simvastatin was given to some of the rats via gavage. After 4 wk of treatment, alveolar bone loss was determined by micro-computed tomography. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we determined the effect of simvastatin on tissue inflammation and the expression of molecules involved in osteoclastogenesis. Results showed that while bone loss was increased by LPS in both ZFRs and the control lean rats, it was significantly more in the former than the latter. Simvastatin effectively alleviated bone loss in both ZFRs and the control rats. Results also showed that LPS stimulated leukocyte tissue infiltration and expression of molecules for osteoclastogenesis, but simvastatin significantly modulated the stimulation. This study demonstrated that simvastatin inhibited LPS-induced alveolar bone loss and periodontal tissue inflammation in rats with MS. PMID:24352501

  6. Flow cytometric evaluation of bone marrow differentials in rats with pharmacologically induced hematologic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Criswell, K A; Bleavins, M R; Zielinski, D; Zandee, J C; Walsh, K M

    1998-05-01

    Previously, flow cytometric determination of peroxidase activity, cell size, and reactivity to lymphocyte antibodies were used to produce bone marrow differentials in untreated rats. In the present study, abnormal hematologic profiles were induced with erythropoietin (EPO), recombinant murine stem cell factor (rm-SCF), granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and cyclophosphamide (CP). Manual and flow cytometric data showed comparable levels of erythroid and myeloid hyperplasia in EPO- and rm-SCF/GM-CSF-treated animals, respectively. In CP-treated animals, flow cytometric data revealed significant decreases in cellularity at concentrations of CP > or = 5 mg/kg. In contrast, 20 mg/kg CP were necessary to induce microscopically apparent hypoplasia in histologic bone sections, showing that the automated methodology was a more sensitive indicator of bone marrow hypocellularity than was the more conventional manual method. Megakaryocyte counts were consistently higher by flow cytometer than by manual counts performed on cytocentrifuge preparations made from the same cell suspensions but were similar to megakaryocyte counts performed on histologic sections of femur, indicating that the automated methodology produced a more accurate reflection of true megakaryocyte numbers. Induction of hematologic abnormalities in the present study showed that manual bone marrow differentials can be replaced with the more efficient and reliable flow cytometric method in most preclinical toxicology studies. PMID:9581620

  7. Otolith mass asymmetry: natural, and after weightlessness and hypergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    It is believed that otolith mass asymmetry (OA) can play an essential role in genesis of vestibular space disturbances in human subjects and fish. This review poster presents data on values and characters of OA in animals of various species and classes and on the effect of weightlessness and hypergravity on OA; the issue of the effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions also is considered (Lychakov, Rebane, 2004, 2005; Lychakov et al., 2006, 2008). In symmetric vertebrates, OA was shown to be fluctuating, its coefficient chi? ranges from - 0.2 to + 0.2 (±± 20%). It should be stressed that in the overwhelming majority of individuals absolute values of chi? << 0.06. The low OA level enables the paired otolith organs to work in coordination; this is why the OA level is equally low regardless of the individual taxonomic and ecological position, size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with the abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analyzing auditory and vestibular stimuli; therefore, most of such individuals are eliminated by natural selection. Unlike symmetric vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA. Otoliths in the lower labyrinth, on average, are significantly heavier than those in the upper labyrinth. The organs of flatfish represent the only example when OA, being directional, seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the source of sound. The short-term weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity (<< 2g) do not affect OA. However, it cannot be ruled out that the long-term weightlessness and hypergravity >> 3g as well as some diseases and age-related changes can indirectly enhance OA and cause some functional disturbances. This work was partly supported by Russian grant RFFI 14-04-00601.

  8. Breast Cancer Cells Induce Osteolytic Bone Lesions In vivo through a Reduction in Osteoblast Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Laura S.; Choi, Wilson; Burke, Leslie; Clements, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastases are severely debilitating and have a significant impact on the quality of life of women with metastatic breast cancer. Treatment options are limited and in order to develop more targeted therapies, improved understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to bone lesion development are warranted. Interestingly, whilst prostate-derived bone metastases are characterised by mixed or osteoblastic lesions, breast-derived bone metastases are characterised by osteolytic lesions, suggesting unique regulatory patterns. This study aimed to measure the changes in bone formation and bone resorption activity at two time-points (18 and 36 days) during development of the bone lesion following intratibial injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the left tibiae of Severely Combined Immuno-Deficient (SCID) mice. The contralateral tibia was used as a control. Tibiae were extracted and processed for undecalcified histomorphometric analysis. We provide evidence that the early bone loss observed following exposure to MDA-MB-231 cells was due to a significant reduction in mineral apposition rate, rather than increased levels of bone resorption. This suggests that osteoblast activity was impaired in the presence of breast cancer cells, contrary to previous reports of osteoclast-dependent bone loss. Furthermore mRNA expression of Dickkopf Homolog 1 (DKK-1) and Noggin were confirmed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, both of which antagonise osteoblast regulatory pathways. The observed bone loss following injection of cancer cells was due to an overall thinning of the trabecular bone struts rather than perforation of the bone tissue matrix (as measured by trabecular width and trabecular separation, respectively), suggesting an opportunity to reverse the cancer-induced bone changes. These novel insights into the mechanisms through which osteolytic bone lesions develop may be important in the development of new treatment strategies for metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:24069136

  9. Neuromuscular adaptation to actual and simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, V. R.; Roy, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The chronic "unloading" of the neuromuscular system during spaceflight has detrimental functional and morphological effects. Changes in the metabolic and mechanical properties of the musculature can be attributed largely to the loss of muscle protein and the alteration in the relative proportion of the proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in the muscles that have an antigravity function under normal loading conditions. These adaptations could result in decrements in the performance of routine or specialized motor tasks, both of which may be critical for survival in an altered gravitational field, i.e., during spaceflight and during return to 1 G. For example, the loss in extensor muscle mass requires a higher percentage of recruitment of the motor pools for any specific motor task. Thus, a faster rate of fatigue will occur in the activated muscles. These consequences emphasize the importance of developing techniques for minimizing muscle loss during spaceflight, at least in preparation for the return to 1 G after spaceflight. New insights into the complexity and the interactive elements that contribute to the neuromuscular adaptations to space have been gained from studies of the role of exercise and/or growth factors as countermeasures of atrophy. The present chapter illustrates the inevitable interactive effects of neural and muscular systems in adapting to space. It also describes the considerable progress that has been made toward the goal of minimizing the functional impact of the stimuli that induce the neuromuscular adaptations to space.

  10. Low-dose bone morphogenetic protein-2/stromal cell-derived factor-1? cotherapy induces bone regeneration in critical-size rat calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Herberg, Samuel; Susin, Cristiano; Pelaez, Manuel; Howie, R Nicole; Moreno de Freitas, Rubens; Lee, Jaebum; Cray, James J; Johnson, Maribeth H; Elsalanty, Mohammed E; Hamrick, Mark W; Isales, Carlos M; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Hill, William D

    2014-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) is involved in bone formation, though underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Also, contributions of SDF-1?, the second most abundant splice variant, as an osteogenic mediator remain obscure. We have shown that SDF-1? enhances osteogenesis by regulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) signaling in vitro. Here we investigate the dose-dependent contribution of SDF-1? to suboptimal BMP-2-induced local bone formation; that is, a dose that alone would be too low to significantly induce bone formation. We utilized a critical-size rat calvarial defect model and tested the hypotheses that SDF-1? potentiates BMP-2 osteoinduction and that blocking SDF-1 signaling reduces the osteogenic potential of BMP-2 in vivo. In preliminary studies, radiographic analysis at 4 weeks postsurgery revealed a dose-dependent relationship in BMP-2-induced new bone formation. We then found that codelivery of SDF-1? potentiates suboptimal BMP-2 (0.5??g) osteoinduction in a dose-dependent order, reaching comparable levels to the optimal BMP-2 dose (5.0??g) without apparent adverse effects. Blocking the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)/SDF-1 signaling axis using AMD3100 attenuated the osteoinductive potential of the optimal BMP-2 dose, confirmed by qualitative histologic analysis. In conclusion, SDF-1? provides potent synergistic effects that support BMP-induced local bone formation and thus appears a suitable candidate for optimization of bone augmentation using significantly lower amounts of BMP-2 in spine, orthopedic, and craniofacial settings. PMID:24341891

  11. Mechanical loading attenuates loss of bone mass and bone strength induced by immobilization and calcium-deficiency

    E-print Network

    Inman, Cynthia Lynn

    1996-01-01

    Immobilization and calcium-deficiency have been documented to cause a decrease in strength and bone mineral loss, and exercise is known to strengthen bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mechanical loading on parameters...

  12. The Development of the Vestibular Apparatus Under Conditions of Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Lychakov, D. V.; Palmbakh, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments has been carried out on the effect of space flight conditions on morphogenesis and the structure of the vestibular apparatus in amphibian and fish larvae. Larval development proceeded in weightlessness without serious morphological defects. The vestibular apparatus developed; its organization in the experimental animals did not differ qualitatively from that in the controls. The specific external stimulus (gravitation) appears not to be a necessary condition for the development of a gravitation receptor in ontogenesis although the appearance of the vestibular apparatus in phylogenesis was apparently related to this stimulus.

  13. Axial jet mixing of ethanol in cylindrical containers during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aydelott, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to examine the liquid flow patterns that result from the axial jet mixing of ethanol in 10-centimeter-diameter cylindrical tanks in weightlessness. A convex hemispherically ended tank and two Centaur liquid-hydrogen-tank models were used for the study. Four distinct liquid flow patterns were observed to be a function of the tank geometry, the liquid-jet velocity, the volume of liquid in the tank, and the location of the tube from which the liquid jet exited.

  14. Axial jet mixing of ethanol in spherical containers during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audelott, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to examine the liquid flow patterns that result from the axial jet mixing of ethanol in 10-centimeter-diameter spherical containers in weightlessness. Complete liquid circulation flow patterns were easily established in containers that were less than half full of liquid, while for higher liquid fill conditions, vapor was drawn into the inlet of the simulated mixer unit. Increasing the liquid-jet or lowering the position at which the liquid jet entered the container caused increasing turbulence and bubble formation.

  15. A systems approach to the physiology of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Rummel, John A.; Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    A general systems approach to conducting and analyzing research on the human adaptation to weightlessness is presented. The research is aimed at clarifying the role that each of the major components of the human system plays following the transition to and from space. The approach utilizes a variety of mathematical models in order to pose and test alternative hypotheses concerned with the adaptation process. Certain aspects of the problem of fluid and electrolyte shifts in weightlessnes are considered, and an integrated hypothesis based on numerical simulation studies and experimental data is presented.

  16. Effects of prolonged weightlessness on the humoral immune response of humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, E. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to examine the possible interrelationship of various classes of immunoglobulins by utilizing the effect of weightlessness as a stress factor and subsequently measuring inhibitory, compensatory, or enhancing interrelationships. A second objective of the experiment is to investigate the state of immune competency under conditions of sustained weightlessness.

  17. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain.

    PubMed

    Falk, S; Schwab, S D; Frøsig-Jørgensen, M; Clausen, R P; Dickenson, A H; Heegaard, A-M

    2015-04-16

    Pain is a common and debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of molecular events, including mechanisms observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, but also changes unique for cancer-induced bone pain. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is involved in a variety of cellular functions and has been linked to both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here we study the analgesic potential of P2X7R antagonism in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain. In cancer-bearing animals, the P2X7R antagonist A839977 attenuated dorsal horn neuronal responses in a modality and intensity-specific way. Spinal application of 0.4-mg/kg and 1.2-mg/kg A839977 significantly reduced the evoked responses to high-intensity mechanical and thermal stimulation, whereas no effect was seen in response to low-intensity or electrical stimulation. In contrast, A839977 had no effect on the tested parameters in naïve or sham animals. In awake animals, 40-mg/kg A839977 (i.p.) significantly reduced both early- and late-stage pain behavior. In contrast, no effect was observed in sham or vehicle-treated animals. The results suggest that the P2X7R is involved in the mechanisms of cancer-induced bone pain, and that P2X7R antagonism might be a useful analgesic target. No effect was observed in sham or naïve animals, indicating that the P2X7R-mediated effect is state-dependent, and might therefore be an advantageous target compared to traditional analgesics. PMID:25686524

  18. Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to lung regeneration after elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kota Ishizawa; Hiroshi Kubo; Mitsuhiro Yamada; Seiichi Kobayashi; Muneo Numasaki; Shinsaku Ueda; Takashi Suzuki; Hidetada Sasaki

    2004-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is known to reverse the anatomic and physiologic signs of pulmonary emphysema. However, the origin of the progenitor cells involved in this lung regeneration remains unclear. Recently, it was shown that bone marrow could be the source of progenitor cells for several cell types. Mice with elastase-induced emphysema were treated with ATRA, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF),

  19. Modulation of Bone Mass, Strength, and Turnover by a New Benzamide Compound, DU6712, in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Uchiyama; H. Takamori; K. Miyama; E. Takano; H. Nakajima; T. Sato; T. Nakamura

    1998-01-01

    .   To assess the reductions in bone mass, strength, and turnover in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats and to examine the effect\\u000a of a new benzamide compound, DU-6712, on these parameters, a 28-day dosing experiment was performed using 8-week-old female\\u000a Lewis rats. Arthritis was induced by injecting the adjuvant into the hind paw. The age-dependent increases in the body weight,\\u000a lumbar bone

  20. Human Perivascular Stem Cell-Based Bone Graft Substitute Induces Rat Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Choon G.; James, Aaron W.; Asatrian, Greg; Chang, Le; Nguyen, Alan; Le, Khoi; Bayani, Georgina; Lee, Robert; Stoker, David; Zhang, Xinli

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) because of its abundance and accessibility. We have previously defined a population of native MSCs termed perivascular stem cells (PSCs), purified from diverse human tissues, including adipose tissue. Human PSCs (hPSCs) are a bipartite cell population composed of pericytes (CD146+CD34?CD45?) and adventitial cells (CD146?CD34+CD45?), isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and with properties identical to those of culture identified MSCs. Our previous studies showed that hPSCs exhibit improved bone formation compared with a sample-matched unpurified population (termed stromal vascular fraction); however, it is not known whether hPSCs would be efficacious in a spinal fusion model. To investigate, we evaluated the osteogenic potential of freshly sorted hPSCs without culture expansion and differentiation in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar spinal fusion. We compared increasing dosages of implanted hPSCs to assess for dose-dependent efficacy. All hPSC treatment groups induced successful spinal fusion, assessed by manual palpation and microcomputed tomography. Computerized biomechanical simulation (finite element analysis) further demonstrated bone fusion with hPSC treatment. Histological analyses showed robust endochondral ossification in hPSC-treated samples. Finally, we confirmed that implanted hPSCs indeed differentiated into osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the majority of the new bone formation was of host origin. These results suggest that implanted hPSCs positively regulate bone formation via direct and paracrine mechanisms. In summary, hPSCs are a readily available MSC population that effectively forms bone without requirements for culture or predifferentiation. Thus, hPSC-based products show promise for future efforts in clinical bone regeneration and repair. PMID:25154782

  1. Loss of Tbx1 induces bone phenotypes similar to cleidocranial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Funato, Noriko; Nakamura, Masataka; Richardson, James A; Srivastava, Deepak; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2015-01-15

    T-box transcription factor, TBX1, is the major candidate gene for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge/ Velo-cardio-facial syndrome) characterized by facial defects, thymus hypoplasia, cardiovascular anomalies and cleft palates. Here, we report that the loss of Tbx1 in mouse (Tbx1(-/-)) results in skeletal abnormalities similar to those of cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) in humans, which is an autosomal-dominant skeletal disease caused by mutations in RUNX2. Tbx1(-/-) mice display short stature, absence of hyoid bone, failed closure of fontanelle, bifid xiphoid process and hypoplasia of clavicle and zygomatic arch. A cell-type-specific deletion of Tbx1 in osteochondro-progenitor (Tbx1(OPKO)) or mesodermal (Tbx1(MKO)) lineage partially recapitulates the Tbx1(-/-) bone phenotypes. Although Tbx1 expression has not been previously reported in neural crest, inactivation of Tbx1 in the neural crest lineage (Tbx1(NCKO)) leads to an absence of the body of hyoid bone and postnatal lethality, indicating an unanticipated role of Tbx1 in neural crest development. Indeed, Tbx1 is expressed in the neural crest-derived hyoid bone primordium, in addition to mesoderm-derived osteochondral progenitors. Ablation of Tbx1 affected Runx2 expression in calvarial bones and overexpression of Tbx1 induced Runx2 expression in vitro. Taken together, our current studies reveal that Tbx1 is required for mesoderm- and neural crest-derived osteoblast differentiation and normal skeletal development. TBX1 mutation could lead to CCD-like bone phenotypes in human. PMID:25209980

  2. A systems analysis of the erythropoietic responses to weightlessness. Volume 1: Mathematical model simulations of the erythropoietic responses to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical responses to weightlessness are summarized. The studies include development and validation of a model of erythropoiesis regulation, analysis of the behavior of erythropoiesis under a variety of conditions, simulations of bed rest and space flight, and an evaluation of ground-based animal studies which were conducted as analogs of zero-g. A review of all relevant space flight findings and a set of testable hypotheses which attempt to explain how red cell mass decreases in space flight are presented. An additional document describes details of the mathematical model used in these studies.

  3. The role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Wronski, T. J.; GLOBUS. R.; Levens, M. J.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1983-01-01

    Skeletal unloading results in osteopenia. To examine the involvement of vitamin D in this process, the rear limbs of growing rats were unloaded and alterations in bone calcium and bone histology were related to changes in serum calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P sub i), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D. Acute skeletal unloading induced a transitory inhibition of Ca accumulation in unloaded bones. This was accompanied by a transitory rise in serum Ca, a 21% decrease in longitudinal bone growth (P 0.01), a 32% decrease in bone surface lined with osteoblasts (P .05), no change in bone surface lined with osteoclasts and a decrease in circulating (1,25(OH)2D. No significant changes in the serum concentrations of P sub i, 25-OH-D or 24,25(OH)2D were observed. After 2 weeks of unloading, bone Ca stabilized at approximately 70% of control and serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D returned to control values. Maintenance of a constant serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration by chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D (Alza osmotic minipump) throughout the study period did not prevent the bone changes induced by acute unloading. These results suggest that acute skeletal unloading in the growing rat produces a transitory inhibition of bone formation which in turn produces a transitory hypercalcemia.

  4. Loss of Protein Kinase C-? Protects against LPS-Induced Osteolysis Owing to an Intrinsic Defect in Osteoclastic Bone Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Ee Cheng; Abel, Tamara; Tickner, Jennifer; Chim, Shek Man; Wang, Cathy; Cheng, Taksum; Ng, Benjamin; Ng, Pei Ying; Teguh, Dian Astari; Kenny, Jacob; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Honghui; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Nakayama, Keiko; Pavlos, Nathan; Zheng, Ming H.; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling is intrinsically regulated by cell signaling molecules. The Protein Kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases is involved in multiple signaling pathways including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and osteoclast biology. However, the precise involvement of individual PKC isoforms in the regulation of osteoclast formation and bone homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identify PKC-? as the major PKC isoform expressed among all PKCs in osteoclasts; including classical PKCs (??, ?? and ??), novel PKCs (??, ??, ?? and ??) and atypical PKCs (??/? and ??). Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of PKC-? impairs osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. Moreover, disruption of PKC-? activity protects against LPS-induced osteolysis in mice, with osteoclasts accumulating on the bone surface failing to resorb bone. Treatment with the PKC-? inhibitor Rottlerin, blocks LPS-induced bone resorption in mice. Consistently, PKC-? deficient mice exhibit increased trabeculae bone containing residual cartilage matrix, indicative of an osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis phenotype. Cultured ex vivo osteoclasts derived from PKC-? null mice exhibit decreased CTX-1 levels and MARKS phosphorylation, with enhanced formation rates. This is accompanied by elevated gene expression levels of cathepsin K and PKC ??, ?? and ??, as well as altered signaling of pERK and pcSrc416/527 upon RANKL-induction, possibly to compensate for the defects in bone resorption. Collectively, our data indicate that PKC-? is an intrinsic regulator of osteoclast formation and bone resorption and thus is a potential therapeutic target for pathological osteolysis. PMID:23951014

  5. Pamidronate improves the quality of life and induces clinical remission of bone metastases in patients with thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, G; Fonderico, F; Martignetti, A; Caraglia, M; Ciccarelli, A; Nuzzo, V; Abbruzzese, A; Lupoli, G

    2001-01-01

    Skeletal metastases from thyroid cancer are poorly responsive to medical or radioiodine treatment. Bone destruction in skeletal metastases results from osteoclast-induced bone resorption. Therefore, a new approach in the therapy of bone metastases consists in using aminobisphosphonates, such as pamidronate, which are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic activity. In the present study, 10 thyroid cancer patients with painful osteolytic bone metastases were administered pamidronate (90?mg, as a 2 hour intravenous infusion) monthly for 12 consecutive cycles. Bone pain, quality of life, performance status, analgesic consumption and disease staging were evaluated before and during the trial. The patients who had been administered pamidronate showed a significant decrease in bone pain (P = 0.0052). Performance status improved nearly significantly (P = 0.051), while the quality of life showed a remarkable amelioration. However, no significant decrease in analgesic consumption was recorded. Partial radiographic response of bone lesions was observed in 2/10 patients. The side effects of pamidronate were mild and transient. In conclusion, monthly infusion of pamidronate is a well-tolerated treatment that induces significant relief from bone pain and improves the quality of life of thyroid cancer patients with symptomatic and osteolytic bone metastases. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11401309

  6. Simulated weightlessness in fish and neurophysiological studies on memory storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbaumgarten, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Simulated weightlessness was used to study the different types of gravity responses in blind fish. It was found that a shift in the direction of low magnitude acceleration in weightlessness causes a rapid 180 deg turn in the blind fish, while a shift in the direction of the applied acceleration in the earth's gravitational field is not significant because of a higher acceleration magnitude threshold than during the zero g condition. This increased responsiveness seems to be explained by a combination of directional sensitivity with a Weber-Fechner relationship of increased receptor sensitivity at diminished levels of background stimulation. Neurophysical studies of the statocyst nerve of the gastropod Mollusc Pleurobranchaea Californica were undertaken in order to understand how complex otolith systems operate. Information storage was investigated on relatively simple neuronal networks in the mollusc Aplysia. Intracellular electrical stimulation of isolated neurons show that a manipulation of autoditonous rhymicity is possible. It was also found that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are involved in inherent rhymicity of Aplysis neurons.

  7. Co-registration of multi-modality imaging allows for comprehensive analysis of tumor-induced bone disease.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Erin H; Wilson, Kevin J; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Johnson, Rachelle W; Gore, John C; Caprioli, Richard M; Matrisian, Lynn M; Sterling, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    Bone metastases are a clinically significant problem that arises in approximately 70% of metastatic breast cancer patients. Once established in the bone, tumor cells induce changes in the bone microenvironment that lead to bone destruction, pain, and significant morbidity. While much is known about the later stages of bone disease, less is known about the earlier stages or the changes in protein expression in the tumor micro-environment. Due to promising results of combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI IMS) ion images in the brain, we developed methods for applying these modalities to models of tumor-induced bone disease in order to better understand the changes in protein expression that occur within the tumor-bone microenvironment. Specifically, we integrated 3-dimensional-volume reconstructions of spatially resolved MALDI IMS with high-resolution anatomical and diffusion weighted MRI data and histology in an intratibial model of breast tumor-induced bone disease. This approach enables us to analyze proteomic profiles from MALDI IMS data with corresponding in vivo imaging and ex vivo histology data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that these three modalities have been rigorously registered in the bone. The MALDI mass-to-charge ratio peaks indicate differential expression of calcyclin, ubiquitin, and other proteins within the tumor cells, while peaks corresponding to hemoglobin A and calgranulin A provided molecular information that aided in the identification of areas rich in red and white blood cells, respectively. This multi-modality approach will allow us to comprehensively understand the bone-tumor microenvironment and thus may allow us to better develop and test approaches for inhibiting bone metastases. PMID:24487126

  8. Co-registration of multi-modality imaging allows for comprehensive analysis of tumor-induced bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Wilson, Kevin J.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Johnson, Rachelle W.; Gore, John C.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Matrisian, Lynn M.; Sterling, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases are a clinically significant problem that arises in approximately 70% of metastatic breast cancer patients. Once established in bone, tumor cells induce changes in the bone microenvironment that lead to bone destruction, pain, and significant morbidity. While much is known about the later stages of bone disease, less is known about the earlier stages or the changes in protein expression in the tumor micro-environment. Due to promising results of combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI IMS) ion images in the brain, we developed methods for applying these modalities to models of tumor-induced bone disease in order to better understand the changes in protein expression that occur within the tumor-bone microenvironment. Specifically, we integrated three dimensional-volume reconstructions of spatially resolved MALDI IMS with high-resolution anatomical and diffusion weighted MRI data and histology in an intratibial model of breast tumor-induced bone disease. This approach enables us to analyze proteomic profiles from MALDI IMS data with corresponding in vivo imaging and ex vivo histology data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these three modalities have been rigorously registered in the bone. The MALDI mass-to-charge ratio peaks indicate differential expression of calcyclin, ubiquitin, and other proteins within the tumor cells, while peaks corresponding to hemoglobin A and calgranulin A provided molecular information that aided in the identification of areas rich in red and white blood cells, respectively. This multimodality approach will allow us to comprehensively understand the bone-tumor microenvironment and thus may allow us to better develop and test approaches for inhibiting bone metastases. PMID:24487126

  9. Calcium and Bone Homeostasis During 4-6 Months Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K.; Wastney, M.; Morukov, B.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S.; Lane, H.; Nillen, J.; Davis-Street, J.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bone and calcium homeostasis are altered by weightlessness. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects from the first joint US/Russian mission to Mir. We report here data on an additional three male subjects, whose stays on Mir were 4 (n= 1) and 6 (n=2) mos. Data were collected before, during, and after the missions. Inflight studies were conducted at 2-3 mos. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured, along with 3-wk calcium tracer studies. Percent differences are reported compared to preflight. Ionized calcium was unchanged (2.8 +/-2.1 %) during flight. Calcium absorption was variable inflight, but was decreased after landing. Vitamin D stores were decreased 35 +/-24% inflight, similar to previous reports. Serum PTH was decreased 59 +/-9% during flight (greater than we previously reported), while 1,25(OH)(sub 2)-Vitamin D was decreased in 2 of 3 subjects. Markers of bone resorption (e.g., crosslinks) were increased in all subjects. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was decreased (n=1) or unchanged (n=2), while osteocalcin was decreased 34 +/-23%. Previously presented data showed that inflight bone loss is associated with increased resorption and unchanged/decreased formation. The data reported here support these earlier findings. These studies will help to extend our understanding of space flight-induced bone loss, and of bone loss associated with diseases such as osteoporosis or paralysis.

  10. Short-Term Effect of Vitamin K Administration on Prednisolone-Induced Loss of Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Chronic Glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yonemura; M. Kimura; T. Miyaji; A. Hishida

    2000-01-01

    .   Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis has been reported to be caused by enhanced bone resorption and suppressed bone formation.\\u000a To clarify whether administration of vitamin K, which enhances bone formation, prevents prednisolone-induced loss of bone\\u000a mineral density (BMD), a randomized, prospective, controlled study was conducted on 20 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis\\u000a scheduled for treatment with prednisolone. All patients were initially treated with

  11. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  12. Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space flight and two dosing regimens: 1) an oral dose of 70 mg of alendronate taken weekly during flight or 2) a single intravenous (IV) dose of 4 mg of zoledronic acid given several weeks before flight. Currently the study is focusing on the oral option because of NASA s safety concerns with the IV-administered drug. The protocol requests 10 male or female crewmembers on ISS flights of 90 days or longer. Controls are 16 previous ISS crewmembers with QCT scans of the hip performed by these same investigators. The primary outcome measure for this study is hip trabecular bone mineral density measured by QCT, but other measures of bone mass are performed including peripheral QCT (pQCT) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urinary bone markers and renal stone risk measured before, during, and after flight are included. Postflight data are currently being collected from 2 ISS crewmembers. Two additional crewmembers will return this spring after 6-month missions. To date no untoward effects have been encountered.

