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1

Weightlessness and bone loss in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review is presented of data whicih has been accumulated on the calcium and skeletal changes occurring in humans subjected to various periods of weightlessness. These data reveal that spaceflight induces an overall loss of calcium which continues unabated for at least three months. Urinary calcium levels reach a constant level within approximately four weeks while fecal calcium losses continue to increase throughout the flight period. A decline in the mineral density of weight-bearing bones accompanies these changes. Available data support the contention that the demineralization affects primarily the weight bearing bones. The rates of loss and recovery of calcium and bone mineral density are approximately equal to those observed during and following bedrest of comparable duration. No measure to wholly prevent these losses has yet been devised.

Rambaut, P. C.

1983-01-01

2

Effects of simulated weightlessness on the kinase activity of MEK1 induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective The mRNA expression of alpha 1 chain of type I collagen COL-I alpha 1 in rat osteosarcoma ROS17 2 8 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 BMP-2 was reduced under simulated microgravity The protein kinase MEK1 of MAPK signal pathway plays an important role in the expression of COL-I alpha 1 mRNA The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of simulated weightlessness on the activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in ROS17 2 8 cells Methods ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G control and rotating clinostat simulated weightlessness for 24 h 48 h and 72 h BMP-2 500 ng ml was added into the medium 1 h before the culture ended There was a control group in which ROS17 2 8 cells were cultured in 1G condition without BMP-2 Then the total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of phosphated-ERK1 2 p-ERK1 2 protein was detected by means of Western Blotting to show the kinase activity of MEK1 Results There were no significant differences in the expression of total ERK1 2 among all groups The expression of p-ERK1 2 was unconspicuous in the control group without BMP-2 but increased significantly when BMP-2 was added P 0 01 The level of p-ERK1 2 in simulated weightlessness group was much more lower than that in 1G group in every time point P 0 01 The expression of p-ERK1 2 gradually decreased along with the time of weightlessness simulation P 0 01 Conclusions The kinase activity of MEK1 induced by BMP-2 in rat osteosarcoma cells was reduced under simulated weightlessness

Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Cao, X. S.; Yang, Z.

3

Evaluation of Treadmill Exercise in a Lower Body Negative Pressure Chamber as a Countermeasure for Weightlessness-Induced Bone Loss: a Bed Rest Study with Identical Twins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Counteracting bone loss is required for future space exploration. We evaluated the ability of treadmill exercise in a LBNP chamber to counteract bone loss in a 30-day bed rest study. Eight pairs of identical twins were randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups. Exercise within LBNP decreased the bone resorption caused by bed rest and may provide a countermeasure for spaceflight. INTRODUCTION: Bone loss is one of the greatest physiological challenges for extended-duration space missions. The ability of exercise to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss has been studied extensively, but to date, it has proven ineffective. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of two countermeasures-treadmill exercise while inside a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber-on bone loss during a 30-day bed rest study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight pairs of identical twins were randomized into sedentary (SED) or exercise/LBNP (EX/LBNP) groups. Blood and urine samples were collected before, several times during, and after the 30-day bed rest period. These samples were analyzed for markers of bone and calcium metabolism. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance. Because identical twins were used, both time and group were treated as repeated variables. RESULTS: Markers of bone resorption were increased during bed rest in samples from sedentary subjects, including the collagen cross-links and serum and urinary calcium concentrations. For N-telopeptide and deoxypyridinoline, there were significant (p < 0.05) interactions between group (SED versus EX/LBNP) and phase of the study (sample collection point). Pyridinium cross-links were increased above pre-bed rest levels in both groups, but the EX/LBNP group had a smaller increase than the SED group. Markers of bone formation were unchanged by bed rest in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that this weight-bearing exercise combined with LBNP ameliorates some of the negative effects of simulated weightlessness on bone metabolism. This protocol may pave the way to counteracting bone loss during spaceflight and may provide valuable information about normal and abnormal bone physiology here on Earth.

Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Calkins, D. S.; Bawa, Maneesh; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

2003-01-01

4

Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significance of gravitation forces in regulating homeostasis is discussed, along with weightlessness effects on humans and a state of reduced weight (subgravity), such as on the moon. Biomedical effects of weightlessness adaptation to zero G and readaptation to terrestrial gravitation are described for the nervous system, cardiovascular system, metabolism, and musculoskeletal system. Reactions caused primarly by: (1) changes in the afferent nervous system, (2) lack of hydrostatic blood pressure, (3) lack of weight on the musculoskeletal system, and (4) exposure limits derived from the effects of prolonged weightlessness on humans are reviewed. Protection of humans from adverse effects of weightlessness is considered; Skylab missions are also summarized.

Pestov, I. D.; Gerathewohl, S. J.

1975-01-01

5

Simulated Space Radiation and Weightlessness: Vascular-Bone Coupling Mechanisms to Preserve Skeletal Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weightlessness causes a cephalad fluid shift and reduction in mechanical stimulation, adversely affecting both cortical and trabecular bone tissue in astronauts. In rodent models of weightlessness, the onset of bone loss correlates with reduced skeletal perfusion, reduced and rarified vasculature and lessened vasodilation, which resembles blood-bone symbiotic events that can occur with fracture repair and aging. These are especially serious risks for long term, exploration class missions when astronauts will face the challenge of increased exposure to space radiation and abrupt transitions between different gravity environments upon arrival and return. Previously, we found using the mouse hindlimb unloading model and exposure to heavy ion radiation, both disuse and irradiation cause an acute bone loss that was associated with a reduced capacity to produce bone-forming osteoblasts from the bone marrow. Together, these findings led us to hypothesize that exposure to space radiation exacerbates weightlessness-induced bone loss and impairs recovery upon return, and that treatment with anti-oxidants may mitigate these effects. The specific aims of this recently awarded grant are to: AIM 1 Determine the functional and structural consequences of prolonged weightlessness and space radiation (simulated spaceflight) for bone and skeletal vasculature in the context of bone cell function and oxidative stress. AIM 2 Determine the extent to which an anti-oxidant protects against weightlessness and space radiation-induced bone loss and vascular dysfunction. AIM 3 Determine how space radiation influences later skeletal and vasculature recovery from prolonged weightlessness and the potential of anti-oxidants to preserve adaptive remodeling.

Alwood, J. S.; Limoli, C. L.; Delp, M. D.; Castillo, A. B.; Globus, R. K.

2012-01-01

6

Weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of weightlessness is clearly demonstrated if the ball is thrown. A diagram shows an astronaut as he would be seen by an observer inside a ship. With his left arm he is throwing a ball horizontally and with his right arm he is throwing a ball diagonally upwards. In space the ball thrown horizontally does not fall but maintains its level flight, and similarly the ball thrown diagonally upwards continues in a straight line. On the ground the familiar parabolic curves resulting from the action of gravity are seen. At low speeds the condition of weightlessness can be reproduced using simple, small scale apparatus. The spaceship is replaced by a large, open sided, wooden box, the arm of the astronaut by a small catapult, the ball by an ordinary marble (1.27 cm diameter) and the observer by a camera. The success of the experiment depends upon the efficient working of the catapult. The box is allowed to fall from the ceiling of an attic in a cottage, on to a mattress on the floor, to reproduce conditions of weightlessness.

Shiells, Robin

1981-01-01

7

Effect of simulated weightlessness and chronic 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration on bone metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weightlessness, as experienced during space flight, and simulated weightlessness induce osteopenia. Using the suspended rat model to simulate weightlessness, a reduction in total tibia Ca and bone formation rate at the tibiofibular junction as well as an inhibition of Ca-45 and H-3-proline uptake by bone within 5-7 days of skeletal unloading was observed. Between days 7 and 15 of unloading, uptake of Ca-45 and H-3-proline, and bone formation rate return to normal, although total bone Ca remains abnormally low. To examine the relationship between these characteristic changes in bone metabolism induced by skeletal unloading and vitamin D metabolism, the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), 24, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) at various times after skeletal unloading were measured. The effect of chronic infusion of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the bone changes associated with unloading was also determined.

Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R. K.; Levens, M. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E.

1985-01-01

8

Bone density in limb-immobilized beagles: An animal model for bone loss in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prolonged weightlessness is man in space flight results in a slow progressive demineralization of bone accompanied by an increased calcium output in the urine resulting in negative calcium balances. This possibly irreversible bone loss may constitute a serious limiting factor to long duration manned space flight. In order to seek and test preventative measures an appropriate ground based animal model simulating weightlessness is necessary. Use of the mature Beagle in limb immobilization has been documented as an excellent model for orthopedic research since this animal most closely simulates the phenomenom of bone loss with regards to growth, remodeling, structure, chemistry and mineralization. The purpose of this project is to develop a research protocol for the study of bone loss in Beagles during and after cast immobilization of a hindleg; research will then be initiated.

Wolinsky, Ira

1987-01-01

9

Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-protein and acidogenic diets induce hypercalciuria. Foods or supplements with excess sulfur-containing amino acids increase endogenous sulfuric acid production and therefore have the potential to increase calcium excretion and alter bone metabolism. In this study, effects of an amino acid/carbohydrate supplement on bone resorption were examined during bed rest. Thirteen subjects were divided at random into two groups: a control group (Con, n = 6) and an amino acid-supplemented group (AA, n = 7) who consumed an extra 49.5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days. Urine was collected for n-telopeptide (NTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), calcium, and pH determinations. Bone mineral content was determined and potential renal acid load was calculated. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was measured in serum samples collected on day 1 (immediately before bed rest) and on day 28. Potential renal acid load was higher in the AA group than in the Con group during bed rest (P < 0.05). For all subjects, during bed rest urinary NTX and DPD concentrations were greater than pre-bed rest levels (P < 0.05). Urinary NTX and DPD tended to be higher in the AA group (P = 0.073 and P = 0.056, respectively). During bed rest, urinary calcium was greater than baseline levels (P < 0.05) in the AA group but not the Con group. Total bone mineral content was lower after bed rest than before bed rest in the AA group but not the Con group (P < 0.05). During bed rest, urinary pH decreased (P < 0.05), and it was lower in the AA group than the Con group. These data suggest that bone resorption increased, without changes in bone formation, in the AA group.

Zwart, S. R.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Paddon-Jones, D.; Ferrando, A. A.; Wolfe, R. R.; Smith, S. M.

2005-01-01

10

Biochemical changes in bone in a model of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amounts of nonmineralized and mineralized collagen in bone from control, immobilized, and immobilized reambulated monkeys were examined. In order to understand structure function relationships of bone collagen and the reponse of a variety of conditions on control of the three dimensional structure of the collagen fibril, the stereochemistry of the cross-linking reactions as well as the stereospecific packing of the collagen molecules were studied.

Mechanic, Gerald L.

1986-01-01

11

Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

2007-01-01

12

Skeletal abnormalities in rats induced by simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypokinetic model has been developed which attempts to simulate the weightlessness experienced during space flight. Male rats were suspended from the model with a head-down tilt for a two-week period. Total mechanical unloading of the hind limbs and partial unloading of the fore limbs occurred. In comparison to pair-fed control rats, the skeletal alterations in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses of suspended rats were determined to be a diminished rate of longitudinal bone growth, a reduced mass of mineralized tissue, and an accumulation of marrow fat. Also, suspended rats exhibited decreased numbers of osteoblasts and increased numbers of osteoclasts immediately adjacent to the growth plate-metaphyseal junction at both skeletal sites. Although the reduction in mineralized tissue and the fat accumulation were more marked in the tibia, the skeletal changes in the proximal tibial and humeral metaphyses were generally comparable. The observed abnormalities may be due to mechanical unloading and/or a hypersecretion of corticosteroids.

Wronski, T. J.; Morey, E. R.

1982-01-01

13

Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

1986-01-01

14

The role of vitamin D in the bone changes associated with simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of vitamin D in the change in bone metabolism was examined. The serum concentrations in rats sacrificed after 2, 5, 7, 10, 12 and 15 days of suspension was measured. Between days 1 and 5 of suspension and then gradually decreased towards normal between days 5 and 15. The time course of the changes in the circulating concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D and 24,25(OH)2D mirror almost precisely the changes in bone metabolism. The relationship between the changes in vitamin D metabolism and bone metabolism is investigated. Whether the bone changes are due to the change in serum concentration of 1,25(OH)2D or the changes in bone formation causing a reduction in Ca flux out of the serum pool and thereby suppressing 1,25(OH)2D production is examined. It is found that suspension had no effect on hormone concentration in the 1,25(OH)2D infused animals. Nevertheless, both vehicle and 1,25(OH)2D infused suspended rats exhibited the same reduction in bone mineral, and uptake of (45)Ca. It is suggested that the transitory reduction in circulating 1,25(OH)2D during suspension is not likely to cause the abnormalities in bone metabolism but rather that the changes in bone metabolism are primary and cause the fall in serum 1,25(OH)2D concentration. This supports the hypothesis that the metabolic abnormalities in bone associated with simulated weightlessness are due to the direct effect of unweighting on the bone.

Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Holton, E.; Levens, M. J.; Globus, R.

1985-01-01

15

Calcium transport from the intestine and into bone in a rat model simulating weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study was to determine whether a defect in transport of calcium in the duodenum was related to decreased bone formation in the suspended rat. Rats were suspended by the tail at a 40 deg angle for up to 15 days. Ca-45 was injected into the ligated duodenum in situ 15 minutes prior to sacrific. Blood, tibia, vertebra and humerus were obtained for total calcium and Ca-45 analyses. Intestinal calcium transport did not appear to be significantly altered by suspension. However, by 5 days of suspension a significant decrease in accumulation of Ca-45 into tibia and vertebra was observed. A trend of decreasing bone mineral and mass was established in tibia and vertebra by the fifth day of suspension. The humerus failed to demonstrate a significant weight decrease or change in Ca-45 accumulation after 15 days of suspension. Results from this simulated weightlessness model suggest that transport of calcium from intestine into bone is decreased within 5 days of suspension. This deficiency appears to be associated with a progressive decrease in total mass of non-weightbearing bones.

Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R. K.; Morey, E. R.

1982-01-01

16

Skeletal response to short-term weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Male Sprague Dawley rats were placed in orbit for 7 days aboard the space shuttle. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the long bones and lumbar vertebrae of flight rats and compared to data derived from ground based control rats. Trabecular bone mass was not altered during the first week of weightlessness. Strong trends were observed in flight rats for decreased periosteal bone formation in the tibial diaphysis, reduced osteoblast size in the proximal tibia, and decreased osteoblast surface and number in the lumbar vertebra. Histologic indices of bone resorption was relatively normal in flight rats. The results indicate that 7 day of weightlessness are not of sufficient duration to induce histologicaly detectable loss of trabecular bone in rats. However, cortical and trabecular bone formation appear to be diminished during the first week of space flight.

Wronski, T. J.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

1986-01-01

17

Experiment K305: Quantitative analysis of selected bone parameters. Supplement 1: Effects of weightlessness on osteoblast differentiation in rat molar periodontium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The morphometric analysis of periodontal ligament (PDL), the osteogenic interface between tooth and bone, is described. Immediately post-flight, PDL width and total cell number were decreased. Frequency distributions of nuclear volume revealed that presumptive preosteoblasts were particularly depressed. Depleted numbers of preosteoblasts may be an important factor in the mechanism of inhibited bone formation during weightlessness.

Roberts, W. E.; Mozsary, P. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

1981-01-01

18

Perspective on the impact of weightlessness on calcium and bone metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans venture into space to colonize the moon and travel to distant planets in the 21st century, they will be confronted with a bone disease that could potentially limit their space exploration activities or put them at risk for fracture when they return to earth. It is now recognized that an unloading of the skeleton, either due to strict bed rest or in zero gravity, leads on average to a 1%-2% reduction in bone mineral density at selected skeletal sites each month. The mechanism by which unloading of the skeleton results in rapid mobilization of calcium stores from the skeleton is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to down regulation in PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Bone modeling and mineralization in chick embryos is not affected by microgravity, suggesting that bone cells adapt and ultimately become addicted to gravity in order to maintain a structurally sound skeleton. Strategies need to be developed to decrease microgravity-induced bone resorption by either mimicking gravity's effect on bone metabolism, or enhancing physically or pharmacologically bone formation in order to preserve astronauts' bone health.

Holick, M. F.

1998-01-01

19

[Mechanisms of human osteopenia and some peculiarities of bone metabolism in weightlessness conditions].  

PubMed

Systematically results and new analysis data on the investigation of human bone system in space flight, the orbital station Mir and International Space Station, are presented. The bone mineral density, bone mineral content, identified as bone mass and body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Theoretically, an expected bone mass loss in trabecular tissue of lower skeletal half may by described as a quickly developing but reversible osteopenia and considered as evidence of functional adaptation of bone tissue to the changing mechanical load. A hypothesis of main mechanisms of osteopenia in microgravity is presented. High individual variability of bone mass losses and stability of individual pattern of correlation between bone mass losses in different skeletal segments were found. It is not possible to identify the relationship between bone mass losses and duration of space missions. Therefore it is not a sufficient ground to calculate the probability of reaching the critical level of bone demineralization by prolonged space flight. The same relates to the probability of prognosis of bone quality changes. There is data about dual energy X-ray absorptiometry that is insufficient for this prognosis. The main direction of investigations is presented which might optimize the interplanetary mission from the point of view of skeletal mechanical functions preservation. PMID:22645949

Oganov, V S; Grigor'ev, A I

2012-03-01

20

Morphological Study of Early Changes in Rat Bones in Simulated Weightlessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By histomorphometric methods tibial bones and lumbar vertebrae of rats exposed for 7 days to hypokinesia or head-down suspension were investigated. Both hypokinesia and suspension led to osteoporosis of the tibial metaphyseal spongiosa which was primarily...

A. S. Kaplanskiy, Z. F. Sakharova, Y. I. Ilyinakakuyeva, G. N. Durnova

1988-01-01

21

Morphological and histochemical studies of bone and cartilage during periods of stimulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats which were subjected to spaceflight for 2-4 weeks showed considerable loss in ability to form new bone. Animals which are placed into nonweight bearing positions, as a model to simulate the absence of gravity here on the Earth's surface. Show a similar decline in new bone formation. It is suggested that the mechanisms underlying these changes may be the result of reduced transmission of gravitational force to the skeletal cells.

Doty, S. B.

1984-01-01

22

The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

1985-01-01

23

Changes in markers of bone formation and resorption in a bed rest model of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To study the mechanism of bone loss in physical unloading, we examined indices of bone formation and bone resorption in the serum and urine of eight healthy men during a 7 day -6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Prompt increases in markers of resorption--pyridinoline (PD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and hydroxyproline (Hyp)/g creatinine--during the first few days of inactivity were paralleled by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) with significant increases in all these markers by day 4 of bed rest. An index of formation, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (SALP), did not change during bed rest and showed a moderate 15% increase 1 week after reambulation. In contrast to SALP, serum osteocalcin (OC) began increasing the day preceding the increase in Hyp, remained elevated for the duration of the bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest values within 5 days of reambulation. Similarly, DPD increased significantly at the onset of bed rest, remained elevated for the duration of bed rest, and returned to pre-bed rest levels upon reambulation. On the other hand, the other three indices of resorption, Hyp, PD, and TRAP, remained elevated for 2 weeks after reambulation. The most sensitive indices of the levels of physical activity proved to be the noncollagenous protein, OC, and the collagen crosslinker, DPD. The bed rest values of both these markers were significantly elevated compared to both the pre-bed rest values and the post-bed rest values. The sequence of changes in the circulating markers of bone metabolism indicated that increases in serum OC are the earliest responses of bone to head-down tilt bed rest.

Lueken, S. A.; Arnaud, S. B.; Taylor, A. K.; Baylink, D. J.

1993-01-01

24

A comparison of leaf epinasty induced by weightlessness or by clinostat rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space flight experiment to determine the effect of weightlessness on the liminal angle of leaves of pepper as compared to the angles of leaves of central plants that rotate horizontally on an earth-based clinostat is evaluated. Copies of the Biosatellite II pepper plant flight film and of the clinostat central film were obtained, and an objective analysis of the information on these films is presented. Results confirm that epinastic leaf movements are characteristic in both orbital and clinostated pepper plants. Claims that the rotation on the clinostat produce the same effect as weightlessness are not supported by the pepper plant experiment.

Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Liu, S. W. W.

1974-01-01

25

Antinatriuretic kidney response to weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have tested the effects of weightlessness on renal function in one subject who flew the recent week-long Russian-German MIR'92 space mission. Urine flow, renal sodium excretion, and the excretion of urodilatin were measured during the first and last days of the flight. Our results demonstrated, in contrast to expectations, that urine flow and sodium excretion during weightlessness were actually lower than the values obtained during preflight measurements. These results therefore are inconsistent with the commonly held hypothesis that weightlessness induces a diuresis and natriuresis in human subjects. It would seem that further studies are necessary to resolve this issue and to determine whether currently used ground-based models of weightlessness correctly predict physiological adaptations that occur during space flight.

Gerzer, R.; Drummer, C.; Heer, M.

26

Effects of weightlessness on tissue proliferation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The repair of bone marrow stroma following mechanical injury was studied to obtain baseline data for a proposed space experiment regarding the effect of weightlessness on marrow stroma and other proliferating cell systems.

Crosby, W. H.; Tavassoli, M.

1975-01-01

27

Lower body negative pressure treadmill exercise as a countermeasure for bed rest-induced bone loss in female identical twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supine weight-bearing exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNP) alleviates some of the skeletal deconditioning induced by simulated weightlessness in men. We examined this potential beneficial effect in women. Because dietary acid load affected the degree of bone resorption in men during bed rest, we also investigated this variable in women. Subjects were 7 pairs of female identical twins assigned

Sara R. Zwart; Alan R. Hargens; Stuart M. C. Lee; Brandon R. Macias; Donald E. Watenpaugh; Kevin Tse; Scott M. Smith

2007-01-01

28

Life in Weightlessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic disorders arising during extended space flights are discussed, including the medical and psychological aspects of weightlessness. The environment of the Skylab station is also described. (Author)

J. Lavernhe

1975-01-01

29

Suppression of osteoblast differentiation during weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that associated with weightlessness is a marked depression or arrest of bone formation. Although the mechanism of this effect is unknown, it probably involves a failure of osteogenic induction. The present study's objective is to determine if weightlessness alters osteoblast differentiation, as evidenced by a change in relative distribution of large to small nuclei in rat moral periodontal ligament of the maxilla. In conjunction with the U.S./USSR Biological Satellite Program, male Wistar rats were flown aboard a modified Soviet Vostok spacecraft (Cosmos 1129). The results of the study are discussed. Morphometric investigations suggest that depleted numbers of preosteoblasts may be an important factor in the inhibition of bone formation during weightlessness.

Roberts, W. E.; Mozsary, P. G.; Morey, E. R.

1982-01-01

30

Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may

Scott M Smith; Martina Heer

2002-01-01

31

Comparison between the weightlessness syndrome and aging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The similarity of detrimental effects of normal aging and of exposure to space weightlessness is discussed. The effects include: the reduction in cardiac output, increase in blood pressure, decrease in respiratory vital capacity, decrease in lean body weight and muscle mass, collagen and fat infiltration of muscle, bone demineralization, and a decrease in urinary excretion of total 17-hydroxicorticosteroids. It is also noted that dispite the accelerated aging of organisms, if animals or human subjects were to spend their entire lives in weightlessness, their lifespans might be significantly increased because of a reduction in metabolic rate. Experimental results are cited.

Miquel, J.

1982-01-01

32

Formation of ectopic osteogenesis in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ectopic osteogenesis experiment aboard the Cosmos-936 biosatellite is described. Decalcified, lyophilized femur and tibia were implanted under the fascia or in the anterior wall of the abdomen in rats. Bone formation before and after the tests is described and illustrated. The extent of formation of ectopic bone in weightlessness did not differ significantly from that in the ground controls, but the bone marrow of the ectopic bone of the flight rats consisted exclusively of fat cells. The deficit of support-muscle loading was considered to cause the disturbance in skeletal bone tissue development.

1977-01-01

33

Effect of simulated weightlessness on the expression of Cbf?1 induced by fluid shear stress in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective The role of mechanical load in the functional regulation of osteoblasts becomes an emphasis in osseous biomechanical researches recently This study was aim to explore the effect of flow shear stress on the expression of Cbf alpha 1 in human osteosarcoma cells and to survey its functional alteration in simulated weightlessness Method After cultured for 72 h in two different gravitational environments i e 1G terrestrial gravitational condition and simulated weightlessness condition human osteosarcoma cells MG-63 were treated with 0 5 Pa or 1 5 Pa fluid shear stress FSS in a flow chamber for 15 30 60 min respectively The total RNA in cells was isolated Transcription PCR analysis was made to examine the gene expression of Cbf alpha 1 And the total protein of cells was extracted and the expression of Cbf alpha 1 protein was detected by means of Western Blotting Results MG-63 cultured in 1G condition reacted to FSS treatment with an enhanced expression of Cbf alpha 1 Compared with no FSS control group Cbf alpha 1 mRNA and protein expression increased significantly at 30 and 60 min with the treatment of FSS P 0 01 And there was remarkable difference on the Cbf alpha 1 mRNA and protein expression between the treatments of 0 5 Pa and 1 5 Pa FSS at 30 min or 60 min P 0 01 As to the osteoblasts cultured in simulated weightlessness by using clinostat the expression of Cbf alpha 1 was significantly different between 1G and simulated weightlessness conditions at each test time P 0 05 Compared with no FSS

Yang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Wang, B.; Sun, X. Q.

34

Alendronate and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Against Bed Rest-Induced Bone Loss: Biochemical Markers of Bone and Calcium Metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weightlessness-induced bone loss must be counteracted to ensure crew health during extendedduration space missions. Studies were conducted to assess two bone loss countermeasures in a ground-based model: horizontal bed rest. Following a 3-wk ambulatory adaptation period, male and female subjects (aged 21-56 y) completed a 17-wk bed rest protocol. Subjects were assigned to one of three treatments: alendronate (ALEN; 10 mg/d, n=6), resistive exercise (RE; 1.5 h/d, 6 d/wk, n=8), or control (CN; no countermeasure, n=8). Dietary intake was adjusted to maintain body weight. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured in blood and urine using standard laboratory methods. All data reported are expressed as percent change from individual pre-bedrest data. Serum calcium changed little during bed rest, and tended to decrease (4-8%) in ALEN subjects. In RE subjects, bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were increased >65 and >30%, respectively, during bed rest, while these were unchanged or decreased in ALEN and CN subjects. Urinary calcium was increased 50% in CN subjects, but was unchanged or decreased in both ALEN and RE groups. Urinary n-telopeptide excretion was increased 40-50% in CN and RE subjects, but decreased 20% in ALEN subjects. Pyridinium crosslink and deoxypyridinoline excretion were increased 20-50% during bed rest. These data suggest that RE countermeasures are effective at increasing markers of bone formation in an analog of weightlessness, while ALEN reduces markers of bone resorption. Counteracting the bone loss of space flight may require both pharmacologic and exercise countermeasures.