  13. Exercise protocol induces muscle, tendon, and bone adaptations in the rat shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Sarah Ilkhanipour; Loro, Emanuele; Sarver, Joseph J.; Peltz, Cathryn D.; Hast, Michael W.; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Liu, X. Sherry; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: a rat model of supraspinatus overuse has suggested mechanisms governing tendon degeneration; however, delineating which changes are pathologic or simply physiologic adaptations to increased loading remains a question. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize a rat exercise model that induces systemic and local shoulder adaptations without mechanical injury to the supraspinatus tendon. Methods: exercise rats completed a treadmill training protocol for 12 weeks. Body, fat pad, and heart weights were determined. Supraspinatus tendon collagen content, cross-sectional area, and mechanical properties were measured. Supraspinatus muscle cross-sectional area, weight, and the expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins were measured. Humeri were analyzed with ?CT and mechanically tested. Results: exercise decreased fat pad mass. Supraspinatus muscle hypertrophied and had increased OXPHOS proteins. Humerus trabecular bone had increased anisotropic orientation, and cortical bone showed increased bone and tissue mineral density. Importantly, the supraspinatus tendon did not have diminished mechanical properties, indicating that this protocol was not injurious to the tendon. Conclusion: this study establishes the first rat exercise protocol that induces adaptations in the shoulder. Future research can use this as a comparison model to study how the supraspinatus tendon adapts to loading and undergoes degeneration with overuse. PMID:25767777

  14. Gene expression during induced differentiation of sheep bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Tang, X-X; He, H-Y

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the dynamic expression of osteopontin, type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes during the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts and confirm whether BMSCs can differentiate and mature into osteoblasts. A healthy, 2-month-old Altay tailed sheep was obtained, and 10 mL bone marrow was extracted from the posterior superior iliac spine of the sheep via puncture. Sheep BMSCs were extracted using a whole bone marrow culture method and cultured for osteogenic induction. Total RNA from the BMSCs was extracted, and the gene expression levels of osteopontin, type I collagen, and osteocalcin at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th passages of uninduced and induced BMSCs were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The surface antigen CD44 was also detected in the BMSCs. After induction by culturing in osteoinductive medium, BMSCs in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th passages displayed stage-specific expression of osteopontin, type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes. The positive expression rate of BMSC-specific antigen CD44 in the 4th passage of osteogenic-induced BMSCs was 99.8%. In vitro-cultured sheep BMSCs in osteogenic culture medium gradually differentiated into osteoblasts, which stage-specifically expressed osteoblast-specific genes such as osteopontin, type I collagen, and osteocalcin at the 4th passage after induction. At this passage, these cells had osteoblast functions. PMID:24390999

  15. Influence of simulated weightlessness on the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen administered by the oral route: a study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gandia, Peggy; Saivin, Sylvie; Lavit, Michel; Houin, Georges

    2004-02-01

    During space flights, the human body is submitted to weightlessness which induces physiological variations that could modify drug disposition during space missions. Since space experiments are infrequent and difficult to perform, in order to evaluate pharmacokinetic modifications, simulation experiments of weightlessness have to be carried out on earth, using animal-models such as the Morey-Holton model. In this model, rats are suspended by the tail with their front paws on the ground. We studied the effects of simulated weightlessness on drug absorption and on gastric emptying, using acetaminophen as a probe. Three periods of suspension (1, 2 and 5 days) were compared with two control groups (free and attached rats). The attached group was used to evaluate a possible 'stress effect' caused by the suspension device. Each group was composed of 36 rats (12 sampling times and three rats per time). An oral dose of acetaminophen (100 mg/kg) was administered and blood samples were collected before and up to 12 h after administration. Plasma assays were performed using an high-performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection. The calculated population pharmacokinetic parameters were Ka, Kel (first order absorption and elimination constants) and Vd/F (apparent volume of distribution). The statistical interpretation of the population pharmacokinetic parameters indicated that 2 days of suspension significantly decreased the Vd/F by 83% and the Ka by 125%. The increase in the Ka was probably because of an increased acceleration of the gastric emptying and/or to a decrease in the total peripheral resistance which increased intestinal blood flow. PMID:14748755

  16. The temporal response of bone to unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were suspended by their tails with the forelimbs bearing the weight load to simulate the weightlessness of space flight. Growth in bone mass ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae in growing rats, while growth in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. The effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of suspension was investigated using radio iostope incorporation (with Ca-45 and H-3 proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. This model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed in the accretion of bone mass, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days, despite continued skeletal unloading. This cycle of inhibition and resumption of bone formation has profound implication for understanding bone dynamics durng space flight, immobilization, or bed rest and offers an opportunity to study the hormonal and mechanical factors that regulate bone formation.

  17. Dexamethasone-Induced Oxidative Stress Enhances Myeloma Cell Radiosensitization While Sparing Normal Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis1

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Soumen; Greiner, Suzanne; Choudhury, Amit; Dispenzieri, Angela; Spitz, Douglas R; Russell, Stephen J; Goel, Apollina

    2010-01-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) and radiation therapy are established modalities in multiple myeloma. In this study, we propose a novel combination of Dex plus radiation that shows superior clonogenic cell killing and apoptosis of myeloma cells and selectively eliminates myeloma cells when cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Dex was found to inhibit the release of interleukin-6 from irradiated BMSCs, which is an established myeloma cell proproliferative cytokine. In 5TGM1 model, the combination of Dex with skeletal targeted radiotherapy (153-Sm-EDTMP) prolonged median survival time and inhibited radiation-induced myelosuppression. A two-cycle treatment of Dex plus 153-Sm-EDTMP was well tolerated and further improved median survival time. Mechanistically, Dex increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and augmented radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death of myeloma cells. In contrast, Dex inhibited radiation-induced increase in pro-oxidant levels and enhanced the clonogenic survival in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Treatment with either N-acetylcysteine or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, and PEG-catalase significantly protected myeloma cells from Dex-induced clonogenic death. Overall, these results demonstrate that Dex in combination with radiotherapy enhances the killing of myeloma cells while protecting normal bone marrow hematopoiesis through a mechanism that involves selective increases in oxidative stress. PMID:21170263

  18. Monitoring radiation-induced changes in bone marrow histopathology with ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Daldrup, H E; Link, T M; Blasius, S; Strozyk, A; Könemann, S; Jürgens, H; Rummeny, E J

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor radiation-induced alterations of the blood-bone marrow barrier (BMB) and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) with AMI-227-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty New Zealand white rabbits (n = 10 following total body irradiation and n = 10 controls) underwent AMI-227-enhanced MRI. Pulse sequences included dynamic fast low-angle shot (FLASH; TR/TE 50/4 msec, flip angle 60 degrees) MRI and static T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and turbo-SE sequences of the lumbar spine and sacrum. Bone marrow enhancement was quantified as delta signal intensity (SI) (%) =|[(SIpost - SIpre)/SIpre] x 100%| and compared with histopathology, including iron stains and electron microscopy. Dynamic bone marrow deltaSI (%) data steadily increased up to 10-15 minutes after AMI-227 administration, while blood deltaSI (%) data stayed nearly constant, histologically corresponding to iron oxide leakage into the bone marrow interstitium. This bone marrow contrast enhancement increased significantly following irradiation, corresponding to alterations of the endothelial lining of the bone marrow sinusoids. Late postcontrast images exhibited a significant positive T1 enhancement and negative T2 enhancement of the normal bone marrow, which further increased with irradiation due to increased RES activity. Irradiation-induced changes in bone marrow physiology could be reliably assessed with AMI-227-enhanced MRI. PMID:10331759

  19. A joined role of canopy and reversal cells in bone remodeling - Lessons from glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe; Bollerslev, Jens; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2015-04-01

    Successful bone remodeling demands that osteoblasts restitute the bone removed by osteoclasts. In human cancellous bone, a pivotal role in this restitution is played by the canopies covering the bone remodeling surfaces, since disruption of canopies in multiple myeloma, postmenopausal- and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is associated with the absence of progression of the remodeling cycle to bone formation, i.e. uncoupling. An emerging concept explaining this critical role of canopies is that they represent a reservoir of osteoprogenitors to be delivered to reversal surfaces. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, this concept is supported by the coincidence between the absence of canopies and scarcity of cells on reversal surfaces together with abortion of the remodeling cycle. Here we tested whether this concept holds true in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A histomorphometric analysis of iliac crest biopsies from patients exposed to long-term glucocorticoid treatment revealed a subpopulation of reversal surfaces corresponding to the characteristics of arrest found in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Importantly, these arrested reversal surfaces were devoid of canopy coverage in almost all biopsies, and their prevalence correlated with a deficiency in bone forming surfaces. Taken together with the other recent data, the functional link between canopies, reversal surface activity, and the extent of bone formation surface in postmenopausal- and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, supports a model where bone restitution during remodeling demands recruitment of osteoprogenitors from the canopy onto reversal surfaces. These data suggest that securing the presence of functional local osteoprogenitors deserves attention in the search of strategies to prevent the bone loss that occurs during bone remodeling in pathological situations. PMID:25497571

  20. Methotrexate-induced bone marrow adiposity is mitigated by folinic acid supplementation through the regulation of Wnt/?-catenin signalling.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Kristen R; Nadhanan, Rethi Raghu; Fan, Chia-Ming; Xian, Cory J

    2015-03-01

    Antimetabolite Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly used in childhood oncology. As a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor it exerts its action through the reduction of cellular folate, thus its intensive use is associated with damage to soft tissues, bone marrow, and bone. In the clinic, MTX is administered with folinic acid (FA) supplementation to alleviate some of this soft tissue damage. However, whether and how FA alleviates damage to the bone and bone marrow requires further investigation. As the Wnt/?-catenin signalling pathway is critical for commitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells down the osteogenic or adipogenic lineage, its deregulation has been found associated with increased marrow adiposity following MTX treatment. In order to elucidate whether FA supplementation prevents MTX-induced bone marrow adiposity by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signalling, young rats were given saline or 0.75?mg/kg MTX once daily for 5 days, receiving saline or 0.75?mg/kg FA 6?h after MTX. FA rescue alleviated the MTX-induced bone marrow adiposity, as well as inducing up-regulation of Wnt10b mRNA and ?-catenin protein expression in the bone. Furthermore, FA blocked up-regulation of the secreted Wnt antagonist sFRP-1 mRNA expression. Moreover, secreted sFRP-1 protein in the bone marrow and its expression by osteoblasts and adipocytes was found increased following MTX treatment. This potentially indicates that sFRP-1 is a major regulator of defective Wnt/?-catenin signalling following MTX treatment. This study provides evidence that folate depletion caused by MTX chemotherapy results in increased bone marrow adiposity, and that FA rescue alleviates these defects by up-regulating Wnt/?-catenin signalling in the bone. PMID:25187349

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates osteoclast-mediated bone resorption: role of angiopoietin-like 4

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Helen J.; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Korsching, Eberhard; Athanasou, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor regulate angiogenic-osteogenic coupling and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To determine how HIF might coordinate osteoclast and osteoblast function, we studied angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), the top HIF target gene in an Illumina HumanWG-6 v3.0 48k array of normoxic vs. hypoxic osteoclasts differentiated from human CD14+ monocytes (14.3-fold induction, P<0.0004). ANGPTL4 mRNA and protein were induced by 24 h at 2% O2 in human primary osteoclasts, monocytes, and osteoblasts. ANGPTL4 protein was observed by immunofluorescence in osteoclasts and osteoblasts in vivo. Normoxic inducers of HIF (CoCl2, desferrioxamine, and l-mimosine) and 100 ng/ml ANGPTL4 stimulated osteoclastic resorption 2- to 3-fold in assays of lacunar dentine resorption, without affecting osteoclast viability. Isoform-specific HIF-1? small interfering RNA ablated hypoxic induction of ANGPTL4 and of resorption, which was rescued by addition of exogenous ANGPTL4 (P<0.001). In the osteoblastic Saos2 cell line, ANGPTL4 caused a dose-dependent increase in proliferation (P<0.01, 100 ng/ml) and, at lower doses (1–25 ng/ml), mineralization. These results demonstrate that HIF is sufficient to enhance osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and that ANGPTL4 can compensate for HIF-1? deficiency with respect to stimulation of osteoclast activity and also augments osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.—Knowles, H. J., Cleton-Jansen, A.-M., Korsching, E., and Athanasou, N.A. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates osteoclast-mediated bone resorption: role of angiopoietin-like 4. PMID:20667978

  2. The effect of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes mellitus on calvarial defect healing and bone turnover in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shyng, Y C; Devlin, H; Sloan, P

    2001-02-01

    Tooth socket healing is delayed in diabetes mellitus due to impairment of the healing process. One reason for the poor healing may be an abnormal vascular response. The object of our experiments was to study the effect of diabetes mellitus on bone healing using a calvarial wound. Streptozotocin, injected intraperitoneally, was used to induce diabetes in rats. Both insulin-treated, streptozotocin-dosed animals and normal rats were used as controls. Bone formation was measured in the diabetic femur and tibia, and healing of bone defects by guided tissue regeneration was assessed. Cancellous bone volume and bone formation in the femur were greatly reduced in the diabetic model, indicating either a defect of mineralization or osteoid formation. The length, dry weight, ash weight and calcium content of the tibiae of diabetic rats were significantly less than those of the control groups. In a second experiment, a sterile wound was made in the calvaria of diabetic rats, and covered internally and externally with Gore-Tex membrane. Exuberant formation of a primitive bone was evident, with little evidence of osteoclastic resorption of the necrosed bone ends. This was despite the impaired bone formation observed in the long bones in the first experiment. PMID:11289625

  3. In-Vivo Effect of Andrographolide on Alveolar Bone Resorption Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Its Relation with Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H.; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20?mg/kg and 10?mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1?:?1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20?mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P < 0.05). We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats. PMID:24151590

  4. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Carrie S; Mercer, Kelly E; Alund, Alexander W; Suva, Larry J; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J

    2014-10-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy protein-associated phytoestrogens such as genistein (GEN). In this study, male mice were pair-fed (PF), a control diet, an ethanol (EtOH) diet, or EtOH diet supplemented with 250?mg/kg of GEN for 8 weeks to test if GEN protects against bone loss associated with chronic drinking. Interestingly, alcohol consumption reduced cortical area and thickness and trabecular bone volume in both EtOH and EtOH/GEN groups when compared to the corresponding PF and PF/GEN controls, P?bone compartment, we observed a significant increase in overall trabecular bone density in the PF/GEN group compared to the PF controls. Bone loss in the EtOH-treated mice was associated with the inhibition of osteoblastogenesis as indicated by decreased alkaline phosphatase staining in ex vivo bone marrow cultures, P?bone-formation markers, osteocalcin, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) was also significantly up-regulated in the PF/GEN and EtOH/GEN groups compared to the PF and EtOH-treated groups. GEN supplementation also increased the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?-B ligand (RANKL) in the PF/GEN, an increase that persisted in the EtOH/GEN-treated animals (P?bone marrow cultures in vitro, P?bone remodeling and, in the context of chronic alcohol consumption, does not protect against the oxidative stress-associated EtOH-mediated bone resorption. PMID:24872432

  5. Effect of simulated weightlessness on energy metabolism in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. P.; Sykes, H. A.; Crownover, J. C.; Schatte, C. L.; Simmons, J. B., II; Jordan, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Results of measurements of food uptake and body weight changes occurring in rats suspended from a harness so that the antigravity muscles were not used for locomotion are presented. The rats were tested in pairs, with both in a harness but only one suspended off its hind legs; this section lasted 7 days. A second phase of the experiment involved feeding the nonsuspended rat the same amount of food the experimental rat had consumed the previous day. All rats experienced decreased in body weight and food intake in the first stage, while in the second stage the suspended rat lost more weight. The total oxygen uptake, CO2 output, and rate of C-14O2 production were depressed in the suspended rats, then returned to normal levels once the rats were back on the ground. It is concluded that the gross metabolic processes are unaffected by simulated weightlessness.

  6. Simulation of cardiovascular response to acceleration stress following weightless exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Leonard, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Physiological adjustments taking place during space flight tend to reduce the tolerance of the crew to headward (+Gz) acceleration experienced during the reentry phase of the flight. This reduced tolerance to acceleration stress apparently arises from an adaptation to the microgravity environment of space, including a decrease in the total circulating blood volume. Countermeasures such as anti-g garments have long been known to improve the tolerance to headward g-force, but their effectiveness in space flight has not been fully evaluated. The simulation study presented in this paper is concerned with the response of the cardiovascular system to g-stress following cardiovascular deconditioning, resulting from exposure to weightlessness, or any of its ground-based experimental analogs. The results serve to demonstrate the utility of mathematical modeling and computer simulation for studying the causes of orthostatic intolerance and the remedial measures to lessen it.

  7. Effects of weightlessness on photosynthesizing cells structure of plant.

    PubMed

    Nedukha, O M

    1997-07-01

    It was established early that the signs of accelerated aging of both plant leaves and of moss chloronema were observed in seedlings of high plants and in Funaria hygrometrica protonema under long term growing under weightlessness. It was observed the structure changing of photosynthesizing cells in Arabidopsis thaliana, Epidendrum radicans and Pisum sativum leaves. Authors found out the extension and vesiculation of thylakoids between chloroplast granas. They observed thylakoids partly destroying under 96 and 110 days microgravity influence. But some questions are still opened: 1. Are these changes consequence of accelerated differentiation and aging photosynthesizing cells? 2. Do the definite changes appear in photosynthesizing cells during short-term microgravity influence? Therefore the study of mesophyll cells ultrastructure of leaves that finished growth by tension in microgravity was the idea of our experiment. PMID:11540707

  8. Yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interaction in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Berthoz, A.; Igarashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Both yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interactions at two separate frequencies of chair rotation (0.2 and 0.8 Hz) in combination with a single velocity of optokinetic stimulus (36 degrees/s) were used to investigate the effects of sustained weightlessness on neural strategies adopted by astronaut subjects to cope with the stimulus rearrangement of spaceflight. Pitch and yaw oscillation in darkness at 0.2 and 0.8 Hz without optokinetic stimulation, and constant velocity linear optokinetic stimulation at 18, 36, and 54 degrees/s presented relative to the head with the subject stationary, were used as controls for the visual-vestibular interactions. The results following 8 days of space flight showed no significant changes in: (1) either the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain, phase, or bias; (2) the yaw visual-vestibular response (VVR); or (3) the horizontal or vertical optokinetic (OKN) slow phase velocity (SPV). However, significant changes were observed: (1) when during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz late inflight, the contribution of the optokinetic input to the combined oculomotor response was smaller than during the stationary OKN SPV measurements, followed by an increased contribution during the immediate postflight testing; and (2) when during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz, the component of the combined oculomotor response due to the underlying vertical VOR was more efficiently suppressed early inflight and less suppressed immediately postflight compared with preflight observations. The larger OKN response during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz and the better suppression of VOR during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz postflight are presumably due to the increased role of vision early inflight and immediately after spaceflight, as previously observed in various studies. These results suggest that the subjects adopted a neural strategy to structure their spatial orientation in weightlessness by reweighting visual, otolith, and perhaps tactile/somatic signals.

  9. Kartogenin induces cartilage-like tissue formation in tendon–bone junction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    Tendon–bone junctions (TBJs) are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. Healing of TBJ injuries is slow and is often repaired with scar tissue formation that compromises normal function. This study explored the feasibility of using kartogenin (KGN), a biocompound, to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. We first determined the effects of KGN on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and patellar tendon stem/progenitor cells (PTSCs) in vitro. KGN enhanced cell proliferation in both cell types in a concentration-dependent manner and induced chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells, as demonstrated by high expression levels of chondrogenic markers aggrecan, collagen II and Sox-9. Besides, KGN induced the formation of cartilage-like tissues in cell cultures, as observed through the staining of abundant proteoglycans, collagen II and osteocalcin. When injected into intact rat patellar tendons in vivo, KGN induced cartilage-like tissue formation in the injected area. Similarly, when KGN was injected into experimentally injured rat Achilles TBJs, wound healing in the TBJs was enhanced, as evidenced by the formation of extensive cartilage-like tissues. These results suggest that KGN may be used as an effective cell-free clinical therapy to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. PMID:25419468

  10. Current Studies of Acupuncture in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hee Kyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Park, Yeon-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture is generally accepted as a safe and harmless treatment option for alleviating pain. To explore the pain mechanism, numerous animal models have been developed to simulate specific human pain conditions, including cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this study, we analyzed the current research methodology of acupuncture for the treatment of CIBP. We electronically searched the PubMed database for animal studies published from 2000 onward using these search terms: (bone cancer OR cancer) AND (pain OR analgesia) AND (acupuncture OR pharmacopuncture OR bee venom). We selected articles that described cancer pain in animal models. We analyzed the methods used to induce cancer pain and the outcome measures used to assess the effects of acupuncture on CIBP in animal models. We reviewed articles that met our inclusion criteria. Injection of mammary cancer cells into the cavity of the tibia was the most frequently used method for inducing CIBP in the animal models. Among the eight selected studies, five studies demonstrated the effects of electroacupuncture on CIBP. The effects of acupuncture were assessed by measuring pain-related behavior. Future researches will be needed to ascertain the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating CIBP and to explore the specific mechanism of CIBP in animal models. PMID:25383081

  11. Latexin is involved in bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kadouchi, Ichiro [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Section of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral Restitution, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Sakamoto, Kei [Section of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral Restitution, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Tangjiao, Liu [Section of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral Restitution, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Section of Oral Pathology, College of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji [Division of Organ Replacement Research, Center for Molecular Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Hoshino, Yuichi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira [Section of Oral Pathology, Department of Oral Restitution, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Global Center of Excellence Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Graduate School of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan)], E-mail: akira.mpa@tmd.ac.jp

    2009-01-16

    Latexin is the only known carboxypeptidase A inhibitor in mammals. We previously demonstrated that BMP-2 significantly induced latexin expression in Runx2-deficient mesenchymal cells (RD-C6 cells), during chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated latexin expression in the skeleton and its role in chondrocyte differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that proliferating and prehypertrophic chondrocytes expressed latexin during skeletogenesis and bone fracture repair. In the early phase of bone fracture, latexin mRNA expression was dramatically upregulated. BMP-2 upregulated the expression of the mRNAs of latexin, Col2a1, and the gene encoding aggrecan (Agc1) in a micromass culture of C3H10T1/2 cells. Overexpression of latexin additively stimulated the BMP-2-induced expression of the mRNAs of Col2a, Agc1, and Col10a1. BMP-2 treatment upregulated Sox9 expression, and Sox9 stimulated the promoter activity of latexin. These results indicate that latexin is involved in BMP-2-induced chondrocyte differentiation and plays an important role in skeletogenesis and skeletal regeneration.

  12. Blast-induced electromagnetic fields in the brain from bone piezoelectricity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka Yan Karen; Nyein, Michelle K; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, J D; Socrate, Simona; Imholt, Timothy; Radovitzky, Raul; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that bone piezoelectricity-a phenomenon in which bone polarizes electrically in response to an applied mechanical stress and produces a short-range electric field-may be a source of intense blast-induced electric fields in the brain, with magnitudes and timescales comparable to fields with known neurological effects. We compute the induced charge density in the skull from stress data on the skull from a finite-element full-head model simulation of a typical IED-scale blast wave incident on an unhelmeted human head as well as a human head protected by a kevlar helmet, and estimate the resulting electric fields in the brain in both cases to be on the order of 10 V/m in millisecond pulses. These fields are more than 10 times stronger than the IEEE safety guidelines for controlled environments (IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 28, 2002) and comparable in strength and timescale to fields from repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) that are designed to induce neurological effects (Wagner et al., 2006a). They can be easily measured by RF antennas, and may provide the means to design a diagnostic tool that records a quantitative measure of the head's exposure to blast insult. PMID:20547228

  13. Mollugin from Rubea cordifolia suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorbing activity in vitro and prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Jung, Youngeun; Moon, Seong-Hee; Choi, Min Kyu; Kim, Seong Hwan; Lee, Myeung Su; Kim, Ikyon; Oh, Jaemin

    2015-01-15

    Osteopenic diseases, such as osteoporosis, are characterized by progressive and excessive bone resorption mediated by enhanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) signaling. Therefore, downregulation of RANKL downstream signals may be a valuable approach for the treatment of bone loss-associated disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the naphthohydroquinone mollugin on osteoclastogenesis and its function in vitro and in vivo. Mollugin efficiently suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts by inhibiting RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression. Mollugin reduced the phosphorylation of signaling pathways activated in the early stages of osteoclast differentiation, including the MAP kinase, Akt, and GSK3? and inhibited the expression of different genes associated with osteoclastogenesis, such as OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, integrin ??, integrin ?3, cathepsin K, and ICAM-1. Furthermore, mice treated with mollugin showed significant restoration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss as indicated by micro-CT and histological analysis of femurs. Consequently, these results suggested that mollugin could be a novel therapeutic candidate for bone loss-associated disorders including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. PMID:25636867

  14. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Cassiane Merigo; Cassol, Tiago; da Silva, Fernanda Soares; Bonfleur, Maria Lucia; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) control and ligature group; 3) cafeteria group; and 4) cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01). Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. PMID:24124386

  15. Aromatase inhibitor adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer results in cancer therapy induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Renee Z

    2013-03-01

    Aromatase Inhibitors are anti-estrogen agents that have proven efficacy for adjuvant therapy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer primarily in post menopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer but increase the risk of cancer therapy induced bone loss (CTIBL). Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of bisphosphonate therapy to play a dual role in the management of breast cancer. These studies provide evidence that bisphosphonate therapy in conjunction with aromatase inhibitors (AI), not only decreases the risk of osteoporosis but, in addition, may improve survival from breast cancer. PMID:23408144

  16. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibits Osteolytic Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis and Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Rim; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Ma, Gwang Taek; Park, Kwang Kyun; Chung, Won Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The most common site of metastasis is bone. Bone metastases obstruct the normal bone remodeling process and aberrantly enhance osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, which results in osteolytic lesions. 15-deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an endogenous ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity at micromolar concentrations through PPAR?-dependent and/or PPAR?-independent pathways. We investigated the inhibitory activity of 15d-PGJ2 on the bone loss that is associated with breast cancer bone metastasis and estrogen deficiency caused by cancer treatment. 15d-PGJ2 dose-dependently inhibited viability, migration, invasion, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. 15d-PGJ2 suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) mRNA levels and normalized osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA levels in hFOB1.19 osteoblastic cells treated with culture medium from MDA-MB-231 cells or PTHrP, which decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio. 15d-PGJ2 blocked RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and inhibited the formation of resorption pits by decreasing the activities of cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinases, which are secreted by mature osteoclasts. 15d-PGJ2 exerted its effects on breast cancer and bone cells via PPAR?-independent pathways. In Balb/c nu/nu mice that received an intracardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 cells, subcutaneously injected 15d-PGJ2 substantially decreased metastatic progression, cancer cell-mediated bone destruction in femora, tibiae, and mandibles, and serum PTHrP levels. 15d-PGJ2 prevented the destruction of femoral trabecular structures in estrogen-deprived ICR mice as measured by bone morphometric parameters and serum biochemical data. Therefore, 15d-PGJ2 may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer-associated bone diseases. PMID:25859665

  17. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Streptozotocin-Induced Bone Loss in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In diabetic patients, the risk of fracture is high because of impaired bone formation. However, the details of the mechanisms in the development of diabetic osteoporosis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis by using PAI-1–deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that PAI-1 deficiency protected against streptozotocin-induced bone loss in female mice but not in male mice. PAI-1 deficiency blunted the changes in the levels of Runx2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase in tibia as well as serum osteocalcin levels suppressed by the diabetic state in female mice only. Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. Streptozotocin markedly elevated the levels of PAI-1 mRNA in liver in female mice only. In vitro study demonstrated that treatment with active PAI-1 suppressed the levels of osteogenic genes and mineralization in primary osteoblasts from female mouse calvaria. In conclusion, the current study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis in females. The expression of PAI-1 in the liver and the sensitivity of bone cells to PAI-1 may be an underlying mechanism. PMID:23715621

  18. Mediators of Inflammation-Induced Bone Damage in Arthritis and Their Control by Herbal Products

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Astry, Brian; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints leading to bone and cartilage damage. Untreated inflammatory arthritis can result in severe deformities and disability. The use of anti-inflammatory agents and biologics has been the mainstay of treatment of RA. However, the prolonged use of such agents may lead to severe adverse reactions. In addition, many of these drugs are quite expensive. These limitations have necessitated the search for newer therapeutic agents for RA. Natural plant products offer a promising resource for potential antiarthritic agents. We describe here the cellular and soluble mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage (osteoimmunology) in arthritis. We also elaborate upon various herbal products that possess antiarthritic activity, particularly mentioning the specific target molecules. As the use of natural product supplements by RA patients is increasing, this paper presents timely and useful information about the mechanism of action of promising herbal products that can inhibit the progression of inflammation and bone damage in the course of arthritis. PMID:23476694

  19. Genistein attenuates glucocorticoid-induced bone deleterious effects through regulation Eph/ephrin expression in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Lin; Liang, Jun-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to investigate bone deteriorations and the involvement of skeletal Eph/ephrin signaling pathway of GIOP aged mice in response to the treatment of genistein. Methods: The biomarkers in serum and urine were measured, tibias were taken for the measurement on gene and protein expression and histomorphology analysis, and femurs were taken for the measurement on bone Ca and three-dimensional architecture of trabecular bone. Results: Genistein showed a greater increase in bone Ca, BMD and significantly increased FGF-23 and OCN, reduced TRACP-5b, PTH and CTX in GIOP mice. Genistein reversed DXM-induced trabecular deleterious effects and stimulated bone remodeling. The treatment of DXM group with genistein significantly elevated the ratio of OPG/RANKL. Moreover, genistein administration down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of Eph A2 and ephrin A2 in tibia of the GIOP mice. In contrast, the mRNA and protein expression of Eph B4 and ephrin B2 were increased in mice treated by DXM with genistein as compared to the DXM single treatment. Conclusions: DXM-induced trabecular bone micro-structure deterioration in aged mice was involved in the regulation of the Eph receptors and ephrin ligands. Genistein might represent a therapy with bone-forming as well as an anti-resorptive activity in GIOP mice. The underlying mechanism was mediated, at least partially, through regulation Eph/ephrin signaling. PMID:25755727

  20. RNA interference of the BMPR-IB gene blocks BMP2-induced osteogenic gene expression in human bone cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Singhatanadgit; V. Salih; I. Olsen

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown that human bone cells express bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IB (BMPR-IB). However, little is known about the precise role of this receptor in the response of osteoblastic genes to the BMP in these cells. To determine BMPR-IB-dependent osteoblastic gene expression, the present study examined the effects of BMPR-IB knockdown on BMP-induced osteoblast-associated genes. BMPR-IB mRNA and protein

  1. Discrimination of human bodies from bones and teeth remains by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncayo, S.; Manzoor, S.; Ugidos, T.; Navarro-Villoslada, F.; Caceres, J. O.

    2014-11-01

    A fast and minimally destructive method based on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Neural Networks (NN) has been developed and applied to the classification and discrimination of human bones and teeth fragments. The methodology can be useful in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) tasks. The elemental compositions of bone and teeth samples provided enough information to achieve a correct discrimination and reassembling of different human remains. Individuals were classified with spectral correlation higher than 95%, regardless of the type of bone or tooth sample analyzed. No false positive or false negative was observed, demonstrating the high robustness and accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  2. Effects of diabetes mellitus on VEGF- induced proliferation response in bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mieno, Shigetoshi; Boodhwani, Munir; Robich, Michael P.; Clements, Richard T.; Sodha, Neel R.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on cellular proliferation associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)signaling in endothelial progenitor cells (EPC’s)and evaluated protein expression involved in cellular proliferation and pro-apoptotic signaling in chronically ischemic myocardium. Methods Insulin dependent DM was induced in yucatan miniswine with alloxan. Eight weeks after induction, chronic ischemia was induced by ameroid constrictor placement around the circumflex coronary artery. Seven weeks after ameroid constrictor, perfusion of ischemic territory was measured by isotope-labeled microspheres, and ischemic myocardium was harvested. Bone marrow (BM) samples were harvested from iliac bone and mononuclear cells (MNC’s) were cryopreserved. EPC’s were isolated from cryopreserved MNC’s in control (n=6) and DM swine (n=6). EPC proliferation was assessed. Results EPC proliferation was decreased in DM as compared to control (1.02±0.09, 0.40±0.04, p<0.01). VEGF induced EPC proliferation was impaired in DM as compared to control (p<0.01). Expression of ERK protein, an activator of VEGF induced cell proliferation, was decreased. AKT activation, an inhibitor of apoptosis, was decreased, while Bad, an activator of pro-apoptotic signaling, was elevated in the ischemic myocardium from DM. Collateral dependent perfusion was impaired in DM. Conclusion Impaired VEGF induced proliferation response in EPC as well as an increase in negative myocardial protein expression for cell proliferation and pro-apoptotic signaling via VEGF could be a therapeutic target to enhance the effects of pro-angiogenesis therapies in DM and other chronic illnesses. PMID:20626511

  3. Deer bone extract prevents against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-02-01

    Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or A?1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200?mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2?mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. PMID:25546299

  4. Alterations in calcium homeostasis and bone during actual and simulated space flight.

    PubMed

    Wronski, T J; Morey, E R

    1983-01-01

    The weightlessness experienced in space produces alterations in calcium homeostasis. Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab astronauts exhibited a negative calcium balance due primarily to hypercalciuria. In addition, the bone mineral density of the calcaneus declined by approximately 4% in Skylab crew members after 84 d of orbital flight. The negative calcium balance and loss of calcaneal bone mineral in normal adults subjected to prolonged bed rest was comparable to that observed in space. The pathogenesis of bone loss during space flight and bed rest is not well understood due to the lack of histomorphometric data. It is also uncertain whether osteoporotic changes in astronauts are corrected postflight. The observed bone loss would be reversible and of no long-term consequence if the only abnormality was an increased remodeling rate. However, altered bone cell activity would probably result in irreversible bone loss with the premature development of senile osteoporosis many years after space flight. The main skeletal defect in growing rats placed in orbit aboard Soviet Cosmos biosatellites appears to be diminished bone formation. Bone resorption was not elevated during weightlessness. Although cortical bone returned to normal postflight, the decline in trabecular bone mass was somewhat persistent. These studies established that the modeling of a growing skeleton was altered in a weightless environment, but do not necessarily imply that a remodeling imbalance occurs in adults during space flight. However, various forms of simulated space flight inhibited bone formation during both skeletal modeling and the remodeling of adult bone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6645871

  5. Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, J. K.; Cao, J. J.; Tatum, O. L.; Dagda, R. Y.; Wang, J.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation plus alphacalcidol administration increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a significant role of GTP plus alphacalcidol in bone health of patients with chronic inflammation. Introduction Studies have suggested that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol are promising dietary supplements for preventing bone loss in women. However, the mechanism(s) related to the possible osteo-protective role of GTP plus D3 in chronic inflammation-induced bone loss is not well understood. Methods This study evaluated bioavailability, efficacy, and related mechanisms of GTP in combination with alphacalcidol in conserving bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 12-week study of 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) × 2 (no alphacalcidol vs. 0.05 ?g/kg alphacalcidol, 5×/week) factorial design in lipopolysaccharide-administered female rats was performed. In addition, a group receiving placebo administration was used to compare with a group receiving lipopolysaccharide administration only to evaluate the effect of lipopolysaccharide. Results Lipopolysaccharide administration resulted in lower values for bone mass, but higher values for serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine, and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2 in spleen. GTP supplementation increased urinary epigallocatechin and epicatechin concentrations. Both GTP supplementation and alphacalcidol administration resulted in a significant increase in bone mass, but a significant decrease in serum TRAP levels, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels, and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2 in spleen. A synergistic effect of GTP and alphacalcidol was observed in these parameters. Neither GTP nor alphacalcidol affected femoral bone area or serum osteocalcin. Conclusion We conclude that a bone-protective role of GTP plus alphacalcidol during chronic inflammation bone loss may be due to a reduction of oxidative stress damage and inflammation. PMID:20069278

  6. NELL1 promotes bone regeneration in polyethylene particle-induced osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xu; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Aiyuan; Zhang, Xinli; Yuan, Mei; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Bin; Fan, Meng; Xue, Jing; Guo, Quanyi; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Qiang; Ting, Kang; Lu, Shibi

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of a craniosynostosis-associated molecule, NEL-like molecule-1 (NELL1; NEL [a protein strongly expressed in neural tissue encoding the epidermal growth factor-like domain]), on osteolysis induced by polyethylene (PE)-particle debris. We used a murine calvarial osteolysis model with in vivo adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene transfer. In total, 76 female Balb/c mice were randomly assigned to four groups for treatment 1 day postoperation: SHAM (injected with 0.1?mL saline without implantation of particles); PE control (injected with 0.1?mL saline after implantation of particles); PE+(Ad-GFP-NELL1) (injected with 0.1?mL Ad-GFP-NELL1 in saline after implantation of particles); and PE+(Ad-GFP) group (injected with 0.1?mL Ad-GFP in saline after implantation of particles). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and NELL1 delivery in vivo after the injection were validated by optical imaging at 10 day postop, and then, all mice were sacrificed for analysis by three-dimensional (3D) microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), histology, and biomechanical testing. Exogenous NELL1 and GFP were expressed in the osteolysis area for at least 9 days after the Ad-GFP-NELL1 injection. Serial 3D micro-CT images and testing of bone volume, bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, bone surface density, and connectivity density revealed that the new bone promoted with the Ad-GFP-NELL1 injection could almost compensate the PE-induced osteolysis and regenerate significantly better than with the Ad-GFP treatment. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) was significantly higher with Ad-GFP-NELL1 transduction among all the samples. Real-time PCR examination confirmed the augmented expression of OPN, Runx-2, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). The elastic modulus was significantly greater with Ad-GFP-NELL1 than with the PE and/or Ad-GFP group (p<0.01). We found no transgene-associated toxic effects. Ad-GFP-NELL1 gene transfer effectively reversed the calvarial osteolysis and could be considered a new treatment for osteolysis through promoting bone regeneration. PMID:22404332

  7. Sequential High-Impact, Free-Fall Loading and Zoledronic Acid as a Novel Pre-Treatment for Disuse-Induced Bone Loss

    E-print Network

    Boudreaux, Ramon

    2014-03-31

    Exercise and Skeletal Anabolism ................................................................................. 11 Bisphosphonates as Anti-Catabolic Therapy ............................................................... 12 Bone Densitometry... provided the greatest protection for bone health to date (25). Exercise and Skeletal Anabolism Muscle contraction induced by resistance exercise is a well-documented method of improving bone health (26-30). Forces produced on the skeleton by muscle...

  8. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  9. Hydromechanics and heat and mass exchange in weightlessness (Russian book): Table of contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Poleshayev, V. I.

    1983-01-01

    The table of contents is given for a book on hydromechanics and heat and mass exchange in weightlessness. The book covers such subjects as hydromechanics, convection and heat and mass exchange, and technological experiments and complicated systems.

  10. Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during Rat Femoral Marrow Ablation-Induced Intramembranous Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Joel K.; Sena, Kotaro; Vranizan, Karen; Pollock, Jacob F.; Healy, Kevin E.; Hughes, W. Frank; Sumner, D. Rick; Virdi, Amarjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced understanding of differential gene expression and biological pathways associated with distinct phases of intramembranous bone regeneration following femoral marrow ablation surgery will improve future advancements regarding osseointegration of joint replacement implants, biomaterials design, and bone tissue engineering. A rat femoral marrow ablation model was performed and genome-wide microarray data were obtained from samples at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28, and 56 days post-ablation, with intact bones serving as controls at Day 0. Bayesian model-based clustering produced eight distinct groups amongst 9,062 significant gene probe sets based on similar temporal expression profiles, which were further categorized into three major temporal classes of increased, variable, and decreased expression. Osteoblastic- and osteoclastic-associated genes were found to be significantly expressed within the increased expression groups. Chondrogenesis was not detected histologically. Adipogenic marker genes were found within variable/decreased expression groups, emphasizing that adipogenesis was inhibited during osteogenesis. Differential biological processes and pathways associated with each major temporal group were identified, and significantly expressed genes involved were visually represented by heat maps. It was determined that the increased expression group exclusively contains genes involved in pathways for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Wnt signaling, TGF-? signaling, and inflammatory pathways. Only the variable expression group contains genes associated with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, the notch signaling pathway, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and the B cell receptor signaling pathway. The decreased group exclusively consists of genes involved in heme biosynthesis, the p53 signaling pathway, and the hematopoietic cell lineage. Significant biological pathways and transcription factors expressed at each time point post-ablation were also identified. These data present the first temporal gene expression profiling analysis of the rat genome during intramembranous bone regeneration induced by femoral marrow ablation. PMID:20957030

  11. Formaldehyde induces the bone marrow toxicity in mice by regulating the expression of Prx3 protein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-Yan; Song, Xiang-Fu; Zhao, Shu-Hua; Liu, Ying; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2015-02-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous toxic organic compound, and it has been regarded as a leukemogen. However, the mechanisms by which FA induces bone marrow toxicity remain unclear. The present study was aimed to examine the bone marrow toxicity caused by FA and the mechanism involving the expression changes of peroxiredoxin3 (Prx3) in this process. The mice were divided into four groups with 6 mice per group. Animals in the control group were exposed to ambient air and those in the FA groups to different concentrations of FA (20, 40, 80 mg/m(3)) for 15 days in the separate inhalation chambers, 2 h a day. At the end of the 15-day experimental period, all mice were killed. Bone marrow cells were obtained. The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the apoptosis rate, and the activities and protein expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were determined by biochemical assay, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively; DNA damage and Prx3 expression levels were measured by single cell gel eletrophoresis immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the H2O2 level and cell apoptosis rate were significantly increased in FA groups relative to the control group. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities and their protein expression levels were markedly increased as well. Additionally, FA also increased the rate of DNA damage and the expression level of Prx3 compared with control group. Our study suggested that a certain concentration of FA causes the bone marrow toxicity by regulating the expression of Prx3. PMID:25673198

  12. Role of Exopolysaccharide in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans–Induced Bone Resorption in a Rat Model for Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Mayilvahanan; Gopal, Prerna; El Abbar, Faiha; Schreiner, Helen C.; Kaplan, Jeffrey B.; Fine, Daniel H.; Ramasubbu, Narayanan

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans a causative agent of periodontal disease in humans, forms biofilm on biotic and abiotic surfaces. A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilm is heterogeneous in nature and is composed of proteins, extracellular DNA and exopolysaccharide. To explore the role played by the exopolysaccharide in the colonization and disease progression, we employed genetic reduction approach using our rat model of A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced periodontitis. To this end, a genetically modified strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans lacking the pga operon was compared with the wild-type strain in the rat infection model. The parent and mutant strains were primarily evaluated for bone resorption and disease. Our study showed that colonization, bone resorption/disease and antibody response were all elevated in the wild-type fed rats. The bone resorption/disease caused by the pga mutant strain, lacking the exopolysaccharide, was significantly less (P < 0.05) than the bone resorption/disease caused by the wild-type strain. Further analysis of the expression levels of selected virulence genes through RT-PCR showed that the decrease in colonization, bone resorption and antibody titer in the absence of the exopolysaccharide might be due to attenuated levels of colonization genes, flp-1, apiA and aae in the mutant strain. This study demonstrates that the effect exerted by the exopolysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced bone resorption has hitherto not been recognized and underscores the role played by the exopolysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced disease. PMID:25706999

  13. Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers’ Understanding of Weightlessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Güner Tural; Ali R?za Akdeniz; Nedim Alev

    2010-01-01

    Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand\\u000a the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and\\u000a related to weightlessness on science student teachers’ learning. The sample of the study was 9 volunteer student teachers\\u000a who were

  14. MicroRNA expression signature for Satb2-induced osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yiming; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Ling; Qian, Yanyan; Chen, Jake; Huang, Huijun; Yu, Youcheng

    2014-02-01

    Satb2 acts as a potent transcription factor to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone regeneration. Recently, microRNAs (miRNA) have been identified as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation. This study aimed to identify specific miRNAs and their regulatory roles in the process of Satb2-induced osteogenic differentiation. We studied the differentially expressed miRNAs by Satb2 overexpression in murine bone marrow stromal cells using miRNA microarray. Ten down-regulated miRNAs including miR-27a, miR-125a-5p, and miR-466f-3p, and 18 up-regulated miRNAs including miR-17, miR-20a and miR-210 were found to be differentially expressed and their expression were verified by quantitative real time PCR. The differentially expressed miRNAs were further subjected to gene ontology and KEGG analysis. The highly enriched GOs and KEGG pathway showed target genes of these miRNAs were significantly involved in multiple biological processes (mesenchymal cell differentiation, bone formation, and skeletal development), and several osteogenic pathways (TGF-?/BMP, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathway). Finally, miR-27a was selected for target verification and function analysis. BMP2, BMPR1A, and Smad9, members of the TGF-?/BMP superfamily, which were predicted to be target genes of miR-27a, were confirmed to be significantly up-regulated in Satb2-overexpressing cells by quantitative real time PCR. Overexpression of miR-27a significantly inhibited osteogenesis and repressed BMP2, BMPR1A, and Smad9 expression. In this study, we identified that a number of differentially regulated miRNAs, whose target genes involved in the TGF-?/BMP signaling pathway, play an important role in the early stage of Satb2-induced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:24218084

  15. Experimental estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia results in bone-related hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Horner, Kathleen C; Cazals, Yves; Guieu, Régis; Lenoir, Marc; Sauze, Nicole

    2007-11-01

    Our group (Horner KC, Guieu R, Magnan J, Chays A, Cazals Y. Neuropsychopharmacology 26: 135-138, 2002) has earlier described hyperprolactinemia in some patients presenting inner ear dysfunction. However, in that study, it was not possible to determine whether hyperprolactinemia was a cause or an effect of the symptoms. To investigate the effect of hyperprolactinemia on inner ear function, we first developed a model of hyperprolactinemia in estrogen-primed Fischer 344 rats and then performed functional studies on pigmented guinea pigs. Hyperprolactinemia induced, after 2 mo, a hearing loss of approximately 30-40 dB across all frequencies, as indicated by the compound action potential audiogram. During the 3rd mo, the hearing loss continued to deteriorate. The threshold shifts were more substantial in males than in females. Observations under a dissection microscope revealed bone dysmorphology of the bulla and the cochlea. Light microscopy observations of cryostat sections confirmed bone-related pathology of the bony cochlear bulla and the cochlear wall and revealed morphopathology of the stria vascularis and spiral ligament. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loss of hair cells and stereocilia damage, in particular in the upper three cochlear turns and the two outermost hair cell rows. The data provide the first evidence of otic capsule and hair cell pathology associated with estrogen-induced prolonged hyperprolactinemia and suggest that conditions such as pregnancy, anti-psychotic drug treatment, aging, and/or stress might lead to similar ear dysfunctions. PMID:17711987

  16. Cadmium-induced bone effect is not mediated via low serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D

    SciTech Connect

    Engstroem, Annette [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerving, Staffan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Burgaz, Ann [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Samsioe, Goeran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Akesson, Agneta [Division of Metals and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Agneta.Akesson@ki.se

    2009-02-15

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental pollutant, which is associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. It has been proposed that cadmium's toxic effect on bone is exerted via impaired activation of vitamin D, secondary to the kidney effects. To test this, we assessed the association of cadmium-induced bone and kidney effects with serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH){sub 2}D); measured by enzyme immunoassay. For the assessment, we selected 85 postmenopausal women, based on low (0.14-0.39 {mu}g/L) or high (0.66-2.1 {mu}g/L) urinary cadmium, within a cross-sectional population-based women's health survey in Southern Sweden. We also measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D, cadmium in blood, bone mineral density and several markers of bone remodeling and kidney effects. Although there were clear differences in both kidney and bone effect markers between women with low and high cadmium exposure, the 1,25(OH){sub 2}D concentrations were not significantly different (median, 111 pmol/L (5-95th percentile, 67-170 pmol/L) in low- and 125 pmol/L (66-200 pmol/L) in high-cadmium groups; p=0.08). Also, there was no association between 1,25(OH){sub 2}D and markers of bone or kidney effects. It is concluded that the low levels of cadmium exposure present in the studied women, although high enough to be associated with lower bone mineral density and increased bone resorption, were not associated with lower serum concentrations of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D. Hence, decreased circulating levels of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D are unlikely to be the proposed link between cadmium-induced effects on kidney and bone.

  17. Hispidulin attenuates bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis via the RANKL-induced NF-?B and NFATc1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Manoj; Choi, Hwa Jung; Choi, Bo-Yun; Yang, Moon-Shik; Chae, Jung-Il; Li, Liang; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-09-01

    Hispidulin, a flavonoid that is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, attenuates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. To investigate the molecular mechanism of its inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis, we employed the receptor activator of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL)-induced murine monocyte/macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) for osteoclastic differentiation in vitro. The inhibitory effect on in vitro osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by counting the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and by measuring the expression levels of osteoclast-specific genes such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), TRAP and cathepsin K. Similarly, hispidulin significantly inhibited osteoclast activity in RAW 264.7 cell as well as stimulated the ALP activity of MC3T3E1 cells. Furthermore, the in vivo suppressive effect on bone loss was assessed quantitatively in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model using microcomputational tomography (?CT) and histochemical analyses. Hispidulin was found to inhibit RANKL-induced activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, in addition to NF-?B in vitro experiment. Additionally, hispidulin decreased NFATc1 transcriptional activity in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. This study identifies hispidulin as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption and provides evidence for its therapeutic potential to treat diseases involving abnormal bone lysis. PMID:23791609

  18. The effect of deferoxamine on angiogenesis and bone repair in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of rabbit femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Fan, Lihong; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether local deferoxamine (DFO) administration can promote angiogenesis and bone repair in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Steroid-induced ONFH was induced in 65 mature male New Zealand white rabbits by methylprednisolone in combination with lipopolysaccharide. Six weeks later, the rabbits received no treatment (model group, N?=?15), bilateral core decompression (CD group, N?=?20) or CD in combination with local DFO administration (DFO group, N?=?20). Six weeks after the surgery, vascularization in the femoral head was evaluated by ink artery infusion angiography and immunohistochemical staining for von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Bone repair was assessed by histologic analysis and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyze the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and osteocalcin (OCN). Ink artery infusion angiography and microvessel analysis by immuohistochemical staining for vWF showed more blood vessels in the DFO group than other groups. The expression of HIF-1?, VEGF, BMP-2, and OCN, indicated by immunohistochemical staining, was higher in the DFO group compared with other groups. Micro-CT scanning results indicated that the DFO group had larger volume of newly formed bone than the CD group. This work indicated that local DFO administration improved angiogenesis and bone repair of early stage ONFH in rabbit model, and it may offer an efficient, economic, and simple therapy for early stage ONFH. PMID:25294892

  19. Space flight and bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, St B.

    2004-01-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

  20. Space flight and bone formation.

    PubMed

    Doty, St B

    2004-12-01

    Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth. PMID:15895501

  1. Conjugated linoleic Acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight-week old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containing 0.5 % safflower oil (SFO) or 0.5 % CLA for 24 weeks to examine BMD, bone turn over markers and osteotropic factors. Bone marrow (BM) cells were cultured to determine the effect on inflammation, osteoclastogenesis, and osteoblastogenesis. SFO/Ovx mice had significantly lower femoral, tibial and lumbar BMD compared to SFO/Sham mice; whereas, no difference was found between CLA/Ovx and CLA/Sham mice. CLA inhibited bone resorption markers whereas enhanced bone formation markers in Ovx mice as compared to SFO-fed mice. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorting analyses of splenocytes revealed that CLA inhibited pro-osteoclastogenic receptor activator of NF-?B (RANKL) and stimulated decoy receptor of RANKL, osteoprotegerin expression. CLA also inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine production of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated splenocytes and BM cells. Furthermore, CLA inhibited osteoclast differentiation in BM and stimulated osteoblast differentiation in BM stromal cells as confirmed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In conclusion, CLA may prevent postmenopausal bone loss not only by inhibiting excessive bone resorption due to estrogen deficiency but also by stimulating new bone formation. CLA might be a potential alternative therapy against osteoporotic bone loss. PMID:24338525

  2. Thyroid hormone stimulates basal and interleukin (IL)-1-induced IL6 production in human bone marrow stromal cells: a possible mediator of thyroid hormone-induced bone loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C-H Kim; H-K Kim; Y K Shong; K-U Lee; G S Kim

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that excessive thyroid hormone in the body is associated with bone loss. However, the mechan- ism by which thyroid hormone aVects bone turnover remains unclear. It has been shown that it stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption indirectly via unknown mediators secreted by osteoblasts. To determine if interleukin-6 (IL-6) or interleukin-11 (IL-11) could be the mediator(s) of thyroid

  3. Immediate periodontal bone plate changes induced by rapid maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition: CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Menezes, Maria Helena Ocké; da Silva Filho, Omar Gabriel; dos Santos, Patricia Bittencourt Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at evaluating buccal and lingual bone plate changes caused by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the mixed dentition by means of computed tomography (CT). Methods The sample comprised spiral CT exams taken from 22 mixed dentition patients from 6 to 9 years of age (mean age of 8.1 years) presenting constricted maxillary arch treated with Haas-type expanders. Patients were submitted to spiral CT scan before expansion and after the screw activation period with a 30-day interval between T1 and T2. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to measure buccal and lingual bone plate thickness and buccal bone crest level of maxillary posterior deciduous and permanent teeth. Changes induced by expansion were evaluated using paired t test (p < 0.05). Results Thickness of buccal and lingual bone plates of posterior teeth remained unchanged during the expansion period, except for deciduous second molars which showed a slight reduction in bone thickness at the distal region of its buccal aspect. Buccal bone dehiscences were not observed in the supporting teeth after expansion. Conclusion RME performed in mixed dentition did not produce immediate undesirable effects on periodontal bone tissues. PMID:25162564

  4. Bone composition and metabolism after hyperbaric oxygenation in rats with 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate-induced rickets.

    PubMed

    Iwase, T; Hasegawa, Y; Ito, T; Makihara, N; Takahashi, H; Iwata, H

    1996-03-01

    We examined bone composition and metabolism after hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) in Wistar rats with 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP)-induced rickets. Twenty rats at 4 wk of age were divided into four groups of five rats each. The HEBP + HBO group received high dose (50 mg.kg-1.day-1) HEBP injections subcutaneously for 7 days and were then exposed to HBO for 7 days. The HEBP group received only high dose HEBP injection for the first 7 days. Control group A received neither HEBP nor HBO. Control group B received no HEBP injection and was exposed to HBO only for the second 7 days. Both bone mineral and hydroxyproline contents significantly increased in rats in the HEBP + HBO group as compared with the HEBP group. Alkaline phosphatase activity of bone, which is a marker of osteoblastic activity and bone formation, was high in the HEBP + HBO and HEBP groups compared with control groups A and B, although there was no difference between the former two groups. On the other hand, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, which is a marker of bone resorption, was lower in the HEBP + HBO group than in the HEBP group. These findings suggest that HBO suppresses bone resorption in high osteoblastic activity after the cessation of HEBP administration, and this phenomenon increases total bone mass. PMID:8653066

  5. TGF-?1 induces senescence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells via increase of mitochondrial ROS production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into diverse cell types, including cardiomyocytes. BmMSC-based transplantation is capable of repairing acute and chronic myocardial infarction. Prior to the transplantation, MSCs are usually induced in vitro by biological reagents and chemicals for directional differentiation. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is one of the most commonly used biological reagents for induction of cardiomyocyte differentiation of bmMSCs. Previous studies have shown that TGF-? induces senescence in several cell types. However, whether TGF-? affects senescence of bmMSCs has not been elucidated. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of TGF-?1 on senescence of bmMSCs and the underlying mechanisms. Results We found that TGF-?1 increased activity of senescence-associated-galactosidase (SA-Gal) and production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in bmMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. TGF-?1 also significantly decreased expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and Id1, and increased expression of 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) subunits and p16 in bmMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with mtROS inhibitor acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR, 0.1 mM) significantly inhibited TGF-?1-induced mtROS production and SA-Gal activity. Conclusion TGF-?1 can induce senescence of bmMSCs, which at least partially depends on mtROS production. PMID:24886313

  6. Second All-Union Seminar on Hydromechanics and Heat and Mass Exchange in Weightlessness, summaries of reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershuni, G. Z. (editor); Zhukhovitskiy, Y. M. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of reports are given which were presented at the Second All Union Seminar on Hydromechanics and Heat-Mass Transfer in Weightlessness. Topics include: (1) features of crystallization of semiconductor materials under conditions of microacceleration; (2) experimental results of crystallization of solid solutions of CDTE-HGTE under conditions of weightlessness; (3) impurities in crystals cultivated under conditions of weightlessness; and (4) a numerical investigation of the distribution of impurities during guided crystallization of a melt.

  7. Second All-Union Seminar on Hydromechanics and Heat-Mass Transfer in Weightlessness. Abstracts of reports: Table of contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershuni, G. Z.; Zhukhovitskiy, Y. M.