Smith, Scott M.; Nillen, Jeannie L.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; DeKerlegand, Diane E.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda C.

2001-01-01

35

Physiological problems of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief review of the compensatory-adjusting body changes observed during and after human exposure to prolonged spaceflight is given. Pathological disturbances caused by increased functional hypokinesia and weightlessness loads affect the cardiovascular system, the nervous and hormonal systems, and the state of the skeletal musculo apparatus.

Vasilyev, P. V.; Kasyan, I. I.

1975-01-01

36

Mass discrimination during weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

Ross, H.

1981-01-01

37

[Effects of weightlessness on osseous tissue of the rat after a space flight of 5 days (Cosmos 1514)].  

PubMed

Five pregnant female growing rats have been orbited for five days aboard the Cosmos 1514 soviet biological satellite. They were compared to five female rats kept in vivarium and five female conditioned rats in synchronised way. Histomorphometric studies were performed in order to investigate: 1. The early effects of weightlessness on the bone mass in loading (tibiae and femur) and unloading bones (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae). 2. The changes of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities. A short exposure does not induce changes in the bone mass and the inner structure of loading and unloading bones. These results fit in well with human data available in the literature: they show that weightlessness doesn't change bone mass in the early phase of a spaceflight. However extrapolation of animal results to men is discussed. In unloading bones (vertebrae) osteoblastic activity was not measurable. Osteoclasts detected by histoenzymologic method don't change as far as their number per mm3 of trabecular bone is concerned. However the number per mm2 of trabecular area increases. It seems likely that an increase of the osteoclastic population occurs in trabecular bone. In loading bones, formation activity (appreciated by the measurement of osteoid seam thickness) and total osteoclastic resorption surfaces were not modified. These results are different from those of longer flights. PMID:3430362

Vico, L; Chappard, D; Alexandre, C; Palle, S; Minaire, P; Riffat, G; Novikov, V E; Bakulin, A V

1987-01-01

38

The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.

1985-01-01

39

[Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight. PMID:24758090

Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

2014-03-01

40

Calcium and bone metabolism during space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weightlessness induces bone loss. Understanding the nature of this loss and developing means to counteract it are significant challenges to potential human exploration missions. This article reviews the existing information from studies of bone and calcium metabolism conducted during space flight. It also highlights areas where nutrition may play a specific role in this bone loss, and where countermeasures may be developed to mitigate that loss.

Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina

2002-01-01

41

Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone. The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely the flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Earlier studies have shown that the disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, is associated with the loss of bone in astronauts, and has catabolic effects on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found earlier that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGEZ production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R. G.; Veldhuijzen, J. P.; Van Loon, J. J. W. A.

2003-10-01

42

Novel Receptor-Based Countermeasures to Microgravity-Induced Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biological actions mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca(sup 2+) (sub o) -sensing receptor (CaR) play key roles in the normal control of bone growth and skeletal turnover that is necessary for skeletal health. These receptors act by controlling the differentiation and/or function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and other cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment. The appropriate use of selective ER modulators (SERMS) which target bone, vitamin D analogs that favor bone formation relative to resorption, and CaR agonists may both stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis and the function of mature osteoclasts, should make it possible to prevent the reduction in bone formation and increase in bone resorption that normally contribute to the bone loss induced by weightlessness. Indeed, there may be synergistic interactions among these receptors that enhance the actions of any one used alone. Therefore, we proposed to: 1) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoblastogenesis and mature osteoblast function under conditions of 1g and simulated microgravity; 2) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption under conditions of lg and simulated microgravity; and 3) carry out baseline studies on the skeletal localization of the CaR in normal rat bone as well as the in vivo actions of our novel ER- and VDR-based therapeutics in the rat in preparation for their use, alone or in combination, in well-established ground-based models of microgravity and eventually in space flight.

OMalley, Bert W.

1999-01-01

43

Microgravity and Bone Cell Mechanosensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of bone tissue to alter its mass and structure in response to mechanical demands has long been recognized but the cellular mechanisms involved remained poorly understood. Bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks, but it can adapt during life toward more efficient mechanical performance. Mechanical adaptation of bone is a cellular process and needs a biological system that senses the mechanical loading. The loading information must then be communicated to the effector cells that form new bone or destroy old bone.The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely flow of interstitial fluid along the surface of osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and expression of prostaglandin G/H synthase inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2). Cultured bone cells also rapidly produce nitric oxide (NO) in response to fluid flow as a result of activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), which enzyme also mediates the adaptive response of bone tissue to mechanical loading. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction.Microgravity, or better near weightlessness, has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, and on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under near weightlessness conditions. However, under near weightlessness conditions the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered since it has been shown that the direction of the gravity vector determines microtubular pattern formation in vivo. We found that the transduction of mechanical signals in bone cells also involves the cytoskeleton and is related to PGE2 production. Therefore it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under near weightlessness conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts.In our current project for the International Space Station, we wish to test this hypothesis experimentally using an in vitro model. The specific aim of our research project is to test whether near weightlessness decreases the sensitivity of bone cells for mechanical stress through a decrease in early signaling molecules (NO, PGs) that are involved in the mechanical loading-induced osteogenic response. Bone cells are cultured with or without gravity prior to and during mechanical loading, using our modified in vitro oscillating fluid flow apparatus. In this "FlowSpace" project we are developing a cell culture module that is used to provide further insight in the mechanism of mechanotransduction in bone.

Klein-Nulend, J.; Bacabac, R.; Veldhuijzen, J.; van Loon, J.

44

Motor activity under weightless conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The material presented on the motor activity under weightless conditions (brief and long) leads to the conclusion that it is not significantly disrupted, if those being examined are secured at the workplaces. Some discoordination of movement, moderately expressed disruption of the precision of reproduction of assigned muscular forces, etc., were observed. Motor disorders decrease significantly in proportion to the length of stay under weightless conditions. This apparently takes place, as a consequence of formation of a new functional system, adequate to the conditions of weightlessness. Tests on intact and labyrinthectomized animals have demonstrated that signaling from the inner ear receptors is superfluous in weightlessness, since it promotes the onset of disruptions in the combined work of the position analyzers.

Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Cherepakhin, M. A.; Yuganov, Y. M.

1975-01-01

45

Blood circulation under weightless conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical data obtained on men and animals during weightlessness conditions establish instabilities in pulse rate and blood circulation that smooth out in proportion to adaptation to the weightless condition. The unusual slowness of recovery of pulse rate to initial values after space flight stress is attributed to biological simulation of hormonal shifts and discharge of humoral substances into the blood that prevent a rapid recovery of some biological indicators to initial values.

Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

1975-01-01

46

Ocular torsion on earth and in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Otolith function is studied by means of measurements of ocular torsion under various acceleration environments on earth and in weightlessness. Photographic measurements of ocular torsion as indicated by the rotation of landmarks on the iris with respect to head-fixed fiducial marks were obtained in subjects undergoing horizontal linear acceleration in a ground-based version of the space sled, lateral acceleration from weightlessness during pullout from the free-fall portion of parabolic flight, and optokinetic stimulation about the roll axis in the supine position in the laboratory and during weightlessness. The responses of ocular torsion to horizontal acceleration are in agreement with a simple low-order linear system with a dominant time constant of 0.33 sec, with a transfer function fit by a model with a pure delay of 0 to 400 msec and a first-order lag. In the pullout experiment, torsion was not observed in response to the onset of acceleration in the right-ear-down position, although it was present in response to the lateral stimulus. Results of the roll vection experiments indicate the independence of ocular torsion and visually induced tilt. In addition, an automatic video system using a soft contact lens target is presented which has been developed for ocular torsion measurements.

Young, L. R.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Arrott, A. P.; Crites, T. A.; Oman, C. M.; Edelman, E. R.

1981-01-01

47

Bisphosphonates in bone cement inhibit PMMA particle induced bone resorption  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Wear particle induced bone resorption is thought to be one of the mechanisms that contribute to implant loosening. It has previously been shown that macrophages, in response to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles, differentiate into bone resorbing osteoclasts, and that this process is inhibited by a bisphosphonate, etidronate (EHDP). The aim of this study was to determine whether incorporating EHDP in bone cement could reduce PMMA associated bone resorption.?METHODS—Two concentrations of EHDP were mixed with PMMA monomer before polymerisation. Particles of PMMA (1-10 µm) were generated then added to mouse monocytes cocultured with UMR106 rat osteoblast-like cells and the extent of osteoclast differentiation was determined by assessing the extent of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and measuring the amount of lacunar bone resorption.?RESULTS—The addition of PMMA to monocyte-UMR106 cocultures resulted in a marked increase in the number of TRAP positive osteoclast-like cells and a significant increase in the number of lacunar resorption pits compared with control cultures to which no particles had been added. After the addition of particles of PMMA + 20 mg EHDP, significantly fewer lacunar pits (p=0.00006) and fewer TRAP positive cells were noted compared with cocultures containing PMMA particles alone.?CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that by mixing a bisphosphonate with bone cement, it is possible to inhibit PMMA particle induced bone resorption. This bisphosphonate inhibition of PMMA biomaterial wear particle containing macrophage-osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption may provide a possible therapeutic strategy to prevent or to control the osteolysis of aseptic loosening.?? Keywords: bisphosphonate; bone resorption; aseptic loosening; macrophages

Sabokbar, A.; Fujikawa, Y.; Murray, D.; Athanasou, N.

1998-01-01

48

Plants and weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of two plants, wall cress and short-day red goosefoot, was traced for their entire lifetime in weightlessness. In the beginning both plants grew normally: the seeds sprouted in the normal periods, and the shoots did not differ in any way from the control plants. It is true that certain roots lost their normal orientation and did not go deeper into the nutrient medium, but rather crept over its surface. But then both the wall cress and the goosefoot slowed down their normal rate of growth, which became noticeable from the rate of formation of new leaves in the wall cress and stem development in the goosefoot. Although no disorders were successfully found in the morphology of the two plants, almost half of the experimental cress and goosefoot plants ceased growth completely, yellowed and died. The other part continued to develop normally and by the end of vegetation, differed from the control plants only in a lower height. Not all were fertile since certain experimental plants, after losing spatial orientation, became twisted and produced sterile flowers.

Karminskiy, V.; Tarkhanovskiy, V.

1980-01-01

49

Human Cardiovascular Adaptation to Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Entering weightlessness (0 G) induces immediately a shift of blood and fluid from the lower to the upper parts of the body inducing expansion of the cardiac chambers (Bungo et al. 1986; Charles & Lathers 1991; Videbaek & Norsk 1997). For many years the effects of sudden 0 G on central venous pressure (CVP) was discussed, and it puzzled researchers that CVP compared to the 1-G supine position decreased during the initial hours of spaceflight, when at the same time left atrial diameter increased (Buckey et al. 1996). By measuring esophageal pressure as an estimate of inter-pleural pressure, it was later shown that this pressure decreases more than CVP does during 0 G induced by parabolic flights (Videbaek & Norsk 1997). Thus, transmural CVP is increased, which distends the cardiac chambers. This unique lung-heart interaction whereby 1) inter-pleural pressure decreases and 2) central blood volume is expanded is unique for 0 G. Because transmural CVP is increased, stroke volume increases according to the law of Frank-Starling leading to an increase in cardiac output, which is maintained increased during months of 0 G in space to levels of some 25% above that of the 1-G seated position (Norsk unpublished). Simultaneously, sympathetic nervous activity is at the level of the upright 1-G posture, which is difficult to explain based on the high stroke volume and decreased blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance. This paradox should be explored and the mechanisms revealed, because it might have implications for estimating the cardiovascular risk of travelling in space.

Norsk, Peter

2011-01-01

50

Role of digitalis-like substance in the hypertension of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and simulated weightlessness in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have examined the role of plasma Na+-K+ pump inhibitor (SPI) in the hypertension of streptozotocin induced insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in reduced renal mass rats. The increase in blood pressure (BP) was associated with an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and SPI and a decrease in myocardial Na+,K+ATPase (NKA) activity, suggesting that increased SPI, which inhibits cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell NKA activity, may be involved in the mechanism of IDDM-hypertension. In a second study, using prolonged suspension resulted in a decrease in cardiac NKA activity, suggesting that cardiovascular deconditioning following space flight might in part result from insufficient SPI.

Pamnani, M. B.; Chen, S.; Haddy, F. J.; Yuan, C.; Mo, Z.

1998-01-01

51

The Effect of Weightlessness and Decreased Gravitation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of weightlessness and diminished gravitation are discussed as reflected in data obtained from terrestrial simulated experiments and from spaceflight data. Conclusions are drawn to the effect that weightlessness causes extensive metabolic and funct...

Y. A. Kovalenko

1974-01-01

52

[Mechanism of weightlessness osteoporosis and preventive and therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Weightlessness environment can lead to the muscle atrophy and body fluid distribution upward,which can cause the bone calcium metabolism disorder and always accompanied by the loss of bone microstructure and increased rate of bone fracture. Under microgravity,the astronauts are much easier to decrease the Ca2+ ion in bone, which can cause serious osteoporosis. However the bone lost is not equilibrium, it is especially serious in the mechanism loading bone and the recovery process is more difficult. These are very different from the osteoporosis in older people and postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is necessary to find an optimal method to due with it. In traditional Chinese medicine theory,the kidney stores "Jing" and dominates the bone, thus a lot of bone related diseases can be treated through the kidney. A lot of clinical practices have also proved that the Chinese herbs used under the guidance of basic Chinese medicine theory are always good at the treatment of common osteoporosis. In simulated weightlessness experiment, people found that the kidney nourishment drugs do can prevent the decrease of BMD. So in this article we want to review the causes of weightlessness and the potentials applications of tradition Chinese medicine in the treatment of weightlessness osteoporosis. PMID:23116001

Zhu, Bin; Guo, Hua; Hao, Xi-Juan; Fu, Qian; Hu, Su-Min

2012-07-01

53

Prolonged weightlessness and calcium loss in man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data have been accumulated from a series of studies in which men have been subjected to weightlessness in orbital space flight for periods of up to 12 weeks. These data are used to predict the long term consequences of weightlessness upon the skeletal system. Space flight induced a loss of calcium which accelerated exponentially from about 50 mg/d at the end of 1 week to approx. 300 mg/d at the end of 12 weeks. The hypercalciuria reached a constant level within 4 weeks while fecal calcium losses continued to increase throughout the period of exposure. This apparent diminution of gastrointestinal absorptive efficiency was accompanied by a slight decline in the plasma level of parathyroid hormone and a slight elevation in the plasma level of calcium and phosphorus. Although losses in mineral from the calcaneus were closely correlated with the calcium imbalance, no changes were detected in the mineral mass of the ulna and radius. From the data presented it is concluded that the process of demineralization observed in space flight is more severe than would be predicted on the basis of observations in immobilized, bed rested, or paralyzed subjects. It is, moreover, suggested that the process may not be totally reversible.

Rambaut, P. C.; Johnston, R. S.

1979-01-01

54

Calcium influx through stretch-activated channels mediates microfilament reorganization in osteoblasts under simulated weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have explored the role of Ca2+ signaling in microfilament reorganization of osteoblasts induced by simulated weightlessness using a random positioning machine (RPM). The RPM-induced alterations of cell morphology, microfilament distribution, cell proliferation, cell migration, cytosol free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and protein expression in MG63 osteoblasts were investigated. Simulated weightlessness reduced cell size, disrupted microfilament, inhibited cellular proliferation and migration, and induced an increase in [Ca2+]i in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Gadolinium chloride (Gd), an inhibitor for stretch-activated channels, attenuated the increase in [Ca2+]i and microfilament disruption. Further, the expression of calmodulin was significantly increased by simulated weightlessness, and an inhibitor of calmodulin, W-7, aggravated microfilament disruption. Our findings demonstrate that simulated weightlessness induces Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated channels, then results in microfilament disruption.

Luo, Mingzhi; Yang, Zhouqi; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Li, Shengsheng; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Airong; Shang, Peng

2013-06-01

55

Calcium and Bone Metabolism During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to understand and counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after space station or exploration missions lasting months or years, respectively. Until its deorbit in 2001 , the Mir Space Station provided a valuable platform for long-duration space missions and life sciences research. Long-duration flights are critical for studying bone loss, as the 2- to 3-week Space Shuttle flights are not long enough to detect changes in bone mass. This review will describe human spaceflight data, focusing on biochemical surrogates of bone and calcium metabolism. This subject has been reviewed previously. 1-

Smith, Scott M.

2002-01-01

56

Cardiovascular, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in man during gravitational stress, weightlessness, and simulated weightlessness: Lower body positive pressure applied by the antigravity suit. Thesis - Oslo Univ.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their erect posture, humans are more vulnerable to gravitational changes than any other animal. During standing or walking man must constantly use his antigravity muscles and his two columns, his legs, to balance against the force of gravity. At the same time, blood is surging downward to the dependent portions of the body, draining blood away from the brain and heart, and requiring a series of complex cardiovascular adjustments to maintain the human in a bipedal position. It was not until 12 April 1961, when Yuri Gagarin became the first human being to orbit Earth, that we could confirm man's ability to maintain vital functions in space -- at least for 90 min. Nevertheless, man's adaptation to weightlessness entails the deconditioning of various organs in the body. Muscles atrophy, and calcium loss leads to loss of bone strength as the demands on the musculoskeletal system are almost nonexistent in weightlessness. Because of the lack of hydrostatic pressures in space, blood rushes to the upper portions of the body, initiating a complex series of cardioregulatory responses. Deconditioning during spaceflight, however, first becomes a potentially serious problem in humans returning to Earth, when the cardiovascular system, muscles and bones are suddenly exposed to the demanding counterforce of gravity -- weight. One of the main purposes of our studies was to test the feasibility of using Lower Body Positive Pressure, applied with an antigravity suit, as a new and alternative technique to bed rest and water immersion for studying cardioregulatory, renal, electrolyte, and hormonal changes in humans. The results suggest that Lower Body Positive Pressure can be used as an analog of microgravity-induced physiological responses in humans.

Kravik, Stein E.

1989-01-01

57

Alcohol-induced bone marrow damage. A bone marrow study in alcohol-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

Bone marrow biopsies from 30 alcohol-dependent individuals hospitalized for detoxification were investigated. Typical alcohol-induced bone marrow changes were found and served to define alcohol-induced bone marrow damage as a nosological entity. The findings took the form of heightened ineffective erythropoiesis associated with impaired iron utilization, vacuolated proerythroblasts, multinuclear erythroblasts, megaloblasts and iron-containing plasma cells as well as vacuolated precursor cells of the granulocytopoietic series. In the differential diagnosis, alcohol-induced bone marrow damage is to be distinguished from the myelodysplastic syndrome of the RA and RARS form. Alcohol-induced bone marrow damage is reversible. Bone marrow cell cultures performed in our cases are normal, showing that the toxic defect probably does not reside in the stem cell but is more peripheral. Normal bone marrow cell culture may be a typical feature of alcohol-induced bone marrow damage. PMID:3122492

Michot, F; Gut, J

1987-01-01

58

From Milk to Bones, Moving Calcium Through the Body: Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Did you know that when astronauts are in space, their height increases about two inches? This happens because the weightlessness of space allows the spine, usually compressed in Earth's gravity, to expand. While this change is relatively harmless, other more serious things can happen with extended stays in weightlessness, notably bone loss. From previous experiments, scientists have observed that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of about one percent per month during flight. Scientists know that bone is a dynamic tissue - continually being made and repaired by specialized bone cells throughout life. Certain cells produce new bone, while other cells are responsible for removing and replacing old bone. Research on the mechanisms of bone metabolism and the effects of space flight on its formation and repair are part of the exciting studies that will be performed during STS-107. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. Ninety-nine percent of calcium in the body is stored in the skeleton. However, calcium may be released, or resorbed, from bone to provide for other tissues when you are not eating. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts will participate in a study of calcium kinetics - that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

Smith, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

59

Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Bone Loss and Effect on Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Patients with tumors in the pelvic region frequently receive radiation therapy, and as a result, bystander bone may experience adverse effects. Earlier reports demonstrated that radiation-induced bone loss occurs via increased osteoclast activation in a m...

H. S. Kim

2012-01-01

60

Antiangiogenic Agent (TNP470) Inhibition of Ectopic Bone Formation Induced by Bone Morphogenetic Protein2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is a potent inducer of ectopic bone formation, and TNP-470, a synthetic analog of fumagillin, is an antiangiogenic agent that strongly inhibits neovascular formation in vivo. We investigated the effects of TNP-470 on BMP-induced ectopic bone formation to clarify the role of angiogenesis in bone formation. Collagen pellets containing recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) were implanted beneath

S Mori; H Yoshikawa; J Hashimoto; T Ueda; H Funai; M Kato; K Takaoka

1998-01-01

61

Alterations in gut transport of minerals and in binding proteins during simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural components of the skeleton develop and are maintained in a 1 g environment, shaped by the mechanical load to which they are constantly exposed. Altering such a mechanical load by reducing the gravitational force imposed on the system, as in space flight, has profound effects on the skeleton and permits an exploration of the molecular events which regulate normal skeletal homeostasis. The objective was to determine whether simulated weightlessness reduced intestinal calcium transport, and if so, to determine the molecular mechanisms for such an effect. A nonstressful tail suspension in which the rats gained weight normally while suspended was used to simulate weightlessness. A significant change in intestinal calcium transport was not demonstrated. However, a cyclic change in bone formation with suspension was shown. Based on these observations, the objective changed to determination of the hormonal regulation of bone formation during simulated weightlessness.

Bikle, D. D.

1984-01-01

62

Effects of weightlessness in man.  

PubMed

The program for the Apollo 16 flight was designed to include both safeguards against and investigations of the physiological problems arising from increase in the period of manned space flight. Precautions included the provision of a controlled diet with high potassium content, carefully controlled work loads and work-rest cycles and an emergency cardiology consultation service, and investigations were made to enable pre-flight-post-flight comparisons of metabolic, cardiovascular and central nervous system data. Results of these investigations indicate that adjustment to weightlessness can be satisfactorily assisted by appropriate countermeasures including attention to diet. PMID:12001951

Berry, C A

1973-01-01

63

Effects of weightlessness in man.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program for the Apollo 16 flight was designed to include both safeguards against and investigations of the physiological problems arising from increase in the period of manned space flight. Precautions included the provision of a controlled diet with high potassium content, carefully controlled work loads and work-rest cycles, and an emergency cardiology consultation service, and investigations were made to enable preflight vs postflight comparisons of metabolic, cardiovascular, and central nervous system data. Results of these investigations indicate that adjustment to weightlessness can be satisfactorily assisted by appropriate countermeasures, including attention to diet.

Berry, C. A.

1973-01-01

64

Bone Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The danger of disuse osteoporosis under weightless condition in space led to extensive research into measurements of bone stiffness and mass by the Biomedical Research Division of Ames and Stanford University. Through its Technology Utilization Program, NASA funded an advanced SOBSA, a microprocessor-controlled bone probe system. SOBSA determines bone stiffness by measuring responses to an electromagnetic shaker. With this information, a physician can identify bone disease, measure deterioration and prescribe necessary therapy. The system is now undergoing further testing.

1985-01-01

65

Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Disuse-Induced Cortical Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can prevent disuse (underloaded)-induced cortical bone loss as well as add extra bone to underloaded bones. Thirteen-month-old retired female Sprague-Dawley breeders served as controls or were subjected to simultaneous right hindlimb immobilization by bandaging and daily subcutaneous doses of 0, 1, 3, or 6 mg PGE2/kg/d for two and six weeks. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent labeled undecalcified tibial shaft sections (proximal to the tibiofibular junction). Disuse-induced cortical bone loss occurred by enlarging the marrow cavity and increasing intracortical porosity. PGE2 treatment of disuse shafts further increased intracortical porosity above that in disuse alone controls. This bone loss was counteracted by enhancement of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation. Stimulation of periosteal and corticoendosteal bone formation slightly enlarged the total tissue (cross-sectional) area and inhibited marrow cavity enlargement. These PGE2-induced activities netted the same percentage of cortical bone with a different distribution than the beginning and age related controls. These findings indicate the PGE2-induced increase in bone formation compensated for the disuse and PGE2-induced bone loss, and thus prevented immobilization induced bone loss.

Jee, Webster S. S.; Akamine, T.; Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Xiao Jian; Tang, L. Y.; Zeng, Q. Q.

1992-01-01

66

Weightlessness simulation system and process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A weightlessness simulator has a chamber and a suit in the chamber. O-rings and valves hermetically seal the chamber. A vacuum pump connected to the chamber establishes a pressure in the chamber less than atmospheric pressure. A water supply tank and water supply line supply a body of water to the chamber as a result of partial vacuum created in the chamber. In use, an astronaut enters the pressure suit through a port, which remains open to ambient atmosphere, thus supplying air to the astronaut during use. The pressure less than atmospheric pressure in the chamber is chosen so that the pressure differential from the inside to the outside of the suit corresponds to the pressure differential with the suit in outer space.

Vykukal, Hubert C. (inventor)

1987-01-01

67

Analysis of 20 KEV Electron Induced X-Ray Production in Skull, Femur/tibia Bones of Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hind-limb suspension (HLS) of rats is a NASA validated model of simulated weightlessness. This study examines the effects of microgravity on the skeletal system of rats to assess whether or not exposure of rats to HLS for one week will induce alteration of structural features in selected bones. Four groups of rats were used: two unsuspended controls and two suspended groups. Body weight, food, and water intake were monitored daily before and after suspension. X-rays were measured by a liquid nitrogen cooled Si(li) detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) that provided the 20 keV electron beam. X-ray data were collected from square cross sections between 100 ?m2 and 104 ?m2. The bones were measured for elemental levels of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon from both control and HLS rats. The average body weight of all HLS groups decreased compared to their respective unsuspended controls. Food and water intake was also lower in both suspended groups. A correlation among HLS and control samples in terms of the distribution of the primary elements was found in the bone tissue when analyzed as a function of position along the hind-leg and within the cross sections.