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of reports are given which were presented at the Second All Union Seminar on Hydromechanics and Heat-Mass Transfer in Weightlessness. Topics inlcude: (1) features of crystallization of semiconductor materials under conditions of microacceleration; (2) experimental results of crystallization of solid solutions of CDTE-HGTE under conditions of weightlessness; (3) impurities in crystals cultivated under conditions of weightlessness; and (4) a numerical investigation of the distribution of impurities during guided crystallization of a melt.

  8. Expressions of integrin subunits in osteoblasts during weightlessness simulation using clionstat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Zhao, D.; Nie, J.; Li, Y.

    Space flight experiments and studies carried out in altered gravity environments have revealed that exposure to altered gravity conditions results in (mal)adaptation of cellular function. In the present study, we used a clinostat to generate a vector-averaged gravity to simulate weightlessness environment. We then observed the responses of rat calvarial osteoblasts subsequent to rotation at 30 revolutions per minute (rpm) for 72 h. We found that the gene expressions of three integrin subunits started to change from 24 h of rotation in clinostat but not in stationary cultures. The decreased percent changes of integrin a5 mRNA at 24, 48 and 72 h were 11.3 +/- 2.6%, 18.7 +/- 4.2% and 9.8 +/ - 2.1%, respectively. The same trend was saw in the expression of integrin av mRNA as 23.0 +/- 4.7%, 12.3 +/- 1.6% and 16.7 +/- 3.2%, respectively. Moreover, the expressions of integrin ß1 mRNA in different periods were also declined with the percent changes of 15.3 +/- 1.3%, 11.4 +/- 1.2% and 26.4 +/- 5.5%, respectively. All cells contain membrane-anchored attachment proteins able to recognize specific chemical motifs in the extracellular macromolecules forming the supporting scaffold, made of various types of collagen, adhesive glycoproteins, elastin, proteoglycans, etc. These cell-matrix interactions are mainly mediated by receptors of the integrins family, heterodimeric molecules made of an extracellular domain connected through a transmembrane sequence to an intracytoplasmic tail. Our results suggest that vector-averaged gravity causes alterations of signal transduction and integrin-mediated cell adhesion in osteoblasts by altering the gene expressions of several crucial integrin subunits. These alterations might contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporotic bone loss as observed in actual space flights.

  9. Relationships between orientation, movement and posture in weightlessness: preliminary ethological observations.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, C

    1990-04-01

    Weightlessness in man induces changes in astronaut orientations and consequently in his patterns of movements and postures. An ethological method has been used to describe the "overall" spontaneous behaviour of astronauts as seen from video recordings made during Space Flights. The work has consisted in analysing the relationships between orientation, movement and posture as an indication of a motor adaptative reorganization in such a situation. The results obtained lead us to consider three different aspects: (1) Orientation references. The astronaut orientates himself with reference to the Space Shuttle's internal structure; the increase of visual activity confirms the choice of the retinal vertical as frame of reference. (2) Motor coordination. The main data reveals a decrease in motor stereotypes by the diversity of motor acts observed and the importance of the link between orientation and posture described as follows: slightly inclined forward position, with legs flexed at about 135 degrees. (3) Cognitive references. There appears to be a new organization of the cognitive image of the body scheme, the missing vestibular information being supplied by peripheral vision instead which could play a role in the astronaut's perception of his own movement. PMID:11540652

  10. Is gastrectomy-induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis and increase of mineralization a typical osteomalacia?

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Ueda, Kazuki; Yajima, Aiji; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Yamashita, Yasunobu; Ito, Takao; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) is thought to result in osteomalacia due to deficiencies in Vitamin D and Ca. Using a GX rat model, we showed that GX induced high turnover of bone with hyperosteoidosis, prominent increase of mineralization and increased mRNA expression of both osteoclast-derived tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and osteocalcin. The increased 1, 25(OH)2D3 level and unchanged PTH and calcitonin levels suggested that conventional bone and Ca metabolic pathways were not involved or changed in compensation. Thus, GX-induced bone pathology was different from a typical osteomalacia. Gene expression profiles through microarray analysis and data mining using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that 612 genes were up-regulated and 1,097 genes were down-regulated in the GX bone. These genes were related functionally to connective tissue development, skeletal and muscular system development and function, Ca signaling and the role of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and chondrocytes. Network analysis indicated 9 genes (Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1; Aquaporin 9; Interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein; Very low density lipoprotein receptor; Periostin, osteoblast specific factor; Aggrecan; Gremlin 1; Angiopoietin-like 4; Wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B) were hubs connected with tissue development and immunological diseases. These results suggest that chronic systemic inflammation might underlie the GX-induced pathological changes in bone. PMID:23776526

  11. Smoke-induced signal molecules in bone marrow cells from altered low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Danjun; Li, Yan; Hackfort, Bryan; Zhao, Yingchun; Xiao, Jing; Swanson, Patrick C; Lappe, Joan; Xiao, Peng; Cullen, Diane; Akhter, Mohammed; Recker, Robert; Xiao, Gary Guishan

    2012-07-01

    Mechanism underlying smoke-induced loss of bone mass is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that protein signals induced by smoking in bone marrow may be associated with the loss of bone mass. Using a proteomics approach, we identified 38 proteins differentially expressed in bone marrow cells from low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) mice exposed to cigarette smoking. Smoking effects on protein expression in bone marrow among three genotypes (Lrp5(+/+), Lrp5(G171V), and Lrp5(-/-)) varied. On the basis of the ratio of protein expression induced by smoking versus nonsmoking, smoke induced protein expression significantly in wild-type mice compared to the other two genotypes (Lrp5(G171V) and Lrp5(-/-)). These proteins include inhibitors of ?-catenin and proteins associated with differentiation of osteoclasts. We observed that S100A8 and S100A9 were overexpressed in human smokers compared to nonsmokers, which confirmed the effect of smoking on the expression of two proteins in Lrp5 mice, suggesting the role of these proteins in bone remodeling. Smoke induced expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in a time-dependent fashion, which was opposite of the changes in the ratio of OPG/RANKL in bone marrow cells, suggesting that the high levels of S100A8 and S100A9 may be associated with smoke-induced bone loss by increasing bone resorption. PMID:22616666

  12. Induction of bone-marrow eosinophilia in mice submitted to surgery is dependent on stress-induced secretion of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Elsas, Pedro Xavier; Neto, Heitor A Paula; Cheraim, Alessandra B; Magalhães, Elisabeth S S; Accioly, Maria Theresa S; Carvalho, Vinicius F; e Silva, Patricia M R; Vargaftig, B B; Cunha, Fernando Q; Gaspar Elsas, Maria Ignez C

    2004-01-01

    We examined bone-marrow in mice receiving subcutaneous implants of heat-coagulated egg white, which are known to present chronic eosinophilic inflammation at the implant site. Egg white implants (EWIs) induced marked bone-marrow eosinophilia, and increased bone-marrow cell responses to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-5 in culture. These effects were observed as early as 24 h and lasted for, at least, 30 days in implant recipients. We found, however, that increased eosinophil production was also observed in control mice which underwent surgery but received no EWI (sham-implanted mice), up to 15 days post-surgery. As this suggests an important contribution of nonspecific stress mechanisms to eosinopoiesis, we further evaluated the role of stress hormones produced by the adrenal glands in the bone-marrow eosinophilia of sham-implanted mice. Bone-marrow eosinophilia in mice undergoing surgery was dissociated from increases in other haemopoietic lineages. Surgery by itself increased circulating corticosterone levels by 24 h, and the increase was prevented by inhibition of adrenal glucocorticoid production by metyrapone. The effect of surgery on bone-marrow eosinophilia was prevented by pretreatment with both the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, mifepristone, and metyrapone, and by surgical adrenalectomy. By contrast, cathecolamine receptor antagonists (propranolol, prazosin and yohimbine) were ineffective, indicating that cathecolamine release from the adrenal glands was not responsible for the effects on bone-marrow. These results highlight a critical role for stress-induced glucocorticoid hormones in selectively upregulating bone-marrow eosinopoiesis in mice submitted to surgery. PMID:15381631

  13. Lactobacillus fermentation enhances the inhibitory effect of Hwangryun-haedok-tang in an ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hwangryun-haedok-tang (HRT) is traditional herbal medicine used to treat inflammatory-related diseases in Asia. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effect of HRT and its fermented product (fHRT) on the receptor activator for the nuclear factor-?B ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis using murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and postmenopausal bone loss using an ovariectomy (OVX) rat model. Methods Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was employed to evaluate osteoclast formation. mRNA level of transcription factor and protein levels of signaling molecules were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. Effect of HRT or fHRT on OVX-induced bone loss was evaluated using OVX rats orally administered HRT, or fHRT with 300 mg/kg for 12 weeks. Micro-CT analysis of femora was performed to analyze bone parameter. Results HRT or fHRT treatment significantly decreased TRAP activity and the number of TRAP positive multinuclear cells on osteoclastogenesis. Interestingly, these inhibitory effects of HRT were enhanced by fermentation. Furthermore, fHRT significantly inhibited mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, which leads to down-regulation of NFATc1-regulated mRNA expressions such as TRAP, the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V(0) domain, and cathepsin K. Administration of fHRT significantly inhibited the decrease of bone mineral density, and improved bone parameter of femora more than that of HRT and vehicle in OVX rats. Conclusions This study demonstrated that lactic bacterial fermentation fortifies the inhibitory effect of HRT on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These results suggest that fermented HRT might have the beneficial potential on osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. PMID:23680047

  14. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Water immersion and its computer simulation as analogs of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies and computer simulations of water immersion are summarized and discussed with regard to their utility as analogs of weightlessness. Emphasis is placed on describing and interpreting the renal, endocrine, fluid, and circulatory changes that take place during immersion. A mathematical model, based on concepts of fluid volume regulation, is shown to be well suited to simulate the dynamic responses to water immersion. Further, it is shown that such a model provides a means to study specific mechanisms and pathways involved in the immersion response. A number of hypotheses are evaluated with the model related to the effects of dehydration, venous pressure disturbances, the control of ADH, and changes in plasma-interstitial volume. By inference, it is suggested that most of the model's responses to water immersion are plausible predictions of the acute changes expected, but not yet measured, during space flight. One important prediction of the model is that previous attempts to measure a diuresis during space flight failed because astronauts may have been dehydrated and urine samples were pooled over 24-hour periods.

  16. Mechanism for negative water balance during weightlessness An hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism for the apparent decrease in body fluid volume in astronauts during spaceflight remains obscure. The widespread postulate that the hypohydration is the result of the Henry-Gauer reflex, a diuresis caused by inhibition of vasopressin secretion resulting from increased left and perhaps right atrial (central) venous pressure, has not been established with direct measurements on astronauts. An hypothesis is proposed to account for fluid-electrolyte shifts during weightlessness. A moderate but transient increase in central venous pressure occurs when orbit is entered that is insufficient to activate the Henry-Gauer reflex but sufficient to stimulate the release of atrial natriuretic peptides. Increased sodium excretion would facilitate some increased urinary water loss. The resulting relatively dilute plasma and interstitial fluids would cause fluid to shift into the cellular space, resulting in edema in the head and trunk and inhibition of thirst and drinking. Thus, the negative water balance in astronauts would be caused by a gradual natriuresis and diuresis coupled with reduced fluid intake.

  17. Response to muscular exercise following repeated simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Kirby, C. R.; Karst, G. M.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of 10-d 6-deg-head-down bed rest (BR1), 14 d of recovery, another 10 d bed rest (BR2), and another 14-d recovery on the cardiovascular response to a graded supine cycle ergometer test (4 min unloaded 60-rpm pedaling followed by 15-W/min increasing work load to volitional fatigue) are investigated experimentally in seven male nonsmokers of mean age 41 yrs, mean weight 80.2 kg, mean height 178 cm, and mean body fat content 22.3 percent. Ergometer tests are performed before BR1, after BR1 and BR2, and 14 d after BR2. The results are presented in tables, and it is found that the significantly decreased maximum-O2-uptake, gas-exchange-aerobic-threshold, and plasma-volume responses and the increased submaximal and maximal heart rates observed (relative to pre-BR1 levels) after BR1 and BR2 return to pre-BR1 values 14 d after BR2. It is inferred that 14 d of mild exercise are adequate for recovery from even repeated exposure to this type of simulated weightlessness.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  19. CALCOSPHERULITES* ISOLATED FROM THE MINERALIZATION FRONT OF BONE INDUCE THE MINERALIZATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN

    PubMed Central

    Midura, Ronald J.; Vasanji, Amit; Su, Xiaowei; Wang, Aimin; Midura, Sharon B.; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that “calcospherulites” actively participate in the mineralization of developing and healing bone. This study sought to directly test this hypothesis by developing a method to isolate calcospherulites and analyzing their capacity to seed mineralization of fibrillar collagen. The periosteal surface of juvenile rat tibial diaphysis was enriched in spherulites of ~0.5-micron diameter exhibiting a Ca/P ratio of 1.3. Their identity as calcospherulites was confirmed by their uptake of calcein at the tibial mineralization front 24 h following in vivo injection. Periosteum was dissected and unmineralized osteoid removed by collagenase in order to expose calcospherulites. Calcein-labeled calcospherulites were then released from the mineralization front by dispase digestion and isolated via fluorescence flow sorting. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed they contained apatite crystals (c-axis length of 17.5 ± 0.2 nm), though their Ca/P ratio of 1.3 is lower than that of hydroxyapatite. Much of their non-mineral phosphorous content was removed by ice-cold ethanol, elevating their Ca/P ratio to 1.6, suggesting the presence of phospholipids. Western blot analyses showed the presence of bone matrix proteins and type I collagen in these preparations. Incubating isolated calcospherulites in collagen hydrogels demonstrated that they could seed a mineralization reaction on type I collagen fibers in vitro. Ultrastructural analyses revealed crystals on the collagen fibers that were distributed rather uniformly along the fiber lengths. Furthermore, crystals were observed at distances well away from the observed calcospherulites. Our results directly support an active role for calcospherulites in inducing the mineralization of type I collagen fibers at the mineralization front of bone. PMID:17936099

  20. Formaldehyde induces bone marrow toxicity in mice by inhibiting peroxiredoxin 2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangyan; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Xiaomei; Guo, Caixia; Du, Haiying; Sun, Zhiwei

    2014-10-01

    Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2), a member of the peroxiredoxin family, regulates numerous cellular processes through intracellular oxidative signal transduction pathways. Formaldehyde (FA)-induced toxic damage involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) that trigger subsequent toxic effects and inflammatory responses. The present study aimed to investigate the role of Prx2 in the development of bone marrow toxicity caused by FA and the mechanism underlying FA toxicity. According to the results of the preliminary investigations, the mice were divided into four groups (n=6 per group). One group was exposed to ambient air and the other three groups were exposed to different concentrations of FA (20, 40, 80 mg/m3) for 15 days in the respective inhalation chambers, for 2 h a day. At the end of the 15-day experimental period, all of the mice were sacrificed and bone marrow cells were obtained. Cell samples were used for the determination of pathology, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and protein expression; as well as for the determination of DNA damage and Prx2 expression. The results revealed an evident pathological change in the FA-treated groups, as compared with the controls. In the FA treatment group GSH-Px activity was decreased, while MPO activity and protein expression were increased. The rate of micronucleus and DNA damage in the FA-treated groups was also increased and was significantly different compared with the control, while the expression of Prx2 was decreased. The present study suggested that at certain concentrations, FA had a toxic effect on bone marrow cells and that changes in the Prx2 expression are involved in this process. PMID:25109304

  1. Protein Malnutrition Induces Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Commitment to Adipogenic Differentiation Leading to Hematopoietic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Mayara Caldas Ramos; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Hastreiter, Araceli; Curi, Rui; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2013-01-01

    Protein malnutrition (PM) results in pathological changes that are associated with peripheral leukopenia, bone marrow (BM) hypoplasia and alterations in the BM microenvironment leading to hematopoietic failure; however, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this context, the BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cells intimately related to the formation of the BM microenvironment, and their differentiation into adipocytes is important because adipocytes are cells that have the capability to negatively modulate hematopoiesis. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were subjected to protein-energy malnutrition with a low-protein diet containing 2% protein, whereas control animals were fed a diet containing 12% protein. The hematopoietic parameters and the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells in the BM were evaluated. MSCs were isolated from BM, and their capability to produce SCF, IL-3, G-CSF and GM-CSF were analyzed. The expression of PPAR-? and C/EBP-? as well as the expression of PPAR-? and SREBP mRNAs were evaluated in MSCs together with their capability to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. The malnourished animals had anemia and leukopenia as well as spleen and bone marrow hypoplasia and a reduction in the expression of CD45 and CD117 positive cells from BM. The MSCs of the malnourished mice presented an increased capability to produce SCF and reduced production of G-CSF and GM-CSF. The MSCs from the malnourished animals showed increased expression of PPAR-? protein and PPAR-? mRNA associated with an increased capability to differentiate into adipocytes. The alterations found in the malnourished animals allowed us to conclude that malnutrition committed MSC differentiation leading to adipocyte decision and compromised their capacity for cytokine production, contributing to an impaired hematopoietic microenvironment and inducing the bone marrow failure commonly observed in protein malnutrition states. PMID:23516566

  2. Green tea polyphenols mitigate bone loss of female rats in a chronic inflammation-induced bone loss model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to explore bioavailability, efficacy, and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) related to preventing bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 2 (placebo vs. lipopolysaccharide, LPS) × 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) factorial design using ...

  3. Obesity induced by high dietary fat leads to increased bone resorption marker, TRAP, and decreased bone mass in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity, which is growing in prevalence, is a risk factor for such chronic health disorders as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is thought to be a protective factor for osteoporosis and bone fractures in humans. Accumulating data in humans suggest that fat mass has a negative effect...

  4. Humoral bone morphogenetic protein 2 is sufficient for inducing breast cancer microcalcification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangbing; Bloch, Nathalie; Bhushan, Kumar R; De Grand, Alec M; Tanaka, Eiichi; Solazzo, Stephanie; Mertyna, Pawel M; Goldberg, Nahum; Frangioni, John V; Lenkinski, Robert E

    2008-01-01

    Microcalcifications are an important diagnostic marker for breast cancer on mammograms, yet the mechanism of their formation is poorly understood. Indeed, there is presently no short-latency, high-yield, syngeneic rodent model of the process. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a key mediator of physiologic bone formation and pathologic vasculature calcification, but its role in breast cancer microcalcification is unknown. In this study, R3230 rat breast tumors were adapted to cell culture, transduced with adenoviral BMP-2, and inoculated into a syngeneic host. Tumor growth and calcium salt deposition were quantified in living animals over time using micro-computed tomography and probed chemically using near-infrared fluorescence. Plasma BMP-2 levels were quantified over time by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Within 3 weeks, 100% of the breast tumors developed microcalcifications, which were absent from all normal tissues. Importantly, when two tumors were initiated in a single host, the ipsilateral tumor expressing BMP-2 was able to induce microcalcification in the contralateral tumor that was not expressing BMP-2, suggesting that BMP-2 can act humorally. Taken together, we describe the first reproducible rodent model of breast cancer microcalcification, prove that BMP-2 expression is sufficient for initiating the process, and lay the foundation for a new generation of targeted diagnostic agents. PMID:19123988

  5. Osteoclast Response to Low Extracellular Sodium and the Mechanism of Hyponatremia-induced Bone Loss*

    PubMed Central

    Barsony, Julia; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Verbalis, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent animal and human studies revealed that chronic hyponatremia is a previously unrecognized cause of osteoporosis that is associated with increased osteoclast numbers in a rat model of the human disease of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). We used cellular and molecular approaches to demonstrate that sustained low extracellular sodium ion concentrations ([Na+]) directly stimulate osteoclastogenesis and resorptive activity and to explore the mechanisms underlying this effect. Assays on murine preosteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells and on primary bone marrow monocytes both indicated that lowering the medium [Na+] dose-dependently increased osteoclast formation and resorptive activity. Low [Na+], rather than low osmolality, triggered these effects. Chronic reduction of [Na+] dose-dependently decreased intracellular calcium without depleting endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Moreover, we found that reduction of [Na+] dose-dependently decreased cellular uptake of radiolabeled ascorbic acid, and reduction of ascorbic acid in the culture medium mimicked the osteoclastogenic effect of low [Na+]. We also detected downstream effects of reduced ascorbic acid uptake, namely evidence of hyponatremia-induced oxidative stress. This was manifested by increased intracellular free oxygen radical accumulation and proportional changes in protein expression and phosphorylation, as indicated by Western blot analysis from cellular extracts and by increased serum 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine levels in vivo in rats. Our results therefore reveal novel sodium signaling mechanisms in osteoclasts that may serve to mobilize sodium from bone stores during prolonged hyponatremia, thereby leading to a resorptive osteoporosis in patients with SIADH. PMID:21135109

  6. Senescence-unrelated impediment of osteogenesis from Flk1+ bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by total body irradiation and its contribution to long-term bone and hematopoietic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Ma; Mingxia Shi; Jing Li; Bin Chen; Honglan Wang; Bingzong Li; Jianli Hu; Ying Cao; Baijun Fang; Robert Chunhua Zhao

    Background and Objectives Ionizing irradiation is a common treatment for cancer patients and can result in adverse side effects affecting the bone and hematopoietic systems. Although some studies have demonstrated that ionizing radiation can induce apoptosis and senes- cence in hematopoietic stem cells, little is known about the effects of total body irra- diation (TBI) on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal

  7. Osteopontin is associated with nuclear factor {kappa}B gene expression during tail-suspension-induced bone loss

    SciTech Connect

    Ishijima, Muneaki [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 3-10, Kanda-Surugadai 2-Chome, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Ezura, Yoichi [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 3-10, Kanda-Surugadai 2-Chome, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan) and Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Gerontology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki (Japan)]. E-mail: ezura.mph@mril.tmd.ac.jp; Tsuji, Kunikazu [Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 3-10, Kanda-Surugadai 2-Chome, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)] (and others)

    2006-10-01

    Osteoporosis due to unloading-induced bone loss is a critical issue in the modern aging society. Although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown, osteopontin (OPN) is one of the critical mediators required for unloading-induced bone loss [M. Ishijima, S.R. Rittling, T. Yamashita, K. Tsuji, H. Kurosawa, A. Nifuji, D.T. Denhardt, and M. Noda, Enhancement of osteoclastic bone resorption and suppression of osteoblastic bone formation in response to reduced mechanical stress do not occur in the absence of osteopontin, J Exp Med, 193 (2001) 399-404]. To clarify the molecular bases for OPN actions, we carried out microarray analyses on the genes expressed in the femoral bone marrow cells in wild type and OPN-/- mice. The removal of the mechanical load induced bone loss in wild type, but not in OPN-/- mice, as previously reported. Expression analysis of 9586 cDNAs on a microarray system revealed that OPN deficiency blocked tail-suspension-induced expression of ten genes (group A). This observation was confirmed based on semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses. On the other hand, expression of four genes (group B) was not altered by tail suspension in wild type but was enhanced in OPN-deficient mice. NF-{kappa}B p105 subunit gene (Nfkb1) was found in group A and Bax in group B. p53 gene expression was upregulated by tail suspension in wild type mice, but it was no longer observed in OPN-/- mice. These data indicate that OPN acts to mediate mechanical stress signaling upstream to the genes encoding apoptosis-related molecules, and its action is associated with alteration of the genes.

  8. Bone marrow fat: linking adipocyte-induced inflammation with skeletal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Hardaway, Aimalie L.; Herroon, Mackenzie K.; Rajagurubandara, Erandi

    2014-01-01

    Adipocytes are important but underappreciated components of bone marrow microenvironment, and their numbers greatly increase with age, obesity, and associated metabolic pathologies. Age and obesity are also significant risk factors for development of metastatic prostate cancer. Adipocytes are metabolically active cells that secrete adipokines, growth factors, and inflammatory mediators; influence behavior and function of neighboring cells; and have a potential to disturb local milleu and dysregulate normal bone homeostasis. Increased marrow adiposity has been linked to bone marrow inflammation and osteoporosis of the bone, but its effects on growth and progression of prostate tumors that have metastasized to the skeleton are currently not known. This review focuses on fat-bone relationship in a context of normal bone homeostasis and metastatic tumor growth in bone. We discuss effects of marrow fat cells on bone metabolism, hematopoiesis, and inflammation. Special attention is given to CCL2- and COX-2-driven pathways and their potential as therapeutic targets for bone metastatic disease. PMID:24398857

  9. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) (CCT) fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-)induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70?mg/kg b.w.) 1?hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24?hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs). In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs) per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P < 0.0001). At 200?mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24324391

  10. Effects of ovariectomy and estrogen replacement therapy on arthritis and bone mineral density in rats with collagen-induced arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Yamasaki; M Enokida; T Okano; H Hagino; R Teshima

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ovariectomy (ovx) and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on bone mineral density (BMD) and arthritis severity in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Seven-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into a sham group (n = 8), CIA group (n = 14), ovx group (n = 10), CIA + ovx group (n = 11), and CIA + ovx

  11. Sound and\\/or Pressure-Induced Vertigo Due to Bone Dehiscence of the Superior Semicircular Canal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lloyd B. Minor; David Solomon; James S. Zinreich; David S. Zee

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To present symptoms, patterns of nystag- mus, and computed tomographic scan identification of patients with sound- and\\/or pressure-induced vertigo due to dehiscence of bone overlying the superior semicircu- lar canal. To describe anatomical findings and outcome in 2 patients undergoing plugging of the superior semi- circular canal for treatment of these symptoms. Design and Setting: Prospective study of a

  12. Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wey-Ran; Inatomi, Osamu; Lee, Chung Y; Kallis, Yiannis N; Otto, William R; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Alison, Malcolm R

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bone marrow (BM) cells may transdifferentiate into circulating fibrocytes and myofibroblasts in organ fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the contribution and functional roles of BM-derived cells in murine cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis. C57/BL6 female mice wild-type (WT) or Col 1?1r/r male BM transplant, received supraphysiological doses of cerulein to induce pancreatic fibrosis. The CD45+Col 1+ fibrocytes isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and pancreatic tissue were examined by in situ hybridization for Y chromosome detection. The number of BM-derived myofibroblasts, the degree of Sirius red staining and the levels of Col 1?1 mRNA were quantified. The Y chromosome was detected in the nuclei of PB CD45+Col 1+ fibrocytes, confirming that circulating fibrocytes can be derived from BM. Co-expression of ?-smooth muscle actin illustrated that fibrocytes can differentiate into myofibroblasts. The number of BM-derived myofibroblasts, degree of collagen deposition and pro-collagen I mRNA expression were higher in the mice that received Col 1?1r/r BM, (cells that produce mutated, collagenase-resistant collagen) compared to WT BM, indicating that the genotype of BM cells can alter the degree of pancreatic fibrosis. Our data indicate that CD45+Col 1+ fibrocytes in the PB can be BM-derived, functionally contributing to cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis in mice by differentiating into myofibroblasts. PMID:22283686

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 inhibits liposaccharide-induced inflammation in the airway.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengtu; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenting; Li, Defu; Xu, Chuyi; Zhang, Kedong; Qi, Yafei; Gong, Xuefang; Tang, Chun; Zhong, Nanshan; Lu, Wenju

    2014-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is a multifunctional growth factor that belongs to the TGF-? superfamily. The role of BMP4 in lung diseases is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that BMP4 was upregulated in lungs undergoing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, and in airway epithelial cells treated with LPS or TNF-?. BMP4 mutant (BMP4(+/-) ) mice presented with more severe lung inflammation in response to LPS or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and lower bacterial load compared with that in BMP4(+/+) mice. Knockdown of BMP4 by siRNA increased LPS and TNF-?-induced IL-8 expression in 16HBE human airway epithelial cells and in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Similarly, peritoneal macrophages from BMP4(+/-) mice produced greater levels of TNF-? and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) upon LPS treatment compared with cells from BMP4(+/+) mice. Administration of exogenous BMP4 attenuated the upregulation of TNF-?, IL-8, or KC induced by LPS and/or TNF-? in airway epithelial cells, and peritoneal macrophages. Finally, partial deficiency of BMP4 in BMP4(+/-) mice protected the animals from restrictive lung function reduction upon chronic LPS exposure. These results indicate that BMP4 plays an important anti-inflammatory role, controlling the strength and facilitating the resolution of acute lung inflammation; yet, BMP4 also contributes to lung function impairment during chronic lung inflammation. PMID:25142202

  14. Modulation of doxorubicin-induced clastogenesis in Wistar rat bone marrow cells by vitamin B(6).

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Paula Lumy; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Takahashi, Catarina Satie

    2008-11-01

    Vitamin B(6) has shown to be a potentially effective antioxidant agent, and dietary antioxidants are also frequently valuable inhibitors of clastogenesis and carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present work was to study the clastogenicity of different doses of vitamin B(6) and to examine the possible modulating effect of this vitamin on chromosomal damage induced by the antitumor agent doxorubicin in Wistar rats. Experimental groups were set up for pre- and simultaneous treatment with vitamin B(6) alone or in combination with DXR. The data obtained from administering different doses of vitamin B(6) (12.5-100 mg/kg b.w.) showed no significant increase in total chromosomal aberrations when compared with the negative control. The administration of two doses of 25 mg/kg b.w. or one dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. of vitamin B(6) before doxorubicin injection seemed equally effective in protecting cells against doxorubicin clastogenicity. The anticlastogenic effect of vitamin B(6) on DXR-induced chromosomal damage could be ascribed to its antioxidant properties. Vitamin B(6) was not clastogenic or cytotoxic in rat bone marrow cells and it plays a role in inhibiting the clastogenicity induced by DXR. PMID:18488196

  15. Characterization of blood drawn rapidly for use in blood volume expansion studies: An animal model for simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. Michelle; Lynch, Colleen D.; Morris, Mariana; Clodfelter, Jill; Hutchins, Phillip M.

    1990-01-01

    It was demonstrated that up to 8ml of blood can be drawn from donar rats without significantly increasing volume and stress sensitive hormones, and thus can be used for volume expansion studies. Infusion of whole blood allows more physiological changes that can be seen with volume expansion by saline or other ionic solutions. The infusion of whole blood to induce hypervolemia may provide an improved model to study the fluid balance and control mechanisms operative in weightlessness. Blood samples were drawn as quickly as possible from femoral artery catheters chronically implanted in Sprague Dawley rats and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma sodium, potassium, osmolality, corticosterone, epinepherine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin. The levels were found to be comparable to those of normal rats.

  16. G-CSF induces stem cell mobilization by decreasing bone marrow SDF-1 and up-regulating CXCR4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Petit; Martine Szyper-Kravitz; Arnon Nagler; Meir Lahav; Amnon Peled; Liliana Habler; Tanya Ponomaryov; Russell S. Taichman; Fernando Arenzana-Seisdedos; Nobutaka Fujii; Judith Sandbank; Dov Zipori; Tsvee Lapidot

    2002-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)–induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization is widely used for clinical transplantation; however, the mechanism is poorly understood. We report here that G-CSF induced a reduction of the chemokine stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and an increase in its receptor CXCR4 in the bone marrow (BM), whereas their protein expression in the blood was less affected. The gradual

  17. Electroacupuncture attenuates bone-cancer-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal preprodynorphin expression in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Xin; Li, Aihui; Liu, Bing; Wang, Linbo; Xin, Jiajia; Ren, Ke; Qiao, Jian-Tian; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2008-10-01

    Cancer pain impairs the quality of life of cancer patients, but opioid intervention can cause significant side effects that further decrease quality of life. Although electroacupuncture (EA) has been used to treat cancer pain, its mechanisms are largely unknown. To examine its effects and underlying mechanisms on cancer pain, we injected AT-3.1 prostate cancer cells into the tibia to induce bone cancer in the male Copenhagen rat. The resulting pain was treated with 10Hz/2mA/0.4ms pulse EA for 30min daily at the point equivalent to the human acupoint GB30 (Huantiao) between days 14 and 18 after the injection. For sham control, EA needles were inserted into GB30 without stimulation. Thermal hyperalgesia, a decrease in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus, and mechanical hyperalgesia, a decrease in paw withdrawal pressure threshold (PWPT), was measured at baseline and 20min after the EA treatment. Preprodynorphin mRNA and dynorphin were determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia developed ipsilaterally between days 12 and 18 after cancer cell inoculation. EA significantly (P<0.05) attenuated this hyperalgesia, as shown by increased PWL and PWPT, and inhibited up-regulation of preprodynorphin mRNA and dynorphin compared to sham control. Intrathecal injection of antiserum against dynorphin A (1-17) also significantly inhibited the cancer-induced hyperalgesia. These results suggest that EA alleviates bone cancer pain at least in part by suppressing dynorphin expression, and they support the clinical use of EA in the treatment of cancer pain. PMID:18221900

  18. What Happens to bone health during and after spaceflight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Evans, Harlan J.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Maddocks, Mary J.; Smith, Scott A.; Shackelford, Linda C.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.

    2006-01-01

    Weightless conditions of space flight accelerate bone loss. There are no reports to date that address whether the bone that is lost during spaceflight could ever be recovered. Spaceinduced bone loss in astronauts is evaluated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) by measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Astronauts are routinely scanned preflight and at various time points postflight (greater than or equal to Return+2 days). Two sets of BMD data were used to model spaceflight-induced loss and skeletal recovery in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight missions (4-6 months). Group I was from astronauts (n=7) who were systematically scanned at multiple time points during the postflight period as part of a research protocol to investigate skeletal recovery. Group II came from a total of 49 sets of preflight and postflight data obtained by different protocols. These data were from 39 different crewmembers some of whom served on multiple flights. Changes in BMD (between pre- and postflight BMD) were plotted as a function of time (days-after-landing); plotted data were fitted to an exponential equation which enabled estimations of i) BMD change at day 0 after landing and ii) the number of days by which 50% of the lost bone is recovered (half-life). These fits were performed for BMD of the lumbar spine, trochanter, pelvis, femoral neck and calcaneus. There was consistency between the models for BMD recovery. Based upon the exponential model of BMD restoration, recovery following long-duration missions appears to be substantially complete in crewmembers within 36 months following return to Earth.

  19. Effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Wojnar, Weronika; Zych, Maria; Ozimina-Kami?ska, Ewa; Taranowicz, Joanna; Siwek, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Formononetin is a naturally occurring isoflavone, which can be found in low concentrations in many dietary products, but the greatest sources of this substance are Astragalus membranaceus, Trifolium pratense, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Pueraria lobata, which all belong to Fabaceae family. Due to its structural similarity to 17 ? -estradiol, it can mimic estradiol's effect and therefore is considered as a "phytoestrogen." The aim of this study was to examine the effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. 12-week-old female rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized, ovariectomized treated with estradiol (0.2?mg/kg) and ovariectomized treated with formononetin (10?mg/kg). Analyzed substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. Ovariectomy caused osteoporotic changes, which can be observed in bone biomechanical features (decrease of maximum load and fracture load and increase of displacements for maximum and fracture loads) and bone chemical composition (increase of water and organic fraction content, while a decrease of minerals takes place). Supplementation with formononetin resulted in slightly enhanced bone mechanical properties and bone chemistry improvement (significantly lower water content and insignificantly higher mineral fraction content). To summarize, administration of formononetin to ovariectomized rats shows beneficial effect on bone biomechanical features and chemistry; thus, it can prevent osteoporosis development. PMID:23762138

  20. Effect of Formononetin on Mechanical Properties and Chemical Composition of Bones in Rats with Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Wojnar, Weronika; Zych, Maria; Ozimina-Kami?ska, Ewa; Taranowicz, Joanna; Siwek, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Formononetin is a naturally occurring isoflavone, which can be found in low concentrations in many dietary products, but the greatest sources of this substance are Astragalus membranaceus, Trifolium pratense, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Pueraria lobata, which all belong to Fabaceae family. Due to its structural similarity to 17?-estradiol, it can mimic estradiol's effect and therefore is considered as a “phytoestrogen.” The aim of this study was to examine the effect of formononetin on mechanical properties and chemical composition of bones in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. 12-week-old female rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized, ovariectomized treated with estradiol (0.2?mg/kg) and ovariectomized treated with formononetin (10?mg/kg). Analyzed substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. Ovariectomy caused osteoporotic changes, which can be observed in bone biomechanical features (decrease of maximum load and fracture load and increase of displacements for maximum and fracture loads) and bone chemical composition (increase of water and organic fraction content, while a decrease of minerals takes place). Supplementation with formononetin resulted in slightly enhanced bone mechanical properties and bone chemistry improvement (significantly lower water content and insignificantly higher mineral fraction content). To summarize, administration of formononetin to ovariectomized rats shows beneficial effect on bone biomechanical features and chemistry; thus, it can prevent osteoporosis development. PMID:23762138

  1. Immunization with FSH? fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal ? and ? estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSH? fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSH? antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  2. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced changes in the hippocampus of rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saravana Kumar Sampath; Perumal, Saraswathi; Rajagopalan, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cold stress induced neuronal changes in hippocampal CA1 region of Wistar rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from a 6-week-old Wistar rat. Bone marrow from adult femora and tibia was collected and mesenchymal stem cells were cultured in minimal essential medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and were sub-cultured. Passage 3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD45. Once CD44 and CD90 positive expression was achieved, the cells were cultured again to 90% confluence for later experiments. Twenty-four rats aged 8 weeks old were randomly and evenly divided into normal control, cold water swim stress (cold stress), cold stress + PBS (intravenous infusion), and cold stress + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (1 × 106; intravenous infusion) groups. The total period of study was 60 days which included 1 month stress period followed by 1 month treatment. Behavioral functional test was performed during the entire study period. After treatment, rats were sacrificed for histological studies. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells significantly increased the number of neuronal cells in hippocampal CA1 region. Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells injected by intravenous administration show potential therapeutic effects in cognitive decline associated with stress-related lesions. PMID:25422634

  3. Effects of simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow specifically during cardiovascular stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Significant changes in the cardiovasular system of humans and animals have been observed following exposure to prolonged periods of weightlessness during space flight. Although adaption to weightlessness is relatively uncomplicated, marked changes in cardiovascular deconditioning become evident upon return to normal gravity, including orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Some evidence that myocardial degeneration occurs has been demonstrated in animals who have been immobilized for two months. Also, evidence of possible loss of myocardial mass following manned space flight has been obtained by means of echocardiographic studies. These findings have serious implications in light of the increasing frequency and duration of Space Shuttle missions and the prospect of extended space station missions in the future. A number of both military and civilian investigators, including middle-aged scientists, will probably encounter prolonged periods of weightlessness. It has been imperative, therefore, to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on cardiovascular deconditioning and whether such effects are cumulative or reversible. The research project conducted under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-126 was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow. Research results are reported in the three appended publications.

  4. Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers' Understanding of Weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tural, Güner; Akdeniz, Ali R?za; Alev, Nedim

    2010-10-01

    Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and related to weightlessness on science student teachers' learning. The sample of the study was 9 volunteer student teachers who were in their first grade in Science Teaching Program in Fatih Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered to find answers to the research questions. Findings revealed that all physics textbooks reviewed gave gravitational definition of weight. Also the concept of weightlessness hasn't been covered in high school and some university textbooks. It was determined that before the implementation student teachers had non-scientific explanations about weightlessness. The implementation of the 5E teaching model and materials developed are effective on learning the weightlessness. It is suggested that similar applications can also be used in other physics subjects or in other fields of science.

  5. Characterization of Demineralized Bone Matrix-Induced Osteogenesis in Rat Calvarial Bone Defects: III. Gene and Protein Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wang; R. Yang; L. C. Gerstenfeld; M. J. Glimcher

    2000-01-01

    .   Our previous studies of rat cranial defect repairs after the implantation of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) have demonstrated\\u000a that healing occurs initially and principally by the direct induction and proliferation of osteoblasts derived principally\\u000a from resident mesenchymal stem cells of the dura, and to a lesser extent by resident mesenchymal stem cells of the connective\\u000a tissues beneath the skin

  6. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n=31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity = 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity = 50%). The positive predicitive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  7. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n . 31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity . 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity . 50%). The positive predictive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  8. Benefits of a Single-Person Spacecraft for Weightless Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2012-01-01

    Historically, less than 20 percent of crew time related to extravehicular activity (EVA) is spent on productive external work. For planetary operations space suits are still the logical choice; however for safe and rapid access to the weightless environment, spacecraft offer compelling advantages. FlexCraft, a concept for a single-person spacecraft, enables any-time access to space for short or long excursions by different astronauts. For the International Space Station (ISS), going outside is time-consuming, requiring pre-breathing, donning a fitted space suit, and pumping down an airlock. For each ISS EVA this is between 12.5 and 16 hours. FlexCraft provides immediate access to space because it operates with the same cabin atmosphere as its host. Furthermore, compared to the space suit pure oxygen environment, a mixed gas atmosphere lowers the fire risk and allows use of conventional materials and systems. For getting to the worksite, integral propulsion replaces hand-over-hand translation or having another crew member operate the robotic arm. This means less physical exertion and more time at the work site. Possibly more important, in case of an emergency, FlexCraft can return from the most distant point on ISS in less than a minute. The one-size-fits-all FlexCraft means no on-orbit inventory of parts or crew time required to fit all astronauts. With a shirtsleeve cockpit, conventional displays and controls are used, there is no suit trauma and because the work is not strenuous, no rest days are required. Furthermore, there is no need to collect hand tools because manipulators are equipped with force multiplying end-effectors that can deliver the precise torque for the job. FlexCraft is an efficient solution for asteroid exploration allowing all crew to use one vehicle with no risk of contamination. And, because FlexCraft is a vehicle, its design offers better radiation and micro-meteoroid protection than space suits.

  9. Transforming growth factor-? synthesized by stromal cells and cancer cells participates in bone resorption induced by oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kayamori, Kou; Oue, Erika; Sakamoto, Kei; Harada, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-03-20

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) plays a significant role in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. To explore the role of TGF-? in oral cancer-induced bone destruction, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-? and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in 12 surgical specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). These studies revealed TGF-? and p-Smad2 expression in cancer cells in all tested cases. Several fibroblasts located between cancer nests and resorbing bone expressed TGF-? in 10 out of 12 cases and p-Smad2 in 11 out of 12 cases. Some osteoclasts also exhibited p ? Smad2 expression. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, and the bone marrow-derived fibroblastic cell line, ST2, synthesized substantial levels of TGF-?. Culture media derived from HSC3 cells could stimulate Tgf-?1 mRNA expression in ST2 cells. Recombinant TGF-?1 could stimulate osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in RAW264 cells. TGF-?1 could upregulate the expression of p-Smad2 in RAW264 cells, and this action was suppressed by the addition of a neutralizing antibody against TGF-? or by SB431542. Transplantation of HSC3 cells onto the calvarial region of athymic mice caused bone destruction, associated with the expression of TGF-? and p-Smad2 in both cancer cells and stromal cells. The bone destruction was substantially inhibited by the administration of SB431542. The present study demonstrated that TGF-? synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC-induced bone destruction. PMID:25681764

  10. Bone Marrow Transplantation Transfers Age-Related Susceptibility to Neovascular Remodeling in Murine Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Malek, Goldis; Mettu, Priyatham S.; Caicedo, Alejandro; Saloupis, Peter; Gach, Sarah; Dunnon, Askia K.; Hu, Peng; Spiga, Maria-Grazia; Cousins, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Neovascular remodeling (NVR), the progression of small capillaries into large-caliber arterioles with perivascular fibrosis, represents a major therapeutic challenge in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Neovascular remodeling occurs after laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in aged but not young mice. Additionally, bone marrow–derived cells, including macrophages, endothelial precursor cells, and mesenchymal precursor cells, contribute to CNV severity. In this study, we investigated the impact of aged bone marrow transplantation (BMT) on the degree of fibrosis, size, and vascular morphology of CNV lesions in a mouse model of laser-induced CNV. Methods. Young (2 months) and old (16 months) mice were transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled bone marrow isolated from either young or old donors. Laser CNV was induced 1 month following transplant, and eyes were analyzed via choroidal flat mounts and immunohistochemistry 1 month postlaser. The identity of cells infiltrating CNV lesions was determined using specific markers for the labeled transplanted cells (GFP+), macrophages (F4/80+), perivascular mesenchymal-derived cells (smooth muscle actin, SMA+), and endothelial cells (CD31+). Results. Bone marrow transplantation from aged mice transferred susceptibility to NVR into young recipients. Inversely, transplantation of young marrow into old mice prevented NVR, preserving small size and minimal fibrosis. Mice with NVR demonstrated a greater relative contribution of marrow-derived SMA+ perivascular mesenchymal cells as compared to other cells. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that the status of bone marrow is an important determining factor of neovascular severity. Furthermore, we find that perivascular mesenchymal cells, rather than endothelial cells, derived from aged bone marrow may contribute to increased CNV severity in this murine model of experimental neovascularization. PMID:24135751

  11. Fibroblasts induce heparin synthesis in chondroitin sulfate E containing human bone marrow-derived mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gilead, L.; Bibi, O.; Razin, E. (Hebrew Univ.-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-09-15

    Human bone marrow-derived mast cells (hBMMCs), differentiated in vitro in suspension culture and under the influence of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells conditioned medium (hCM), were tested for their response to recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) and for their behavior in different microenvironments. The hBMMCs were incubated in the presence of rhIL-3 and the changes in their proliferation rate were determined. Recombinant hIL-3 induced a more than sixfold increase in 3H-thymidine uptake into the hBMMC DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Human CM used as a control for proliferation response induced a more than eightfold maximal proliferation rate increase. Rabbit anti-rhIL-3 completely inhibited hBMMC 3H-thymidine uptake induced by rhIL-3 and decreased the hCM-induced proliferation by approximately 50%. These hBMMCs were cocultured with four different mytomicin C-treated cell monolayers and assayed for phenotypic changes. After only 2 days in coculture with either embryonic mouse skin-derived fibroblasts (MESFs) or human skin-derived fibroblasts (HSFs), a marked increase in granule number and density was noted on staining with toluidine blue. Mast cells that initially stained alcian blue+/safranin- at day 0 of coculture became alcian blue+/safranin+ during the coculture period. Human BMMC proteoglycan synthesis shifted from approximately 85% chondroitin sulfate E to approximately 60% heparin within 14 to 19 days of coculture with the MESF monolayer and to approximately 50% heparin within 19 days of coculture with the HSF monolayer. None of the above-mentioned changes were noted in cocultures of hBMMCs with 3T3 cell line fibroblast monolayers or in cocultures with bovine vascular endothelium (BVE) cell monolayers.

  12. Bone morphogenic protein-4-induced oxidant signaling via protein carbonylation for endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi Ming; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Yu

    2014-10-01

    The increased expression of bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP-4) under hyperglycemic and diabetic conditions mediates the overgeneration of reactive oxygen species to cause endothelial cell dysfunction and apoptosis. Protein carbonylation plays an important role in oxidant signaling through ligand-receptor interactions in vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac cells, and bronchial smooth muscle cells to trigger different diseases. However, the role of oxidant signaling via protein carbonylation in endothelial dysfunction is unclear. The level of protein carbonylation was higher in renal arteries from diabetic patients than those from nondiabetic subjects. BMP-4 promoted protein carbonylation, which was followed by decarbonylation or degradation in primary rat aortic endothelial cells. Organ culture of normal C57BL/6J mouse aortas treated with either hydralazine or deferoxamine inhibited the effect of BMP-4 on impairment of acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR). In isolated diabetic db/db mouse aortas, treatment with hydralazine improved the impaired EDR while deferoxamine had no effect. BMP-4-induced carbonylated proteins in aortic endothelial cells were successfully identified by a proteomic approach. These proteins have important cellular functions and include glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, alpha-enolase, protein disulfide-isomerase A3, annexin II, 26S protease regulatory subunit, integrin-linked protein kinase, and vimentin. Protein carbonylation induced by BMP-4 was inhibited by BMP-4 antagonist while protein decarbonylation induced by BMP-4 was thiol dependent. The carbonyl signals did not involve 4-hydrononenal and malondialdehyde. The present results suggest that BMP-4- or diabetes-mediated endothelial dysfunction is partly triggered through protein carbonylation and blockade of this metal-catalyzed protein oxidation can be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy to alleviate diabetic vasculopathy. PMID:25091895

  13. Protective effect of zinc supplementation against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance in the bone tissue of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M., E-mail: Malgorzata.Brzoska@umb.edu.pl; Rogalska, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-?? (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60 mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50 mg/l) for 6 months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone. Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. - Highlights: • Cd induces oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Cd disturbs bone metabolism via disorder of the RANK/RANKL/OPG system balance. • Zn supplementation protects from Cd-induced oxidative stress in the bone tissue. • Zn protects from the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance caused by Cd in the bone tissue. • Enhanced Zn intake protects from Cd-induced disorders in bone metabolism.

  14. Subchondral bone loss following orthodontically induced cartilage degradation in the mandibular condyles of rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Jiao; Li-Na Niu; Mei-Qing Wang; Juan Dai; Shi-Bin Yu; Xiao-Dong Liu; Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease generally characterized by progressive cartilage degradation and subchondral bone changes. Subchondral bone changes have been proposed to initiate or accompany with cartilage degradation in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize cartilage damage, subchondral bone remodeling, and the possible mechanism involved in these morphological changes in our reported rat model with

  15. Bone Markers, Calcium Metabolism, and Calcium Kinetics During Extended-Duration Space Flight on the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.; Morukov, Boris V.; Larina, Irina M.; Abrams, Steven A.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Oganov, Victor; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss is a current limitation for long-term space exploration. Bone markers, calcitropic hormones, and calcium kinetics of crew members on space missions of 4-6 months were evaluated. Spaceflight-induced bone loss was associated with increased bone resorption and decreased calcium absorption. INTRODUCTION: Bone loss is a significant concern for the health of astronauts on long-duration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract these losses during space flight and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report here results from two studies conducted during the Shuttle-Mir Science Program. Study 1 was an evaluation of bone and calcium biochemical markers of 13 subjects before and after long-duration (4-6 months) space missions. In study 2, stable calcium isotopes were used to evaluate calcium metabolism in six subjects before, during, and after flight. Relationships between measures of bone turnover, biochemical markers, and calcium kinetics were examined. RESULTS: Pre- and postflight study results confirmed that, after landing, bone resorption was increased, as indicated by increases in urinary calcium (p < 0.05) and collagen cross-links (N-telopeptide, pyridinoline, and deoxypyridinoline were all increased >55% above preflight levels, p < 0.001). Parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites were unchanged at landing. Biochemical markers of bone formation were unchanged at landing, but 2-3 weeks later, both bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly (p < 0.01) increased above preflight levels. In studies conducted during flight, bone resorption markers were also significantly higher than before flight. The calcium kinetic data also validated that bone resorption was increased during flight compared with preflight values (668 +/- 130 versus 427 +/- 153 mg/day; p < 0.001) and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was significantly lower during flight compared with preflight values (233 +/- 87 versus 460 +/- 47 mg/day; p < 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover such that the daily difference in calcium retention during flight compared with preflight values approached 300 mg/day (-234 +/- 102 versus 63 +/- 75 mg/day; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These bone marker and calcium kinetic studies indicated that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption.

  16. Effect of weightlessness conditions on the somatic embryogenesis in the culture of carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butenko, R. G.; Dmitriyeva, N. N.; Ongko, V.; Basyrova, L. V.

    1977-01-01

    A carrot cell culture seeded in Petri dishes in the United States and transported to the USSR was subjected to weightlessness for 20 days during the flight of Kosmos 782. The controls were cultures placed on a centrifuge (1 g) inside the satellite and cultures left on ground in the U.S.S.R. and the United States. A count of structures in the dishes after the flight showed that the number of developing embryonic structures and the extent of their differentiation in weightlessness did not reliably differ from the number and extent of differentiation in structures developed on the ground. Structures with long roots developed in weightlessness. Analysis of the root zones showed that these roots differed by the increased size of the zone of differentiated cells. The increased size of the zones of differentiated cells can indicate earlier development of embryonic structures.

  17. Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

  18. Conditional radioresistance of Tet-inducible manganese superoxide dismutase bone marrow stromal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Epperly, Michael W; Chaillet, J Richard; Kalash, Ronny; Shaffer, Ben; Goff, Julie; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Dixon, Tracy; Houghton, Frank; Wang, Hong; Berhane, Hebist; Romero, Cynthia; Kim, Jee-Hong; Greenberger, Joel S

    2013-08-01

    Mitochondrial targeted manganese superoxide dismutase is a major antioxidant enzyme, the levels of which modulate the response of cells, tissues and organs to ionizing irradiation. We developed a Tet-regulated MnSOD mouse (MnSOD(tet)) to examine the detailed relationship between cellular MnSOD concentration and radioresistance and carried out in vitro studies using bone marrow culture derived stromal cell lines (mesenchymal stem cells). Homozygous MnSOD(tet/tet) cells had low levels of MnSOD, reduced viability and proliferation, increased radiosensitivity, elevated overall antioxidant stores, and defects in cell proliferation and DNA strand-break repair. Doxycycline (doxy) treatment of MnSOD(tet/tet) cells increased MnSOD levels and radioresistance from ñ of 2.79 ± 1.04 to 8.69 ± 1.09 (P = 0.0060) and normalized other biologic parameters. In contrast, MnSOD(tet/tet) cells showed minimal difference in baseline and radiation induced mRNA and protein levels of TGF-?, Nrf2 and NF-?B and radiation induced cell cycle arrest was not dependent upon MnSOD level. These novel MnSOD(tet/tet) mouse derived cells should be valuable for elucidating several parameters of the oxidative stress response to ionizing radiation. PMID:23862693

  19. Bone marrow-derived clonal mesenchymal stem cells inhibit ovalbumin-induced atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Na, K; Yoo, H S; Zhang, Y X; Choi, M-S; Lee, K; Yi, T G; Song, S U; Jeon, M-S

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory activities, including suppression of T- and B-cell activation. However, their effects on atopic dermatitis (AD) have not yet been studied. Using an ovalbumin-induced AD mouse model, we investigated whether MSCs can be used as therapeutics in AD. We isolated both allogeneic and syngeneic clonal MSCs (cMSCs) from mouse bone marrow according to the subfractionation culturing method. Our cMSCs suppressed both T- and B-cell activation. T-cell proliferation and cytokine production, including interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-4, were suppressed by inhibition of transcription factors, such as T-bet, GATA-3, and c-Maf. Those transcription factors were nitric oxide dependent. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) suppression occurred through downregulation of AID and BLIMP-1, important regulators for isotype class switch and B-cell differentiation. The cMSCs were injected intravenously into ovalbumin-induced AD mouse model, and the therapeutic effects were analyzed. Injection of both allogeneic and syngeneic cMSCs in an AD mouse model inhibited cell infiltration in skin lesions and decreased the serum level of IgE. IL-4 expression was also suppressed by cMSCs in both the lymph node and skin. The cMSCs migrated to skin lesions and draining lymph nodes. Taken together, these data demonstrated that cMSCs, which suppressed T- and B-cell functions, can be used for the treatment of AD in mice. PMID:25032868

  20. Bone and cartilage repair by transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cells in murine joint defect model.