Mehta, Rahul; Watson, Alec; Ali, Nawab; Soulsby, Michael; Chowdhury, Parimal

2010-04-01

68

Osteoblast histogenesis in periodontal ligament and tibial metaphysis during simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Utilizing the nuclear morphometric assay for osteoblast histogenesis, the effect of simulated weightlessness (SW) on the relative numbers of the periodontal ligament (PDL) osteoblast progenitors and on the total number of osteogenic cells was determined in rats. Weightlessness was simulated by subjecting rats to continuous 30-deg head-down posture using a modified back-harness device of Morey (1979). The response of a partially unloaded, weight-bearing bone, tibial primary spongiosa (PS), was compared to a normally loaded, nonweight-bearing PDL bone. Data indicated a similar differentiation sequence in PS and PDL, which suggests that these bones might be sensitive to the same systemic factors. Preosteoblast numbers were seen to decrease in both nonweight-bearing and weight-bearing bones during SW (compared with rats not exposed to SW), indicating the importance of systemic mediators, such as cephalad fluid shift, physiological stress, and/or growth retardation.

Fielder, Paul J.; Morey, Emily R.; Roberts, W. Eugene

1986-01-01

69

Modeling of Cardiovascular Response to Weightlessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was the hypothesis of this Project that the Simple lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity generates several purely physical reactions that underlie and may explain, in part, the cardiovascular response to weightlessness. For instance, hydrostatic...

M. K. Sharp

1999-01-01

70

[Embryonic development of guppies in weightlessness].  

PubMed

The program of the Cosmos-1514 flight included an experiment the purpose of which was to study the effect of weightlessness on the embryonic development of the live-bearing guppy fish: three pregnant females were flown for 5 days. Prelaunch their embryos were at the stage of cerebral vesicle differentiation and somite formation; this implies that the basic stages of organogenesis developed in weightlessness. One female was fixed in Bouin's fluid two days postflight and the second fish was fixed nine days postflight. Fourteen days after flight the third female gave birth to 25 normal fry. Thereafter that fish was mated 6 times more, each time delivering normal offspring. In addition, the offspring of the second generation was normal. Histological analysis of the embryos that were developing in weightlessness revealed no abnormalities. It can be concluded that weightlessness produced no effect on the fish development, beginning with the stage of the axial complex formation. PMID:3695332

Cherdantseva, E M

1987-01-01

71

Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

Soliman, Karam F. A.

1993-01-01

72

'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

1987-01-01

73

Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.

Scano, A.

1981-01-01

74

Forward models of inertial loads in weightlessness.  

PubMed

In this experiment, we investigated whether the CNS uses internal forward models of inertial loads to maintain the stability of a precision grip when manipulating objects in the absence of gravity. The micro-gravity condition causes profound changes in the profile of tangential constraints at the finger-object interface. In order to assess the ability to predict the micro-gravity-specific variation of inertial loads, we analyzed the grip force adjustments that occurred when naive subjects held an object in a precision grip and performed point-to-point movements under the weightless condition induced by parabolic flight. Such movements typically presented static and dynamic phases, which permitted distinction between a static component of the grip force (measured before the movement) and a dynamic component of the grip force (measured during the movement). The static component tended to gradually decrease across the parabolas, whereas the dynamic component was rapidly modulated with the micro-gravity-specific inertial loads. In addition, the amplitude of the modulation significantly correlated with the amplitude of the tangential constraints for the dynamic component. These results strongly support the hypothesis that the internal representation of arm and object dynamics adapts to new gravitational contexts. In addition, the difference in time scales of adaptation of static and dynamic components suggests that they can be processed independently. The prediction of self-induced variation of inertial loads permits fine modulation of grip force, which ensures a stable grip during manipulation of an object in a new environment. PMID:19303921

Crevecoeur, F; Thonnard, J L; Lefèvre, P

2009-06-30

75

Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone  

SciTech Connect

The case of a patient who developed osteosarcoma in the sphenoid bone 15 years after radiation therapy for a craniopharyngioma is reported. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sphenoid bone has not been reported previously. Reported cases of radiation-induced osteosarcomas are reviewed.

Tanaka, S.; Nishio, S.; Morioka, T.; Fukui, M.; Kitamura, K.; Hikita, K. (Kyushui Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

1989-10-01

76

Musculoskeletal adaptations to weightlessness and development of effective countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.

Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.

1996-01-01

77

Evidence that resorption of bone by rat peritonal macrophages occurs in an acidic environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skeletal loss in space, like any form of osteoporosis, reflects a relative imbalance of the activities of cells resorbing (degrading) or forming bone. Consequently, prevention of weightlessness induced bone loss may theoretically be accomplished by (1) stimulating bone formation or (2) inhibiting bone resorption. This approach, however, requires fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which cells form or degrade bone, information not yet at hand. An issue central to bone resorption is the pH at which resorption takes place. The pH dependent spectral shift of a fluorescent dye (fluorescein isothiocyanate) conjugated to bone matrix was used to determine the pH at the resorptive cell bone matrix interface. Devitalized rat bone was used as the substrate, and rat peritoneal macrophages were used as the bone resorbing cells. The results suggest that bone resorption is the result of generation of an acidic microenvironment at the cell matrix junction.

Blair, H. C.

1985-01-01

78

Probiotics Protect Mice from Ovariectomy-Induced Cortical Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNF? and IL-1?, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fak, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H.; Farman, Helen H.; Moverare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjogren, Klara

2014-01-01

79

Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.  

PubMed

The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNF? and IL-1?, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice. PMID:24637895

Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

2014-01-01

80

Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

1999-01-01

81

Glucocorticoids and inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading  

SciTech Connect

Skeletal unloading or loss of normal weight bearing in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and reduces bone calcium. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is a consequence of an increase in plasma glucocorticoids and/or an increase in bone sensitivity to glucocorticoids, the authors measured plasma corticosterone throughout the day in unloaded and normally loaded rats (hindlimb elevation model) and examined the effect of adrenalectomy on the response of bone to skeletal unloading. Plasma corticosterone levels were similar in normally loaded and unloaded rats at all times. Skeletal unloading in sham-adrenalectomized animals reduced tibial and vertebral calcium by 11.5 and 11.1%, respectively, and in adrenalectomized animals by 15.3 and 20.3%, respectively. Uptake of {sup 45}Ca and ({sup 3}H)proline in the tibia was reduced by 8 and 14%, respectively, in the sham-adrenalectomized animals and by 13 and 19% in the adrenalectomized animals. Bone formation and apposition rates were reduced to the same level in sham- and adrenalectomized animals. These results suggest that the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading is not a consequence of increased plasma glucocorticoids or an increase in bone sensitivity to the glucocorticoids but, rather, point to a local mediator in bone that senses mechanical load and transmits that information to the bone-forming cells directly.

Halloran, B.P.; Bikle, D.D.; Cone, C.M.; Morey-Holton, E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA) Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA) NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

1988-12-01

82

Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Bone Loss and Effects on Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Patients with prostate cancer frequently receive radiation therapy. Although radiation therapy is effective for the treatment of primary tumors, bystander bone absorbs approximately half of the radiation dose and thus may cause adverse radiation-induced e...

L. E. Wright

2013-01-01

83

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Koslovskaya, Inessa

2009-01-01

84

Blood circulation under conditions of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental materials and published data on the problem of blood circulation in man and animals under conditions of short and long term weightlessness are summarized. The data obtained allow the conclusion, that when humans spent 5 days in a weightless state their blood circulation was not essentially distributed. Some features of the functioning of the cardiovascular system are pointed out: delay of adaptation rate, increase in lability, etc. There is a discussion of the physiological mechanisms for the direct and indirect effect of weightlessness. The direct effect comprise the complex of reactions caused by the significant fall in hydrostatic pressure and the indirect embraces all the reactions arising in the organism resulting from disturbance of the systematic character of the analyzers that take part in the analysis of space realtions and the body's orientation in space.

Kastyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

1980-01-01

85

Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.

Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.

1983-01-01

86

The effects of simulated weightlessness on susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections using a murine model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain immunological responses may be compromised as a result of changes in environmental conditions, such as the physiological adaptation to and from the weightlessness which occurs during space flight and recovery. A murine antiorthostatic model was developed to simulate weightlessness. Using this model, the proposed study will determine if differences in susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections exist among mice suspended in an antiorthostatic orientation to simulate weightlessness, mice suspended in an orthostatic orientation to provide a stressful situation without the condition of weightlessness simulation, and non-suspended control mice. Inbred mouse strains which are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D) and the lethal effects of Salmonella typhimurium will be evaluated. Glucose tolerance tests will be performed on all EMC-D-infected and non-infected control groups. The incidence of EMC-D-induced diabetes and the percentage survival of S. typhimurium-infected animals will be determined in each group. An additional study will determine the effects of simulated weightlessness on murine responses to exogenous interferon.

Gould, C. L.

1985-01-01

87

Changes in homeobox-containing gene expression during ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein.  

PubMed

Expression of homeobox genes in relation to ectopic bone formation induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) was investigated. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved regions of Hox cluster and Msx genes were designed to detect homeobox sequences by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nine rat homologues of Hox cluster genes and two Msx genes were discovered in the BMP-implanted tissue, at earlier stage and later cartilage and bone formation stage, respectively. The PCR study provided evidence of dynamic changes in BMP-induced homeobox gene expression. PMID:7911662

Iimura, T; Oida, S; Takeda, K; Maruoka, Y; Sasaki, S

1994-06-15

88

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiment Hypothesis -- The combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will have a measurable effect in preventing space flight induced bone mass and strength loss and reducing renal stone risk.

LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeff; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Tom; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri,Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi

2011-01-01

89

Bone Stress Injuries Causing Exercise-Induced Knee Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:No comprehensive studies of bone stress injuries in the knee based on magnetic resonance imaging findings have been published.Purpose:Assess the incidence, location, nature, and patterns of bone stress injuries in the knee in military conscripts with exercise-induced knee pain.Study Design:Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods:During a period of 70 months, 1330 patients with exercise-induced knee pain underwent magnetic resonance imaging

Maria H. Niva; Martti J. Kiuru; Riina Haataja; Harri K. Pihlajamäki

2006-01-01

90

Periarticular Bone Loss in Antigen-Induced Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Bone loss in arthritis is a complex process characterized by bone erosions and periarticular and generalized bone loss. The antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model is mainly used to study synovitis and joint destruction, including bone erosions; however, periarticular bone loss has been less extensively investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterize and establish AIA as a model for periarticular bone loss, and to determine the importance of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX-2)–derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in periarticular bone loss. Methods Arthritis was induced in mice by local injection of antigen in one knee; the other knee was used as a nonarthritis control. At study termination, the knees were collected for histologic assessment. Periarticular bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Flow cytometric analyses were performed using synovial and bone marrow cells. Results AIA resulted in decreased periarticular trabecular BMD and increased frequencies of preosteoclasts, neutrophils, and monocytes in the arthritic synovial tissue. Arthritis induction resulted in an increased capability to produce ROS. However, induction of arthritis in Ncf1*/* mice, which lack NOX-2–derived ROS, and control mice resulted in similar reductions in periarticular trabecular BMD. Conclusion The initiation of AIA resulted in periarticular bone loss associated with local effects on inflammatory cells and osteoclasts. Furthermore, based on our observations using this model, we conclude that NOX-2–derived ROS production is not essential for inflammation-mediated periarticular bone loss. Thus, AIA can be used as a model to investigate the pathogenesis of local inflammation–mediated bone loss.

Engdahl, Cecilia; Lindholm, Catharina; Stubelius, Alexandra; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans; Lagerquist, Marie K

2013-01-01

91

Reactions of astronauts under weightless conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data show that weightlessness conditions lasting 5 days or more (18-25) do not produce significant disturbances in physical reactions of astronauts, with the exception of some singularities in functioning of the cardiovascular system: A reduction in heart rate and somewhat large fluctuations in the physiological indicators of cutaneogalvanic reactions.

Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.; Yazdovskiy, V. I.

1975-01-01

92

Embryonic Development of Guppy in Weightlessness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program of the Cosmos-1514 flight included an experiment, the purpose of which was to study the effect of weightlessness on the embryonic development of the live-bearing guppy: three pregnant females were flown for 5 days. Prelaunch their embryos were...

Y. M. Cherdantseva

1988-01-01

93

Adaptation of postural control to weightlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of motor control to weightlessness was studied during a 7-day spaceflight. The maintenance of control of upright posture was examined during a voluntary raising movement of the arm and during the voluntary raising on tiptoe. In order to evaluate the contribution of visual cues, three types of visual situations were examined: normal vision, central vision, and without vision. On

G. Clément; V. S. Gurfinkel; F. Lestienne; M. I. Lipshits; K. E. Popov

1984-01-01

94

Leg Vascular Responsiveness During Acute Orthostasis Following Simulated Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ten men (35-49 years old) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) exposures before and offer 10 d of continuous 6 degrees head-down bedrest in order to predict the effect of weightlessness on the responsiveness of leg vasculature to an orthostatic stress. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and Impedance rheographic indices of arterial pulse volume (APV) of the legs were measured during rest and at 1 min at -30 mm Hg LBNP. Bedrest-induced deconditioning was manifested by decreases (p less than 0.06) in plasma volume (17%), peak oxygen uptake (16%), and LBNP tolerance (17%). Resting HR was unchanged after bedrest, but HR was higher (p less than 0.05) at 1 min of -30 mm Hg LBNP after, compared with before bedrest. Responses of MAP to -30 mm Hg LBNP were not altered by bodrest. Resting APV was decreased (p less than 0.05) by simulated weightlessness. However, APV was reduced (p less than 0.05) from rest to 1 min -30 mm Hg LBNP by the same relative magnitude before and after bodrest (-21.4 +/- 3.4% and -20.5 +/- 2.7%, respectively). We conclude that peripheral arterial vasoconstriction, as indicated by reductions in APV during LBNP, was not affected by bedrest. These results suggest that there was no apparent alteration in responsiveness of the leg vasculature following simulated weightlessness. Therefore, it appears unlikely that control mechanisms of peripheral resistance contribute significantly to reduced orthostatic tolerance following space-flight.

Blamick, Cynthia A.; Goldwater, Danielle J.; Convertino, Victor A.

1988-01-01

95

Nck1 deficiency accelerates unloading-induced bone loss.  

PubMed

Mechanical stress is an important signal to determine the levels of bone mass. Unloading-induced osteoporosis is a critical issue in bed-ridden patients and astronauts. Many molecules have been suggested to be involved in sensing mechanical stress in bone, though the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not fully understood. Nck1 is an adaptor protein known to mediate signaling from plasma membrane-activated receptors to cytosolic effectors regulating actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Nck1 has also been implicated in cellular responses to endoplasmic reticulum stress. In vitro, in case of cell stress the actin cytoskeleton is disrupted and in such cases Nck1 has been reported to enter the nucleus of the cells to mediate the nuclear actin polymerization. However, the role of Nck1 in vivo during the bone response to mechanical stimuli is unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of Nck1 in unloading-induced bone loss in vivo. Sciatic and femoral nerve resection was conducted. Neurectomy-based unloading enhanced Nck1 gene expression in bone about twofold. Using the Nck1 deficient mice and control Nck1+/+, effects of neurectomy-based unloading on bone structure were examined. Unloading reduced bone volume in wild type mice by 30% whereas the levels in bone loss were exacerbated to 50% in Nck1 deficient mice due to neurectomy after 4 weeks. These data demonstrate that Nck1 gene deficiency accelerates the mechanical unloading-induced bone loss suggesting Nck1 to be a crucial molecule in mechanical stress mediated regulation in bone metabolism. PMID:23280595

Aryal, A C Smriti; Miyai, Kentaro; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Notomi, Takuya; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Pawson, Tony; Ezura, Yoichi; Noda, Masaki

2013-07-01

96

Force-induced bone growth and adaptation: A system theoretical approach to understanding bone mechanotransduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modeling, analysis, and design of treatment therapies for bone disorders based on the paradigm of force-induced bone growth and adaptation is a challenging task. Mathematical models provide, in comparison to clinical, medical and biological approaches an structured alternative framework to understand the concurrent effects of the multiple factors involved in bone remodeling. By now, there are few mathematical models describing the appearing complex interactions. However, the resulting models are complex and difficult to analyze, due to the strong nonlinearities appearing in the equations, the wide range of variability of the states, and the uncertainties in parameters. In this work, we focus on analyzing the effects of changes in model structure and parameters/inputs variations on the overall steady state behavior using systems theoretical methods. Based on an briefly reviewed existing model that describes force-induced bone adaptation, the main objective of this work is to analyze the stationary behavior and to identify plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders. Identifying plausible targets can help in the development of optimal treatments combining both physical activity and drug-medication. Such treatments help to improve/maintain/restore bone strength, which deteriorates under bone disorder conditions, such as estrogen deficiency.

Maldonado, Solvey; Findeisen, Rolf

2010-06-01

97

Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in human osteosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

Our previous studies demonstrated that BMP-2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells identified as cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(br) cells) from the human osteosarcoma cell line OS99-1. We further investigated whether BMP-2 is capable of inducing bone formation in OS99-1 cells. Flow cytometry sorting was used to isolate tumorigenic ALDH(br) and non-tumorigenic ALDH(lo) cells. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the gene expression. A xenograft model was used to verify the bone formation in vivo. There was significantly higher mRNA expression of BMPR1B and BMPR2 in ALDH(lo) cells compared with that in ALDH(br) cells and the BMPR1B expression in ALDH(lo) cells was ~8-fold higher compared to that in ALDHbr cells. BMP-2 was also found to induce higher transcription of osteogenic markers Runx-2, Osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I in ALDH(lo) cells compared to ALDH(br) cells, which were mediated by the canonical Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, BMP-2 was identified to induce bone formation in both ALDH(br) and ALDH(lo) cells. All animals receiving 1 x 10()4 ALDH(lo) cells treated with 30 µg of BMP-2 per animal showed bone formation within 1-2 weeks after injection in mice. Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in ALDH(lo) cells showed significantly more bone mineral content compared to that in ALDH(br) cells. BMP-2 induces bone formation in heterogeneous osteosarcoma cells and BMP-2 may have a promising therapeutic role for treating human osteosarcoma by inducing differentiation along an osteogenic pathway. PMID:23900689

Wang, Lin; Park, Paul; La Marca, Frank; Than, Khoi; Rahman, Shayan; Lin, Chia-Ying

2013-10-01

98

Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in human osteosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies demonstrated that BMP-2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells identified as cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH br cells) from the human osteosarcoma cell line OS99-1. We further investigated whether BMP-2 is capable of inducing bone formation in OS99-1 cells. Flow cytometry sorting was used to isolate tumorigenic ALDH br and non-tumorigenic ALDH lo cells. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the gene expression. A xenograft model was used to verify the bone formation in vivo . There was significantly higher mRNA expression of BMPR1B and BMPR2 in ALDH lo cells compared with that in ALDH br cells and the BMPR1B expression in ALDH lo cells was ?8-fold higher compared to that in ALDH br cells. BMP-2 was also found to induce higher transcription of osteogenic markers Runx-2, Osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I in ALDH lo cells compared to ALDH br cells, which were mediated by the canonical Smad signaling pathway. In vivo , BMP-2 was identified to induce bone formation in both ALDH br and ALDH lo cells. All animals receiving 1×10 4 ALDH lo cells treated with 30 ? g of BMP-2 per animal showed bone formation within 1–2 weeks after injection in mice. Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in ALDH lo cells showed significantly more bone mineral content compared to that in ALDH br cells. BMP-2 induces bone formation in heterogeneous osteosarcoma cells and BMP-2 may have a promising therapeutic role for treating human osteosarcoma by inducing differentiation along an osteogenic pathway.

WANG, LIN; PARK, PAUL; LA MARCA, FRANK; THAN, KHOI; RAHMAN, SHAYAN; LIN, CHIA-YING

99

Changes in lipids during matrix: Induced endochondral bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The changes in lipids occurring during the process of endochondral ossification have been characterized by studying the discrete\\u000a phases of matrix-induced endochondral bone formation in the rat. Calcium-acidic phospholipid-phosphate complexes were shown\\u000a to increase in concentration during cartilage calcification (day 9) and to peak in content during early bone formation (day\\u000a 11–13), the times during which the rate of mineral

A. L. Boskey; A. H. Reddi

1983-01-01

100

Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This poster reviews the possibility of using Bisphosphonates to counter the bone loss that is experienced during space flight. The Hypothesis that is tested in this experiment is that the combined effect of anti-resorptive drugs plus in-flight exercise regimen will attenuate space flight induced loss in bone mass and strength and reduce renal stone risk. The experiment design, the status and the results are described.

LeBlanc, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Shackelford, L.; Smith, S.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sibonga, J.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

2011-01-01

101

Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.

Li, Ai-Min [Department of Orthopedics, The 5th Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, The 5th Central Hospital of Tianjin, Tianjin (China); Tian, Ai-Xian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Rui-Xue [Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Sun, Xuan [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Cao, Xu-Chen, E-mail: caoxuch@126.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

2013-07-05

102

External Load Affects Ground Reaction Force Parameters Non-uniformly during Running in Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Long-term exposure to microgravity induces detrimefits to the musculcskdetal system (Schneider et al., 1995; LeBlanc et al., 2000). Treadmill exercise is used onboard the International Space Station as an exercise countermeasure to musculoskeletal deconditioning due to spaceflight. During locomotive exercise in weightlessness (0G), crewmembers wear a harness attached to an external loading mechanism (EL). The EL pulls the crewmember toward the treadmill, and provides resistive load during the impact and propulsive phases of gait. The resulting forces may be important in stimulating bone maintenance (Turner, 1998). The EL can be applied via a bungee and carabineer clip configuration attached to the harness and can be manipulated to create varying amounts of load levels during exercise. Ground-based research performed using a vertically mounted treadmill found that peak ground reaction forces (GRF) during running at an EL of less than one body weight (BW) are less than those that occur during running in normal gravity (1G) (Davis et al., 1996). However, it is not known how the GRF are affected by the EL in a true OG environment. Locomotion while suspended may result in biomechanics that differ from free running. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how EL affects peak impact force, peak propulsive force, loading rate, and impulse of the GRF during running in 0G. It was hypothesized that increasing EL would result in increases in each GRF parameter.

DeWitt, John; Schaffner, Grant; Laughlin, Mitzi; Loehr, James; Hagan, R. Donald

2004-01-01

103

Plasma viscosity elevations with simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypothesis correlating an increase in blood viscosity during bed rest to a decrease in aerobic capacity during simulated weightlessness is tested. Eight human subjects were studied on the sixth day of bed rest during two consecutive 10-d bed rest periods separated by a 14-d recovery interval designed to simulate the flight-layover schedule of Shuttle astronauts. Plasma viscosity and volume were measured, together with maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max). An increase in hematocrit, plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations was found, contributing to an elevation in plasma viscosity. VO2max decreased significantly in the first, but not the second bed rest cycle, and though many individuals exhibited a decrease in plasma volume and aerobic capacity coupled with elevated plasma viscosity, correlations between these variables were lacking. It is concluded that the decrease in VO2max observed following simulated weightlessness cannot be attributed to alterations in muscle blood flow resulting from increased blood viscosity.

Martin, D. G.; Convertino, V. A.; Goldwater, D.; Ferguson, E. W.; Schoomaker, E. B.

1986-01-01

104

Astronaut activity in weightlessness and unsupported space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the purpose of study of the performance ability of a human operator in prolonged weightless conditions was studied by the following methods: (1) psychophysiological analysis of certain operations; (2) the dynamic characteristics of a man, included in a model control system, with direct and delayed feedback; (3) evaluation of the singularities of analysis and quality of the working memory, in working with outlines of patterned and random lines; and (4) biomechanical analysis of spatial orientation and motor activity in unsupported space.

Ivanov, Y. A.; Popov, V. A.; Kachaturyants, L. S.

1975-01-01

105

Physiological mechanisms of the effect of weightlessness on the body  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data show that physiological reactions observed under weightlessness conditions are caused by: (1) The direct effect of weightlessness, as a consequence of decrease (""disappearance'') of the weight of body tissues and organs; and (2) the mediated effect of weightlessness, as a result of changes in the functional state of the central nervous system and the cooperative work of the analyzers. The human body adopts to weightless conditions under the prolonged effects of it. In this case, four periods can be distinguished: The first period, a transitional process lasting from 1 to 24 hours; second period, initial adaptation to conditions of weightlessness and readjustment of all functional systems of the body; the third period, adaptation to the unusual mechanical conditions of the external environment, lasting from 3 to 8 days and more; and the fourth period, the stage of possible imbalance of the functions and the systems of some astronauts, as a result of the prolonged effect of weightlessness.

Kasyan, I. I.; Kopanev, V. I.

1975-01-01

106

Augmentation of bone morphogenetic protein-induced bone mass by local delivery of a prostaglandin E EP4 receptor agonist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) is viewed as a therapeutic cytokine because of its ability to induce bone. However, the high doses of rhBMP required for bone induction in humans remain a major hurdle for the therapeutic application of this protein. The development of a methodology that would effectively overcome the weak responsiveness to human BMP is highly desired.

Hiromitsu Toyoda; Hidetomi Terai; Ryuichi Sasaoka; Kazunori Oda; Kunio Takaoka

2005-01-01

107

Calcium hydroxide suppresses Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction.  

PubMed

Porphyromonas endodontalis and its main virulence factor, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), are associated with the development of periapical diseases and alveolar bone loss. Calcium hydroxide is commonly used for endodontic therapy. However, the effects of calcium hydroxide on the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS and the mechanism of P. endodontalis LPS-induced bone destruction are not clear. Calcium hydroxide rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-suppressed viability of MC3T3-E1 cells and activity of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in these cells, resulting in the reduced expression of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?. In addition, calcium hydroxide inhibited P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the activities of NF-?B, p38, and ERK1/2 and the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 in RAW264.7 cells. Calcium hydroxide also rescued the P. endodontalis LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in mouse calvaria. Taken together, our present results indicate that calcium hydroxide suppressed bone destruction by attenuating the virulence of P. endodontalis LPS on bone cells. PMID:24603641

Guo, J; Yang, D; Okamura, H; Teramachi, J; Ochiai, K; Qiu, L; Haneji, T

2014-05-01

108

Aromatase inhibitors-induced bone loss in early breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Women with breast cancer have an increased prevalence and incidence of fractures. This increased risk of fracture has become most evident following the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as standard adjuvant therapy. AI-induced bone loss occurs at more than twice the rate of physiologic postmenopausal bone loss. Moreover, peripheral quantitative computed tomography data indicate that effects of AIs on bone strength and on cortical bone have been substantially underestimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All AIs have been associated with an increased fracture risk. The incidence of fractures is at least 33–43% higher in AI-treated patients than in tamoxifen-treated patients, and this increase in fracture risk is maintained at least for the duration of AI therapy. Over the last few years, clinical trials have established the effectiveness of bisphosphonates and denosumab to preserve and even increase bone mineral density (BMD) during adjuvant AIs. Most data have been obtained with zoledronic acid administered twice a year, which effectively maintains or increases BMD in women receiving AIs. In addition, zoledronic acid has been shown to delay disease recurrence and maybe prolong survival in women with hormone-responsive tumors, thereby providing an adjuvant antitumor benefit besides preserving BMD. It is likely that a combined fracture risk assessment will more accurately identify women with breast cancer who require bone protective therapy. The FRAX tool probably underestimates the net increase in fracture risk due to AI therapy. Recent guidelines for the prevention of AI-induced bone loss have adequately considered the presence of several established clinical risk factors for fractures, in addition to BMD, when selecting patients to be treated with inhibitors of bone resorption.

Body, Jean-Jacques

2012-01-01

109

The effect of part-simulation of weightlessness on human control of bilateral teleoperation: Neuromotor considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of weightlessness on the human operator's performance in force reflecting position control of remote manipulators was investigated. A gravity compensation system was developed to simulate the effect of weightlessness on the operator's arm. A universal force reflecting hand controller (FRHC) and task simulation software were employed. Two experiments were performed because of anticipated disturbances in neuromotor control specification on the human operator in an orbital control environment to investigate: (1) the effect of controller stiffness on the attainment of a learned terminal position in the three dimensional controller space, and (2) the effect of controller stiffness and damping on force tracking of the contour of a simulated three dimensional cube using the part simulation of weightless conditions. The results support the extension of neuromotor control models, which postulate a stiffness balance encoding of terminal position, to three dimensional motion of a multilink system, confirm the existence of a disturbance in human manual control performance under gravity compensated conditions, and suggest techniques for compensation of weightlessness induced performance decrement through appropriate specification of hand controller response characteristics. These techniques are based on the human control model.

Corker, K.; Bejczy, A. K.

1984-01-01

110

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein-4 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Our previous work showed that the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) was up-regulated in pathological cardiac hypertrophy models and BMP4 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) and BMP4 share greater than 80% amino acid homology and there exists an interaction between BMP2 and BMP4, so the aim of the present study was to elucidate the changes of BMP2 in the cardiac hypertrophy models and the effects of BMP2 on BMP4-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. The in vivo cardiac hypertrophy models were induced by pressure-overload and swimming exercise in mice. BMP2 mRNA and protein expressions increased in pressure-overload and swimming-exercise induced cardiac hypertrophy. BMP2 itself did not elicit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis, but antagonized BMP4-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. BMP2 stimulated Akt in cardiomyocytes and Akt inhibitor prevented the antagonism of BMP2 on BMP4-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, BMP2 inhibited BMP4-induced JNK activation in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, BMP2 antagonizes BMP4-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of BMP2 on BMP4-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis might be through activating Akt and inhibiting JNK activation. J. Cell. Physiol. 229: 1503-1510, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24648278

Lu, Jing; Sun, Bo; Huo, Rong; Wang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Di; Xing, Yue; Xiao, Xiao-Lin; Xie, Xin; Dong, De-Li

2014-10-01

111

Treatment of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Mice by Intra-Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Transplantation plus Portal Vein Injection of ? Cells Induced from Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curative therapy for diabetes mellitus mainly involves pancreas or islet transplantation to recruit insulin-producing cells. This approach is limited, however, because of both the shortage of donor organs and allograft rejection. Intra-bone marrow bone marrow transplantation (IBM-BMT) has recently been shown to be effective in inducing donor-specific tolerance in mice and rats without the use of immunosuppressants. After induction of

M. Li; M. Inaba; K. Q. Guo; H. Hisha; N. G. Abraham; S. Ikehara

2007-01-01

112

Recombinant biglycan promotes bone morphogenetic protein-induced osteogenesis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glutathione-S-transferase-fused recombinant biglycan (GST-BGN) on craniofacial bone regeneration. We recently demonstrated a positive effect of tissue-derived BGN on bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) function, which is exerted likely via the BGN core protein. Here, we investigated the effects of GST-BGN lacking any posttranslational modifications on BMP-2 function in vitro and in vivo. In the C2C12 cell culture system, BMP-2-induced Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and alkaline phosphatase activity were both enhanced by the addition of GST-BGN. For the in vivo effect, we employed a Sprague-Dawley rat mandible defect model utilizing 1 µg (optimal) or 0.1 µg (suboptimal) of BMP-2 combined with 0, 2, 4, or 8 µg of GST-BGN. At 2 weeks post-surgery, newly formed bone was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histologic analyses. The results revealed that the greatest amounts of bone within the defect were formed in the groups of suboptimal BMP-2 combined with 4 or 8 µg of GST-BGN. Also, bone was well organized versus that formed by the optimal dose of BMP. These results indicate that recombinant BGN is an efficient substrate to promote low-dose BMP-induced osteogenesis. PMID:24482033

Miguez, P A; Terajima, M; Nagaoka, H; Ferreira, J A R; Braswell, K; Ko, C C; Yamauchi, M

2014-04-01

113

VO2 kinetics during submaximal exercise following simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is presented of the effects of deconditioning following 7 days of continuous head-down (-6 degrees) bedrest on changes in steady-state VO2, O2, and recovery VO2 during the performance of constant-load exercises. The deconditioning effects of bedrest on the physical working capacity were manifested in the subjects by significant changes in VO2 kinetics following the 7 days of head-down bedrest. While the subjects demonstrated the ability to attain similar steady-state VO2, simulated weightlessness using head-down bedrest resulted in a reduction of total VO2 capacity and an increase in the O2 deficit and VO2 halftime during submaximal constant-load exercise. It is concluded that this change in VO2 kinetics was induced by reexposure of the cardiovascular system to the +1 Gz (upright) environment.

Convertino, V. A.; Sandler, H.

1982-01-01

114

Factors influencing the yield of radiation induced electron spin resonance (ESR) signal in lamb bones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation treatment of bone-in meat chunks induced a characteristic ESR signal in the bone tissue. Effect of various processing parameters such as bone type, absorbed radiation dose, irradiation temperature, cooking prior to irradiation and post irradiation cooking on the intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was studied. It was observed that intensity of radiation induced signal was higher in leg

S. P Chawla; Paul Thomas; D. R Bongirwar

2002-01-01

115

Physiological effects of microgravity on bone cells.  

PubMed

Life on Earth developed under the influence of normal gravity (1g). With evidence from previous studies, scientists have suggested that normal physiological processes, such as the functional integrity of muscles and bone mass, can be affected by microgravity during spaceflight. During the life span, bone not only develops as a structure designed specifically for mechanical tasks but also adapts for efficiency. The lack of weight-bearing forces makes microgravity an ideal physical stimulus to evaluate bone cell responses. One of the most serious problems induced by long-term weightlessness is bone mineral loss. Results from in vitro studies that entailed the use of bone cells in spaceflights showed modification in cell attachment structures and cytoskeletal reorganization, which may be involved in bone loss. Humans exposed to microgravity conditions experience various physiological changes, including loss of bone mass, muscle deterioration, and immunodeficiency. In vitro models can be used to extract valuable information about changes in mechanical stress to ultimately identify the different pathways of mechanotransduction in bone cells. Despite many in vivo and in vitro studies under both real microgravity and simulated conditions, the mechanism of bone loss is still not well defined. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent research on bone cells under microgravity conditions based on advances in the field. PMID:24687524

Arfat, Yasir; Xiao, Wei-Zhong; Iftikhar, Salman; Zhao, Fan; Li, Di-Jie; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

2014-06-01

116

Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to ensure that the beneficial effects are seen in space flight. As we begin to plan for missions to go back to the Moon, and even off to Mars, many questions are yet to be answered. Maintaining bone is one of the greatest challenges, but with a better understanding of the mechanical processes of bone loss, countermeasures can be designed more efficiently, and the solution (or solutions) may be just over the horizon.

Smith, Scott M.

2004-01-01

117

Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?  

SciTech Connect

The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process.

Rowland, R.E.

1996-08-01

118

HGP44 Induces Protection against Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice?  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of DNA vaccines expressing the Arg-gingipain A domain against bone loss induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis infection was investigated in a murine model. phgp44, which expresses the 44-kDa adhesion/hemagglutinin domain of Arg-gingipain A, prevented P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss. The results indicate that phgp44 could be a candidate antigen for a vaccine against P. gingivalis infection.

Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Shibahara, Takahiko; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

2011-01-01

119

Simulation of human body motion under the condition of weightlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astronauts' patterns of work under the condition of weightlessness and their adaptability thereto are important topics of space research in the field of manned space flight technology. In space, astronauts experience weightlessness, which is a very different condition from that experienced on the earth's surface, and space flight tasks are performed at nearly 0 G. In this report, we describe

Wei Kailai; Yoshihiko Tagawa; Naoto Shiba

2009-01-01

120

Changes in muscles accompanying non-weight-bearing and weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of hindlimb suspension and space flight experiments with rats examine the effects of weightlessness simulation, weightlessness, and delay in postflight recovery of animals. Parameters examined were body mass, protein balance, amino acid metabolism, glucose and glycogen metabolism, and hormone levels. Tables show metabolic responses to unweighting of the soleus muscle.

Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E. J.; Jaspers, S. R.; Jacob, S.; Kirby, C.

1989-01-01

121

Cancer-induced bone pain: Mechanisms and models.  

PubMed

Cancerous cells can originate in a number of different tissues such as prostate, breast and lung, but often go undetected and are non-painful. Many types of cancers have a propensity to metastasize to the bone microenvironment first. Tumor burden within the bone causes excruciating breakthrough pain with properties of ongoing pain that is inadequately managed with current analgesics. Part of this failure is due to the poor understanding of the etiology of cancer pain. Animal models of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) have revealed that the neurochemistry of cancer has features distinctive from other chronic pain states. For example, preclinical models of metastatic cancer often result in the positive modulation of neurotrophins, such as NGF and BDNF, that can lead to nociceptive sensitization. Preclinical cancer models also demonstrate nociceptive neuronal expression of acid-sensing receptors, such as ASIC1 and TRPV1, which respond to cancer-induced acidity within the bone. CIBP is correlated with a significant increase in pro-inflammatory mediators acting peripherally and centrally, contributing to neuronal hypersensitive states. Finally, cancer cells generate high levels of oxidative molecules that are thought to increase extracellular glutamate concentrations, thus activating primary afferent neurons. Knowledge of the unique neuro-molecular profile of cancer pain will ultimately lead to the development of novel and superior therapeutics for CIBP. PMID:24076008

Lozano-Ondoua, A N; Symons-Liguori, A M; Vanderah, T W

2013-12-17

122

Analysis of avian bone response to mechanical loading—Part One: Distribution of bone fluid shear stress induced by bending and axial loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical loading-induced signals are hypothesized to be transmitted and integrated by a bone-connected cellular network (CCN) before reaching the bone surfaces where adaptation occurs. Our objective is to establish a computational model to explore how bone cells transmit the signals through intercellular communication. In this first part of the study the bone fluid shear stress acting on every bone cell

Li Y. Mi; Susannah P. Fritton; Mitra Basu; Stephen C. Cowin

2005-01-01

123

ACTH protects against glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of bone  

PubMed Central

We report that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) protects against osteonecrosis of the femoral head induced by depot methylprednisolone acetate (depomedrol). This therapeutic response likely arises from enhanced osteoblastic support and the stimulation of VEGF by ACTH; the latter is largely responsible for maintaining the fine vascular network that surrounds highly remodeling bone. We suggest examining the efficacy of ACTH in preventing human osteonecrosis, a devastating complication of glucocorticoid therapy.

Zaidi, Mone; Sun, Li; Robinson, Lisa J.; Tourkova, Irina L.; Liu, Li; Wang, Yujuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Liu, Xuan; Peng, Yuanzhen; Yang, Guozhe; Shi, Xingming; Levine, Alice; Iqbal, Jameel; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Isales, Carlos; Blair, Harry C.

2010-01-01

124

ACTH protects against glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of bone.  

PubMed

We report that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) protects against osteonecrosis of the femoral head induced by depot methylprednisolone acetate (depomedrol). This therapeutic response likely arises from enhanced osteoblastic support and the stimulation of VEGF by ACTH; the latter is largely responsible for maintaining the fine vascular network that surrounds highly remodeling bone. We suggest examining the efficacy of ACTH in preventing human osteonecrosis, a devastating complication of glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:20421485

Zaidi, Mone; Sun, Li; Robinson, Lisa J; Tourkova, Irina L; Liu, Li; Wang, Yujuan; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Liu, Xuan; Li, Jianhua; Peng, Yuanzhen; Yang, Guozhe; Shi, Xingming; Levine, Alice; Iqbal, Jameel; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B; Isales, Carlos; Blair, Harry C

2010-05-11

125

High Doses of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Induce Structurally Abnormal Bone and Inflammation In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The major Food and Drug Association–approved osteoinductive factors in wide clinical use are bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Although BMPs can promote robust bone formation, they also induce adverse clinical effects, including cyst-like bone formation and significant soft tissue swelling. In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its dose-dependent effects. Results of our femoral segmental defect model established a low BMP2 concentration range (5 and 10??g/mL, total dose 0.375 and 0.75??g in 75??g total volume) unable to induce defect fusion, a mid-range BMP2 concentration range able to fuse the defect without adverse effects (30??g/mL, total dose 2.25??g in 75??g total volume), and a high BMP2 concentration range (150, 300, and 600??g/mL, total dose 11.25, 22.5, and 45??g in 75??g total volume) able to fuse the defect, but with formation of cyst-like bony shells filled with histologically confirmed adipose tissue. In addition, compared to control, 4?mg/mL BMP2 also induced significant tissue inflammatory infiltrates and exudates in the femoral onlay model that was accompanied by increased numbers of osteoclast-like cells at 3, 7, and 14 days. Overall, we consistently reproduced BMP2 side effects of cyst-like bone and soft tissue swelling using high BMP2 concentration approaching the typical human 1500??g/mL.

Zara, Janette N.; Siu, Ronald K.; Zhang, Xinli; Shen, Jia; Ngo, Richard; Lee, Min; Li, Weiming; Chiang, Michael; Chung, Jonguk; Kwak, Jinny; Wu, Benjamin M.; Ting, Kang

2011-01-01

126

Local delivery of rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4-specific inhibitor, augments bone morphogenetic protein-induced bone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) is a promising therapeutic cytokine for the induction of bone formation,\\u000a but a weak response in humans remains a major hurdle in its therapeutic application. We have previously reported an rhBMP-2-induced\\u000a increase in the bone mass of mice receiving systemic rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4. To overcome the\\u000a side effects of systemic administration

Yoshio Tokuhara; Shigeyuki Wakitani; Yuuki Imai; Chizumi Nomura; Masatoshi Hoshino; Koichi Yano; Susumu Taguchi; Mitsunari Kim; Yoshinori Kadoya; Kunio Takaoka

2010-01-01

127

Regeneration of bone- and tendon/ligament-like tissues induced by gene transfer of bone morphogenetic protein-12 in a rat bone defect.  

PubMed

Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family have diverse physiological roles. For instance, BMP-2 stimulates osteogenesis, while BMP-12 induces the formation of tendon/ligament-like tissues. Here, we designed a study to determine whether BMP-12 has bone and/or cartilage regeneration abilities similar to those of BMP-2. We implanted plasmid vectors encoding either BMP-2 or BMP-12 in rats with femur defects, and monitored the bone healing process for 8-weeks. The BMP-12 transgene induced prominent fibrogenesis by 2 weeks, with bone substitution occurring by 8 weeks. BMP-2, however, was associated predominantly with osteogenesis throughout the 8 week period. Thus, we conclude that BMP-12 does not function similarly to BMP-2 during bone healing. Further work is needed to better understand the mechanisms by which it stimulates bony growths to replace the connective tissues formed during the first stages of bone healing. PMID:21350647

Kuroda, Shinji; Goto, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Michiko; Kaneda, Kazutaka; Ohya, Keiichi; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Kasugai, Shohei

2010-01-01

128

Evaluation of a bioactive bone-inducing material consisting of collagen scaffolds and collagen-binding bone morphogenetic protein 2.  

PubMed

Bioactive bone-inducing material (BBIM) is a collagen-based scaffold composed of demineralized bone matrix and collagen-binding domain bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). BBIM is regarded as a promising bone-inducing scaffold to repair bone defects. In this work, we evaluated the biocompatibility and osteogenecity of BBIM. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the level of BMP-2 on BBIM was detected and considered adequate. Kunming mice were used as the animal model to investigate the acute systemic toxicity, long-term bone regeneration, ectopic bone formation, and chronic systemic toxicity. Results show that BBIM induced no serious inflammatory reaction or acute and chronic systemic toxicity. Our analyses also demonstrated significant homogeneous ectopic bone formation as well as significantly high numbers of erythrocytes in the BBIM groups in the chronic systemic toxicity study, a phenomenon which may provide indirect proof of the bone regeneration capacity of BBIM, which may be considered as a bioactivity indicator in future studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3093-3101, 2014. PMID:24123791

Han, Qianqian; Zhang, Beibei; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu; Xu, Jianxia; Wang, Chunren; Wang, Zhaoxu

2014-09-01

129

BONE FORMATION INDUCED IN MOUSE THIGH BY CULTURED HUMAN CELLS  

PubMed Central

Cultured FL human amnion cells injected intramuscularly into cortisone-conditioned mice proliferate to form discrete nodules which become surrounded by fibroblasts. Within 12 days, fibroblastic zones differentiate into cartilage which calcifies to form bone. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that FL cells behave as an inductor of bone formation. In the electron microscope, FL cells were readily distinguished from surrounding fibroblasts. Transitional forms between the two cell types were not recognized. Stains for acid mucopolysaccharides emphasized the sharp boundary between metachromatic fibroblastic and cartilaginous zones and nonmetachromatic FL cells. 35S was taken up preferentially by fibroblasts and chondrocytes and then deposited extracellularly in a manner suggesting active secretion of sulfated mucopolysaccharides. FL cells showed negligible 35S utilization and secretion. FL cells, labeled in vitro with thymidine-3H, were injected and followed radioautographically, during bone formation. Nuclear label of injected FL cells did not appear in adjacent fibroblasts in quantities sufficient to indicate origin of the latter from FL cells. The minimal fibroblast nuclear labeling seen may represent reutilization of label from necrotic FL cells. It is suggested that FL cells injected into the mouse thigh induced cartilage and bone formation by host fibroblasts.

Anderson, H. Clarke; Coulter, P. R.

1967-01-01

130

Bone remodeling induced by dental implants of functionally graded materials.  

PubMed

Functionally graded material (FGM) had been developed as a potential implant material to replace titanium for its improved capability of initial osseointegration. The idea behind FGM dental implant is that its properties can be tailored in accordance with the biomechanical needs at different regions adapting to its hosting bony tissues, therefore creating an improved overall integration and stability in the entire restoration. However, there have been very few reports available so far on predicting bone remodeling induced by FGM dental implants. This article aims to evaluate bone remodeling when replacing the titanium with a hydroxyapatite/collagen (HAP/Col) FGM model. A finite element model was constructed in the buccal-lingual section of a dental implant-bone structure generated from in vivo CT scan images. The remodeling simulation was performed over a 4 year healing period. Comparisons were made between the titanium implant and various FGM implants of this model. The FGM implants showed an improved bone remodeling outcome. The study is expected to provide a basis for future development of FGM implants. PMID:19927332

Lin, Daniel; Li, Qing; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael

2010-02-01

131

Effects of simulated weightlessness on responses of untrained men to +Gz acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study documents bedrest-induced metabolic and physiologic changes in six untrained men exposed, following a two-week period of simulated weightlessness, to possible +Gz acceleration profiles anticipated for Space Shuttle vehicle travel. All subjects demonstrated decreased +Gz tolerance following simulated weightlessness. While only one of six subjects could not tolerate the +Gz profile in the control phase of the study, three of the six could not complete the postbed-rest study. The use of an inflated standard Air Force cutaway G-suit improved +Gz tolerance in all subjects, but two of six subjects still failed to complete the profile. These findings are discussed in reference to the selection of untrained humans for Space Shuttle vehicle travel.

Jacobson, L. B.; Hyatt, K. H.; Sandler, H.

1974-01-01

132

Islet in weightlessness: Biological experiments on board COSMOS 1129 satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological experiments planned as an international venture for COSMOS 1129 satellite include tests of: (1) adaptation of rats to conditions of weightlessness, and readaption to Earth's gravity; (2) possibility of fertilization and embryonic development in weightlessness; (3) heat exchange processes; (4) amount of gravity force preferred by fruit flies for laying eggs (given a choice of three centrifugal zones); (5) growth of higher plants from seeds; (6) effects of weightlessness on cells in culture and (7) radiation danger from heavy nuclei, and electrostatic protection from charged particles.

Zhuk, Y.

1980-01-01

133

Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

1995-01-01

134

Effect of weightlessness on lymphocyte proliferation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to study the effect of weightlessness on lymphocyte proliferation to detect possible alteration of the cells responsible for the immune response during long-duration space flights is described. Human lymphocytes in culture medium will be delivered shortly before launch in an incubator which will be kept at 37C. Mitogen will be added to the culture. A control without mitogen will be run in parallel. After 70 hours of incubation, radioactive thymidine will be added. After two hours, cellular activity will be stopped by fixation and incubator power switched off. Later, the amount of incorporated thymidine will be determined and the cell morphology and the distribution of cell organelles will be investigated.

Cogoli, A.

1981-01-01

135

Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine

1987-01-01

136

Reactions of animals and people under conditions of brief weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that under brief weightlessness sensory reactions arise in a number of people, mainly those under these conditions for the first time, in the form of spatial and visual illusions, motor excitation, in which tonic and motor components can be distinguished, and vestibular-vegetative disturbances (nausea, vomiting, etc.). In repeated flights with creation of weightlessness, a decrease in the extent of expression and, then, disappearance of these reactions occurred in a significant majority of those studied. Experiments in weightlessness with the vision cut off and with the absence of vestibular functions in the subjects confirm the hypothesis that spatial conceptions of people in weightlessness depend on predominance of gravireceptor or visual afferent signals under these conditions.

Kitayev-Smik, L. A.

1975-01-01

137

The importance of weightlessness and tides in teaching gravitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the presentation of the weight, weightlessness, and tides in university-level physics textbooks. Introductory textbooks often do not discuss tidal forces even though their understanding would be useful for understanding weightlessness. The explanations of tides often miss the free gravitational motion of both interacting objects, which is essential for the symmetry of tidal deformation. The shortcomings in the explanations of weightlessness and tides as provided by students and teachers are compared to textbook discussions. We suggest that an explicit discussion of the different definitions of weight and a synergetic presentation of weightlessness and tides might lead to a better understanding of gravitation. Our approach is illustrated by examples of tidal effects appropriate for introductory courses.

Galili, I.; Lehavi, Y.

2003-11-01

138

Respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption under weightless conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in the physiological indices of respiration, respiratory metabolism and energy consumption in spacecrews under weightlessness conditions manifest themselves in increased metabolic rates, higher pulmonary ventilation volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, energy consumption levels in proportion to reduction in neuroemotional and psychic stress, adaptation to weightlessness and work-rest cycles, and finally in a relative stabilization of metabolic processes due to hemodynamic shifts.

Kasyan, I. I.; Makarov, G. F.

1975-01-01

139

Glucocorticoid-induced bone loss is associated with abnormal intravertebral areal bone mineral density distribution.  

PubMed

Individuals with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis experience vertebral fractures at an increased rate and at higher vertebral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than individuals with primary osteoporosis. Standard posteroanterior- (PA-) projection dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lacks the diagnostic sensitivity required for reliable estimation of vertebral fracture risk in individuals. Assessment of subregional vertebral aBMD using lateral-projection DXA may improve the predictive value of DXA parameters for fracture. One hundred and four individuals were recruited and grouped for this study: primary osteoporosis with no history of vertebral fracture (n = 43), glucocorticoid-induced bone loss (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 48). Standard PA-projection and supine-lateral scans were performed, and lateral scans were analysed according to an established protocol to measure aBMD within 6 subregions. Main effects for subregion and group were assessed and observed, by ANCOVA. Ratios were calculated between subregions and compared between groups, to overcome the potentially confounding influence of variability in subregional geometry. Significantly lower values were observed in the glucocorticoid group for the ratios of (i) anterior subregion: whole vertebral body and (ii) posterior: whole vertebral body when compared to the primary osteoporosis and control groups (P < 0.05). Lower anterior subregional aBMD in individuals on glucocorticoid therapy may help to explain the increased vertebral fracture risk in this patient group. PMID:23737778

Manning, Louise I; Briggs, Andrew M; Van Doornum, Sharon; Kale, Ashwini; Kantor, Susan; Wark, John D

2013-01-01

140

Glucocorticoid-Induced Bone Loss Is Associated with Abnormal Intravertebral Areal Bone Mineral Density Distribution  

PubMed Central

Individuals with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis experience vertebral fractures at an increased rate and at higher vertebral areal bone mineral density (aBMD) than individuals with primary osteoporosis. Standard posteroanterior- (PA-) projection dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lacks the diagnostic sensitivity required for reliable estimation of vertebral fracture risk in individuals. Assessment of subregional vertebral aBMD using lateral-projection DXA may improve the predictive value of DXA parameters for fracture. One hundred and four individuals were recruited and grouped for this study: primary osteoporosis with no history of vertebral fracture (n = 43), glucocorticoid-induced bone loss (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 48). Standard PA-projection and supine-lateral scans were performed, and lateral scans were analysed according to an established protocol to measure aBMD within 6 subregions. Main effects for subregion and group were assessed and observed, by ANCOVA. Ratios were calculated between subregions and compared between groups, to overcome the potentially confounding influence of variability in subregional geometry. Significantly lower values were observed in the glucocorticoid group for the ratios of (i) anterior subregion: whole vertebral body and (ii) posterior: whole vertebral body when compared to the primary osteoporosis and control groups (P < 0.05). Lower anterior subregional aBMD in individuals on glucocorticoid therapy may help to explain the increased vertebral fracture risk in this patient group.

Manning, Louise I.; Briggs, Andrew M.; Van Doornum, Sharon; Kale, Ashwini; Kantor, Susan; Wark, John D.

2013-01-01

141

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 deficiency suppresses unloading-induced bone loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanosensing is one of the crucial components of the biological events. In bone, as observed in unloading-induced osteoporosis in bed ridden patients, mechanical stress determines the levels of bone mass. Many molecules have been suggested to be involved in sensing mechanical stress in bone, while the full pathways for this event has not yet been identified. We examined the role

Fumitaka Mizoguchi; Atsuko Mizuno; Tadayoshi Hayata; Kazuhisa Nakashima; Stefan Heller; Takashi Ushida; Masahiro Sokabe; Nobuyuki Miyasaka; Makoto Suzuki; Yoichi Ezura; Masaki Noda

2008-01-01

142

The clinical applications of demineralised bone powder (DBP)-induced osteoneogenesis.  