    PubMed

    Uto, Sakura; Nishizawa, Satoru; Takasawa, Yutaka; Asawa, Yukiyo; Fujihara, Yuko; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of cartilage regenerative medicine has been an important issue in the clinical field, because cartilage has the poor ability of self-repair. Currently, tissue engineering using autologous chondrocytes has risen, but we should investigate more appropriate cell sources that can be obtained without any quantitative limitation. In this study, we focused on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, in which the ethical hurdle does not seem higher than that of embryonic stem cells. Mouse iPS cells were transplanted into the mouse joint defect model of the knee. Strains of the transplants and hosts were arranged to be either closest (homology 75% in genetic background) or identical (100%). For transplantation, we embedded the iPS cells within the collagen hydrogel in order to obtain the effective administration of the cells into defects, which induced the differentiation of the iPS cells. At 8 weeks of transplantation, although the iPS cells with a 75% homology to the host in the genetic background tended to form teratoma, those of 100% showed a joint regeneration. GFP immunohistochemistry proved that the transplanted iPS cells were responsible for the bone and cartilage repair. Taking these results together, the iPS cells are regarded as a promising cell source for the cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24389404

  1. Bone morphogenetic proteins induce the expression of noggin, which limits their activity in cultured rat osteoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Gazzerro, E; Gangji, V; Canalis, E

    1998-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce the differentiation of cells of the osteoblastic lineage and enhance the function of the osteoblast. Growth factors are regulated by binding proteins, but there is no information about binding proteins for BMPs in skeletal cells. Noggin specifically binds BMPs, but its expression by cells of the osteoblastic lineage has not been reported. We tested for the expression of noggin and its induction by BMP-2 in cultures of osteoblast-enriched cells from 22-d-old fetal rat calvariae (Ob cells). BMP-2 caused a time- and dose-dependent increase in noggin mRNA and polypeptide levels, as determined by Northern and Western blot analyses. The effects of BMP-2 on noggin transcripts were dependent on protein, but independent of DNA synthesis. BMP-2 increased the rates of noggin transcription as determined by nuclear run-on assays. BMP-4, BMP-6, and TGF-beta1 increased noggin mRNA in Ob cells, but basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet- derived growth factor BB, and IGF-I did not. Noggin decreased the stimulatory effects of BMPs on DNA and collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity in Ob cells. In conclusion, BMPs induce noggin transcription in Ob cells, a probable mechanism to limit BMP action in osteoblasts. PMID:9854046

  2. c-Abl-dependent Molecular Circuitry Involving Smad5 and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Regulates Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-induced Osteogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Mandal, Chandi C.; Das, Falguni; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Ahuja, Seema; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal remodeling consists of timely formation and resorption of bone by osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a quantitative manner. Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving inhibitors of c-Abl tyrosine kinase often show reduced bone remodeling due to impaired osteoblast and osteoclast function. BMP-2 plays a significant role in bone generation and resorption by contributing to the formation of mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effects of c-Abl on BMP-2-induced bone remodeling and the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Using a pharmacological inhibitor and expression of a dominant negative mutant of c-Abl, we show an essential role of this tyrosine kinase in the development of bone nodules containing mature osteoblasts and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in response to BMP-2. Calvarial osteoblasts prepared from c-Abl null mice showed the absolute requirement of this tyrosine kinase in maturation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt signaling by BMP-2 leads to osteoblast differentiation. Remarkably, inhibition of c-Abl significantly suppressed BMP-2-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity and its downstream Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, c-Abl regulated BMP-2-induced osteoclastogenic CSF-1 expression. More importantly, we identified the requirements of c-Abl in BMP-2 autoregulation and the expressions of alkaline phosphatase and osterix that are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. c-Abl contributed to BMP receptor-specific Smad-dependent transcription of CSF-1, osterix, and BMP-2. Finally, c-Abl associates with BMP receptor IA and regulates phosphorylation of Smad in response to BMP-2. We propose that activation of c-Abl is an important step, which induces into two signaling pathways involving noncanonical PI 3-kinase and canonical Smads to integrate BMP-2-induced osteogenesis. PMID:23821550

  3. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, ?lhan; Diraço?lu, Demirhan; Y?ld?z, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uluda?, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Özkaya, Murat; Karamehmeto?lu, ?afak Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. Study Design: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. Results: In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15.2% (p=0.031) in the exercise group and increased by 20.8% (p=0.028) in the control group. A change in the sclerostin index was an important predictor of a change in the vibration-induced normalised Root Mean Square of the semitendinosus muscle (R2=0.7, p=0.0001). Femoral neck bone mineral density was an important predictor of muscle strength gain (R2=0.26, p=0.035). Conclusion: This study indicates that bone tissue may have an effect on vibration-induced muscle strength gain and vibration-induced reflex muscle activity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01310348. PMID:25207162

  4. Icariin recovers the osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of bone marrow stromal cells from a rat model of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Minglu; Sun, Likun; Rui, Feilong

    2015-07-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested that icariin (ICA), a class of phytochemical with numerous biological activities, may exert protective effects against postmenopausal bone loss. However, it remains unclear whether ICA regulates or improves the osteoblastic function of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. In the present study, the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs from ovariectomy (OVX) rats was found to be significantly decreased in vitro compared with that in rats that had undergone a sham operation. Treatment with ICA at a dose of 10?5 M was shown to restore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in OVX rats. The results indicated that ICA restored the differentiation and mineralization capacity of OVX?BMSCs, which had been induced by estrogen deficiency. The effects of this compound on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition were also measured at various time points. The number of colonies and areas that stained positive for ALP expression, and mineralized bone nodules were analyzed histochemically at 14 and 21 days after the osteogenic induction. The expression of the runt?related transcription factor 2 and osterix bone metabolism biomarker proteins and genes were detected by western blotting and reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR). The expression of factors involved in the estrogen signaling pathway, estrogen receptor ? (ER?), progesterone receptor (PR) and trefoil factor 1 (PS?2), was also detected by western blotting and RT?qPCR. ICA enhanced the expression of ER?, PR, PS?2 in OVX?BMSCs, but this effect was abrogated when ICI 182780, an ER antagonist was added. Transplantation of BMSCs into nude mice demonstrated that ICA restored the osteogenic capability of OVX?BMSCs in vivo. Therefore, it may be that ICA acts through the estrogen pathway in order to improve and restore the osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of OVX?BMSCs, which are inhibited by estrogen deficiency and increasing age. PMID:25695835

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related protein is a gravisensor in lung and bone cell biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torday, J. S.

    2003-10-01

    Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) has been shown to be essential for the development and homeostatic regulation of lung and bone. Since both lung and bone structure and function are affected by microgravity, we hypothesized that 0 × g down-regulates PTHrP signaling. To test this hypothesis, we suspended lung and bone cells in the simulated microgravity environment of a Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor, which simulates microgravity, for up to 72 hours. During the first 8 hours of exposure to simulated 0 × g, PTHrP expression fell precipitously, decreasing by 80-90%; during the subsequent 64 hours, PTHrP expression remained at this newly established level of expression. PTHrP production decreased from 12 pg/ml/hour to 1 pg/ml/hour in culture medium from microgravity-exposed cells. The cells were then recultured at unit gravity for 24hours, and PTHrP expression and production returned to normal levels. Based on these findings, we have obtained bones from rats flown in space for 2 weeks (Mission STS-58, SL-2). Analysis of PTHrP expression by femurs and tibias from these animals (n=5) revealed that PTHrP expression was 60% lower than in bones from control ground-based rats. Interestingly, there were no differences in PTHrP expression by parietal bone from space-exposed versus ground-based animals, indicating that the effect of weightlessness on PTHrP expression is due to the unweighting of weight-bearing bones. This finding is consistent with other studies of microgravity-induced osteoporosis. The loss of the PTHrP signaling mechanism may be corrected using chemical agents that up-regulate this pathway. In conclusion, PTHrP represents a stretch-sensitive paracrine signaling mechanism that may sense gravity.

  6. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  7. In Vivo Knockdown of TAK1 Accelerates Bone Marrow Proliferation/Differentiation and Induces Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Vink, Paul M.; Smout, Wendy M.; Driessen-Engels, Lilian J.; de Bruin, Alex M.; Delsing, Dianne; Krajnc-Franken, Magda A.; Jansen, Aswin J.; Rovers, Eric F.; van Puijenbroek, André A.; Kaptein, Allard; Nolte, Martijn A.; Garritsen, Anja; van Eenennaam, Hans

    2013-01-01

    TAK1 (TGF-? Activated Kinase 1) is a MAPK kinase kinase, which activates the p38- and JNK-MAPK and NF-?B pathways downstream of receptors such as Toll-Like-, cytokine- and T-cell and B-cell receptors. Representing such an important node in the pro-inflammatory signal-transduction network, the function of TAK1 has been studied extensively. TAK1 knock-out mice are embryonic lethal, while conditional knock-out mice demonstrated either a pro- or anti-inflammatory function. To study the function of TAK1 protein in the adult immune system, we generated and characterized a transgenic mouse expressing TAK1 shRNA under the control of a doxycycline-inducible promoter. Following treatment of TAK-1 shRNA transgenic mice with doxycycline an effective knockdown of TAK1 protein levels was observed in lymphoid organs and cells in the peritoneal cavity (>50% down regulation). TAK1 knockdown resulted in significant changes in leukocyte populations in blood, bone marrow, spleen and peritoneal cavity. Upon TAK1 knockdown mice demonstrated splenomegaly, signs of systemic inflammation (increased levels of circulating cytokines and increase in cellularity of the B-cell areas and in germinal center development in the follicles) and degenerative changes in heart, kidneys and liver. Not surprisingly, TAK1-Tg mice treated with LPS or anti-CD3 antibodies showed enhanced cytokine/chemokine secretion. Finally, analysis of progenitor cells in the bone marrow upon doxycycline treatment showed increased proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. Given the similarity of the phenotype with TGF-? genetic models, our data suggest that in our model the function of TAK1 in TGF-? signal-transduction is overruling its function in pro-inflammatory signaling. PMID:23505428

  8. Inflammatory Cytokines Induce a Unique Mineralizing Phenotype in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Elisabeth; Porter, Ryan M.; Wehling, Nathalie; O'Sullivan, Regina P.; Liu, Fangjun; Boskey, Adele; Estok, Daniel M.; Harris, Mitchell B.; Vrahas, Mark S.; Evans, Christopher H.; Wells, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can differentiate along multiple mesenchymal lineages. In this capacity they are thought to be important in the intrinsic turnover and repair of connective tissues while also serving as a basis for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, little is known of the biological responses of human MSCs to inflammatory conditions. When cultured with IL-1?, marrow-derived MSCs from 8 of 10 human subjects deposited copious hydroxyapatite, in which authenticity was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the production of fine needles of hydroxyapatite in conjunction with matrix vesicles. Alkaline phosphatase activity did not increase in response to inflammatory mediators, but PPi production fell, reflecting lower ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase activity in cells and matrix vesicles. Because PPi is the major physiological inhibitor of mineralization, its decline generated permissive conditions for hydroxyapatite formation. This is in contrast to MSCs treated with dexamethasone, where PPi levels did not fall and mineralization was fuelled by a large and rapid increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Bone sialoprotein was the only osteoblast marker strongly induced by IL-1?; thus these cells do not become osteoblasts despite depositing abundant mineral. RT-PCR did not detect transcripts indicative of alternative mesenchymal lineages, including chondrocytes, myoblasts, adipocytes, ligament, tendon, or vascular smooth muscle cells. IL-1? phosphorylated multiple MAPKs and activated nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). Certain inhibitors of MAPK and PI3K, but not NF-?B, prevented mineralization. The findings are of importance to soft tissue mineralization, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. PMID:23970554

  9. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  10. [Bone and androgens].

    PubMed

    Weryha, Georges; Angelousi, Anna; Diehdiou, Demba; Cuny, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Sexual steroids are major determinants of skeletal maturation and steady state. Estrogens are mandatory in both sexes. They induce endochondral bone formation and growth plate knitting. Androgens are mainly active in male. They increase length and radial bone growth. These differences explain the duality of biomechanics in both sexes. Deep androgen deficiency induces rapid bone loss and increases bone fracture risk. The androgen treatment of andropause has weak rationale. Androgens interact with bone metabolism within the medulla-bone unit. They activate the whole osteoblastic lineage and interact with preosteoclastic regulation. Androgens found their place in bone metabolism regulation through RANK/osteoprotegerin and Wnt/sclerostin pathways. PMID:24332181

  11. Pine seed germination under weightlessness (a study of the Kosmos 782 satellite)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonova, R. N.; Parfenov, G. P.; Olkhovenko, V. P.; Karpova, N. I.; Pichugov, M. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Orientation of the above and underground organs of pine plants, grown from seeds under weightlessness, was found to be determined by seed position on the substrate. Normal plant growth was observed only if the seed embryos were oriented toward the substrate. Some differences were noted between the experimental and control plants concerning the amount of nucleoli in the root meristematic cells and the cell shape in cotyledonous leaves. No complete similarity was found in experimental results obtained with plants under weightlessness and under compensated gravity. The seeds were obtained from Pinus silvestris, considered to be particularly suitable for this experiment.

  12. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolina, J. M.; Evans, G. L.; Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Westerlind, K. C.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    A 14-day orbital spaceflight was performed using ovariectomized Fisher 344 rats to determine the combined effects of estrogen deficiency and near weightlessness on tibia radial bone growth and cancellous bone turnover. Twelve ovariectomized rats with established cancellous osteopenia were flown aboard the space shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Thirty ovariectomized rats were housed on earth as ground controls: 12 in animal enclosure modules, 12 in vivarium cages, and 6 killed the day of launch for baseline measurements. An additional 18 ovary-intact rats were housed in vivarium cages as ground controls: 8 rats were killed as baseline controls and the remaining 10 rats were killed 14 days later. Ovariectomy increased periosteal bone formation at the tibia-fibula synostosis; cancellous bone resorption and formation in the secondary spongiosa of the proximal tibial metaphysis; and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for the prepro-alpha2(1) subunit of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-beta, and insulin-like growth factor I in the contralateral proximal tibial metaphysis and for the collagen subunit in periosteum pooled from tibiae and femora and decreased cancellous bone area. Compared to ovariectomized weight-bearing rats, the flight group experienced decreases in periosteal bone formation, collagen subunit mRNA levels, and cancellous bone area. The flight rats had a small decrease in the cancellous mineral apposition rate, but no change in the calculated bone formation rate. Also, spaceflight had no effect on cancellous osteoblast and osteoclast perimeters or on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and signaling peptides. On the other hand, spaceflight resulted in an increase in bone resorption, as ascertained from the diminished retention of a preflight fluorochrome label. This latter finding suggests that osteoclast activity was increased. In a follow-up ground-based experiment, unilateral sciatic neurotomy of ovariectomized rats resulted in cancellous bone loss in the unloaded limb in excess of that induced by gonadal hormone deficiency. This additional bone loss was arrested by estrogen replacement. We conclude from these studies that estrogen alters the expression of signaling peptides believed to mediate skeletal adaptation to changes in mechanical usage and likewise modifies the skeletal response to mechanical unloading.

  13. Spinal interleukin-33 and its receptor ST2 contribute to bone cancer-induced pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zhang, H; Liu, S-B; Han, P; Hu, S; Li, Q; Wang, Z-F; Mao-Ying, Q-L; Chen, H-M; Jiang, J-W; Wu, G-C; Mi, W-L; Wang, Y-Q

    2013-12-01

    Cancer pain, particularly bone cancer pain, affects the quality of life of cancer patients, and current treatments are limited. Interleukin (IL)-33, a new member of the IL-1 super family, has been reported to be involved in the modulation of inflammatory pain. However, studies focused on its role in the modulation of cancer pain have been rare. The present study was designed to investigate whether spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling was involved in bone cancer-induced pain in mice. Bone cancer was induced via intra-femoral inoculation of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells. The mice inoculated with carcinoma cells showed mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgesia and a reduction in limb use, whereas phosphate-buffered saline or heat-killed cells-injected mice showed no significant difference compared to non-treated mice. The pain hypersensitive behaviors worsened over time and with bone destruction. Both the mRNA and the protein levels of IL-33 and relative cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-a) were significantly increased in the spinal cord after the inoculation of carcinoma cells. Intrathecal administration of ST2 antibody to block IL-33/ST2 signaling alleviated pain behaviors in a dose-dependent manner in bone cancer pain mice compared with vehicle-injected mice. Moreover, the ST2(-/-) mice showed a significant amelioration of limb use and heat hyperalgesia compared to wild-type mice. Meanwhile, concentrations of spinal IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-a in the cancer-bearing ST2(-/-) mice had no significant changes. These data further suggested that IL-33/ST2 signaling played a vital role in cancer pain. Our results provided evidence that IL-33 and its receptor ST2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain in bone cancer patients. PMID:23988433

  14. Bone grafts in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Vinitha, Belliappa; Fathima, Ghousia

    2013-01-01

    Bone grafts are used as a filler and scaffold to facilitate bone formation and promote wound healing. These grafts are bioresorbable and have no antigen-antibody reaction. These bone grafts act as a mineral reservoir which induces new bone formation. PMID:23946565

  15. Paracrine Factors Produced by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Induce Apoptosis and Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chu; Soori, Mehrnoosh; Miles, Fayth; Sikes, Robert A.; Carson, Daniel D.; Chung, Leland L.W.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preferential bony metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells contributes to disease mortality and morbidity. Local factors in bone stromal extracellular matrix microenvironment affect tumor growth through paracrine interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Methods Using co-culture and medium transfer, we used several methods to assess interactions between PCa and bone stromal cells using three PCa cell lines: PC3, LNCaP, and the LNCaP derivative, C4-2B. Results Co-culture of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with bone marrow stromal cell lines, HS27a and HS5, decreased cell number, as did culture with conditioned medium (CM) harvested from these two cell lines suggesting a soluble paracrine factor was responsible. PC3 cell growth was unaffected. CM harvested from bone stromal cell lines triggered apoptosis in LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines, but not in PC3 cells. Surviving C4-2B cells grown in bone stromal cell CM over several days were growth arrested, suggesting presence of a growth inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by CM was dose-dependent. Flow cytometry demonstrated that over a five day culture period in stromal cell CM, LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines, but not PC3 cells, underwent greater apoptosis than parallel cultures in SF medium. The LNCaP and C4-2B cells showed morphology and biomarker expression consistent with transdifferentiation towards a neuroendocrine phenotype after exposure to stromal cell CM. Conclusions The reactive bone stromal microenvironment initially is hostile to PCa cells producing widespread apoptosis. Activation of transdifferentiation in a subset of apoptotic resistant cells may support phenotypic adaptation during disease progression in bone, eventually favoring lethal disease. PMID:20665531

  16. Transcriptomic profile induced in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after interaction with multiple myeloma cells: implications in myeloma progression and myeloma bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Las Rivas, Javier De; Ocio, Enrique M.; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Montero, Juan C.; Martín, Montserrat; Blanco, Juan F.; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermín M.; Pandiella, Atanasio; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence about the implication of the bone marrow (BM) stromal microenvironment in multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth and survival, little is known about the effects of myelomatous cells on BM stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from healthy donors (dMSCs) or myeloma patients (pMSCs) were co-cultured with the myeloma cell line MM.1S, and the transcriptomic profile of MSCs induced by this interaction was analyzed. Deregulated genes after co-culture common to both d/pMSCs revealed functional involvement in tumor microenvironment cross-talk, myeloma growth induction and drug resistance, angiogenesis and signals for osteoclast activation and osteoblast inhibition. Additional genes induced by co-culture were exclusively deregulated in pMSCs and predominantly associated to RNA processing, the ubiquitine-proteasome pathway, cell cycle regulation, cellular stress and non-canonical Wnt signaling. The upregulated expression of five genes after co-culture (CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL6 in d/pMSCs, and Neuregulin 3 and Norrie disease protein exclusively in pMSCs) was confirmed, and functional in vitro assays revealed putative roles in MM pathophysiology. The transcriptomic profile of pMSCs co-cultured with myeloma cells may better reflect that of MSCs in the BM of myeloma patients, and provides new molecular insights to the contribution of these cells to MM pathophysiology and to myeloma bone disease. PMID:25268740

  17. Pharmacologic inhibition of bone resorption prevents cancer-induced osteolysis but enhances soft tissue metastasis in a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZINONOS, IRENE; LUO, KE-WANG; LABRINIDIS, AGATHA; LIAPIS, VASILIOS; HAY, SHELLEY; PANAGOPOULOS, VASILIOS; DENICHILO, MARK; KO, CHUN-HAY; YUE, GRACE GAR-LEE; LAU, CLARA BIK-SAN; INGMAN, WENDY; PONOMAREV, VLADIMIR; ATKINS, GERALD J.; FINDLAY, DAVID M.; ZANNETTINO, ANDREW C.W.; EVDOKIOU, ANDREAS

    2014-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily, which binds to the receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL) and inhibits osteoclast activity and bone resorption. Systemic administration of recombinant OPG was previously shown to inhibit tumor growth in bone and to prevent cancer-induced osteolysis. In this study, we examined the effect of OPG, when produced locally by breast cancer cells located within bone, using a mouse model of osteolytic breast cancer. MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cells, tagged with a luciferase reporter gene construct and engineered to overexpress full-length human OPG, were transplanted directly into the tibial marrow cavity of nude mice. Overexpression of OPG by breast cancer cells protected the bone from breast cancer-induced osteolysis and diminished intra-osseous tumor growth but had no effect on extra-skeletal tumor growth. This effect was associated with a significant reduction in the number of osteoclasts that lined the bone surface, resulting in a net increase in bone volume. Despite limiting breast cancer-mediated bone loss, OPG overexpression resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of pulmonary metastasis. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption by OPG when secreted locally by tumors in bone may affect the behaviour of cancer cells within the bone microenvironment and their likelihood of spreading and establishing metastasis elsewhere in the body. PMID:24865346

  18. Space Radiation and Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Jeffrey S.; Lloyd, Shane A.J.; Nelson, Gregory A.; Bateman, Ted A.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation may negatively impact skeletal integrity during extended spaceflight missions to the moon, Mars, or near-Earth asteroids. However, our understanding of the effects of radiation on bone is limited when compared to the effects of weightlessness. In addition to microgravity, astronauts will be exposed to space radiation from solar and cosmic sources. Historically, radiation exposure has been shown to damage both osteoblast precursors and local vasculature within the irradiated volume. The resulting suppression of bone formation and a general state of low bone-turnover is thought to be the primary contributor to bone loss and eventual fracture. Recent investigations using mouse models have identified a rapid, but transient, increase in osteoclast activity immediately after irradiation with both spaceflight and clinically-relevant radiation qualities and doses. Together with a chronic suppression of bone formation after radiation exposure, this acute skeletal damage may contribute to long-term deterioration of bone quality, potentially increasing fracture risk. Direct evidence for the damaging effects of radiation on human bone are primarily demonstrated by the increased incidence of fractures at sites that absorb high doses of radiation during cancer therapy: exposures are considerably higher than what could be expected during spaceflight. However, both the rapidity of bone damage and the chronic nature of the changes appear similar between exposure scenarios. This review will outline our current knowledge of space and clinical exploration exposure to ionizing radiation on skeletal health. PMID:22826632

  19. Directed Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Toward Bone and Cartilage: In Vitro Versus In Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew D.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Cherman, Natasha; Park, Kyeyoon; Chen, Kevin G.; McClendon, Britney N.; Hamilton, Rebecca S.; McKay, Ronald D.G.; Chenoweth, Josh G.; Mallon, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into committed skeletal progenitors could allow for an unlimited autologous supply of such cells for therapeutic uses; therefore, we attempted to create novel bone-forming cells from human iPSCs using lines from two distinct tissue sources and methods of differentiation that we previously devised for osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, and as suggested by other publications. The resulting cells were assayed using in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those obtained from in vivo transplantation assays. Our results show that true bone was formed in vivo by derivatives of several iPSC lines, but that the successful cell lines and differentiation methodologies were not predicted by the results of the in vitro assays. In addition, bone was formed equally well from iPSCs originating from skin or bone marrow stromal cells (also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), suggesting that the iPSCs did not retain a “memory” of their previous life. Furthermore, one of the iPSC-derived cell lines formed verifiable cartilage in vivo, which likewise was not predicted by in vitro assays. PMID:24855277

  20. Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells toward bone and cartilage: in vitro versus in vivo assays.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew D; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Cherman, Natasha; Park, Kyeyoon; Chen, Kevin G; McClendon, Britney N; Hamilton, Rebecca S; McKay, Ronald D G; Chenoweth, Josh G; Mallon, Barbara S; Robey, Pamela G

    2014-07-01

    The ability to differentiate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into committed skeletal progenitors could allow for an unlimited autologous supply of such cells for therapeutic uses; therefore, we attempted to create novel bone-forming cells from human iPSCs using lines from two distinct tissue sources and methods of differentiation that we previously devised for osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, and as suggested by other publications. The resulting cells were assayed using in vitro methods, and the results were compared with those obtained from in vivo transplantation assays. Our results show that true bone was formed in vivo by derivatives of several iPSC lines, but that the successful cell lines and differentiation methodologies were not predicted by the results of the in vitro assays. In addition, bone was formed equally well from iPSCs originating from skin or bone marrow stromal cells (also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), suggesting that the iPSCs did not retain a "memory" of their previous life. Furthermore, one of the iPSC-derived cell lines formed verifiable cartilage in vivo, which likewise was not predicted by in vitro assays. PMID:24855277

  1. Modulatory effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet on bone homeostasis abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Mehana, Noha Ali

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex syndrome which is responsible for numerous complications affecting the whole body. Osteoporosis is regarded as one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus that results from reduced bone formation and increased resorption. In this context, we searched for dietary supplements that preserve diabetic bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has been suggested as a possible mechanism affecting bone homeostasis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The osteoprotective effects of l-arginine and soy enriched diet were also investigated. Male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups; normal control, untreated STZ-diabetic rats and STZ-diabetic rats treated with either l-arginine (10mg/kg/day) or fed soy enriched diet (200g/kg diet) for 12weeks. l-Arginine and soy enriched diet normalized serum PTH level and increased serum osteocalcin level; bone osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin and runt-related transcription factor2 mRNA levels compared to diabetic rats. A decrease in serum pyridinoline, C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen, cathepsin k levels and bone cathepsin k mRNA level was observed in both treated groups. Both treatments increased serum insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 levels and decreased urinary calcium excretion. In conclusion, l-arginine and soy enriched diet are effective in prevention of osteoporosis associated with diabetes mellitus. PMID:25617479

  2. Estradiol protects against ethanol-induced bone loss by inhibiting up-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand in osteoblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the effects of sex hormones on ethanol (EtOH)-induced bone loss, female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control or EtOH-containing diets (12 g/kg/day) by intragastric infusion. After 3 weeks, rats receiving EtOH had significant decreases in tibial trabecular and total bone mineral densit...