PubMed

New bone tissue can be induced anywhere in the animal organism, i.e. even at a site distant from actual bone, by the implantation of demineralised bone powder (DBP). Basic implantation experiments were first carried out and tested in the rat (Bettex-Galland 1985). The results led us to use the experience gained to treat four patients with bone defects with DBP (one bone cyst, and 3 chronic skull defects). The DBP used was prepared aseptically from fresh cadaver bone. The results were assessed by means of x-ray films and/or CT-scan, and the preliminary evaluation is encouraging. PMID:3526741

Bettex-Galland, M; Plaschkes, J; Bettex, M

1986-06-01

143

Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

1974-01-01

144

New insights to the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bone phenotype and in dioxin-induced modulation of bone microarchitecture and material properties.  

PubMed

Bone is a target for high affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands, such as dioxins. Although bone morphology, mineral density and strength are sensitive endpoints of dioxin toxicity, less is known about effects on bone microarchitecture and material properties. This study characterizes TCDD-induced modulations of bone tissue, and the role of AHR in dioxin-induced bone toxicity and for normal bone phenotype. Six AHR-knockout (Ahr(-/-)) and wild-type (Ahr(+/+)) mice of both genders were exposed to TCDD weekly for 10 weeks, at a total dose of 200?g/kgbw. Bones were examined with micro-computed tomography, nanoindentation and biomechanical testing. Serum levels of bone remodeling markers were analyzed, and the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation was profiled using PCR array. In Ahr(+/+) mice, TCDD-exposure resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner and more porous cortical bone, and a more compact trabecular bone compartment. Bone remodeling markers and altered expression of a number of osteogenesis related genes indicated imbalanced bone remodeling. Untreated Ahr(-/-) mice displayed a slightly modified bone phenotype as compared with untreated Ahr(+/+) mice, while TCDD exposure caused only a few changes in bones of Ahr(-/-) mice. Part of the effects of both TCDD-exposure and AHR-deficiency were gender dependent. In conclusion, exposure of adult mice to TCDD resulted in harder bone matrix, thinner cortical bone, mechanically weaker bones and most notably, increased trabecular bone volume fraction in Ahr(+/+) mice. AHR is involved in bone development of a normal bone phenotype, and is crucial for manifestation of TCDD-induced bone alterations. PMID:24035824

Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko A J; Zioupos, Peter; Aula, Antti; Risteli, Juha; Miettinen, Hanna M; Jämsä, Timo; Tuukkanen, Juha; Korkalainen, Merja; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

2013-11-15

145

Impact of weightlessness on muscle function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent function of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.

Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.

1995-01-01

146

S-Ketoprofen Inhibits Tenotomy-Induced Bone Loss and Dynamics in Weanling Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objects of this study were to determine whether S-ketoprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), can prevent immobilization (tenotomy)-induced bone loss in weanling rats. Forty five 4 week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were either sham-operated or subjected to knee tenotomy and treated simultaneously with 0, 0.02, 0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg of S-ketoprofen/kg per day for 21 days. We then studied double-fluorescent labeled proximal tibial longitudinal sections and tibial shaft cross sections using static and dynamic histomorphometry. Less cancellous bone mass in proximal tibial metaphyses was found in tenotomized controls than in basal (36%) and sham-operated (54%) controls. This was due to the inhibition of age-related bone gain and induced bone loss due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. S-ketoprofen prevented both the inhibition of age-related bone gain and the stimulation of bone loss at the 2.5 mg/kg per day dose level, while it only prevented bone loss at the 0.5 mg/kg dose levels. In cancellous bone, dynamic histomorphometry showed that S-ketoprofen prevented the tenotomy induced decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption. In the tibial shaft, tenotomy inhibited the enlargement of total tissue area by depressing periosteal bone formation, and thus inhibited age-related cortical bone gain. S-ketoprofen treatment did not prevent this change at all dose levels, but reduced marrow cavity area to increase cortical bone area at the 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg per dose levels compared to tenotomy controls. However, the cortical bone area in the 0.1 and 0.5 mg dose-treated treated tenotomy rats was still lower than in the age-related controls. S-ketoprofen also prevented the increase in endocortical eroded perimeter induced by tenotomy. In summary, tenotomy inhibited age-related bone gain and stimulated bone loss in cancellous bone sites, and only inhibited age-related bone gain in cortical bone sites. S-ketoprofen treatment at the highest dose levels prevented the changes in cancellous bone, and reduced marrow area to increase cortical bone in the tibial shafts.

Zeng, Q. Q.; Jee, W. S. S.; Ke, H. Z.; Wechter, W. J.

1993-01-01

147

Postural equilibrium following exposure to weightless space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Postural equilibrium performance by Skylab crewmen following exposure to weightlessness of 28, 59, and 84 days respectively was evaluated using a modified version of a quantitative ataxia test developed by Graybiel and Fregly (1966). Performance for this test was measured under two sets of conditions. In the first, the crewman was required to maintain postural equilibrium on narrow metal rails (or floor) with his eyes open. In the second condition, he attempted to balance with his eyes closed. A comparison of the preflight and postflight data indicated moderate postflight decrements in postural equilibrium in three of the crewmen during the eyes open test condition. In the eyes-closed condition, a considerable decrease in ability to maintain balance on the rails was observed postflight for all crewmen tested. The magnitude of the change was most pronounced during the first postflight test day. Improvement was slow; however, on the basis of data obtained, recovery of preflight baseline levels of performance was evidently complete at the end of approximately two weeks for all crewmen. The findings are explained in terms of functional alterations in the kinesthetic, touch, vestibular and neuromuscular sensory mechanisms induced by the prolonged absence of a normal 1-G gravitational environment.

Homick, J. L.; Reschke, M. F.

1977-01-01

148

The Role of GH/IGF-I Axis in Muscle Homeostasis During Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to reduced gravity during space travel profoundly alters the loads placed on bone and muscle. Astronauts suffer significant losses of muscle and bone strength during weightlessness. Exercise as a countermeasure is only partially effective in remedying severe muscle atrophy and bone demineralization. Similar wasting of muscles and bones affects people on Earth during prolonged bed rest or immobilization due to injury. In the absence of weight bearing activity, atrophy occurs primarily in the muscles that act in low power, routine movements and in maintaining posture. Hormonal disfunction could contribute in part to the loss of muscle and bone during spaceflight. Reduced levels of human Growth Hormone (hGH) were found in astronauts during space flight, as well as reduced GH secretory activity was observed from the anterior pituitary in 7-day space flight rats. Growth hormone has been shown to be required for maintenance of muscle mass and bone mineralization, in part by mediating the biosynthesis IGF-I, a small polypeptide growth factor. IGF biosynthesis and secretion plays an important role in potentiating muscle cell differentiation and has been shown to drive the expression of myogenin, a myogenic specific basic helix-loop-helix factor. IGF-I has also been shown to have an important role in potentiating muscle regeneration, repair and adult muscle hypertrophy.

Schwartz, Robert J.

1997-01-01

149

Enhanced Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Ectopic and Orthotopic Bone Formation by Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) Administration  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a central role in local bone regeneration strategies, whereas the anabolic features of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are particularly appealing for the systemic treatment of generalized bone loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether local BMP-2-induced bone regeneration could be enhanced by systemic administration of PTH (1–34). Empty or BMP-2-loaded poly(lactic-co glycolic acid)/poly(propylene fumarate)/gelatin composites were implanted subcutaneously and in femoral defects in rats (n?=?9). For the orthotopic site, empty defects were also tested. Each of the conditions was investigated in combination with daily administered subcutaneous PTH (1–34) injections in the neck. After 8 weeks of implantation, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume were analyzed using microcomputed tomography and histology. Ectopic bone formation and almost complete healing of the femoral defect were only seen in rats that received BMP-2-loaded composites. Additional treatment of the rats with PTH (1–34) resulted in significantly (p?bone volume in the BMP-2 composites at both implantation sites. Despite its effect on BMD in the humerus and vertebra, PTH (1–34) treatment had no significant effect on BMD and bone volume in the empty femoral defects and the ectopically or orthotopically implanted empty composites. Histological analysis showed that the newly formed bone had a normal woven and trabecular appearance. Overall, this study suggests that intermittent administration of a low PTH dose alone has limited potential to enhance local bone regeneration in a critical-sized defect in rats. However, when combined with local BMP-2-releasing scaffolds, PTH administration significantly enhanced osteogenesis in both ectopic and orthotopic sites.

Kempen, Diederik H.R.; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Creemers, Laura B.; Heijink, Andras; Maran, Avudaiappan; Dhert, Wouter J.A.; Yaszemski, Michael J.

2010-01-01

150

The regulation of fluid and electrolyte metabolism in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Endocrine and biochemical changes in astronauts caused by weightlessness are discussed. Translocation of fluid from the extremities to the head and chest at the onset of weightlessness is thought to lead to the establishment of a lower blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Results of Skylab experiments indicate that several other regulatory systems have lower homeostatic set points during space flight. Inflight blood samples from three Spacelab flights show increased antidiuretic hormone throughout these short flights and decreased aldosterone and cortisol after 3 days. Results help to explain blood hypoosmolality and hyponatremia but do not explain what happens between the onset of weightlessness and hormone changes. Other factors such as natriuretic peptides and changes in renal function are being studied to elucidate the physiologic adaptation mechanisms.

Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

1986-01-01

151

Morphine treatment accelerates sarcoma-induced bone pain, bone loss, and spontaneous fracture in a murine model of bone cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastatic bone cancer causes severe pain that is primarily treated with opioids. A model of bone cancer pain in which the progression of cancer pain and bone destruction is tightly controlled was used to evaluate the effects of sustained morphine treatment. In cancer-treated mice, morphine enhanced, rather than diminished, spontaneous, and evoked pain; these effects were dose-dependent and naloxone-sensitive. SP

Tamara King; Anna Vardanyan; Lisa Majuta; Ohannes Melemedjian; Ray Nagle; Anne E. Cress; Todd W. Vanderah; Josephine Lai; Frank Porreca

2007-01-01

152

Laboratory simulation of the action of weightlessness on the human organism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief history of attemps by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. to simulate weightlessness in the laboratory is presented. Model for laboratory modeling of weightlessness included the bed regimen, the clinostat, and water immersion. An outline of immediate physiological effects of weightlessness and long term effects is offered.

Genin, A. M.

1977-01-01

153

Weightlessness and the human skeleton: A new perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now clear after more than two decades of space exploration that one of the major short- and long-term effects of microgravity on the human body is the loss of bone. The purpose of this presentation will be to review the data regarding the impact of microgravity and bed rest on calcium and bone metabolism. The author takes the position in this Socratic debate that the effect of microgravity on bone metabolism can be either reversed or mitigated. As we begins to contemplate long-duration space flight and habitation of Space Station Freedom and the moon, one of the issues that needs to be addressed is whether humans need to maintain a skeleton that has been adapted for the one-g force on earth. Clearly, in the foreseeable future, a healthy and structurally sound skeleton will be required for astronauts to shuttle back and forth from earth to the moon, space station, and Mars. Based on most available data from bed-rest studies and the short- and long-duration microgravity experiences by astronauts and cosmonauts, bone loss is a fact of life in this environment. With the rapid advances in understanding of bone physiology it is now possible to contemplate measures that can prevent or mitigate microgravity-induced bone loss. Will the new therapeutic approaches for enhancing bone mineralization be useful for preventing significant bone loss during long-term space flight? Are there other approaches such as exercise and electrical stimulation that can be used to mitigate the impact of microgravity on the skeleton? A recent study that evaluated the effect of microgravity on bone modeling in developing chick embryos may perhaps provide a new perspective about the impact of microgravity on bone metabolism.

Holick, Michael F.

1994-01-01

154

Germination of pine seed in weightlessness (investigation in Kosmos 782)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was made of the orientation of aboveground and underground organs of pine plants grown from seed in weightlessness. Orientation was found to be caused by the position of the seeds relative to the substrate surface. Normal growth was manifest only for the plants grown from seed oriented with embryo toward the substrate. Differences were noted between experiment and control as to the quantitative content of nucleoli in the meristematic cells of the rootlets and the shape of cells in the cotyledonous leaflets. No complete agreement was found between data obtained in weightlessness and when gravity was compensated (clinostat treatment with horizontal rotation).

Platonova, R. N.; Parfenov, G. P.; Olkhovenko, V. P.; Karpova, N. I.; Pichugov, M. Y.

1978-01-01

155

Effect of simulated weightlessness on the immune system in rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats suspended in a model system designed to simulate many aspects of weightlessness were immunized with sheep red blood cells. Parameters measured on these and control rats included titers of anti-sheep red blood cell antibodies, serum immunoglobulin levels, spleen and thymus weights, hematocrits, and leukocyte differential counts on peripheral blood. No significant differences were found between test and weight-bearing, harnessed controls; however, the thymuses of animals in both these groups were significantly smaller than untreated cage controls. The lack of an effect of simulated weightlessness on the immune system is an interesting result, and its significance is discussed.

Caren, L. D.; Mandel, A. D.; Nunes, J. A.

1980-01-01

156

A Systems Approach to the Physiology of Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systems approach to the unraveling of the complex response pattern of the human subjected to weightlessness is presented. The major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the role that each of the major components of the human system plays following the transition to and from space. The cornerstone of this approach is the utilization of a variety of mathematical models in order to pose and test alternative hypotheses concerned with the adaptation process. An integrated hypothesis for the human physiological response to weightlessness is developed.

White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Rummel, John A.; Leach, Carolyn S.

1991-01-01

157

Correlation of macro and micro cardiovascular function during weightlessness and simulated weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of cardiovascular function necessarily involves a consideration of the exchange of substances at the capillary. If cardiovascular function is compromised or in any way altered during exposure to zero gravity in space, then it stands to reason that microvascular function is also modified. We have shown that an increase in cardiac output similar to that reported during simulated weightlessness is associated with a doubling of the number of post-capillary venules and a reduction in the number of arterioles by 35%. If the weightlessness of space travel produces similar changes in cardiopulmonary volume and cardiac output, a reasonable expectation is that astronauts will undergo venous neovascularization. We have developed an animal model in which to correlate microvascular and systemic cardiovascular function. The microcirculatory preparation consists of a lightweight, thermoneutral chamber implanted around intact skeletal muscle on the back of a rat. Using this technique, the preformed microvasculature of the cutaneous maximus muscle may be observed in the conscious, unanesthetized animal. Microcirculatory variables which may be obtained include venular and arteriolar numbers, lengths and diameters, single vessel flow velocities, vasomotion, capillary hematocrit anastomoses and orders of branching. Systemic hemodynamic monitoring of cardiac output by electromagnetic flowmetry, and arterial and venous pressures allows correlation of macro- and microcirculatory changes at the same time, in the same animal. Observed and calculated hemodynamic variables also include pulse pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, aortic compliance, minute work, peak aortic flow velocity and systolic time interval. In this manner, an integrated assessment of total cardiovascular function may be obtained in the same animal without the complicating influence of anesthetics.

Hutchins, P. M.; Marshburn, T. H.; Smith, T. L.; Osborne, S. W.; Lynch, C. D.; Moultsby, S. J.

158

Correlation of macro and micro cardiovascular function during weightlessness and simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The investigation of cardiovascular function necessarily involves a consideration of the exchange of substances at the capillary. If cardiovascular function is compromised or in any way altered during exposure to zero gravity in space, then it stands to reason that microvascular function is also modified. We have shown that an increase in cardiac output similar to that reported during simulated weightlessness is associated with a doubling of the number of post-capillary venules and a reduction in the number of arterioles by 35%. If the weightlessness of space travel produces similar changes in cardiopulmonary volume and cardiac output, a reasonable expectation is that astronauts will undergo venous neovascularization. We have developed an animal model in which to correlate microvascular and systemic cardiovascular function. The microcirculatory preparation consists of a lightweight, thermo-neutral chamber implanted around intact skeletal muscle on the back of a rat. Using this technique, the performed microvasculature of the cutaneous maximus muscle may be observed in the conscious, unanesthetized animal. Microcirculatory variables which may be obtained include venular and arteriolar numbers, lengths and diameters, single vessel flow velocities, vasomotion, capillary hematocrit anastomoses and orders of branching. Systemic hemodynamic monitoring of cardiac output by electromagnetic flowmetry, and arterial and venous pressures allows correlation of macro- and microcirculatory changes at the same time, in the same animal. Observed and calculated hemodynamic variables also include pulse pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, aortic compliance, minute work, peak aortic flow velocity and systolic time interval. In this manner, an integrated assessment of total cardiovascular function may be obtained in the same animal without the complicating influence of anesthetics.

Hutchins, P. M.; Marshburn, T. H.; Smith, T. L.; Osborne, S. W.; Lynch, C. D.; Moultsby, S. J.

1988-01-01

159

Gravity, calcium, and bone - Update, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results obtained on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and bone browth during short-term flights and ground simulated-microgravity experiments are presented. Results demonstrate that two principal components of calcium metabolism respond within days to changes in body position and to weightlessness: the calcium endocrine system and bone characteristics. Furthermore, results of recent studies imply that bone biomechanics are more severely affected by spaceflight exposures than is the bone mass.

Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily

1990-01-01

160

Expression of PGK1 By Prostate Cancer Cells Induces Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the solid tumors that metastasize to the bone. Once there, the phenotype of the bone lesions becomes depends upon the balance between osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We previously reported that over-expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) in PCa cell lines enhanced bone formation at the metastatic site in vivo. Here, the role of PGK1 in the bone formation was further explored. We demonstrate that PCa-derived PGK1 induces osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells. We also found that PGK1 secreted by PCa inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Finally, the expression levels of the bone specific markers in PCa cell themselves were higher in cells over expressing PGK1 than controls. Together, these data suggest that PGK1 secreted by PCa regulates bone formation at the metastatic site by increasing osteoblastic activity, decreasing osteoclastic function, and expressing an osteoblastic phenotype by PCa themselves.

Jung, Younghun; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Jingcheng; Wang, Zhuo; Pedersen, Elisabeth A.; Lee, Clara H.; Hall, Christopher L.; Hogg, Phillip J.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Keller, Evan T.; Taichman, Russell S.

2009-01-01

161

Repair of an intercalated long bone defect with a synthetic biodegradable bone-inducing implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 in a block copolymer composed of poly-d,l-lactic acid with randomly inserted p-dioxanone and polyethylene glycol (PLA-DX-PEG) as a carrier and porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) blocks were used to generate a new fully absorbable osteogenic biomaterial. The bone regenerability of the rhBMP-2\\/PLA-DX-PEG\\/?-TCP composite was studied in a critical-sized rabbit bone defect model. In an initial

Masahiro Yoneda; Hidetomi Terai; Yuuki Imai; Takao Okada; Kazutoshi Nozaki; Hikaru Inoue; Shimpei Miyamoto; Kunio Takaoka

2005-01-01

162

Accelerated repair of a bone defect with a synthetic biodegradable bone-inducing implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nothing has ever had osteoinductive capacity and degradability equivalent to that of autogenous bone, although many types\\u000a of biomaterials have been developed. To address this issue, we constructed a new bone graft substitute with osteogenic potential\\u000a and degradability by using porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) granules, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and a synthetic\\u000a block copolymer composed of poly-d,l-lactic acid with randomly

Naofumi Matsushita; Hidetomi Terai; Takao Okada; Kazutoshi Nozaki; Hikaru Inoue; Shimpei Miyamoto; Kunio Takaoka

2006-01-01

163

A potential therapeutic approach to overload-induced bone loss around implant: Parathyroid hormone (PTH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical use of dental implants has a high success rate, but overload-induced bone loss around implant is not uncommon in patients with implant-supported denture especially those with long cantilever designs and greatly harmful to the long-term implant success. The mechanism underlying the bone loss is thought to be the imbalance of bone remodeling involving a detrimental positive feedback activated

Xiaohua Zeng; Hao He; Liang Zhang; Yingying Wu; Yanying Wang; Ping Gong

2011-01-01

164

Hypercalcemia induced with an arotinoid in thyroparathyroidectomized rats. New model to study bone resorption in vivo.  

PubMed Central

A model of stimulated bone resorption was developed using a synthetic retinoid in thyroparathyroidectomized rats. The retinoid induced an increase in bone resorption and in the number of vertebral subperiosteal osteoclasts. The resulting increase in plasma Ca could be used as an easily measured index of bone resorption. Three bisphosphonates produced a dose-related prevention and reversal of retinoid-induced hypercalcemia. Their potencies were similar to those previously obtained by histomorphometry. Irradiation (600 rad) of the rats prevented hypercalcemia but failed to reverse it, showing that proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells was important in inducing, but not in maintaining, bone resorption. Calcitonin produced similar effects on calcemia and prevented the increase in osteoclast number but failed to reverse the increase, suggesting that it inhibited precursor proliferation. This model represents a new tool to study mechanisms of bone resorption and the action of inhibitors in vivo. Images

Trechsel, U; Stutzer, A; Fleisch, H

1987-01-01

165

Decision making after 50 days of simulated weightlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

By restricting physical activity levels, the bed rest simulation of weightlessness could be associated with changes in prefrontal cortex functioning that manifest as cognitive decrements, particularly for executive cognitive functions. We aimed to determine if performance on an executive function task was indeed affected by bed rest. The Iowa Gambling Task, a card game measuring real-life decision making processes, was

Darren M. Lipnicki; Hanns-Christian Gunga; Daniel L. Belavy; Dieter Felsenberg

2009-01-01

166

Interpretation of Students' Understanding of the Concept of Weightlessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated students' understanding of the concept of weightlessness and found it to be influenced by the confusion between the concepts of weight and gravitational force. The causal structure of students' knowledge presents a platform for interpreting students' alternative ideas about weight and related physical concepts, which could guide…

Galili, Igal

1995-01-01

167

Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume consists of Appendices A and B to the report on the Weightless Environment Training Facility Materials Coating Evaluation project. The project selected 10 coating systems to be evaluated in six separate exposure environments, and subject to three tests for physical properties. Appendix A holds the coating system, surface preparation, and application data. Appendix B holds the coating material infrared spectra.

1995-01-01

168

Bion 11 Spaceflight Project: Effect of Weightlessness on Single Muscle Fiber Function in Rhesus Monkeys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although it is well known that microgravity induces considerable limb muscle atrophy, little is known about how weightlessness alters cell function. In this study, we investigated how weightlessness altered the functional properties of single fast and slow striated muscle fibers. Physiological studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that microgravity causes fiber atrophy, a decreased peak force (Newtons), tension (Newtons/cross-sectional area) and power, an elevated peak rate of tension development (dp/dt), and an increased maximal shortening velocity (V(sub o)) in the slow type I fiber, while changes in the fast-twitch fiber are restricted to atrophy and a reduced peak force. For each fiber, we determined the peak force (P(sub o)), V(sub o), dp/dt, the force-velocity relationship, peak power, the power-force relationship, the force-pCa relationship, and fiber stiffness. Biochemical studies were carried out to assess the effects of weightlessness on the enzyme and substrate profile of the fast- and slow-twitch fibers. We predicted that microgravity would increase resting muscle glycogen and glycolytic metabolism in the slow fiber type, while the fast-twitch fiber enzyme profile would be unaltered. The increased muscle glycogen would in part result from an elevated hexokinase and glycogen synthase. The enzymes selected for study represent markers for mitochondrial function (citrate synthase and 0-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase), glycolysis (Phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase), and fatty acid transport (Carnitine acetyl transferase). The substrates analyzed will include glycogen, lactate, adenosine triphosphate, and phosphocreatine.

Fitts, Robert H.; Romatowski, Janell G.; Widrick, Jeffrey J.; DeLaCruz, Lourdes

1999-01-01

169

Bone morphogenetic protein induced repair of compartmentalized segmental diaphyseal defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult rabbits, mid-diaphyseal segments of the radius or ulna were excised to produce defects greater than the critical size for spontaneous bone repair. The defects were enveloped in sleeves composed of nonbiodegradable expanded polyfluoroethylene (ePTFE), pore size 30, 60, 90 µm, and compared with sleeves of three biodegradable materials. Bone morphogenetic protein and associated noncollagenous bone matrix protein (BMP\\/NCP)

J. O. C. Teixeira; M. R. Urist

1998-01-01

170

Simvastatin-loaded ?-TCP drug delivery system induces bone formation and prevents rhabdomyolysis in OVX mice.  

PubMed

Bone formation and regeneration is a prolonged process that requires a slow drug release system to assist in the long-term recovery. A drug-delivery system is developed that allows for the controlled release of simvastin, without exhibiting the side effects associated with high concentrations of simvastatin, and is still capable of inducing constant bone formation. PMID:23184712

Chou, Joshua; Ito, Tomoko; Otsuka, Makoto; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

2013-05-01

171

Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor beta Superfamily Proteins Induce Endochondral Bone Formation in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both decapentaplegic (dpp) protein and 60A protein have been implicated in pattern formation during Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. Within the C-terminal domain, dpp and 60A are similar to human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (75% identity) and human osteogenic protein 1 (70% identity), respectively. Both recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 and recombinant human osteogenic protein 1 have been shown to induce

T. K. Sampath; K. E. Rashka; J. S; R. F. Tucker; F. M. Hoffmann

1993-01-01

172

Therapy discrimination via global sensitivity analysis of force-induced bone growth and adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying and discriminating plausible treatment targets for remodeling related bone disorders is a difficult task often involving medical studies and clinical experiments. We propose to apply a global sensitivity analysis approach to a mathematical model describing the process of force-induced bone growth and adaptation. The considered sensitivity analysis approach finds an outer bound on the set of possible steady states

Solvey Maldonado; Anton Savchenko; Rolf Findeisen

2010-01-01

173

Viscoelastic dissipation in compact bone: implications for stress-induced fluid flow in bone.  

PubMed

Viscoelastic properties of wet and dry human compact bone were studied in torsion and in bending for both the longitudinal and transverse directions at frequencies from 5 mHz to 5 kHz in bending to more than 50 kHz in torsion. Two series of tests were done for different longitudinal and transverse specimens from a human tibia. Wet bone exhibited a larger viscoelastic damping tan delta (phase between stress and strain sinusoids) than dry bone over a broad range of frequency. All the results had in common a relative minimum in tan delta over a frequency range, 1 to 100 Hz, which is predominantly contained in normal activities. This behavior is inconsistent with an optimal "design" for bone as a shock absorber. There was no definitive damping peak in the range of frequencies explored, which could be attributed to fluid flow in the porosity of bone. PMID:10834157

Garner, E; Lakes, R; Lee, T; Swan, C; Brand, R

2000-04-01

174

Malathion and fenvalerate induce micronuclei in mouse bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

Health effects of pesticides are a major public health concern. In this study, the genotoxic effects of two commonly-used pesticides, malathion, and fenvalerate, were investigated in mice in vivo. Induction of micronuclei in bone marrow cells was used as the test parameter following exposure to 2.5, 5 or 10 mg/kg malathion by intraperitoneal (i.p.) or per oral (p.o.) exposure. Exposure by both routes was found to cause a significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in a dose-dependent manner (r = 0.9769; P < 0.05). The highest dose (10 mg/kg) induced significant (P < 0.05) cytotoxicity. In contrast, fenvalerate caused an increase in micronucleated PCEs only at higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) via i.p. injection, and was not associated with cytotoxicity. A significant dose-response correlation was not observed in the dose ranges tested for fenvalerate (r = 0.8704; P > 0.05). The results suggest that technical grade malathion is a genotoxic agent. In contrast, technical grade fenvalerate appears to be a potent genotoxic agent, but this observation should be confirmed with further investigation(s). PMID:21538555

Giri, A; Giri, S; Sharma, G D

2011-10-01

175

The effect of simulated weightlessness on hypobaric decompression sickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: A discrepancy exists between the incidence of ground-based decompression sickness (DCS) during simulated extravehicular activity (EVA) at hypobaric space suit pressure (20-40%) and crewmember reports during actual EVA (zero reports). This could be due to the effect of gravity during ground-based DCS studies. HYPOTHESIS: At EVA suit pressures of 29.6 kPa (4.3 psia), there is no difference in the incidence of hypobaric DCS between a control group and group exposed to simulated weightlessness (supine body position). METHODS: Male subjects were exposed to a hypobaric pressure of 29.6 kPa (4.3 psi) for up to 4 h. The control group (n = 26) pre-oxygenated for 60 min (first 10 min exercising) before hypobaric exposure and walking around in the altitude chamber. The test group (n = 39) remained supine for a 3 h prior to and during the 60-min pre-oxygenation (also including exercise) and at hypobaric pressure. DCS symptoms and venous gas emboli (VGE) at hypobaric pressure were registered. RESULTS: DCS occurred in 42% in the control and in 44% in simulated weightlessness group (n.s.). The mean time for DCS to develop was 112 min (SD +/- 61) and 123 min (+/- 67), respectively. VGE occurred in 81% of the control group subjects and in 51% of the simulated weightlessness subjects (p = 0.02), while severe VGE occurred in 58% and 33%, respectively (p = 0.08). VGE started after 113 min (+/- 43) in the control and after 76 min (+/- 64) in the simulated weightlessness group. CONCLUSIONS: No difference in incidence of DCS was shown between control and simulated weightlessness conditions. VGE occurred more frequently during the control condition with bubble-releasing arm and leg movements.

Balldin, Ulf I.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Webb, James T.

2002-01-01

176

Modeling of Cardiovascular Response to Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was the hypothesis of this Project that the Simple lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity generates several purely physical reactions that underlie and may explain, in part, the cardiovascular response to weightlessness. For instance, hydrostatic pressure within the ventricles of the heart may improve cardiac performance by promoting expansion of ventricular volume during diastole. The lack of hydrostatic pressure in microgravity might, therefore, reduce diastolic filling and cardiac performance. The change in transmural pressure is possible due to the difference in hydrostatic pressure gradients between the blood inside the ventricle and the lung tissue surrounding the ventricle due to their different densities. On the other hand, hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature may reduce cardiac inlet pressures because of the typical location of the heart above the hydrostatic indifference level (the level at which pressure remains constant throughout changes in gravity). Additional physical responses of the body to changing gravitational conditions may influence cardiovascular performance. For instance, fluid shifts from the lower body to the thorax in microgravity may serve to increase central venous pressure (CVP) and boost cardiac output (CO). The concurrent release of gravitational force on the rib cage may tend to increase chest girth and decrease pedcardial pressure, augmenting ventricular filling. The lack of gravity on pulmonary tissue may allow an upward shifting of lung mass, causing a further decrease in pericardial pressure and increased CO. Additional effects include diuresis early in the flight, interstitial fluid shifts, gradual spinal extension and movement of abdominal mass, and redistribution of circulatory impedance because of venous distention in the upper body and the collapse of veins in the lower body. In this project, the cardiovascular responses to changes in intraventricular hydrostatic pressure, in intravascular hydrostatic pressure and, to a limited extent, in extravascular and pedcardial hydrostatic pressure were investigated. A complete hydraulic model of the cardiovascular system was built and flown aboard the NASA KC-135 and a computer model was developed and tested in simulated microgravity. Results obtained with these models have confirmed that a simple lack of hydrostatic pressure within an artificial ventricle causes a decrease in stroke volume. When combined with the acute increase in ventricular pressure associated with the elimination of hydrostatic pressure within the vasculature and the resultant cephalad fluid shift with the models in the upright position, however, stroke volume increased in the models. Imposition of a decreased pedcardial pressure in the computer model and in a simplified hydraulic model increased stroke volume. Physiologic regional fluid shifting was also demonstrated by the models. The unifying parameter characterizing of cardiac response was diastolic ventricular transmural pressure (DVDELTAP) The elimination of intraventricular hydrostatic pressure in O-G decreased DVDELTAP stroke volume, while the elimination of intravascular hydrostatic pressure increased DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the upright posture, but reduced DVDELTAP and stroke volume in the launch posture. The release of gravity on the chest wall and its associated influence on intrathoracic pressure, simulated by a drop in extraventricular pressure4, increased DVDELTAP ans stroke volume.

Sharp, M. Keith

1999-01-01

177

Role of Prostaglandin Pathway and Alendronate-Based Carriers to Enhance Statin-induced Bone  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the role of the prostaglandin (PG) pathway in locally-applied, simvastatin-induced oral bone growth. The possibility of enhancing long-term bone augmentation with an alendronate-based carrier was initiated. Methods Mandibles of 44 mature female rats were treated bilaterally with the following combinations: 2 mg simvastatin in ethanol (SIM-EtOH), EtOH, 2 mg simvastatin acid complexed with alendronate-beta-cyclodextrin conjugate (SIM/ALN-CD), ALN-CD, or ALN. Bone wash technology (injection of PBS and recollection by suction) was used to sample injection sites at baseline (day 0), and 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post-treatment. After 21-24 or 48 days, histomorphometric analysis was done. The amount of PGE2 in bone wash fluid was measured by ELISA, normalized by total protein, and compared between high and low bone growth groups (ANOVA) and correlated with subsequent bone histology at 21 days (Spearman). SIM-stimulated PGE2 synthase and EP4 receptor mRNA in murine osteoblast and fibroblast cell lines were evaluated with real-time PCR. Results Single injections of 2 mg SIM-EtOH induced significantly more new bone than control side after 21 days. PGE2/protein ratios peaked at day 7 and were correlated with the subsequent 21-day new bone width. The correlations at day 14 between PGE2 and new bone width changed to a negative relationship in the test group. SIM-stimulated osteoblasts expressed increased mRNA levels of PGE receptor EP4, while SIM activated PGE synthesis in fibroblasts. SIM/ALN-CD tended to preserve bone long-term. Conclusion Findings suggest that PGE pathway activation and higher levels of PGE2 during the first week following SIM-induced bone growth are desirable, and alendronate-beta-cyclodextrin conjugates not only act as tissue-specific carriers, but preserve new bone.

Lee, Yeonju; Liu, Xinming; Nawshad, Ali; Marx, David B.; Wang, Dong; Reinhardt, Richard A.

2011-01-01

178

Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Cancellous Bone Loss in Rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of this study was to determine whether prostaglandin E2, (PGE2) can prevent ovariectomy induced cancellous bone loss. Thirty-five 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. The rats in the first group were ovariectomized (OVX) while the others received sham operation (sham-OVX). The OVX group was further divided into three treatment groups. The daily doses for the three groups were 0,1 and 6 mg PGE2/kg for 90 days. Bone histomorphometric analyses were performed on double-fluorescent-labeled undecalcified proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM). We confirmed that OVX induces massive cancellous bone loss (-80%) and a higher bone turnover (+143%). The new findings from the present study demonstrate that bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency can be prevented by a low-dose (1 mg) daily administration of PGE2. Furthermore, a higher-dose (6 mg) daily administration of PGE2 not only prevents bone loss but also adds extra bone to the proximal tibial metaphyses. PGE, at the 1-mg dose level significantly increased trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, ratio of node to free end, and thus significantly decreased trabecular separation from OVX controls. At this dose level, these same parameters did not differ significantly from sham-OVX controls. However, at the 6-mg dose level PGE2, there were significant increases in trabecular bone area, trabecular width, trabecular node density, density of node to node, and ratio of node to free end, while there was significant decrease in trabecular separation from both OVX and sham-operated controls. The changes in indices of trabecular bone microanatomical structure indicated that PGE2 prevented bone loss as well as the disconnection of existing trabeculae. In summary, PGE2, administration to OVX rats decreased bone turnover and increased bone formation parameters resulting in a positive bone balance that prevented bone loss (in both lower and higher doses) and added extra bone to metaphyses of OVX rats (in higher dose). These findings support the strategy of the use of bone stimulation agents in the prevention of estrogen depletion bone loss (postmenopausal osteoporosis).

Ke, Hua Zhu; Li, Mei; Jee, Webster S. S.

1992-01-01

179

Fluid and Solute Transport in Bone: Flow-Induced Mechanotransduction  

PubMed Central

Much recent evidence suggests that bone cells sense their mechanical environment via interstitial fluid flow. In this review, we summarize theoretical and experimental approaches to quantify fluid and solute transport in bone, starting with the early investigations of fluid shear stress applied to bone cells. The pathways of bone interstitial fluid and solute movement are high-lighted based on recent theoretical models, as well as a new generation of tracer experiments that have clarified and refined the structure and function of the osteocyte pericellular matrix. Then we trace how the fluid-flow models for mechanotransduction have evolved as new ultrastructural features of the osteocyte lacunar-canalicular porosity have been identified and how more recent in vitro fluid-flow and cell-stretch experiments have helped elucidate at the molecular level the possible pathways for cellular excitation in bone.

Fritton, Susannah P.; Weinbaum, Sheldon

2009-01-01

180

Contributions of the host microenvironment to cancer-induced bone disease.  

PubMed

The bone marrow provides a specialized and highly supportive microenvironment for tumor growth and development of the associated bone disease. It is a preferred site for breast and prostate cancer bone metastasis and the hematologic malignancy, multiple myeloma. For many years, researchers have focused upon the interactions between tumor cells and the cells directly responsible for bone remodeling, namely osteoclasts and osteoblasts. However, there is ever-increasing evidence for a multitude of ways in which the bone marrow microenvironment can promote disease pathogenesis, including via cancer-associated fibroblasts, the hematopoietic stem cell niche, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and the sympathetic nervous system. This review discusses the recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of the host microenvironment to the development of cancer-induced bone disease. PMID:24599133

Olechnowicz, Sam W Z; Edwards, Claire M

2014-03-15

181

Morphological and histological adaptation of muscle and bone to loading induced by repetitive activation of muscle.  

PubMed

Muscular contraction plays a pivotal role in the mechanical environment of bone, but controlled muscular contractions are rarely used to study the response of bone to mechanical stimuli. Here, we use implantable stimulators to elicit programmed contractions of the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Miniature stimulators were implanted in Wistar rats (n = 9) to induce contraction of the left TA every 30 s for 28 days. The right limb was used as a contralateral control. Hindlimbs were imaged using microCT. Image data were used for bone measurements, and to construct a finite-element (FE) model simulation of TA forces propagating through the bone. This simulation was used to target subsequent bone histology and measurement of micromechanical properties to areas of high strain. FE mapping of simulated strains revealed peak values in the anterodistal region of the tibia (640 µ? ± 30.4 µ?). This region showed significant increases in cross-sectional area (28.61%, p < 0.05) and bone volume (30.29%, p < 0.05) in the stimulated limb. Histology revealed a large region of new bone, containing clusters of chondrocytes, indicative of endochondral ossification. The new bone region had a lower elastic modulus (8.8 ± 2.2 GPa) when compared with established bone (20 ± 1.4 GPa). Our study provides compelling new evidence of the interplay between muscle and bone. PMID:24966314

Vickerton, Paula; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Gallagher, James A; Akhtar, Riaz; Sutherland, Hazel; Jeffery, Nathan

2014-08-01

182

Andrographolide prevents human breast cancer-induced osteoclastic bone loss via attenuated RANKL signaling.  

PubMed

Bone metastasis is a common and serious complication in advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. Agents that prevent bone loss could be used to develop an alternative therapy for bone metastasis. RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has been shown to play a significant role in cancer-associated bone loss. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the natural compound andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, in reducing breast cancer-induced osteolysis. AP prevented human breast cancer-induced bone loss by suppressing RANKL-mediated and human breast cancer cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. Molecular analysis revealed that AP prevented osteoclast function by inhibiting RANKL-induced NF-?B and ERK signaling pathway in lower dose (20 ?M), as well as inducing apoptosis at higher dose (40 ?M). Thus, AP is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis. PMID:24481680

Zhai, Zanjing; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Wei; Li, Haowei; Liu, Guangwang; Liu, Xuqiang; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

2014-02-01

183

Prostate Cancer Metastases to Bone: Role of High Bone Turnover Induced by Androgen Deprivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most patients with advanced prostate cancer have bone metastases. These metastases contribute significantly to the morbidity and mortality associated with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately, our knowledge of how and why prostate cancer metastasizes t...

S. S. Padalecki

2002-01-01

184

Peripheral TGF-?1 signaling is a critical event in bone cancer-induced hyperalgesia in rodents.  

PubMed

Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. TGF-?, a major bone-derived growth factor, is largely released by osteoclast bone resorption during the progression of bone cancer and contributes to proliferation, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we further show that TGF-?1 is critical for bone cancer-induced pain sensitization. We found that, after the progression of bone cancer, TGF-?1 was highly expressed in tumor-bearing bone, and the expression of its receptors, TGF?RI and TGF?RII, was significantly increased in the DRG in a rat model of bone cancer pain that is based on intratibia inoculation of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The blockade of TGF-? receptors by the TGF?RI antagonist SD-208 robustly suppressed bone cancer-induced thermal hyperalgesia on post-tumor day 14 (PTD 14). Peripheral injection of TGF-?1 directly induced thermal hyperalgesia in intact rats and wide-type mice, but not in Trpv1(-/-) mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from DRG neurons showed that transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) sensitivity was significantly enhanced on PTD 14. Extracellular application of TGF-?1 significantly potentiated TRPV1 currents and increased [Ca(2+)]i in DRG neurons. Pharmacological studies revealed that the TGF-?1 sensitization of TRPV1 and the induction of thermal hyperalgesia required the TGF-?R-mediated Smad-independent PKC? and TGF-? activating kinase 1-p38 pathways. These findings suggest that TGF-?1 signaling contributes to bone cancer pain via the upregulation and sensitization of TRPV1 in primary sensory neurons and that therapeutic targeting of TGF-?1 may ameliorate the bone cancer pain in advanced cancer. PMID:24305807

Xu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Duan, Kai-Zheng; Gu, Xi-Yao; Han, Mei; Liu, Ben-Long; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

2013-12-01

185

Imatimid-induced bone marrow necrosis detected on MRI examination and mimicking bone metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imatinib has revolutionized the treatment and prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In contrast\\u000a to liver and\\/or abdominal involvement, bone metastases are an uncommon event in GIST. We report here two patients with metastatic\\u000a GIST who developed pelvic bone marrow focal lesions visible on MRI examinations, while Imatinib dramatically improved other\\u000a tumor sites. A biopsy in one patient

D. Vanel; S. Bonvalot; C. Le Pechoux; A. Cioffi; J. Domont; A. Le Cesne

2007-01-01

186

Bone regeneration induced by an in situ gel-forming poloxamine, bone morphogenetic protein-2 system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to confirm previously shown, in vitro osteogenic induction by the Tetronics T908 and T1307 in a critical-size, rat calvaria defect. In vivo, the osteogenic activity of the hydrogels was comparable to in vitro, but less pronounced. However, similar to in vitro, the system was strongly potentiated by incorporating 6.5 microg of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in solution or pre-encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres. These two systems extended the in vivo release of bone morphogenetic protein-2, determined with 125I- bone morphogenetic protein-2, for one and two additional weeks, respectively, time enough to fill approximately 40% and 90% of the defect with well-organized bone. Furthermore, the structural characteristics of Tetronic hydrogels together with their biocompatibility, injectability, and adaptability to multiple defect sizes and shapes suggest their role as new, potential bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery, low-cost scaffolds for minor as well as critical bone defects. PMID:24749391

Rodríguez-Evora, M; Reyes, R; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Delgado, A; Evora, C

2014-06-01

187

Regulation of BMP-Induced Transcription in Cultured Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Adherent bone marrow stromal cells are inducible osteoprogenitors, giving rise to cells expressing osteoblast markers including alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. However, the potency of inducers varies in a species-specific manner. Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone induce alkaline phosphatase activity in both human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, while mouse bone marrow stromal cells are refractory to dexamethasone-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. In contrast, BMP induces alkaline phosphatase activity in both mouse and rat bone marrow stromal cells, while BMP effects on human bone marrow stromal cells are poorly characterized. Methods Bone marrow samples were isolated from patients undergoing hip replacement. Mononuclear marrow cells were cultured and grown to confluence without or with 10?7M dexamethasone. Cells from each isolate were passaged into medium containing 100 ?g/mL ascorbate phosphate and treated with dexamethasone, 100 ng/mL BMP, or no inducer. At day 6, alkaline phosphatase activity was assayed, and RNA was prepared for mRNA analyses by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results Bone marrow stromal cells from twenty-four of twenty-six patients showed no significant osteogenic response to BMP-2, 4, or 7 as determined by alkaline phosphatase induction. However, BMPs induced elevated levels of other genes associated with osteogenesis such as bone sialoprotein and osteopontin as well as BMP-2 and noggin. If primary cultures of human bone marrow stromal cells were pretreated with dexamethasone, BMP-2 treatment of first-passage cells induced alkaline phosphatase in approximately half of the isolates, and significantly greater induction was seen in cells from males. Dexamethasone treatment, like BMP treatment, also increased expression of the BMP-binding protein noggin. Conclusions Most human femur bone marrow stromal cell samples appear incapable of expressing elevated alkaline phosphatase levels in response to BMPs. Since BMP treatment induced expression of several other BMP-regulated genes, the defect in alkaline phosphatase induction is presumably not due to impaired BMP signaling. We hypothesize that the mechanism by which BMPs modulate alkaline phosphatase expression is indirect, involving a BMP-regulated transcription factor for alkaline phosphatase expression that is controlled differently in humans and rodents. Clinical Relevance We suggest that the relative insensitivity of alkaline phosphatase to BMP induction in human bone marrow stromal cells may contribute to the variation in efficacy reported with BMP in clinical settings.

Diefenderfer, David L.; Osyczka, Anna M.; Garino, Jonathan P.; Leboy, Phoebe S.

2005-01-01

188

Raloxifene preserves phenytoin and sodium valproate induced bone loss by modulating serum estradiol and TGF-?3 content in bone of female mice.  

PubMed

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)-induced adverse consequences on bone are now well recognized. Despite this, there is limited data on the effect of anti-osteoporotic therapies on AEDs-induced bone loss. We hypothesize that estrogen deprivation following phenytoin (PHT) and sodium valproate (SVP) therapy could lead to adverse bony effects. Both PHT and SVP inhibit human aromatase enzyme and stimulate microsomal catabolism of oestrogens. Estrogen deficiency states are known to reduce the deposition of transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?3), a bone matrix protein, having anti-osteoclastic property. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, in comparison with calcium and vitamin D3 (CVD) supplementation, on PHT and SVP-induced alterations in bone in mice and to unravel the role of estradiol and TGF-?3 in mediation of bony effects by either AEDs or raloxifene. Further, the effect of raloxifene on seizures and on the antiepileptic efficacy of PHT and SVP was investigated. Swiss strains of female mice were treated with PHT (35mg/kg, p.o.) and SVP (300mg/kg, p.o.) for 120days to induce bone loss as evidenced by reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone turnover markers (BTMs) in lumbar bones (alkaline phosphatase, tartarate resistant acid phosphatase, hydroxyproline) and urine (calcium). The bone loss was accompanied by reduced serum estradiol levels and bone TGF-?3 content. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with raloxifene ameliorated bony alterations and was more effective than CVD. It also significantly restored estradiol and TGF-?3 levels. Deprived estrogen levels (that in turn reduced lumbar TGF-?3 content) following PHT and SVP, thus, might represent one of the various mechanisms of AEDs-induced bone loss. Raloxifene preserved the bony changes without interfering with antiepileptic efficacy of these drugs, and hence raloxifene could be a potential therapeutic option in the management of PHT and SVP-induced bone disease if clinically approved. PMID:24880111

Anwar, Md Jamir; Radhakrishna, K V; Sharma, Abhay; Vohora, Divya

2014-10-01

189

The Role of Purinergic Receptors in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain  

PubMed Central

Cancer-induced bone pain severely compromises the quality of life of many patients suffering from bone metastasis, as current therapies leave some patients with inadequate pain relief. The recent development of specific animal models has increased the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer-induced bone pain including the involvement of ATP and the purinergic receptors in the progression of the pain state. In nociception, ATP acts as an extracellular messenger to transmit sensory information both at the peripheral site of tissue damage and in the spinal cord. Several of the purinergic receptors have been shown to be important for the development and maintenance of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and studies have demonstrated the importance of both peripheral and central mechanisms. We here provide an overview of the current literature on the role of purinergic receptors in cancer-induced bone pain with emphasis on some of the difficulties related to studying this complex pain state.

Falk, Sarah; Uldall, Maria; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

2012-01-01

190

Inactivation of estrogen receptor ? in bone-forming cells induces bone loss in female mice.  

PubMed

The role of the estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in bone-forming cells is incompletely understood at present. To examine the in vivo effects of ER? in these cells, we generated a mouse strain in which the ER? gene is inactivated in osteoblasts via osteocalcin promoter-regulated cyclic recombinase (Cre) activity (ER?(?OB/?OB)). This enabled micro-computed tomography- and histomorphometry-based analysis of ER?-mediated effects in bone-forming cells in mice, in which the systemic ER?-mediated effects are intact. In female ER?(?OB/?OB) mice, trabecular and cortical bone volumes were significantly reduced (31.5 and 11.4%, respectively) at 3.5 mo of age compared with control ER?(fl/fl) animals, and their response to ovariectomy was small compared with that of controls. In contrast with females, no differences could be detected in the bone phenotype of young males, whereas in 6-mo-old ER?(?OB/?OB) males, trabecular bone volume (Tb.BV) was decreased (27.5%). The ER? inactivation-related effects were compared with those of controls having a similar genetic background. Parental osteocalcin-Cre mice did not show Cre-related changes. Our results suggest that in female mice, Tb.BV and cortical bone volume are critically dependent on the ER? regulation of osteoblasts, whereas in male mice, osteoblastic ER? is not required for the regulation of bone formation during rapid skeletal growth, but it is involved in the maintenance of Tb.BV. PMID:23073829

Määttä, Jorma A; Büki, Kalman G; Gu, Guoliang; Alanne, Maria H; Vääräniemi, Jukka; Liljenbäck, Heidi; Poutanen, Matti; Härkönen, Pirkko; Väänänen, Kalervo

2013-02-01

191

Minocycline-induced Periarticular Black Bones in Inflamed Joints Which Underwent Arthroplastic Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background Minocycline-induced pigmentation of bone (black bone) is well described in tooth-bearing intra-oral bone, but is less known in periarticular bone in patients who have undergone total joint arthroplasty. On a retrospective basis, we investigated the short-term clinico-radiological results of total joint arthroplasties in which the patient developed minocycline-induced periarticular black bone. Methods We found 5 cases (0.08%), in 4 patients, of periarticular bone pigmentation revealed during total joint arthroplasties (2 hips, 2 knees, and 1 ankle) in our series of total joint surgeries (6,548 cases) over a 10-year time period in our 3 institutes. Their mean age was 56 years at surgery. All patients had received long-term minocycline treatment. Mean dosage and duration of minocycline was 160 mg/day and 2.2 years, respectively. Minocycline had been prescribed for reactive arthritis (one), rheumatoid arthritis (two) and late infection after total joint arthroplasty (two patients). Mean follow-up period was 3.4 years after the surgeries. Results All cases had black or brown pigmentation in the periarticular bones during the surgery. There was no pigmentation in the cartilage or soft tissues of the joints. The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score or Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) scale for rheumatoid arthritis foot and ankle joints at latest follow-up (case 1, 66; case 2, 87; case 3, 77; case 4, 77; case 5, 80) improved compared to those of pre-surgery (case 1, 47; case 2, 45; case 3, 55; case 4, 34; case 5, 55). No implant loosening was noted on radiographic examination during the follow-up period. No abnormal bone formation, bone necrosis, hemosiderin deposition, malignancy or metallic debris was found on histological examination. Conclusions No clinico-radiological symptoms of total joint arthroplasties showed in the patients with minocycline-induced periariticular black bone in the short-term. Systemic minocycline treatment has the potential to induce significant black pigmentation of many tissues. In particular, minocycline-induced pigmentation of periarticular bone may be accelerated by inflammation due to rheumatic or pyogenic arthritis. Surgeons should recognize the risk of bone pigmentation in inflamed joints due to the systemic treatment of minocycline and explore its influence on periarticular bone and total joint arthroplasty in the long-term.

Takakubo, Yuya; Kobayashi, Shinji; Asano, Tamon; Sasaki, Akiko; Sasaki, Kan; Ohki, Hiroharu; Tamaki, Yasunobu; Takagi, Michiaki

2012-01-01

192

Mechanical stimulation and intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment induce disproportional osteogenic, geometric, and biomechanical effects in growing mouse bone  

PubMed Central

Mechanical loading and intermittent parathyroid (iPTH) treatment are both osteoanabolic stimuli, and are regulated by partially overlapping cellular signaling pathways. iPTH has been shown clinically to be effective in increasing bone mass and reducing fracture risk. Likewise, mechanical stimulation can significantly enhance bone apposition and prevent bone loss, but its clinical effects on fracture susceptibility are less certain. Many of the osteogenic effects of iPTH are localized to biomechanically suboptimal bone surfaces, whereas mechanical loading directs new bone formation to high-stress areas and not to strain-neutral areas. These differences in localization in new tissue, resulting from load-induced vs iPTH-induced bone accumulation, should affect the relation between bone mass and bone strength, or “tissue economy.” We investigated the changes in bone mass and strength induced by 6 wks mechanical loading, and compared them to changes induced by 6 wks iPTH treatment. Loading and iPTH both increased ulnar bone accrual, as measured by bone mineral density and content, and fluorochrome-derived bone formation. iPTH induced a significantly greater increase in bone mass than loading, but ulnar bone strength was increased approximately the same amount by both treatments. Mechanical loading during growth can spatially optimize new bone formation to improve structural integrity with a minimal increase in mass, thereby increasing tissue economy i.e., the amount of strength returned per unit bone mass added. Furthermore, exercise studies in which only small changes in bone mass are detected might be more beneficial to bone health and fracture resistance than has commonly been presumed.