  3. Celastrol attenuates bone erosion in collagen-Induced arthritis mice and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function in RANKL-induced RAW264.7.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ke; Xu, Lingxiao; Feng, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qiande; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TwHF) of the Celastraceae family has attracted increasing attention for its potential therapeutic application in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is well accepted that TwHF exerts the antirheumatic activity and mainly depends on its potent anti-inflammatory property. To further explore the therapeutic potential of the well-defined TwHF-derived single compound - celastrol in RA, we study the therapeutic efficacy of celastrol on bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice and delineate its effects on osteoclast differentiation and functions in RANKL-induced osteoclast precursors RAW264.7 cell line. In CIA mice, daily injection of celastrol (beginning on day 28 after arthritis induction) markedly suppressed arthritis, and reduced bone damage in the joints as demonstrated by histology and bone micro-computed tomography (CT). The effects were accompanied by reductions of osteoclast cells in joints, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, and expression of osteoclastic genes (Trap, Ctsk, Ctr, Mmp-9) and transcriptional factors (c-Fos, c-Jun and NFATc1). When RAW264.7 cells were treated with RANKL, celastrol inhibited the formation of TRAP+ multinucleated cells and the bone-resorbing activity in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, celastrol reduced the RANKL-induced expression of osteoclastic genes and transcriptional factors, as well as phosphorylation of NF-kB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These findings show that celastrol could directly inhibit osteoclast formation and function, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy of celastrol for managing RA, especially in preventing bone destruction. PMID:25529994

  4. PACAP38/PAC1 Signaling Induces Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Homing to Ischemic Brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen-Huan; Chiu, Lian; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chiang, Chun-Wei; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsu, Chung Y; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2015-04-01

    Understanding stem cell homing, which is governed by environmental signals from the surrounding niche, is important for developing effective stem cell-based repair strategies. The molecular mechanism by which the brain under ischemic stress recruits bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the vascular niche remains poorly characterized. Here we report that hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) activation upregulates pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38 (PACAP38), which in turn activates PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1) under hypoxia in vitro and cerebral ischemia in vivo. BMDCs homing to endothelial cells in the ischemic brain are mediated by HIF-1? activation of the PACAP38-PAC1 signaling cascade followed by upregulation of cellular prion protein and ?6-integrin to enhance the ability of BMDCs to bind laminin in the vascular niche. Exogenous PACAP38 confers a similar effect in facilitating BMDCs homing into the ischemic brain, resulting in reduction of ischemic brain injury. These findings suggest a novel HIF-1?-activated PACAP38-PAC1 signaling process in initiating BMDCs homing into the ischemic brain for reducing brain injury and enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Stem Cells 2015;33:1153-1172. PMID:25523790

  5. Resveratrol-induced SIRT1 activation promotes neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Joe, I-Seul; Jeong, Sin-Gu; Cho, Goang-Won

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol-3,4',5-trihydroxy-trans-stillbene (resveratrol; RSV), a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol compound, provides protection against stress injury, excessive sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, infections, and invading fungi. There is increasing evidence that resveratrol, a sirtuin1 activator, plays a pivotal role in neuroprotection and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we investigated whether resveratrol induces neuronal differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). Quantitative PCR results showed that resveratrol-treated MSCs (RSV-MSCs) had significantly increased expression of the neuroprogenitor markers Nestin, Musashi, CD133, and GFAP. When RSV-MSCs were differentiated with neuronal induction media (RSV-dMSCs), they exhibited a cell body and dendritic morphology similar to neurons. The number and neurite length of these RSV-dMSCs were significantly increased compared to differentiated MSCs (dMSCs). The RSV-dMSCs and dMSCs had significantly increased expression of the neuronal-specific marker genes Nestin, Musashi, CD133, GFAP, NF-M, MAP-2, and KCNH1. The RSV-dMSCs also showed a higher expression of the neuronal marker proteins, Nestin and NF-M, based on immunocytochemical staining and immunoblot analysis. This effect was abolished by the treatment of sirtuin1 inhibitor EX527. Therefore, we have shown that resveratrol treatment, along with the use of neuronal induction media, effectively stimulates neuronal cell differentiation of hBM-MSCs. PMID:25459285

  6. [Glucocorticoid and Bone. Updated Japanese guidelines for the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    2014-09-01

    The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research (JSBMR) has updated the Guidelines on the Management and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis (GIO) and has incorporated a new scoring method. In the updated guidelines, the JSBMR committee established an intervention threshold by analyzing five Japanese GIO cohorts from primary and secondary prevention studies and then by comprehensively assessing fracture risk using the scoring method. Age, GC dose, lumbar BMD, and prior fragility fractures were identified as factors predicting future fracture and the fracture risk for an individual can be calculated as the sum of the scores for each risk factor. The guidelines were updated on the basis of a score of 3 as the optimal cut-off score for pharmacological intervention. The medications recommended in the guidelines are limited to those approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan. Among these agents, the committee comprehensively reviewed validity for both primary and secondary prevention and assessed the benefit for both BMD and fracture prevention based on the results of clinical studies. Both alendronate and risedronate are recommended as first-line treatment. Ibandronate, teriparatide, and active vitamin D3 derivatives are recommended as alternative option. PMID:25177003

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein signalling suppresses wound-induced skin repair by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Christopher J.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Aziz, Ahmar; Sharpe, David T.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Sharov, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling plays a key role in the control of skin development and postnatal remodelling by regulating keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. To study the role of BMPs in wound-induced epidermal repair, we used transgenic mice overexpressing the BMP downstream component Smad1 under the control of a K14 promoter as an in vivo model, as well as ex vivo and in vitro assays. K14-caSmad1 mice exhibited retarded wound healing associated with significant inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis in healing wound epithelium. Furthermore, microarray and qRT-PCR analyses revealed decreased expression of a number of cytoskeletal/cell motility-associated genes including wound-associated keratins (Krt16, Krt17) and Myo5a, in the epidermis of K14-caSmad1 mice versus wild-type controls during wound healing. BMP treatment significantly inhibited keratinocyte migration ex vivo, and primary keratinocytes of K14-caSmad1 mice showed retarded migration compared to wild-type controls. Finally, siRNA-mediated silencing of Bmpr-1B in primary mouse keratinocytes accelerated cell migration and was associated with increased expression of Krt16, Krt17 and Myo5a compared to controls. Thus, this study demonstrates that BMPs inhibit keratinocyte proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and migration in regenerating skin epithelium during wound healing, and raises a possibility for using BMP antagonists for the management of chronic wounds. PMID:24126843

  8. Transcriptional program of bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced epithelial and smooth muscle differentiation of pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajendrakumar S. V. Chadalavada; Jane Houldsworth; Adam B. Olshen; George J. Bosl; Lorenz Studer; R. S. K. Chaganti

    2005-01-01

    Pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma NTera2\\/cloneD1 (NT2\\/D1) cells respond to multiple vertebrate patterning factors and offer a unique model system to investigate the signaling events associated with lineage determination and cell differentiation. Here, we define the temporal changes in global gene expression patterns in NT2\\/D1 cells upon treatment with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Exposure to BMP-2 rapidly induced the expression of

  9. Neuroprotective effect of combined hypoxia-induced VEGF and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Su An; Hong Lian Jin; Keung Nyun Kim; Hyun Ah Kim; Dong Seok Kim; Joon Cho; Meng-Lu Liu; Jin Soo Oh; Do Heum Yoon; Min Hyung Lee; Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Purposes  To avoid unwanted adverse effects of higher doses of single treatment of stem cells and gene therapy and increase the therapeutic\\u000a efficacies, we hypothesized the combined therapy with stem cells and gene therapy. This study assessed the neuroprotective\\u000a effects of combined gene therapy and stem cell treatment under ischemic hypoxia conditions using hypoxia-inducible vascular\\u000a endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone

  10. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Collagen Production and Tongue Cancer Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Merkku, Kalle; Nyberg, Pia; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Vuoristo, Jussi; Sutinen, Meeri; Vähänikkilä, Hannu; Costea, Daniela E.; Kauppila, Joonas; Lehenkari, Petri; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena; Risteli, Juha; Salo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment (TME) is an active player in carcinogenesis and changes in its composition modify cancer growth. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs), and inflammatory cells can all affect the composition of TME leading to changes in proliferation, invasion and metastasis formation of carcinoma cells. In this study, we confirmed an interaction between BMMSCs and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cells by analyzing the invasion progression and gene expression pattern. In a 3-dimensional myoma organotypic invasion model the presence of BMMSCs inhibited the proliferation but increased the invasion of OTSCC cells. Furthermore, the signals originating from OTSCC cells up-regulated the expression of inflammatory chemokines by BMMSCs, whereas BMMSC products induced the expression of known invasion linked molecules by carcinoma cells. Particularly, after the cell-cell interactions, the chemokine CCL5 was abundantly secreted from BMMSCs and a function blocking antibody against CCL5 inhibited BMMSC enhanced cancer invasion area. However, CCL5 blocking antibody did not inhibit the depth of invasion. Additionally, after exposure to BMMSCs, the expression of type I collagen mRNA in OTSCC cells was markedly up-regulated. Interestingly, also high expression of type I collagen N-terminal propeptide (PINP) in vivo correlated with the cancer-specific mortality of OTSCC patients, whereas there was no association between cancer tissue CCL5 levels and the clinical parameters. In conclusion, our results suggest that the interaction between BMMSC and carcinoma cells induce cytokine and matrix molecule expression, of which high level of type I collagen production correlates with the prognosis of OTSCC patients. PMID:24204919

  11. Recovery From Radiation-induced Bone Marrow Damage by HSP25 Through Tie2 Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hae-June [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hee-Chung [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hee-Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Sil, E-mail: yslee0425@ewha.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [College of Pharmacy and Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Woman's University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Whole-body radiation therapy can cause severe injury to the hematopoietic system, and therefore it is necessary to identify a novel strategy for overcoming this injury. Methods and Materials: Mice were irradiated with 4.5 Gy after heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) gene transfer using an adenoviral vector. Then, peripheral blood cell counts, histopathological analysis, and Western blotting on bone marrow (BM) cells were performed. The interaction of HSP25 with Tie2 was investigated with mouse OP9 and human BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells to determine the mechanism of HSP25 in the hematopoietic system. Results: HSP25 transfer increased BM regeneration and reduced apoptosis following whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). The decrease in Tie2 protein expression that followed irradiation of the BM was blocked by HSP25 transfer, and Tie2-positive cells were more abundant among the BM cells of HSP25-transferred mice, even after IR exposure. Following systemic RNA interference of Tie2 before IR, HSP25-mediated radioprotective effects were partially blocked in both mice and cell line systems. Stability of Tie2 was increased by HSP25, a response mediated by the interaction of HSP25 with Tie2. IR-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Tie2 was augmented by HSP25 overexpression; downstream events in the Tie2 signaling pathway, including phosphorylation of AKT and EKR1/2, were also activated. Conclusions: HSP25 protects against radiation-induced BM damage by interacting with and stabilizing Tie2. This may be a novel strategy for HSP25-mediated radioprotection in BM.

  12. MRI induced torque and demagnetization in retention magnets for a bone conduction implant.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Karl-Johan Fredén; Håkansson, Bo; Reinfeldt, Sabine; Taghavi, Hamidreza; Eeg-Olofsson, Måns

    2014-06-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in patients who use implantable medical devices involve safety risks both for the patient and the implant. Hearing implants often use two permanent magnets, one implanted and one external, for the retention of the external transmitter coil to the implanted receiver coil to achieve an optimal signal transmission. The implanted magnet is subjected to both demagnetization and torque, magnetically induced by the MRI scanner. In this paper, demagnetization and a comparison between measured and simulated induced torque is studied for the retention magnet used in a bone conduction implant (BCI) system. The torque was measured and simulated in a uniform static magnetic field of 1.5 T. The magnetic field was generated by a dipole electromagnet and permanent magnets with two different types of coercive fields were tested. Demagnetization and maximum torque for the high coercive field magnets was 7.7% ± 2.5% and 0.20 ± 0.01 Nm, respectively and 71.4% ± 19.1% and 0.18 ± 0.01 Nm for the low coercive field magnets, respectively. The simulated maximum torque was 0.34 Nm, deviating from the measured torque in terms of amplitude, mainly related to an insufficient magnet model. The BCI implant with high coercive field magnets is believed to be magnetic resonance (MR) conditional up to 1.5 T if a compression band is used around the skull to fix the implant. This is not approved and requires further investigations, and if removal of the implant is needed, the surgical operation is expected to be simple. PMID:24845299

  13. Brain-mediated dysregulation of the bone marrow activity in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jun, Joo Yun; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Qi, Yanfei; Afzal, Aqeela; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S; Grant, Maria B; Mocco, J; Raizada, Mohan K

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress in the brain is implicated in increased sympathetic drive, inflammatory status, and vascular dysfunctions, associated with development and establishment of hypertension. However, little is known about the mechanism of this impaired brain-vascular communication. Here, we tested the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in the brain cardioregulatory areas, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, is driven by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and leads to increased inflammatory cells (ICs) and decreased/dysfunctional endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), thereby compromising vasculature repair and accelerating hypertension. Chronic angiotensin II infusion resulted in elevated blood pressure and sympathetic vasomotor drive, decreased spontaneous baroreflex gain, and increased microglia activation in the paraventricular nucleus. This was associated with 46% decrease in bone marrow (BM)-derived EPCs and 250% increase in BM ICs, resulting in 5-fold decrease of EPC/IC ratio in the BM. Treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant, a scavenger of mitochondrial O(2)(-·), intracerebroventricularly but not subcutaneously attenuated angiotensin II-induced hypertension, decreased activation of microglia in the paraventricular nucleus, and normalized EPCs/ICs. This functional communication between the brain and BM was confirmed by retrograde neuronal labeling from the BM with green fluorescent protein-tagged pseudorabies virus. Administration of green fluorescent protein-tagged pseudorabies virus into the BM resulted in predominant labeling of paraventricular nucleus neurons within 3 days, with some fluorescence in the nucleus tractus solitarius, the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and subfornical organ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and corrects the imbalance in EPCs/ICs in the BM. They suggest that an imbalance in vascular reparative and ICs may perpetuate vascular pathophysiology in this model of hypertension. PMID:23045460

  14. Effects of weightlessness on the development of the vestibular apparatus and ocular nystagmus in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The chronic 2g centrifuge was constructed for testing weightlessness effects on development of vestibular apparatus and ocular nystagmus in the rat. Both the stationary and rotating rail tests were performed. A physiological review is presented on vestibular apparatus, along with a system analysis. Time constants and input threshold level of the system are also considered.

  15. A Pathologist's view on the effects of very long exposure to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensch, K. G.

    1982-01-01

    Speculations concerning the probable consequences of exposure to weightlessness during periods of one year or more and how these effects compare with aging are made. Orthostatic and excercise intolerance, neurological and muscular effects, cell division and DNA synthesis, tissue hypoxia, and edema are discussed in reference to the in-space and return-to-Earth situations.

  16. Preadaptation to the stimulus rearrangement of weightlessness: Preliminary studies and concepts for trainer designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, D. E.; Reschke, M. F.

    1988-01-01

    An effort to develop preflight adaptation training (PAT) apparatus and procedures to adapt astronauts to the stimulus rearrangement of weightless spaceflight is being pursued. Based on the otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation model of sensory adaptation to weightlessness, two prototype preflight adaptation trainers (PAT) have been developed. These trainers couple pitch movement of the subject with translation of the visual surround. Subjects were exposed to this stimulus rearrangement for periods of 30 m. The hypothesis is that exposure to the rearrangement would attenuate vertical eye movements was supported by two experiments using the Miami University Seesaw (MUS) PAT prototype. The Dynamic Environment Simulator (DES) prototype failed to support this hypothesis; this result is attributed to a pecularity of the DES apparatus. A final experiment demonstrated that changes in vertical eye movements were not a consequence of fixation on an external target during exposure to a control condition. Together these experiments support the view that preflight adaptation training can alter eye movements in a manner consistent with adaptation to weightlessness. Following these initial studies, concepts for development of operational preflight trainers were proposed. The trainers are intended to: demonstrate the stimulus rearrangement of weightlessness; allow astronauts to train in altered sensory environment; modify sensory motor reflexes; and reduce/eliminate space motion sickness symptoms.

  17. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) extracts induce osteoblast differentiation and protect against bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo-Seok; Seo, Cho-Rong; Jang, Hwan Hee; Song, No-Joon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Ahn, Jee-Yin; Han, Jaejoon; Seo, Woo Duck; Lee, Young Min; Park, Kye Won

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, an age associated skeletal disease, exhibits increased adipogenesis at the expense of osteogenesis from common osteoporotic bone marrow cells. In this study, black rice (Oryza sativa L.) extracts (BRE) were identified as osteogenic inducers. BRE stimulated the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both C3H10T1/2 and primary bone marrow cells. Similarly, BRE increased mRNA expression of ALP and osterix. Oral administration of BRE in OVX rats prevented decreases in bone density and strength. By contrast, BRE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells and prevented increases in body weight and fat mass in high fat diet fed obese mice, further suggesting the dual effects of BRE on anti-adipogenesis and pro-osteogenesis. UPLC analysis identified cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside as main anti-adipogenic effectors but not for pro-osteogenic induction. In mechanism studies, BRE selectively stimulated Wnt-driven luciferase activities. BRE treatment also induced Wnt-specific target genes such as Axin2, WISP2, and Cyclin D1. Taken together, these data suggest that BRE is a potentially useful ingredient to protect against age related osteoporosis and diet induced obesity. PMID:25428526

  18. Inhibitors of glutamate release from breast cancer cells; new targets for cancer-induced bone-pain

    PubMed Central

    Fazzari, Jennifer; Lin, Hanxin; Murphy, Cecilia; Ungard, Robert; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate is an important signaling molecule in a wide variety of tissues. Aberrant glutamatergic signaling disrupts normal tissue homeostasis and induces several disruptive pathological conditions including pain. Breast cancer cells secrete high levels of glutamate and often metastasize to bone. Exogenous glutamate can disrupt normal bone turnover and may be responsible for cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). CIBP is a significant co-morbidity that affects quality of life for many advanced-stage breast cancer patients. Current treatment options are commonly accompanied by serious side-effects that negatively impact patient care. Identifying small molecule inhibitors of glutamate release from aggressive breast cancer cells advances a novel, mechanistic approach to targeting CIBP that could advance treatment for several pathological conditions. Using high-throughput screening, we investigated the ability of approximately 30,000 compounds from the Canadian Compound Collection to reduce glutamate release from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This line is known to secrete high levels of glutamate and has been demonstrated to induce CIBP by this mechanism. Positive chemical hits were based on the potency of each molecule relative to a known pharmacological inhibitor of glutamate release, sulfasalazine. Efficacy was confirmed and drug-like molecules were identified as potent inhibitors of glutamate secretion from MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and Mat-Ly-Lu cells. PMID:25670024

  19. The effect of purified compared with nonpurified diet on bone changes induced by hindlimb suspension of female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Arnaud, Sara B.; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bone changes induced by unloading in rats fed different diets, because space flight studies use a semipurified diet, whereas space flight simulation studies typically use nonpurified diets. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) 93G diet or a standard nonpurified diet and kept ambulatory or subjected to unloading by hindlimb suspension (HLS) for 38 days. Bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical strength, and factors related to the diet that affect bone (i.e., urinary calcium excretion, estradiol, and corticosterone) were measured. Average food intakes (grams per day) differed for diets, but caloric intake (kilocalories per day) and the final body masses of treatment groups were similar. The HLS-induced decrease in femoral BMC was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-8.6%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-11.4%). The HLS-induced decrease in femoral mechanical strength was not statistically different for rats fed a nonpurified diet (-24%) compared with a purified AIN-93G diet (-31%). However, bone lengths were decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet compared with a purified diet. Plasma estradiol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the HLS/AIN-93G group but similar in the HLS and ambulatory rats fed a nonpurified diet. Plasma estradiol was related to femoral BMC (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). Urinary calcium excretion was higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than those fed a purified AIN-93G diet, which is consistent with the higher level of calcium in the nonpurified diet. Urinary corticosterone levels were higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed a nonpurified diet than rats fed the AIN-93G diet. Although the osteopenia induced by unloading was similar in both diet groups, there were differences in longitudinal bone growth, calcium excretion, plasma estradiol levels, and urinary corticosterone levels. Results indicate that the type of standard diet used is an important factor to consider when measuring bone end points.

  20. Osteogenesis induced in goat bone marrow progenitor cells by recombinant adenovirus coexpressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 and basic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed

    Xu, H H; Liu, S H; Guo, Q F; Liu, Q H; Li, X Y

    2013-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been shown to exhibit a synergistic effect to promote bone repair and healing. In this study, we constructed a novel adenovirus with high coexpression of BMP2 and bFGF and evaluated its effect on osteogenic differentiation of goat bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs). Recombinant adenovirus Ad-BMP2-bFGF was constructed by using the T2A sequence. BMPCs were isolated from goats by density gradient centrifugation and adherent cell culture, and were then infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF or Ad-BMP2. Expression of BMP2 and bFGF was detected by ELISA, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected by an ALP assay kit. In addition, von Kossa staining and immunocytochemical staining of collagen II were performed on BMPCs 21 days after infection. There was a high coexpression of BMP2 and bFGF in BMPCs infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF. Twenty-one days after infection, ALP activity was significantly higher in BMPCs infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF than in those infected with Ad-BMP2. Larger and more mineralized calcium nodules, as well as stronger collagen II staining, were observed in BMPCs infected with Ad-BMP2-bFGF than in those infected with Ad-BMP2. In summary, we developed a novel adenovirus vector Ad-BMP2-bFGF for simultaneous high coexpression of BMP2 and bFGF, which could induce BMPCs to differentiate efficiently into osteoblasts. PMID:24068195

  1. Inflammatory bone loss in experimental periodontitis induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Izawa, A; Ishihara, Y; Mizutani, H; Kobayashi, S; Goto, H; Okabe, E; Takeda, H; Ozawa, Y; Kamiya, Y; Sugita, Y; Kubo, K; Kamei, H; Kikuchi, T; Mitani, A; Hayashi, J; Nishihara, T; Maeda, H; Noguchi, T

    2014-05-01

    The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) binds to IL-1 receptors and inhibits IL-1 activity. However, it is not clear whether IL-1Ra plays a protective role in periodontal disease. This study was undertaken to compare experimental periodontitis induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Computed tomography (CT) analysis and hematoxylin-and-eosin (H&E) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed. In addition, osteoblasts were isolated; the mRNA expression of relevant genes was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); and calcification was detected by Alizarin Red staining. Infected IL-1Ra KO mice exhibited elevated (P, <0.05) levels of antibody against A. actinomycetemcomitans, bone loss in furcation areas, and alveolar fenestrations. Moreover, protein for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and IL-6, mRNA for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) in IL-1Ra KO mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans were increased (P, <0.05) compared to in WT mice. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN)/bone gla protein (BGP), and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) mRNA levels were decreased (P, <0.05). IL-1? mRNA expression was increased, and calcification was not observed, in IL-1 Ra KO mouse osteoblasts. In brief, IL-1Ra deficiency promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines beyond IL-1 and altered the expression of genes involved in bone resorption in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected osteoblasts. Alterations consistent with rapid bone loss in infected IL-Ra KO mice were also observed for genes expressed in bone formation and calcification. In short, these data suggest that IL-1Ra may serve as a potential therapeutic drug for periodontal disease. PMID:24566623

  2. Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Izawa, A.; Mizutani, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Goto, H.; Okabe, E.; Takeda, H.; Ozawa, Y.; Kamiya, Y.; Sugita, Y.; Kubo, K.; Kamei, H.; Kikuchi, T.; Mitani, A.; Hayashi, J.; Nishihara, T.; Maeda, H.; Noguchi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) binds to IL-1 receptors and inhibits IL-1 activity. However, it is not clear whether IL-1Ra plays a protective role in periodontal disease. This study was undertaken to compare experimental periodontitis induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Computed tomography (CT) analysis and hematoxylin-and-eosin (H&E) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed. In addition, osteoblasts were isolated; the mRNA expression of relevant genes was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); and calcification was detected by Alizarin Red staining. Infected IL-1Ra KO mice exhibited elevated (P, <0.05) levels of antibody against A. actinomycetemcomitans, bone loss in furcation areas, and alveolar fenestrations. Moreover, protein for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and IL-6, mRNA for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) in IL-1Ra KO mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans were increased (P, <0.05) compared to in WT mice. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN)/bone gla protein (BGP), and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) mRNA levels were decreased (P, <0.05). IL-1? mRNA expression was increased, and calcification was not observed, in IL-1 Ra KO mouse osteoblasts. In brief, IL-1Ra deficiency promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines beyond IL-1 and altered the expression of genes involved in bone resorption in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected osteoblasts. Alterations consistent with rapid bone loss in infected IL-Ra KO mice were also observed for genes expressed in bone formation and calcification. In short, these data suggest that IL-1Ra may serve as a potential therapeutic drug for periodontal disease. PMID:24566623

  3. Mechanisms Inducing Low Bone Density in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro–computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-?A, and TGF?2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:21509823

  4. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC), satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL) region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC) in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM) resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration. PMID:22793996

  5. Weightlessness alters up/down asymmetries in the perception of self-motion.

    PubMed

    De Saedeleer, Caty; Vidal, Manuel; Lipshits, Mark; Bengoetxea, Ana; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Berthoz, Alain; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of weightlessness on the ability to perceive and remember self-motion when passing through virtual 3D tunnels that curve in different direction (up, down, left, right). We asked cosmonaut subjects to perform the experiment before, during and after long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS), and we manipulated vestibular versus haptic cues by having subjects perform the task either in a rigidly fixed posture with respect to the space station or during free-floating, in weightlessness. Subjects were driven passively at constant speed through the virtual 3D tunnels containing a single turn in the middle of a linear segment, either in pitch or in yaw, in increments of 12.5°. After exiting each tunnel, subjects were asked to report their perception of the turn's angular magnitude by adjusting, with a trackball, the angular bend in a rod symbolizing the outside view of the tunnel. We demonstrate that the strong asymmetry between downward and upward pitch turns observed on Earth showed an immediate and significant reduction when free-floating in weightlessness and a delayed reduction when the cosmonauts were firmly in contact with the floor of the station. These effects of weightlessness on the early processing stages (vestibular and optokinetics) that underlie the perception of self-motion did not stem from a change in alertness or any other uncontrolled factor in the ISS, as evidenced by the fact that weightlessness had no effect on the perception of yaw turns. That the effects on the perception of pitch may be partially overcome by haptic cues reflects the fusion of multisensory cues and top-down influences on visual perception. PMID:23397113

  6. Expression of IL-5 alters bone metabolism and induces ossification of the spleen in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Macias, MiMi P.; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Brenneise, Ina; McGarry, Michael P.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a transgenic mouse line, NJ.1638, which expresses high levels of IL-5 from T cells, with profound hematological consequences. Eosinophils comprise more than 60% of circulating white blood cells in these animals, with the total peripheral white blood cell counts increasing more than 40-fold relative to wild-type littermates. This extraordinary proliferative capacity is sustained by expanded sites of extramedullary hematopoiesis and is accompanied by multifocal, ectopic bone formation in the spleen. Histology of the splenic nodules revealed the presence of osteoid matrices and osteocytes trapped within mineralized trabecular plates. In addition, polarized light microscopy of calcified tissue sections revealed both woven bone and areas of organized lamellar bone. Morphometric assessments demonstrated that both the growth and mineralization of splenic bone occurred at rates nearly an order of magnitude higher than in skeletal bone. Skeletal bone metabolic parameters were also perturbed. We also observed heterotopic ossification of the spleen and perturbation of skeletal bone homeostasis following adoptive engraftment of transgenic marrow to wild-type recipients. These data suggest that IL-5 overexpression mediates bone formation through the mobilization of marrow-derived osteogenic progenitors and/or the inhibition of recruited osteoclasts. PMID:11306598

  7. Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during Rat Femoral Marrow Ablation-Induced Intramembranous Bone Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel K. Wise; Kotaro Sena; Karen Vranizan; Jacob F. Pollock; Kevin E. Healy; W. Frank Hughes; D. Rick Sumner; Amarjit S. Virdi

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced understanding of differential gene expression and biological pathways associated with distinct phases of intramembranous bone regeneration following femoral marrow ablation surgery will improve future advancements regarding osseointegration of joint replacement implants, biomaterials design, and bone tissue engineering. A rat femoral marrow ablation model was performed and genome-wide microarray data were obtained from samples at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10,

  8. Effects of Remifemin Treatment on Bone Integrity and Remodeling in Rats with Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Jianwei; Zhu, Sainan; Jia, Jing; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Weiguang; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Remifemin (isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga Racemosa) on postmenopausal osteoporosis. 120 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham surgery with vehicle, ovariectomy with vehicle, ovariectomy with estradiol valerate, or ovariectomy with Remifemin. Daily oral administrations of the vehicle, estradiol valerate, or Remifemin began 2 weeks after surgery and lasted to 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Ten rats in each group were sacrificed at each timestep with assessment of bone mineral density, trabecular bone structure, and biomechanical parameters of the femur and lumbar vertebra. Bone turnover markers were evaluated 12 weeks after surgery. Both drugs prevented bone density loss in the distal end of the femur and preserved the trabecular bone structure in both the lumbar vertebra and distal end of the femur following ovariectomy. Both drugs protected bone stiffness at the tested regions and reduced bone reabsorption in ovariectomized rats. The preventive effects of Remifemin against bone-loss can rival those of estradiol valerate if treatment duration is adequately extended. In conclusion, Remifemin may demonstrate equivalent effects to estradiol valerate in terms of preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:24349369

  9. Osteoprotegerin Reduces Osteoclast Numbers and Prevents Bone Erosion in Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Romas; Natalie A. Sims; Daphne K. Hards; Mandy Lindsay; Julian W. M. Quinn; Peter F. J. Ryan; Colin R. Dunstan; T. John Martin; Matthew T. Gillespie

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by progressive synovial inflammation and joint destruction. While matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the erosion of unmineralized cartilage, bone destruc- tion involves osteoclasts, the specialized cells that resorb calcified bone matrix. RANK ligand (RANKL) expressed by stromal cells and T cells, and its cognate receptor, RANK, were identified as a critical ligand- receptor pair for

  10. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Joana; Frias, Clara; Canto e Castro, Carlos; Botelho, Maria Luísa; Marques, António Torres; Simões, José António Oliveira; Capela e Silva, Fernando; Potes, José

    2012-01-01

    This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth. PMID:22701304

  11. Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Is there a Risk for Accelerated Osteoporosis after Return?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-to to-date suggests that the rapid rate of site-specific bone loss in space, due to the unbalanced stimulation of bone resorption, may predispose crew members to irreversible changes in bone structure and microarchitecture. No analyses conducted in the postflight period to assess microarchitectural changes. There is no complete analysis of skeletal recovery in the postflight period to evaluate the structural changes that accompany increases in DXA aBMD. Postflight analyses based upon QCT scans performed on limited crew members indicate reductions in hip bone strength and incomplete recovery at 1 year. No recovery of trabecular vBMD after 1 year return (HRP IWG). Time course of bone loss in space unknown.

  12. Effect of spaceflight on the non-weight-bearing bones of rat skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Russell, J. E.; Winter, F.; Tran Van, P.; Vignery, A.; Baron, R.; Rosenberg, G. D.; Walker, W. V.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the integrated growth and remodeling of nonweight-bearing bones (the mandibles, teeth, and ribs) were studied. Rats prelabeled with tetracycline to mark the surfaces of bone and tooth formation were subjected to spaceflight conditions for 18.5 days, followed by further injections of tetracycline on days 6 and 29 postflight.Results show that spaceflight conditions did not alter the rate of periosteal bone formation in the ribs and regions of the mandibles covered by masticatory muscles, although bone formation-calcification rates were found to be impaired at those sites in the jaw that had no contiguous muscle (molar region). The remodeling activity on the alveolar bone around the buccal roots of the molar teeth was found to be significantly reduced. While total Ca, P, and hydroxyproline concentrations in the jaws, incisors, and ribs were normal after spaceflight, it was determined that weightless conditions caused a delay in the maturation of bone mineral and matrix in the jaws. These anomalies were found to be corrected by 29 days postflight. These results indicate that most of the nonweight-bearing bones of the rat skeleton are at risk to the effects of weightlessness.