McAteer, Maureen E.; Niziolek, Paul J.; Ellis, Shana N.; Alge, Daniel L.; Robling, Alexander G.

2011-01-01

193

Alteration patterns of trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics induced by osteoarthritis over time  

PubMed Central

Information regarding the alteration of trabecular bone microarchitecture, which is one of the important criteria to estimate bone condition, induced by osteoarthritis (OA) is sparse. The current study therefore aimed to identify and quantify patterns of alterations in trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics at tibial epiphysis induced by OA using in vivo microcomputed tomography. Fourteen 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (n = 7) and OA (n = 7) groups. Rats in the OA group were administered monoiodoacetate into the knee-joint cavity. The tibial joints were scanned by in vivo microcomputed tomography at 0, 4, and 8 weeks after administration. Two-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s honestly significant difference post hoc test was carried out for statistical analyses. The results showed that patterns of alterations in the trabecular bone microarchitectural characteristics in the OA group were not different from those in the control group from 0 to 4 weeks (P > 0.05), but differed from 4 to 8 weeks (P < 0.05). In particular, both trabecular bone thickness and trabecular bone separation distributions over time (4–8 weeks) differed significantly (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the patterns of bone microarchitecture changes brought about by OA should be periodically considered in the diagnosis and management of arthritic symptoms over time. Improved understanding of the alteration pattern on trabecular bone microarchitecture may assist in developing more targeted treatment interventions for OA.

Lee, Joo Hyung; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Sang Ho; Han, Paul; Jun, Yongtae; Lim, Dohyung

2012-01-01

194

Adenylyl cyclase 6 mediates loading-induced bone adaptation in vivo.  

PubMed

Primary cilia are single, nonmotile, antenna-like structures extending from the apical membrane of most mammalian cells. They may mediate mechanotransduction, the conversion of external mechanical stimuli into biochemical intracellular signals. Previously we demonstrated that adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6), a membrane-bound enzyme enriched in primary cilia of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells, may play a role in a primary cilium-dependent mechanism of osteocyte mechanotransduction in vitro. In this study, we determined whether AC6 deletion impairs loading-induced bone formation in vivo. Skeletally mature mice with a global knockout of AC6 exhibited normal bone morphology and responded to osteogenic chemical stimuli similar to wild-type mice. Following ulnar loading over 3 consecutive days, bone formation parameters were assessed using dynamic histomorphometry. Mice lacking AC6 formed significantly less bone than control animals (41% lower bone formation rate). Furthermore, there was an attenuated flow-induced increase in COX-2 mRNA expression levels in primary bone cells isolated from AC6 knockout mice compared to controls (1.3±0.1- vs. 2.6±0.2-fold increase). Collectively, these data indicate that AC6 plays a role in loading-induced bone adaptation, and these findings are consistent with our previous studies implicating primary cilia and AC6 in a novel mechanism of osteocyte mechanotransduction. PMID:24277577

Lee, Kristen L; Hoey, David A; Spasic, Milos; Tang, Tong; Hammond, H Kirk; Jacobs, Christopher R

2014-03-01

195

Float zone processing in a weightless environment. [Si crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are given for investigations into: (1) the physical limits which set the maximum practical diameters of Si crystals that can be processed by the float-zone method in a near weightless environment, and (2) the economic impact of large, space-produced Si crystals on the electronics industry. The stability of the melt is evaluated. Heat transfer and fluid flow within the melt as dependent on the crystal size and the degree and type of rotation imparted to the melt are studied. Methods of utilizing the weightless environment for the production of large, stress-free Si crystals of uniform composition are proposed. The economic effect of large size Si crystals, their potential applications, likely utilization and cost advantages in LSI, integrated circuits, and power devices are also evaluated. Foreseeable advantages of larger diameter wafers of good characteristics and the possibilities seen for greater perfection resulting from stress-free growth are discussed.

Fowle, A. A.; Haggerty, J. S.; Strong, P. F.; Rudenberg, G.; Kronauer, R.

1974-01-01

196

Mathematical modeling of fluid-electrolyte alterations during weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fluid electrolyte metabolism and renal endocrine control as it pertains to adaptation to weightlessness were studied. The mathematical models that have been particularly useful are discussed. However, the focus of the report is on the physiological meaning of the computer studies. A discussion of the major ground based analogs of weightlessness are included; for example, head down tilt, water immersion, and bed rest, and a comparison of findings. Several important zero g phenomena are described, including acute fluid volume regulation, blood volume regulation, circulatory changes, longer term fluid electrolyte adaptations, hormonal regulation, and body composition changes. Hypotheses are offered to explain the major findings in each area and these are integrated into a larger hypothesis of space flight adaptation. A conceptual foundation for fluid electrolyte metabolism, blood volume regulation, and cardiovascular regulation is reported.

Leonard, J. I.

1984-01-01

197

Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

Willits, Charles

1990-01-01

198

Physiological changes in fast and slow muscle with simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rat hindlimb suspension model of simulated weightlessness was used to examine the physiological characteristics of skeletal muscle. The physiological sequelae of hindlimb suspension were compared to those of spinal cord section, denervation by sciatic nerve crush, and control. Muscle examined were the predominantly slow (Type 1) soleus (SOL) and the predominantly fast (Type 2) extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Two procedures which alter motor unit activity, hindlimb suspension and spinal cord section, produce changes in characteristics of skeletal muscles that are dependent upon fiber type. The SOL develops characteristics more representative of a fast muscle, including smaller Type 1 fiber proportion and higher AChE activity. The EDL, which is already predominantly fast, loses most of its few Type 1 fibers, thus also becoming faster. These data are in agreement with the studies in which rats experienced actual weightlessness.

Dettbarn, W. D.; Misulis, K. E.

1984-01-01

199

Protective effect of Pycnogenol® on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.  

PubMed

Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a natural plant extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster and has potent antioxidant activities. The protective effect of PYC on bone loss was studied in multiparous ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Pycnogenol® (30 or 15?mg/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to 8-month-old OVX rats for 3?months. At the end of the experiment, bone strength was measured by a three-point bending test and bone mineral density was estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Ovariectomy significantly decreased femur bone strength and bone density. Supplementation with PYC suppressed the bone loss induced by OVX. The OVX treatment significantly increased serum osteocalcin (OC) and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Supplementation with PYC reduced the serum OC and CTx in OVX rats to a level similar to that of the sham-operated group. The results indicated that orally administered PYC can decrease the bone turnover rate in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on the biomechanical strength of bone and bone mineral density. PMID:21710590

Mei, Lin; Mochizuki, Miyako; Hasegawa, Noboru

2012-01-01

200

Pathology of radium-induced bone tumors: new aspects of histopathology and histogenesis.  

PubMed

A revision of bone tumor pathology in patients treated with multiple injections of the short-lived alpha-particle emitter radium-224, predominantly for tuberculosis and ankylosing spondylitis, revealed an unexpectedly high proportion of bone sarcomas of the fibrous connective tissue type. This included the first case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone described after internal irradiation. A comparison of bone tumor types in the radium-224 patients and bone sarcoma after incorporation of radium-226 and radium-228 and external irradiation and in tumors arising at sites of pre-existing bone lesions showed the same spectrum of tumors. The high incidence of bone tumors of the fibroblastic and fibrohistiocytic type was observed in all these "secondary" bone sarcomas. These results suggest that a close histogenetic relationship exists between disorder of the local milieu caused by deterministic radiation damage accompanied by disturbances of the remodeling process. The reactive proliferation of the predominantly fibroblastic tissue could be the presumptive origin of these special types of radiation-induced bone sarcomas. PMID:10564927

Gössner, W

1999-12-01

201

Automated potentiometric electrolyte analysis system. [for use in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility is demonstrated of utilizing chemical sensing electrode technology as the basis for an automatically-controlled system for blood gas and electrolyte analyses under weightlessness conditions. The specific measurements required were pH, pCO2, sodium, chloride, potassium ions, and ionized calcium. The general electrode theory, and ion activity measurements are described along with the fluid transport package, electronics unit, and controller for the automated potentiometric analysis system.

1973-01-01

202

Astronauts Hoffman and Seddon demonstrate effect of weightlessness on slinky  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Rhea Seddon, mission specialists, demonstrate the effect of weightlessness on a slinky toy in the middeck of the Discovery. On the middeck lockers are various logos of the universities that the astronauts are affiliated with such as: Amherst, Purdue and Tennessee. There are also stickers which read 'Fly Navy' and 'Naval Reserve'. On the top locker is a sticker which shows the STS 51-D logo.

1985-01-01

203

Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This volume consists of Appendices C, D, E, and F to the report on the Weightless Environment Training Facility Materials Coating Evaluation project. The project selected 10 coating systems to be evaluated in six separate exposure environments, and subject to three tests for physical properties. Appendix C is the photographic appendix of the test panels. Appendix D details methods and procedures. Appendix E lists application equipment costs. Appendix F is a compilation of the solicitation of the candidate coating systems.

1995-01-01

204

Spatial orientation in weightlessness and readaptation to earth's gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unusual vestibular responses to head movements in weightlessness may produce spatial orientation illusions and symptoms of space motion sickness. An integrated set of experiments was performed during Spacelab 1, as well as before and after the flight, to evaluate responses mediated by the otolith organs and semicircular canals. A variety of measurements were used, including eye movements, postural control, perception of orientation, and susceptibility to space sickness.

Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Lichtenberg, B. K.; Watt, D. G. D.; Money, K. E.

1984-01-01

205

Effect of weightlessness on sympathetic-adrenomedullary activity of rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three cosmic experiments were performed in which rats spent 18-20 days in space on board the biosatellites "COSMOS 782", "COSMOS 936" and "COSMOS 1129". The following indicators of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system (SAS) activity were measured: tissue and plasma catecholamines (CA), CA-synthesizing enzymes—tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH), phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT)—as well as CA-degrading enzymes—monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Adrenal epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) as well as CA-synthesizing and degrading enzymes were not significantly changed in the animals after flight on COSMOS 782. On the other hand, a significant increase was found in heart CA, the indicator which is usually decreased after stress. 26 days after landing all values were at control levels. The results obtained, compared to our previous stress experiments on Earth, suggest that prolonged weightlessness does not appear to be a pronounced stressful stimulus for the SAS. Heart and plasma CA, mainly NE, were increased both in the group living in the state of weightlessness and the group living in a centrifuge and exposed to artificial gravitation 1 g (COSMOS 936), suggesting again that prolonged weightlessness is not an intensive stressful stimulus for the SAS. The animals exposed after space flight on COSMOS 1129 to repeated immobilization stress on Earth showed a significant decrease of adrenal EPI and an expressive increase of adrenal TH activity compared to stressed animals which were not in space. Thus, the results corroborate that prolonged state of weightlessness during space flight though not representing by itself an intensive stressful stimulus for the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system, was found to potentiate the response of "cosmic rats" to stress exposure after return to Earth.

Kvet?anský, R.; Torda, T.; Macho, L.; Tigranian, R. A.; Serova, L.; Genin, A. M.

206

Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

1991-01-01

207

Weightlessness - A case history. [for Skylab 2 crewmen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the average bodily systems functioning aboard Skylab II after 20 days of weightlessness is presented. Condition of eyes, ears, nose and throat, gastrointestinal tract, vestibular organs, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, sleep, general appearance, skin, abdomen, and extremities is summarized. The general health of the crewmen is good, although there are some slight anomalies, such as weight loss, dry skin, nasal speech, and paresthesia of the soles of the feet.

Kerwin, J. P.

1975-01-01

208

Gravity, Calcium, And Bone: Update, 1989  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report reviews short-term flight and ground-based experiments on effects of 1 g and 0 g on skeletal adaptation, calcium metabolism, and growth processes. Results indicate two principal components of calcium metabolism-calcium endocrine system and bone - respond within days to changes in orientation of body in gravitation and to weightlessness. Effects of spaceflight or bed rest on biomechanics of bones more severe than on total body bone mass.

Arnaud, Sara B.; Morey-Holton, Emily

1992-01-01

209

Effects of mental stress on autonomic cardiac modulation during weightlessness.  

PubMed

Sustained weightlessness affects all body functions, among these also cardiac autonomic control mechanisms. How this may influence neural response to central stimulation by a mental arithmetic task remains an open question. The hypothesis was tested that microgravity alters cardiovascular neural response to standardized cognitive load stimuli. Beat-to-beat heart rate, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were collected in five astronauts, taking part in three different short-duration (10 to 11 days) space missions to the International Space Station. Data recording was performed in supine position 1 mo before launch; at days 5 or 8 in space; and on days 1, 4, and 25 after landing. Heart rate variability (HRV) parameters were obtained in the frequency domain. Measurements were performed in the control condition for 10 min and during a 5-min mental arithmetic stress task, consisting of deducting 17 from a four-digit number, read by a colleague, and orally announcing the result. Our results show that over all sessions (pre-, in-, and postflight), mental stress induced an average increase in mean heart rate (Delta7 +/- 1 beats/min; P = 0.03) and mean arterial pressure (Delta7 +/- 1 mmHg; P = 0.006). A sympathetic excitation during mental stress was shown from HRV parameters: increase of low frequency expressed in normalized units (Delta8.3 +/- 1.4; P = 0.004) and low frequency/high frequency (Delta1.6 +/- 0.3; P = 0.001) and decrease of high frequency expressed in normalized units (Delta8.9 +/- 1.4; P = 0.004). The total power was not influenced by mental stress. No effect of spaceflight was found on baseline heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and HRV parameters. No differences in response to mental stress were found between pre-, in-, and postflight. Our findings confirm that a mental arithmetic task in astronauts elicits sympathovagal shifts toward enhanced sympathetic modulation and reduced vagal modulation. However, these responses are not changed in space during microgravity or after spaceflight. PMID:19897707

Aubert, André E; Verheyden, Bart; d'Ydewalle, Constantin; Beckers, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer

2010-01-01

210

Fas receptor is required for estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice.  

PubMed

Bone mass is determined by bone cell differentiation, activity, and death, which mainly occur through apoptosis. Apoptosis can be triggered by death receptor Fas (CD95), expressed on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and may be regulated by estrogen. We have previously shown that signaling through Fas inhibits osteoblast differentiation. In this study we analyzed Fas as a possible mediator of bone loss induced by estrogen withdrawal. At 4 weeks after ovariectomy (OVX), Fas gene expression was greater in osteoblasts and lower in osteoclasts in ovariectomized C57BL/6J (wild type (wt)) mice compared with sham-operated animals. OVX was unable to induce bone loss in mice with a gene knockout for Fas (Fas -/- mice). The number of osteoclasts increased in wt mice after OVX, whereas it remained unchanged in Fas -/- mice. OVX induced greater stimulation of osteoblastogenesis in Fas -/- than in wt mice, with higher expression of osteoblast-specific genes. Direct effects on bone cell differentiation and apoptosis in vivo were confirmed in vitro, in which addition of estradiol decreased Fas expression and partially abrogated the apoptotic and differentiation-inhibitory effect of Fas in osteoblast lineage cells, while having no effect on Fas-induced apoptosis in osteoclast lineage cells. In conclusion, the Fas receptor has an important role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis by mediating apoptosis and inhibiting differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells. Modulation of Fas effects on bone cells may be used as a therapeutic target in the treatment of osteoresorptive disorders. PMID:20084056

Kovacic, Natasa; Grcevic, Danka; Katavic, Vedran; Lukic, Ivan Kresimir; Grubisic, Vladimir; Mihovilovic, Karlo; Cvija, Hrvoje; Croucher, Peter Ian; Marusic, Ana

2010-03-01

211

Fas receptor is required for estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in mice  

PubMed Central

Bone mass is determined by bone cell differentiation, activity and death, which mainly occur through apoptosis. Apoptosis can be triggered by death receptor Fas (CD95), expressed on osteoblasts and osteoclasts and may be regulated by estrogen. We have previously shown that signaling through Fas inhibits osteoblast differentiation. We here investigate Fas as a possible mediator of bone loss induced by estrogen withdrawal. Four weeks after ovariectomy (OVX), Fas gene expression was greater in osteoblasts and lower in osteoclasts from ovariectomized C57BL/6J (wild-type, wt) mice compared to sham-operated animals. OVX was unable to induce bone loss in mice with a gene knockout for Fas (Fas ?/? mice). The number of osteoclasts increased in wt mice after OVX, while they remained unchanged in Fas ?/? mice. OVX induced greater stimulation of osteoblastogenesis in Fas ?/? than in wt mice, with higher expression of osteoblast specific genes. Direct effects on bone-cell differentiation and apoptosis in vivo were confirmed in vitro, where addition of estradiol decreased Fas expression and partially abrogated the apoptotic and differentiation-inhibitory effect of Fas in osteoblast lineage cells, while having no effect on Fas-induced apoptosis in osteoclast lineage cells. In conclusion, the Fas receptor has an important role in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis by mediating apoptosis and inhibiting differentiation of osteoblast lineage cells. Modulation of Fas effects on bone cells may be used as a therapeutic target in the treatment of osteoresorptive disorders.

Kovacic, Natasa; Grcevic, Danka; Katavic, Vedran; Lukic, Ivan Kresimir; Grubisic, Vladimir; Mihovilovic, Karlo; Cvija, Hrvoje; Croucher, Peter Ian; Marusic, Ana

2009-01-01

212

MURF1 deficiency suppresses unloading-induced effects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts to lead to bone loss.  

PubMed

Loss of mechanical stress or unloading causes disuse osteoporosis that leads to fractures and deteriorates body function and affects mortality rate in aged population. This bone loss is due to reduction in osteoblastic bone formation and increase in osteoclastic bone resorption. MuRF1 is a muscle RING finger protein which is involved in muscle wasting and its expression is enhanced in the muscle of mice subjected to disuse condition such as hind limb unloading (HU). However, whether MuRF1 is involved in bone loss due to unloading is not known. We therefore examined the effects of MuRF1 deficiency on unloading-induced bone loss. We conducted hind limb unloading of MuRF1 KO mice and wild-type control mice. Unloading induced about 60% reduction in cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) in WT mice. In contrast, MuRF1 deficiency suppressed unloading-induced cancellous bone loss. The cortical bone mass was also reduced by unloading in WT mice. In contrast, MuRF1 deficiency suppressed this reduction in cortical bone mass. To understand whether the effects of MuRF1 deficiency suppress bone loss is on the side of bone formation or bone resorption, histomorphometry was conducted. Unloading reduced bone osteoblastic formation rate (BFR) in WT. In contrast, MuRF1 deficiency suppressed this reduction. Regarding bone resorption, unloading increased osteoclast number in WT. In contrast, MURF1 deficiency suppressed this osteoclast increase. These data indicated that the ring finger protein, MURF1 is involved in disuse-induced bone loss in both of the two major bone remodeling activities, osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:21866567

Kondo, Hisataka; Ezura, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Notomi, Takuya; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Noda, Masaki

2011-12-01

213

Alendronate as an Effective Countermeasure to Disuse Induced Bone loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity, similar to diuse immobilization on earth, causes rapid bone loss. This loss is believed to be an adaptive response to the reduced musculoskelatal forces in space and occurs gradually enough that changes occurring during short duration space flight are not a concern. Bone loss, however, will be a major impediment for long duration missions if effective countermeasures are not developed and implemented. Bed rest is used to simulate the reduced mechanical forces in humans and was used to test the hypothesis that oral alendronate would reduce the effects of long duration (17 weeks) inactivity on bone. Eight male subjects were given daily oral doses of alendronate during 17 weeks of horizontal bed rest and compared with 13 male control subjects not given the drug. Efficacy was evaluated based on measurements of bone markers, calcium balance and bone density performed before, during and after the bed rest. The results show that oral alendronate attenuates most of the characteristic changes associated with long duration bed rest and presumably space flight.

LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Driscol, Theda B.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Evans, Harlan J.; Rianon, Nahid J.; Smith, Scott M.; Lai, Dejian

2002-01-01

214

Influence of interstitial bone microcracks on strain-induced fluid flow.  

PubMed

It is well known that microcracks act as a stimulus for bone remodelling, initiating resorption by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts. Moreover, microcracks are likely to alter the fluid flow and convective transport through the bone tissue. This paper proposes a quantitative evaluation of the strain-induced interstitial fluid velocities developing in osteons in presence of a microcrack in the interstitial bone tissue. Based on Biot theory in the low-frequency range, a poroelastic model is carried out to study the hydro-mechanical behaviour of cracked osteonal tissue. The finite element results show that the presence of a microcrack in the interstitial osteonal tissue may drastically reduce the fluid velocity inside the neighbouring osteons. This fluid inactive zone inside osteons can cover up to 10% of their surface. Consequently, the fluid environment of bone mechano-sensitive cells is locally modified. PMID:21253808

Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Lemaire, Thibault; Naili, Salah

2011-12-01

215

Low dose fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) enhances bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2)-induced ectopic bone formation in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine how fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) affects the BMP signaling pathway during bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-induced ectopic bone formation, we implanted type I collagen disks containing constant amounts of BMP-2 (5 ?g) and varying amounts of FGF-2 onto the back muscles of adult male mice. We then performed histological analyses and histomorphometry, and measured bone mineral density and radiopaque

Yukio Nakamura; Keiji Tensho; Hiroyuki Nakaya; Masashi Nawata; Takahiro Okabe; Shigeyuki Wakitani

2005-01-01

216

Effects of microgravity on bone and calcium homeostasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical function is known to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of bone tissue. Gravity on one hand and muscular effort on the other hand are required for normal skeletal structure. It has been shown by numerous experimental studies that loss of total-body calcium, and marked skeletal changes occur in people who have flown in space. However, most of the pertinent investigations have been conducted on animal models, including rats and non-human primates, and a reasonably clear picture of bone response to spaceflight has emerged during the past few years. Osteopenia induced by microgravity was found to be associated with reduction in both cortical and trabecular bone formation, alteration in mineralization patterns, and disorganization of collagen, and non-collagenous protein metabolism. Recently, cell-culture techniques have offered a direct approach of altered gravity effects at the osteoblastic-cell level. But the fundamental mechanisms by which bone and calcium are lost during spaceflight are not yet fully known. Infrequenccy and high financial cost of flights have created the necessity to develop on-Earth models designed to mimic weightlessness effects. Antiorthostatic suspension devices are now commonly used to obtain hindlimb unloading in rats, with skeletal effects similar to those observed after spaceflight. Therefore, actual and ``simulated'' spaceflights, with investigations conducted at whole body and cellular levels, are needed to elucidate pathogeny of bone loss in space, to develop effective countermeasures, and to study recovery processes of bone changes after return to Earth.

Zérath, E.

217

Exercise-Induced Bone Formation Is Poorly Linked to Local Strain Magnitude in the Sheep Tibia  

PubMed Central

Functional interpretations of limb bone structure frequently assume that diaphyses adjust their shape by adding bone primarily across the plane in which they are habitually loaded in order to minimize loading-induced strains. Here, to test this hypothesis, we characterize the in vivo strain environment of the sheep tibial midshaft during treadmill exercise and examine whether this activity promotes bone formation disproportionately in the direction of loading in diaphyseal regions that experience the highest strains. It is shown that during treadmill exercise, sheep tibiae were bent in an anteroposterior direction, generating maximal tensile and compressive strains on the anterior and posterior shaft surfaces, respectively. Exercise led to significantly increased periosteal bone formation; however, rather than being biased toward areas of maximal strains across the anteroposterior axis, exercise-related osteogenesis occurred primarily around the medial half of the shaft circumference, in both high and low strain regions. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that loading-induced bone growth is not closely linked to local strain magnitude in every instance. Therefore, caution is necessary when bone shaft shape is used to infer functional loading history in the absence of in vivo data on how bones are loaded and how they actually respond to loading.