  13. Spinal cord injury causes rapid osteoclastic resorption and growth plate abnormalities in growing rats (SCI-induced bone loss in growing rats)

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Y. D.; Pham, L.; Newton, K.; Yu, D.; Liao, W.-L.; Kohler, T.; Müller, R.; Graves, D.; Stashenko, P.; Battaglino, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spinal cord injury causes severe bone loss. We report osteoclast resorption with severe trabecular and cortical bone loss, decreased bone mineral apposition, and growth plate abnormalities in a rodent model of contusion spinal cord injury. These findings will help elucidate the mechanisms of osteoporosis following neurological trauma. Introduction Limited understanding of the mechanism(s) that underlie spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced bone loss has led to few treatment options. As SCI-induced osteoporosis carries significant morbidity and can worsen already profound disability, there is an urgency to advance knowledge regarding this pathophysiology. Methods A clinically relevant contusion model of experimental spinal cord injury was used to generate severe lower thoracic SCI by weight-drop (10 g×50 mm) in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats. Body weight and gender-matched naïve (no surgery) rats served as controls. Bone microarchitecture was determined by micro-computed tomographic imaging. Mature osteoclasts were identified by TRAP staining and bone apposition rate was determined by dynamic histomorphometry. Results At 10 days post-injury we detected a marked 48% decrease in trabecular bone and a 35% decrease in cortical bone at the distal femoral metaphysis by micro-CT. A 330% increase in the number of mature osteoclasts was detected at the growth plate in the injured animals that corresponded with cellular disorganization at the chondro-osseous junction. Appositional growth studies demonstrated decreased new bone formation with a mineralization defect indicative of osteoblast dysfunction. Conclusions Contusion SCI results in a rapid bone loss that is the result of increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. PMID:17987335

  14. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. II - Visual vestibular tilt interaction in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Shelhamer, M.; Modestino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptation to weightlessness includes the substitution of other sensory signals for the no longer appropriate graviceptor information concerning static spatial orientation. Visual-vestibular interaction producing roll circularvection was studied in weightlessness to assess the influence of otolith cues on spatial orientation. Preliminary results from four subjects tested on Spacelab-1 indicate that visual orientation effects were stronger in weightlessness than pre-flight. The rod and frame test of visual field dependence showed a weak post-flight increase in visual influence. Localized tactile cues applied to the feet in space reduced subjective vection strength.

  15. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission: 2. Visual vestibular tilt interaction in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. R.; Shelhamer, M.; Modestino, S.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptation to weightlessness includes the substitution of other sensory signals for the no longer appropriate graviceptor information concerning static spatial orientation. Visual-vestibular interaction producing roll circularvection was studied in weightlessness to assess the influence of otolith cues on spatial orientation. Preliminary results from four subjects tested on Spacelab-1 indicate that visual orientation effects were stronger in weightlessness than pre-flight. The rod and frame test of visual field dependence showed a weak post-flight increase in visual influence. Localized tactile cues applied to the feet in space reduced subjective vection strength.

  16. Palliative therapy with I-131 labeled bezylidenediphosphonic acid: In vivo kinetics and response to pain induced by bone metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhut, M.; Berberich, R.; Kimmig, B.; Oberhausen, E.; Georgi, P.; Zum Winkel, K.

    1985-05-01

    I-131 labeled ..cap alpha..-amino-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)diphosphonic acid (BDP3) was recently suggested as a palliative acting radiopharmaceutical against pain syndromes associated with disseminated bone metastases. Such an application was supported by the in vivo kinetics of I-131-BDP3 in rats. The authors investigated the palliative effectiveness of I-131-BDP3 in 18 patients with typical pain symptoms induced by bone metastases of various primary carcinoma. The blood clearance was rapid. More than 90% disappeared from the blood pool at 4 hr after injection. The excretion of the activity occured solely through the kidneys and the median total body retention at 48 hr was 51% (range 30-64%). The thyroid activity decreased during therapy indicating no cleavage reactions as long as I-131-BDP3 is bound to the bone tissue. The binding of I-131-BDP3 to bone is very long since the effective half life was in the order of magnitude of the physical half life. Additionally the effective half lifes in the metastatic ares (median 182 hr; range 177-205 hr) proved to be longer than in unaffected areas (145 hr; 140-165 hr). The palliative therapies were performed with doses of 6 - 48 mCi. The response amounted to 44% complete pain relief, 6% substantial pain relief, 22% minimal improvement and 28% no change. The duration of response ranged between 1 and 8 weeks.

  17. A study of stress-free living bone and its application to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Spira, M.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of animals and human subjects in weightless space flight (Skylab and COSMOS) document altered bone metabolism. Bone metabolism is affected by a number of local and systemic factors. The calcification and growth of transplanted bone is independent of local muscle, nervous, and mechanical forces; therefore, transplanted bone would provide data on the role of local vs. systematic factors. Bone metabolism in living transplanted bone, devoid of stress, was investigated as a possible tool for the investigation of countermeasures against disuse bone loss. An animal model using Sprague-Dawley rats was developed for transplantation of femur bone tissue on a nutrient vascular pedicel. The long term course of these implants was assessed through the measure of regional and total bone mineral, blood flow, and methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. Clomid, an estrogen agonist/antagonist, was shown to protect bone from disuse loss of minerals by retarding trabecular and cortical resorption.

  18. Phenytoin and sodium valproate but not levetiracetam induce bone alterations in female mice.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Md Jamir; Radhakrishna, K V; Vohora, Divya

    2014-06-01

    Adverse effects on the bone are amongst the potentially adverse clinical consequences with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This study compared the effects of 3 AEDs (phenytoin (PHT), sodium valproate (SVP), and levetiracetam (LTM)) on the bones of a Swiss strain of albino female mice. Drugs were administered daily for 4 months at doses that produced plasma concentrations corresponding to the clinically relevant therapeutic ranges. PHT and SVP (but not LTM) significantly lowered the bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) as evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. The findings were supported by histopathology of vertebral (lumbar) bone and analysis of bone turnover markers. While both PHT and SVP reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hydroxyproline (HxP) in lumbar vertebrae, and elevated tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and urinary excretion of calcium, LTM did not affect any of these markers of bone turnover, indicating that the drug might be a safer option in female epileptic patients prone to bone changes. PMID:24761981

  19. An in vitro model of radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gevorgyan, Artur; La Scala, Giorgio C; Sukhu, Balram; Leung, Iona T; Ashrafpour, Homa; Yeung, Ivan; Neligan, Peter C; Pang, Cho Y; Forrest, Christopher R

    2007-09-01

    Radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth inhibition is a consequence of therapeutic radiation in the survivors of pediatric head and neck cancer. Previously, the infant rabbit orbitozygomatic complex (OZC) was established as a reliable animal model. The purpose of this study was to develop a cell culture model from the rabbit OZC to study the effects of radiation in the craniofacial skeleton. Infant (7-week-old) New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. Periostea from both OZC were harvested in sterile conditions, introduced into cell culture by way of sequential digestion, and subcultured at confluence. Cultures were analyzed for cellular proliferation (methylthiazoletetrazolium assay), alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type I expression, and mineralization. Electron microscopy was performed to reveal the in vitro ultrastructure. Subsequently, rabbits were irradiated with sham or 15 Gy radiation, and cell cultures were developed and analyzed for cell numbers. Cell cultures, grown from OZC periostea, expressed osteoblast-like phenotype, with high alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type 1 expression, and mineralization in an osteogenic environment. Electron microscopy confirmed the characteristic ultrastructural features of osteogenesis in vitro. Finally, significantly (P < 0.01) fewer cells were obtained from animals treated with 15 Gy radiation compared with those from control animals.A primary cell culture with osteoblast-like cellular phenotype was developed from infant rabbit OZC periosteum. This cell culture system responded to in vivo administered radiation by a significant decrease in cell numbers. This in vitro model will be subsequently used to study the cellular mechanisms of radiation and radioprotection in craniofacial osteoblast-like cells. PMID:17912079

  20. Micromotion-induced strain fields influence early stages of repair at bone-implant interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wazen, Rima M.; Currey, Jennifer A.; Guo, Hongqiang; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.; Nanci, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Implant loading can create micromotion at the bone-implant interface. The interfacial strain associated with implant micromotion could contribute to regulating the tissue healing response. Excessive micromotion can lead to fibrous encapsulation and implant loosening. Our objective was to characterize the influence of interfacial strain on bone regeneration around implants in mouse tibiae. A micromotion system was used to create strain under conditions of (1) no initial contact between implant and bone, and (2) a direct bone-implant contact. Pin- and screw-shaped implants were subjected to displacements of 150 ?m or 300 ?m, 60 cycles/day, for 7 days. Pin-shaped implants placed in 5 animals were subjected to 3 sessions of 150 ?m displacement per day, with 60 cycles per session. Control implants in both types of interfaces were stabilized throughout the healing period. Experimental strain analyses, microtomography, image-based displacement mapping, and finite element simulations were used to characterize interfacial strain fields. Calcified tissue sections were prepared and stained with Goldner to evaluate tissue reaction in higher and lower strain regions. In stable implants, bone formation occurred consistently around the implants. In implants subjected to micromotion, bone regeneration was disrupted in areas of high strain concentrations (e.g. > 30%), whereas lower strain values were permissive of bone formation. Increasing implant displacement or number of cycles per day also changed the strain distribution and disturbed bone healing. These results indicate that not only implant micromotion but also the associated interfacial strain field contributes to regulating the interfacial mechanobiology at healing bone-implant interfaces. PMID:23337705

  1. Inhibition by a new bisphosphonate (AHBuBP) of bone resorption induced by the MBT-2 tumor of mice.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, R; Satou, S; Miyagawa, I; Koiso, K

    1991-02-01

    A new bisphosphonate, 4-amino-1-hydroxybuthylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (AHBuBP), was compared with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP) and 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) in terms of its effect on tumor-induced osteolysis using a bladder tumor in mice (MBT-2). Tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously (SC) over the calvaria in mice, resulting in a local tumor causing fragmentation of the bone. The tumor-induced osteolysis associated with osteoclasts proliferation was accompanied with reactive new bone formation. This osteolysis was evaluated by measuring the increased area of bone resorption in reduced opacity to radiograph and histologic study. The results showed the following sequence of potency: AHBuBP greater than AHPrBP = HEBP. This inhibition was obtained with no apparent effect on the growth of the MBT-2 tumor. The authors conclude that AHBuBP appears to be an interesting new bisphosphonate with possible clinical application. PMID:1898709

  2. Marrow-tumor interactions: the role of the bone marrow in controlling chemically induced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes work done to evaluate the role of the bone marrow in tumor growth regulation. Work done with the MCA tumor showed that several subclasses of mononuclear bone marrow cells (e.g. natural regulatory cell, NRC) play a major role in the regulation of tumor growth. Experiments with the spontaneous CE mammary carcinoma system illustrate that a rapid growth of certain neoplasms may be due to the fact that through some as yet undefined mechanism the tumor eliminates mononuclear cells in the bone marrow of the host and stops their production. (KRM)

  3. Proteomic analysis on effectors involved in BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of beagle bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the protein regulation profile of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-induced osteogenic differentiation in beagle bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Methods Beagle BMSCs were isolated and cultured with or without rhBMP-2. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to determine the differences in protein expression in rhBMP-2-induced and non-induced BMSCs. Real-time PCR and western blotting analyses were used to verify the expression patterns of selected proteins. Results After the induction, the osteogenic differentiation of beagle BMSCs was activated successfully. Nine and 11 proteins were found to be down- and up-regulated by rhBMP-2, respectively. The increase in Lim and SH3 domain protein 1(LASP1) and the decrease in ferritin were verified by real-time PCR and western blotting analyses. Conclusions Among the 20 rhBMP-2-regulated factors, there is empirical evidence supporting the involvement of LASP1 and ferritin in osteogenic differentiation. LASP1 plays an important role in the regulation of the activity of the cytoskeleton, and ferritin is an important molecule in cellular iron homeostasis. Further studies focused on these 20 proteins will help elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) through which rhBMP-2 induces osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:24580839

  4. Human Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E; Franquesa, Marcella; Engela, Anja U; Korevaar, Sander S; Roelofs, Helene; Genever, Paul G; IJzermans, Jan NM; Betjes, Michiel GH; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction For clinical applications, Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) can be isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue of autologous or allogeneic origin. Allogeneic cell usage has advantages but may harbor the risk of sensitization against foreign HLA. Therefore, we evaluated whether bone marrow and adipose tissue-derived MSC are capable of inducing HLA-specific alloreactivity. Methods MSC were isolated from healthy human Bone Marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (ASC) donors. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were co-cultured with HLA-AB mismatched BM-MSC or ASC precultured with or without IFNy. After isolation via FACS sorting, the educated CD8+ T effector populations were exposed for 4 hours to Europium labeled MSC of the same HLA make up as in the co-cultures or with different HLA. Lysis of MSC was determined by spectrophotometric measurement of Europium release. Results CD8+ T cells educated with BM-MSC were capable of HLA specific lysis of BM-MSC. The maximum lysis was 24% in an effector:target (E:T) ratio of 40:1. Exposure to IFN? increased HLA-I expression on BM-MSC and increased lysis to 48%. Co-culturing of PBMC with IFN?-stimulated BM-MSC further increased lysis to 76%. Surprisingly, lysis induced by ASC was significantly lower. CD8+ T cells educated with ASC induced a maximum lysis of 13% and CD8+ T cells educated with IFN?-stimulated ASC of only 31%. Conclusion Allogeneic BM-MSC, and to a lesser extend ASC, are capable of inducing HLA specific reactivity. These results should be taken into consideration when using allogeneic MSC for clinical therapy. PMID:24729944

  5. Effects of simulated weightlessness on fish otolith growth: Clinostat versus Rotating-Wall Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungs, Sonja; Hauslage, Jens; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    Stimulus dependence is a general feature of developing sensory systems. It has been shown earlier that the growth of inner ear heavy stones (otoliths) of late-stage Cichlid fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) and Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is slowed down by hypergravity, whereas microgravity during space flight yields an opposite effect, i.e. larger than 1 g otoliths, in Swordtail ( Xiphophorus helleri) and in Cichlid fish late-stage embryos. These and related studies proposed that otolith growth is actively adjusted via a feedback mechanism to produce a test mass of the appropriate physical capacity. Using ground-based techniques to apply simulated weightlessness, long-term clinorotation (CR; exposure on a fast-rotating Clinostat with one axis of rotation) led to larger than 1 g otoliths in late-stage Cichlid fish. Larger than normal otoliths were also found in early-staged Zebrafish embryos after short-term Wall Vessel Rotation (WVR; also regarded as a method to simulate weightlessness). These results are basically in line with the results obtained on Swordtails from space flight. Thus, the growth of fish inner ear otoliths seems to be an appropriate parameter to assess the quality of "simulated weightlessness" provided by a particular simulation device. Since CR and WVR are in worldwide use to simulate weightlessness conditions on ground using small-sized specimens, we were prompted to directly compare the effects of CR and WVR on otolith growth using developing Cichlids as model organism. Animals were simultaneously subjected to CR and WVR from a point of time when otolith primordia had begun to calcify both within the utricle (gravity perception) and the saccule (hearing); the respective otoliths are the lapilli and the sagittae. Three such runs were subsequently carried out, using three different batches of fish. The runs were discontinued when the animals began to hatch. In the course of all three runs performed, CR led to larger than normal lapilli, whereas WVR had no effect on the growth of these otoliths. Regarding sagittae, CR resulted in larger than normal stones in one of the three runs. The other CR runs and all WVR runs had no effect on sagittal growth. These results clearly indicate that CR rather than WVR can be regarded as a device to simulate weightlessness using the Cichlid as model organism. Since WVR has earlier been shown to affect otolith growth in Zebrafish, the lifestyle of an animal (mouth-breeding versus egg-laying) seems to be of considerable importance. Further studies using a variety of simulation techniques (including, e.g. magnetic levitation and random positioning) and various species are needed in order to identify the most appropriate technique to simulate weightlessness regarding a particular model organism.

  6. Ovariectomy-induced osteopenia influences the middle and late periods of bone healing in a mouse femoral osteotomy model.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jian; Ye, Meina; Cao, Yuelong; Zheng, Yuxin; Guo, Hailing; Zhao, Yongfang; Zhan, Hongsheng; Shi, Yinyu

    2014-10-01

    Objective It is known that bone healing was delayed in the presence of osteoporosis in humans. However, due to the complexities of the healing of osteoporotic fractures, animal models may be more appropriate to study the effects of osteoporosis in more details and to test drugs on the fracture repair process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ovariectomy-induced osteopenia in bone healing in an open femoral osteotomy model, and to test the feasibility of this model for evaluating the healing process under osteopenic conditions. Methods In assessing the effects of osteopenia on fracture healing, ovariectomized mouse models were employed. A mid-shaft femur osteotomy model was also established 3 weeks after ovariectomy as an osteopenic fracture group (OVX group). Femurs were then harvested at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after fracture for X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histology and biomechanical analysis. A sham-operated group (Sham group) was used for comparison. Results The OVX mice had significantly lower BVF, vBMD and TMD in the fracture calluses at 6 weeks (P < 0.05), and similar trend was observed in 2 weeks. Additionally, larger calluses in OVX animals were observed via micro-CT and X-ray, but these did not result in better healing outcomes as determined by biomechanical test at 6 weeks. Histological images of the healing fractures in the OVX mice found forward of broken end resorption and delay of hard callus remodeling. The impaired biomechanical measurements in the OVX group (P < 0.05) were consistent with micro-CT measurements and radiographic scoring, which also indicated delay in fracture healing of the OVX group. Conclusions This study provided evidences that ovariectomy-induced osteopenia impair the middle and late bone healing process once more. These data also supported the validity of the mouse femoral osteotomy model in evaluating the process of bone healing under osteopenic conditions. PMID:25296620

  7. Combined effects of soy isoflavone and fish oil on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2011-07-01

    Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption. PMID:21069546

  8. Prednisolone alone, or in combination with estrogen or dietary calcium deficiency or immobilization, inhibits bone formation but does not induce bone loss in mature rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Shen; R. Birchman; X. G. Liang; D. D. Wu; R. Lindsay; D. W. Dempster

    1997-01-01

    Glucocorticoid use has long been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss, resulting in an increased fracture incidence in humans. However, steroid-treated patients often present with other complications that predispose to bone loss, such as immobilization, and little is known about the interaction of these other risk factors for bone loss and glucocorticoids. In the present study, mature female

  9. Stimulating angiogenesis mitigates the unloading-induced reduction in osteogenesis in early-stage bone repair in rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Shota

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating fracture healing during bed rest allows early mobilization and avoids prolonged fracture healing times. We tested the hypothesis that stimulating angiogenesis with deferoxamine (DFO) mitigates the unloading-induced reduction in early-stage bone repair. Rats aged 12 weeks were subjected to cortical drilling on their tibial diaphysis under anesthesia and treated with hindlimb unloading (HU), HU and DFO administration (DFOHU), or weight bearing (WB) for 5 or 10 days (HU5/10, DFOHU5/10, WB5/10; n = 8 per groups) until sacrifice for vascular casting with a zirconium dioxide-based contrast agent. Taking advantage of its absorption discontinuity at the K-absorption edge, vascular and bone images in the drill-hole defects were acquired by synchrotron radiation subtraction CT. Bone repair was reduced in HU rats. The bone volume fraction (B.Vf) was 88% smaller in HU5 and 42% smaller in HU10 than in WB5/10. The bone segment densities (B.Seg) were 97% smaller in HU5 and 141% larger in HU10 than in WB5/10, and bone thickness (B.Th) was 38% smaller in HU10 than in WB10. The vascular volume fraction (V.Vf) was 35% and the mean vessel diameter (V.D) was 13% smaller in HU10 than in WB10. When compared according to categorized vessel sizes, V.Vf in the diameter ranges 20–30, 30–40, and >40 ?m were smaller in HU10 than in WB10, and V.Seg in the diameter range >40 ?m was smaller in HU10 than in WB10. In contrast, there was no difference in B.Vf between DFOHU5/10 and WB5/10 and in V.Vf between DFOHU10 and WB10, though B.Seg remained 86% smaller in DFOHU5 and 94% larger in DFOHU10 than in WB5/10, and B.Th and V.D were 23% and 14% lower in DFOHU10 than in WB10. Vessel size-specific V.Vf in the diameter ranges 10–20 and 20–30 ?m was larger in DFOHU5 than in HU5. In conclusion, the enhanced angiogenic ingrowth mitigates the reduction in bone repair during mechanical unloading. PMID:25780087

  10. Stimulating angiogenesis mitigates the unloading-induced reduction in osteogenesis in early-stage bone repair in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Shota

    2015-03-01

    Accelerating fracture healing during bed rest allows early mobilization and avoids prolonged fracture healing times. We tested the hypothesis that stimulating angiogenesis with deferoxamine (DFO) mitigates the unloading-induced reduction in early-stage bone repair. Rats aged 12 weeks were subjected to cortical drilling on their tibial diaphysis under anesthesia and treated with hindlimb unloading (HU), HU and DFO administration (DFOHU), or weight bearing (WB) for 5 or 10 days (HU5/10, DFOHU5/10, WB5/10; n = 8 per groups) until sacrifice for vascular casting with a zirconium dioxide-based contrast agent. Taking advantage of its absorption discontinuity at the K-absorption edge, vascular and bone images in the drill-hole defects were acquired by synchrotron radiation subtraction CT. Bone repair was reduced in HU rats. The bone volume fraction (B.Vf) was 88% smaller in HU5 and 42% smaller in HU10 than in WB5/10. The bone segment densities (B.Seg) were 97% smaller in HU5 and 141% larger in HU10 than in WB5/10, and bone thickness (B.Th) was 38% smaller in HU10 than in WB10. The vascular volume fraction (V.Vf) was 35% and the mean vessel diameter (V.D) was 13% smaller in HU10 than in WB10. When compared according to categorized vessel sizes, V.Vf in the diameter ranges 20-30, 30-40, and >40 ?m were smaller in HU10 than in WB10, and V.Seg in the diameter range >40 ?m was smaller in HU10 than in WB10. In contrast, there was no difference in B.Vf between DFOHU5/10 and WB5/10 and in V.Vf between DFOHU10 and WB10, though B.Seg remained 86% smaller in DFOHU5 and 94% larger in DFOHU10 than in WB5/10, and B.Th and V.D were 23% and 14% lower in DFOHU10 than in WB10. Vessel size-specific V.Vf in the diameter ranges 10-20 and 20-30 ?m was larger in DFOHU5 than in HU5. In conclusion, the enhanced angiogenic ingrowth mitigates the reduction in bone repair during mechanical unloading. PMID:25780087

  11. The effects of photobiomodulation on healing of bone defects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Costa Lino, Maíra D.; Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Ferreira Moraes, Michel; Augusto Cardoso, José; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.; Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the repair of bone defects, but there are only a few that associates bone healing in the presence of a metabolic disorder as Diabetes Melitus and LLLT. The aim of this study was to assess histologically the effect of LLLT (AsGaAl), 780nm, 70mW, CW, Ø~0.4mm, 16J/cm2 per session) on the repair of surgical defects created in the femur of diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar Albinus rats. Surgical bone defects were created in 60 animals divided into four groups of 15 animals each: Group C (non-diabetic - control); Group CL (non-diabetic + LLLT); Group CD (diabetic); Group CDL (diabetic + LLLT). The animals on the irradiated group received 16 J/cm2 per session divided into four points around the defect, being the first irradiation immediately after surgery and repeated every 48h for 14 days. The animals were killed 15, 21 and 30 days after surgery. The results of the present investigation showed histological evidence of improved amount of collagen fibers at early stages of the bone healing (15 days) and increased amount of well organized bone trabeculae at the end of the experimental period (30 days) on irradiated animals, (diabetic and non-diabetic) compared to non irradiated ones. It is concluded that LLLT has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process of bone defects, even when diabetes mellitus was present.

  12. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Seawater-Exposure-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Inhibiting Autophagy in Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiu-ping; Zhou, Dang-xia; Sun, Li; Ling, Luo; Wu, Chang-gui; Lin, Pu; Han, Shui-ping

    2014-01-01

    Seawater drowning can lead to acute lung injury (ALI). Several studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) treatment could attenuate ALI. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon still remain elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether BMSC treatment can ameliorate seawater-induced ALI and its underlying mechanisms in a rat model. In this study, arterial blood gas, lung weight coefficient, and TNF-?, and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as histopathology examination, were used to detect the lung injury of seawater exposure. Moreover, western blot and RT-PCR were used to explore autophagy in lung tissues. The results demonstrated that seawater exposure induced ALI including impaired arterial blood gas, pulmonary edema, histopathologic changes, and inflammatory response in lung tissues. What is more, these changes were partly ameliorated by BMSC treatment through inhibition of autophagy in lung tissues. The application of BMSC may be a potential effective treatment for seawater-induced ALI. PMID:25215261

  13. Hypertrophy is induced during the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The present study compares bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 and BMP-2 gene transfer as agents of chondrogenesis and hypertrophy in human primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) maintained as pellet cultures. Methods Adenoviral vectors carrying cDNA encoding human BMP-4 (Ad.BMP-4) were constructed by cre-lox combination and compared to previously generated adenoviral vectors for BMP-2 (Ad.BMP-2), green fluorescent protein (Ad.GFP), or firefly luciferase (Ad.Luc). Cultures of human bone-marrow derived MSCs were infected with 5 × 102 viral particles/cell of Ad.BMP-2, or Ad.BMP-4, seeded into aggregates and cultured for three weeks in a defined, serum-free medium. Untransduced cells or cultures transduced with marker genes served as controls. Expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4 was determined by ELISA, and aggregates were analyzed histologically, immunohistochemically, biochemically and by RT-PCR for chondrogenesis and hypertrophy. Results Levels of BMP-2 and BMP-4 in the media were initially 30 to 60 ng/mL and declined thereafter. BMP-4 and BMP-2 genes were equipotent inducers of chondrogenesis in primary MSCs as judged by lacuna formation, strong staining for proteoglycans and collagen type II, increased levels of GAG synthesis, and expression of mRNAs associated with the chondrocyte phenotype. However, BMP-4 modified aggregates showed a lower tendency to progress towards hypertrophy, as judged by expression of alkaline phosphatase, annexin 5, immunohistochemical staining for type X collagen protein, and lacunar size. Conclusions BMP-2 and BMP-4 were equally effective in provoking chondrogenesis by primary human MSCs in pellet culture. However, chondrogenesis triggered by BMP-2 and BMP-4 gene transfer showed considerable evidence of hypertrophic differentiation, with, the cells resembling growth plate chondrocytes both morphologically and functionally. This suggests caution when using these candidate genes in cartilage repair. PMID:19799789

  14. Some results from studies on the effects of weightlessness on the growth of epiphytic orchids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherevchenko, T. M.; Mayko, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    Epidendrum orchids were placed in a Malakhit-2 micro-greenhouse aboard the Soyuz-36-Salyut-6 space station to test their growth under weightless conditions. Growth occurred but was less than in control plants left on Earth; cells were smaller and parenchymal development slowed in all tissues. Stems, roots, and leaves were smaller. The number of stomas on the leaves was about the same as in the controls, but, because of the smaller leaf size, there were more per unit area. A modeling experiment using a clinostat revealed a large decrease in gibberellin activity and auxin activity. It was assumed that weightlessness primarily affects gibberellin biosynthesis, inhibiting cell growth. Reestablishment of growth compound activity upon return of the plants to Earth was indicated by the fact that the orchids resumed growth thereafter.

  15. Myeloprotective activity of crude methanolic leaf extract of Cassia occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Neboh, Emeka E; Ufelle, Silas A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myelosuppression is the most common dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy. Cassia occidentalis plays a vital role in preventing health disorders, but its hematological effects have not been documented much. This study is designed to investigate the myeloprotective activity of the crude methanolic leaf extract of C. occidentalis in cyclophosphamide-induced bone marrow suppression. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats aged two to three months, weighing 120-170 g were used for the study. The r