Wallace, Ian J.; Demes, Brigitte; Mongle, Carrie; Pearson, Osbjorn M.; Polk, John D.; Lieberman, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

218

A Role for Interleukin6 in Parathyroid Hormone-Induced Bone Resorption in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerts its regulatory effects on cal- cium homeostasis in part by stimulating the release of calcium from the skeleton. PTH stimulates bone resorption indirectly, by inducing the production by stromal\\/osteoblastic cells of paracrine agents which recruit and activate the bone-resorbing cell, the osteoclast. The iden- tity of the stromal cell\\/osteoblast-derived paracrine factor(s) respon- sible for mediating the

ANDREW GREY; MARY-ANN MITNICK; URSZULA MASIUKIEWICZ; BEN-HUA SUN; STUART RUDIKOFF; ROBERT L. JILKA; STAVROS C. MANOLAGAS; KARL INSOGNA

1999-01-01

219

Compactin and Simvastatin, but Not Pravastatin, Induce Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 in Human Osteosarcoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, a member of the BMP family, plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. To discover small molecules that induce BMP-2, a luciferase reporter vector containing the 5?-flanking promoter region of the human BMP-2 gene was constructed and transfected into human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. By the screening of an in-house natural product library with

Masako Sugiyama; Tohru Kodama; Kyoko Konishi; Keiichi Abe; Sumio Asami; Shinzo Oikawa

2000-01-01

220

Effects of Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia on the Bone Mineralization Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) overexpression has been identified as a causative factor for tumor-induced osteomalacia\\u000a (TIO) characterized by hypophosphatemia due to increased renal phosphate wasting, low 1,25(OH)2D3 serum levels, and low bone density. The effects of long-lasting disturbed phosphate homeostasis on bone mineralization are\\u000a still not well understood. We report on a patient with a 12-year history of TIO,

K. Nawrot-Wawrzyniak; F. Varga; A. Nader; P. Roschger; S. Sieghart; E. Zwettler; K. M. Roetzer; S. Lang; R. Weinkamer; K. Klaushofer; N. Fratzl-Zelman

2009-01-01

221

BMP7 induces the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injured articular cartilage has a poor capacity for spontaneous healing. So far, a satisfactory solution to repair the injured\\u000a cartilage has not been found, but transgenic therapy might be a promising treatment. This study aims to evaluate the potential\\u000a of transfecting bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7), a secretory protein, into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells\\u000a (BMSCs), in inducing the differentiation of

Xiaodan BaiGuangze; Guangze Li; Can Zhao; Hongzhang Duan; Fujun Qu

2011-01-01

222

32k Da protein improve ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to systematically explore the effects of 32K Da protein (32KP) on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty 3-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were employed and randomly divided into one sham-operated group (SHAM) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups as OVX (control), OVX with 17-ethinylestradiol (E2, 25 g/kg/day), OVX with 32KP of graded doses (50, 50, or 150 mg/kg/day). 32KP or E2 diet was fed on week 4 after operation, for 16 weeks. Bone mass, bone turnover and strength were evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), biochemical markers and three-point bending test, respectively. Femur marrow cavity was observed by light microscopy via hematoxylin-eosin staining. It is observed that different dosage treatment of 32KP increased the body weight and prevented the loss of bone mass induced by OVX. The prevention effect against bone loss was presumably due to the altering of the rate of bone remodeling. The bone mineral density and bone calcium content in OVX rats were lower than that in the control group, suggesting that 32KP was able to prevent significant bone loss. In addition, the data from three point bending test and femur sections showed that 32KP treatment enhanced bone strength and reduced the marrow cavity of the femur in OVX rats. In the serum and urine assay, 32KP decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline and calcium concentrations; however, serum alkaline phosphatase activities were not inhibited. It suggested that amelioration of bone loss was changed via inhibition of bone reabsorption. Our findings indicated that 32KP might be a potential alternative drug for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Zhou, Yingtang; Jiang, Shenhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Tao; Jiang, DengZhao; Chen, Hui; Yu, Huan

2013-01-01

223

Vascularized Bone Tissue Formation Induced by Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds Cultured with Osteoblasts and Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The repair of the damaged bone tissue caused by damage or bone disease was still a problem. Current strategies including the use of autografts and allografts have the disadvantages, namely, diseases transmission, tissue availability and donor morbidity. Bone tissue engineering has been developed and regarded as a new way of regenerating bone tissues to repair or substitute damaged or diseased ones. The main limitation in engineering in vitro tissues is the lack of a sufficient blood vessel system, the vascularization. In this paper, a new-typed hydroxyapatite/collagen composite scaffold which was reinforced by chitosan fibers and cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells was fabricated. General observation, histological observation, detection of the degree of vascularization, and X-ray examination had been done to learn the effect of vascularized bone repair materials on the regeneration of bone. The results show that new vessel and bone formed using implant cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells. Nanofiber-reinforced scaffold cultured with osteoblasts and endothelial cells can induce vascularized bone tissue formation.

Liu, Xinhui; Zhang, Guoping; Hou, Chuanyong; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yelin; Guan, Guoping; Dong, Wei; Gao, Hongyang

2013-01-01

224

Alteration of newly induced endochondral bone formation in adult mice without tumour necrosis factor receptor 1  

PubMed Central

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, a major proinflammatory cytokine, exerts its role on bone cells through two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2). TNFR1, but not TNFR2, is expressed by osteoblasts and its function in bone formation in vivo is not fully understood. We compared in vivo new bone formation in TNFR1-deficient (TNFR1–/–) mice and wild-type mice, using two models of bone formation: intramembranous ossification following tibial marrow ablation and endochondral ossification induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Intramembranous osteogenesis in TNFR1–/– mice did not differ from the wild-type mice either in histomorphometric parameters or mRNA expression of bone-related markers and inflammatory cytokines. During endochondral osteogenesis, TNFR1–/– mice formed more cartilage (at post-implantation day 9), followed by more bone and bone marrow (at day 12). mRNAs for BMP-2, -4 and -7 were increased during the endochondral differentiation sequence in TNFR1–/– mice. The expression of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also increased significantly during endochondral ossification in TNFR1–/– mice. In conclusion, signalling through the TNFR1 seems to be a negative regulator of new tissue formation during endochondral but not intramembranous osteogenesis in an adult organism. BMPs and RANKL and its receptor RANK may be involved in the change of local environment in the absence of TNFR1 signalling.

Lukic, I K; Grcevic, D; Kovacic, N; Katavic, V; Ivcevic, S; Kalajzic, I; Marusic, A

2005-01-01

225

Osteopontin-deficient mice are resistant to ovariectomy-induced bone resorption  

PubMed Central

Osteopontin is one of the major noncollagenous bone matrix proteins produced by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone cells that are uniquely responsible for the remodeling of mineralized tissues. Osteoclasts express the ?v?3 integrin, which is one of the receptors for osteopontin. Recent knockout studies revealed that noncollagenous bone matrix proteins are functionally important in regulation of bone metabolism. However, the significance of the presence of osteopontin in in vivo has not been known. We report here that osteopontin knockout mice are resistant to ovariectomy-induced bone resorption compared with wild-type mice. Microcomputed tomography analysis indicated about 60% reduction in bone volume by ovariectomy in wild-type mice, whereas the osteopontin-deficient mice exhibited only about 10% reduction in trabecular bone volume after ovariectomy. Reduction in uterine weight was observed similarly in both wild-type and osteopontin-deficient mice, indicating the specificity of the effect of osteopontin deficiency on bone metabolism. We propose that osteopontin is essential for postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. Strategies to counteract osteopontin’s action may prove effective in suppressing osteoporosis.

Yoshitake, Hiroyuki; Rittling, Susan R.; Denhardt, David T.; Noda, Masaki

1999-01-01

226

Bone and hormonal changes induced by skeletal unloading in the mature male rat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine whether the rat hindlimb elevation model can be used to study the effects of spaceflight and loss of gravitational loading on bone in the adult animal, and to examine the effects of age on bone responsiveness to mechanical loading, we studied 6-mo-old rats subjected to hindlimb elevation for up to 5 wk. Loss of weight bearing in the adult induced a mild hypercalcemia, diminished serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased vertebral bone mass, and blunted the otherwise normal increase in femoral mass associated with bone maturation. Unloading decreased osteoblast numbers and reduced periosteal and cancellous bone formation but had no effect on bone resorption. Mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate decreased during unloading. Our results demonstrate the utility of the adult rat hindlimb elevation model as a means of simulating the loss of gravitational loading on the skeleton, and they show that the effects of nonweight bearing are prolonged and have a greater relative effect on bone formation in the adult than in the young growing animal.

Dehority, W.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Curren, T.; Kostenuik, P. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Shen, Y.; Rabkin, B.; Bouraoui, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

1999-01-01

227

The mineralization inducing peptide derived from dentin sialophosphoprotein for bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) has been shown to play a primary role in the formation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in an extracellular matrix of hard tissue such as bone and teeth. We hypothesized that the mineralization ability of DSPP might depend on a specific domain within it. Three peptides, which have hydroxyapatite (HA) binding affinity, denoted as mineralization inducing peptide (MIP1, MIP2, and MIP3) were identified from DSPP. The both of MIP2 and MIP3 had HA nucleation activity demonstrated by XRD. Among three MIPs, MIP3 significantly supported the human bone marrow stromal cell differentiation into osteoblastic cells. An immunoblot with antibodies specific for the phosphorylated forms of ERK was conducted with cells treated by MIP3. MIP3 transduced intracellular signals via the ERK pathways and was able to induce osteoblastic differentiation, as seen by high expression of ALP, type 1 collagen, OC, OPN, and Runx2 in accordance with applied MIP3 concentration. The Asp, Glu, and Ser residues in MIP3 play important roles for the affinity of calcium in HA bone mineral. Further animal experiment with MIP3 in combination with hydroxyapatite mineral induced marked new bone formation for 4 weeks at rabbit calvarial defect model. The new bone area was much higher in test group, implying that the peptide modified group had excellent biocompatibility when compared with the unmodified group. Taken together, the MIP from DSPP has potential to enhance mineralization followed by to enhance osteoblastic differentiation and bone regeneration. PMID:22961875

Choi, Young Suk; Lee, Jue Yeon; Suh, Jin Sook; Lee, Gene; Chung, Chong Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

2013-02-01

228

A Blocking Antibody to Nerve Growth Factor Attenuates Skeletal Pain Induced by Prostate Tumor Cells Growing in Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer is unique in that bone is often the only clinically detectable site of metastasis. Prostate tumors that have metastasized to bone frequently induce bone pain which can be difficult to fully control as it seems to be driven simultaneously by inflammatory, neuropathic, and tumori- genic mechanisms. As nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to modulate inflammatory and

Kyle G. Halvorson; Kazufumi Kubota; Molly A. Sevcik; Theodore H. Lindsay; Julio E. Sotillo; Joseph R. Ghilardi; Thomas J. Rosol; Leila Boustany; David L. Shelton; Patrick W. Mantyh

2005-01-01

229

Reversible Chloramphenicol-Induced Bone Marrow Depression in the Chimpanzee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chloramphenicol administered by intravenous or oral routes at a dose rate of 150 mg/kg/day to a total of 13 chimpanzees caused mild depression of erythrocyte precursors in bone marrow. The drug effect was characterized by a fall in reticulocyte count and ...

P. E. Steffes E. J. Van Loon R. A. Schoentag W. C. Hanly

1970-01-01

230

Fluid Flow Induced Calcium Response in Bone Cell Network  

PubMed Central

In our previous work, bone cell networks with controlled spacing and functional intercellular gap junctions had been successfully established by using microcontact printing and self assembled monolayers technologies [Guo, X. E., E. Takai, X. Jiang, Q. Xu, G. M. Whitesides, J. T. Yardley, C. T. Hung, E. M. Chow, T. Hantschel, and K. D. Costa. Mol. Cell. Biomech. 3:95–107, 2006]. The present study investigated the calcium response and the underlying signaling pathways in patterned bone cell networks exposed to a steady fluid flow. The glass slides with cell networks were separated into eight groups for treatment with specific pharmacological agents that inhibit pathways significant in bone cell calcium signaling. The calcium transients of the network were recorded and quantitatively evaluated with a set of network parameters. The results showed that 18?-GA (gap junction blocker), suramin (ATP inhibitor), and thapsigargin (depleting intracellular calcium stores) significantly reduced the occurrence of multiple calcium peaks, which were visually obvious in the untreated group. The number of responsive peaks also decreased slightly yet significantly when either the COX-2/PGE2 or the NOS/nitric oxide pathway was disrupted. Different from all other groups, cells treated with 18?-GA maintained a high concentration of intracellular calcium following the first peak. In the absence of calcium in the culture medium, the intracellular calcium concentration decreased slowly with fluid flow without any calcium transients observed. These findings have identified important factors in the flow mediated calcium signaling of bone cells within a patterned network.

Huo, Bo; Lu, Xin L.; Hung, Clark T.; Costa, Kevin D.; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M.; Guo, X. Edward

2010-01-01

231

Bone remodelling in the natural acetabulum is influenced by muscle force-induced bone stress.  

PubMed

A modelling framework using the international Physiome Project is presented for evaluating the role of muscles on acetabular stress patterns in the natural hip. The novel developments include the following: (i) an efficient method for model generation with validation; (ii) the inclusion of electromyography-estimated muscle forces from gait; and (iii) the role that muscles play in the hip stress pattern. The 3D finite element hip model includes anatomically based muscle area attachments, material properties derived from Hounsfield units and validation against an Instron compression test. The primary outcome from this study is that hip loading applied as anatomically accurate muscle forces redistributes the stress pattern and reduces peak stress throughout the pelvis and within the acetabulum compared with applying the same net hip force without muscles through the femur. Muscle forces also increased stress where large muscles have small insertion sites. This has implications for the hip where bone stress and strain are key excitation variables used to initiate bone remodelling based on the strain-based bone remodelling theory. Inclusion of muscle forces reduces the predicted sites and degree of remodelling. The secondary outcome is that the key muscles that influenced remodelling in the acetabulum were the rectus femoris, adductor magnus and iliacus. PMID:23982908

Fernandez, Justin; Sartori, Massimo; Lloyd, David; Munro, Jacob; Shim, Vickie

2014-01-01

232

DNA survival and physical and histological properties of heat-induced alterations in burnt bones.  

PubMed

During forensic casework, it is vital to be able to obtain valuable information from burnt bone fragments to ascertain the identity of the victim. Here, we report the findings of an experimental study on burnt bovine compact bone segments. Compact bones were cut to size and heated in an electric furnace at a temperature range of 100–1,100 °C with 100 °C increments. Heat-induced alterations to the bone color,weight, volume, and density were monitored using gross morphology and micro-focus X-ray computed tomography.We found that the increase in temperature caused the color of the compact bones to change in order of yellow, brown, gray,and white. In contrast to the weight reduction that occurred immediately after burning, we measured no significant reduction in volume even at 600 °C; however, volume reduced drastically once the temperature reached 700 °C. Light microscopic histological observations of burnt bone revealed heat induced alterations such as cracking and separation of the osteons at higher temperatures. In addition to these findings,we sought to examine the survival of DNA in the burnt bones using polymerase chain reaction of mitochondrial DNA. No amplification was found in the specimens burnt at 250 °C or higher, indicating the likely difficulty in testing the DNA of burnt bones from forensic casework. The results of this study will enable an estimation of the burning temperatures of burnt bones found in forensic cases and will provide an important framework with which to interpret data obtained during anthropological testing and DNA typing. PMID:24658641

Imaizumi, K; Taniguchi, K; Ogawa, Y

2014-05-01

233

Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women: a need for therapeutic intervention?  

PubMed

Current clinical treatment guidelines recommend cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or both (with targeted therapy if indicated) for premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer, depending on the biologic characteristics of the primary tumor. Some of these therapies can induce premature menopause or are specifically designed to suppress ovarian function and reduce circulating estrogen levels. In addition to bone loss associated with low estrogen levels, cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a direct negative effect on bone metabolism. As a result, cancer treatment-induced bone loss poses a significant threat to bone health in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Clinical trials of antiresorptive therapies, such as bisphosphonates, have demonstrated the ability to slow or prevent bone loss in this setting. Current fracture risk assessment tools are based on data from healthy postmenopausal women and do not adequately address the risks associated with breast cancer therapy, especially in younger premenopausal women. We therefore recommend that all premenopausal women with breast cancer be informed about the potential risk of bone loss prior to beginning anticancer therapy. Women who experience amenorrhea should have bone mineral density assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and receive regular follow-up to monitor bone health. Regular exercise and daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended. Women with a Z-score <-2.0 or Z-score ?-1.0 and/or a 5-10% annual decrease in bone mineral density should be considered for bisphosphonate therapy in addition to calcium and vitamin D supplements. PMID:22429722

Hadji, P; Gnant, M; Body, J J; Bundred, N J; Brufsky, A; Coleman, R E; Guise, T A; Lipton, A; Aapro, M S

2012-10-01

234

MKP-1 knockout does not prevent glucocorticoid-induced bone disease in mice.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GCOP) is predominantly caused by inhibition of bone formation, resulting from a decrease in osteoblast numbers. Employing mouse (MBA-15.4) and human (MG-63) osteoblast cell lines, we previously found that the glucocorticoid (GC) dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits cellular proliferation as well as activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, essential for mitogenesis in these cells, and that both these effects could be reversed by the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor vanadate. In a rat model of GCOP, the GC-induced changes in bone formation, mass, and strength could be prevented by vanadate cotreatment, suggesting that the GC effects on bone were mediated by one or more PTPs. Employing phosphatase inhibitors, qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and overexpression/knockdown experiments, we concluded that MKP-1 was upregulated by Dex, that this correlated with the dephosphorylation of ERK, and that it largely mediated the in vitro effects of GCs on bone. To confirm the pivotal role of MKP-1 in vivo, we investigated the effects of the GC methylprednisolone on the quantitative bone histology of wild-type (WT) and MKP-1 homozygous knockout (MKP-1(-/-)) mice. In WT mice, static bone histology revealed that GC administration for 28 days decreased osteoid surfaces, volumes, and osteoblast numbers. Dynamic histology, following time-spaced tetracycline labeling, confirmed a significant GC-induced reduction in osteoblast appositional rate and bone formation rate. However, identical results were obtained in MKP-1 knockout mice, suggesting that in these animals upregulation of MKP-1 by GCs cannot be regarded as the sole mediator of the GC effects on bone. PMID:21698455

Conradie, Maria M; Cato, Andrew C B; Ferris, William F; de Wet, Heidi; Horsch, Kay; Hough, Stephen

2011-09-01

235

Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia Induce Synergistic Alveolar Bone Loss in a Mouse Periodontitis Model  

PubMed Central

Tannerella forsythia is strongly associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, leading to tooth loss. Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic pathogen, is thought to promote dental plaque formation by serving as a bridge bacterium between early- and late-colonizing species of the oral cavity. Previous studies have shown that F. nucleatum species synergize with T. forsythia during biofilm formation and pathogenesis. In the present study, we showed that coinfection of F. nucleatum and T. forsythia is more potent than infection with either species alone in inducing NF-?B activity and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in monocytic cells and primary murine macrophages. Moreover, in a murine model of periodontitis, mixed infection with the two species induces synergistic alveolar bone loss, characterized by bone loss which is greater than the additive alveolar bone losses induced by each species alone. Further, in comparison to the single-species infection, mixed infection caused significantly increased inflammatory cell infiltration in the gingivae and osteoclastic activity in the jaw bones. These data show that F. nucleatum subspecies and T. forsythia synergistically stimulate the host immune response and induce alveolar bone loss in a murine experimental periodontitis model.

Settem, Rajendra P.; El-Hassan, Ahmed Taher; Honma, Kiyonobu; Stafford, Graham P.

2012-01-01

236

Orthostatic hypotension of prolonged weightlessness: Clinical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthostatic intolerance on return from space is a widely known consequence of space travel. Development of countermeasures against this problem is a major priority of the field of space physiology and medicine. The bedrest model is widely used in the investigation of this phenomenon, and has provided important data, but questions remain. In this article, we suggest that the disorders that produce chronic orthostatic hypotension have significant potential as models of microgravity-induced orthostatic intolerance. Understanding the pathophysiology of these syndromes may be useful to those involved in improving the operational aspects of manned space flight; four such syndromes and their possible relevance to space flight are described.

Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo; Mosqueda-Garcia, Rogelio; Robertson, Rose Marie

237

The validity of an animal model for experiments related to weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal evolution has witnessed morphological and physiological adaptations to gravitational forces. In the rat, hind limb muscles can be used to illustrate a range of load bearing functions: soleus - gastrocnemius = plantaris - extensor digitorum longus (EDL). A harness suspension apparatus is used to induce hypokinesia and hypodynamia (H&H) and to simulate responses comparable to those seen in weightlessness (i.e., COSMOS experiments). After one and two weeks of suspension H&H, there is muscle atrophy with a loss in muscle mass; the result of loss in muscle protein. Concommitantly, there is a decrease in RNA, but not in DNA content. The effects are greatest in the soleus and least in the EDL. These recent findings, in concert with earlier reports of increased nitrogenous excretion, suggest that both decreased protein synthesis and increased protein catabolism are characteristic of muscle atrophy. Recovery is seen in terms of reversal of these effects after removal from suspension.

Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

1983-01-01

238

Temporal Response of Bone to Unloading.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rats were suspended by their tails with the forelimbs bearing the weight load to simulate the weightlessness of space flight. Growth in bone mass ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae in growing rats, while growth in the forelimbs and cer...

R. K. Globus D. D. Bikle E. Morey-holton

1984-01-01

239

Bone marrow atrophy induced by murine cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed Central

Acute, sublethal infection of mice with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) resulted in up to 80% decreases in the number of cells recoverable from the bone marrow, and a decrease in peripheral blood leucocyte counts during the first week of infection. Depopulation of the leucopoietic areas of the marrow was evident from examination of histological sections. The severity of bone marrow atrophy in MCMV-infected mice of different strains correlated with previously described genetically determined sensitivity to MCMV disease. Although the phenomenon only occurred when mice were inoculated with infectious virus preparations, fewer than one in 10(5) marrow cells were productively infected, suggesting that atrophy was not due to lytic infection of large numbers of bone marrow cells. Interestingly, increases in serum colony-stimulating activity were observed and these were proportional to the severity of bone marrow atrophy. After MCMV infection, we observed increases in the proportions of cells expressing some B-cell and myeloid cell markers and a decrease in the proportion of cells expressing an erythroid cell marker. There was no change in the frequency of marrow cells expressing mature T-cell markers. The numbers of myeloid lineage-committed progenitor cells (GM-CFU) in the marrow decreased 10- to 20-fold in BALB/c nu/+ mice, while there was a threefold decrease in their numbers in BALB/c nu/nu mice. In addition, increases in serum colony-stimulating activity were greater in BALB/c nu/+ mice than in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Our results suggest that growth factors produced after MCMV infection may accelerate the maturation and migration of cells from the marrow to sites of virus replication and inflammation, thus accounting for the depletion in numbers of marrow cells observed soon after MCMV infection. Images Figure 3 Figure 4

Gibbons, A E; Price, P; Shellam, G R

1994-01-01

240

Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination,

H. Yoshikawa; K. Masuhara; K. Takaoka; K. Ono; H. Tanaka; Y. Seino

1985-01-01

241

Hepcidin deficiency undermines bone load-bearing capacity through inducing iron overload.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is one of the leading disorders among aged people. Bone loss results from a number of physiological alterations, such as estrogen decline and aging. Meanwhile, iron overload has been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss. Systemic iron homeostasis is fundamentally governed by the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis, where hepcidin is the key regulator. Hepcidin deficiency could induce a few disorders, of which iron overload is the most representative phenotype. However, there was little investigation of the effects of hepcidin deficiency on bone metabolism. To this end, hepcidin-deficient (Hamp1(-/-)) mice were employed to address this issue. Our results revealed that significant iron overload was induced in Hamp1(-/-) mice. Importantly, significant decreases of maximal loading and maximal bending stress were found in Hamp1(-/-) mice relative to wildtype (WT) mice. Moreover, the levels of the C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1) increased in Hamp1(-/-) mice. Therefore, hepcidin deficiency resulted in a marked reduction of bone load-bearing capacity likely through enhancing bone resorption, suggesting a direct correlation between hepcidin deficiency and bone loss. Targeting hepcidin or the pathway it modulates may thus represent a therapeutic for osteopenia or osteoporosis. PMID:24561287

Sun, Li; Guo, Wenli; Yin, Chunyang; Zhang, Shuping; Qu, Guangbo; Hou, Yanli; Rong, Haiqin; Ji, Hong; Liu, Sijin

2014-06-10

242

Influence of whole body irradiation and local shielding on matrix-induced endochondral bone differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Subcutaneous implantation of demineralized bone matrix into allogeneic rats induces endochondral bone formation. We have investigated the effects of irradiation on the sequelae of the interaction of collagenous matrix and mesenchymal cells and on cartilage and bone differentiation. Rats were irradiated in a vertical direction with a midline dose of 850 rad. Radiation entered the rats ventrally while a small area of the upper thorax was locally shielded. After irradiation, bone matrix was implanted in shielded and nonshielded sites, and the implants were studied at various stages. On day 3, (3H)thymidine incorporation, an index of cell proliferation, was inhibited by 70% in the nonshielded sites compared to nonirradiated control rats. The degree of inhibition (35%) was less pronounced in shielded sites. Furthermore, there was recovery of cell proliferation in the shielded sites as opposed to the nonshielded contralateral site. A similar pattern was observed on day 7 as assessed by 35SO4 incorporation into proteoglycans during chondrogenesis. Bone formation and mineralization were quantified on day 11 by alkaline phosphatase activity and 45Ca incorporation. In nonshielded sites, there was a 73% inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, radiation impaired progenitor cell proliferation which resulted in decreased cartilage and bone differentiation. These findings imply that local mesenchymal cells proliferate and differentiate into bone in response to implanted collagenous matrix.

Wientroub, S.; Weiss, J.F.; Catravas, G.N.; Reddi, A.H. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1990-01-01

243

Antiosteoporosis Effect of Radix Scutellariae Extract on Density and Microstructure of Long Bones in Tail-Suspended Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50?mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2?mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis.

Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

2013-01-01

244

Antiosteoporosis effect of radix scutellariae extract on density and microstructure of long bones in tail-suspended sprague-dawley rats.  

PubMed

Radix Scutellariae (RS), a medicinal herb, is extensively employed in traditional Chinese medicines and modern herbal prescriptions. Two major flavonoids in RS were known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and inhibit osteoclast differentiation, respectively. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Radix Scutellariae extract (RSE) against bone loss induced by mechanical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model (TS) was established to determine the effect of RSE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Treatment of RSE at 50?mg/kg/day and alendronate (ALE) at 2?mg/kg/day as positive control for 42 days significantly increased the bone mineral density and mechanical strength compared with TS group. Enhanced bone turnover markers by TS treatment were attenuated by RSE and ALE administration. Deterioration of bone trabecula induced by TS was prevented. Moreover, both treatments counteracted the reduction of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number, and connectivity density. In conclusion, RSE was demonstrated for the first time to prevent osteoporosis induced by TS treatment, which suggests the potential application of RSE in the treatment of disuse-induced osteoporosis. PMID:24223617

Li, Chen-Rui; Zhang, Guang-Wei; Niu, Yin-Bo; Pan, Ya-Lei; Zhai, Yuan-Kun; Mei, Qi-Bing

2013-01-01

245

Bone tumors of the extremities or pelvis treated by microwave-induced hyperthermia.  

PubMed

From July 1992 through March 1999, 213 patients with malignant bone tumors of the extremities (176 patients) and pelvis (37 patients) were treated by microwave-induced hyperthermia. Osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma were the most common diagnoses. The limb-salvage procedure was done as follows: After separating the tumor-bearing bone and the extraosseous mass from surrounding normal tissues with a proper margin, microwave energy was delivered into the tumor while the healthy tissues were protected carefully from overheating. Restrengthening of the devitalized bone was necessary in many cases. The eschar resulting from the heat necrosis was curettaged. Most patients can walk early with a partial weightbearing brace for support. The survival rate was 73.9%. Fracture, local recurrence, and infection were the main complications although the majority of complications occurred early in the study. Thermotherapy is a novel and effective way to treat bone tumors in selected patients. PMID:12579016

Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An; Zhou, Yung; Zhang, Ming-Hua; Hao, Xin-Bao

2003-01-01

246

Amiodarone-induced bone marrow granulomas: an unusual cause of reversible pancytopenia.  

PubMed

Bone marrow infiltration by granulomas rarely presents with cytopenias and is usually a result of atypical infections, lymphomas, or sarcoidosis. Drugs are also an important but often overlooked causal agent of bone marrow granulomas. Although rare, amiodarone has been associated with bone marrow granuloma formation. This case report describes a 73-year-old male who presented with pancytopenia during a preoperative evaluation. Amiodarone therapy was suspected to be the causal agent after diagnostic evaluation and exclusion of other causes. After cessation of amiodarone, the patient's pancytopenia gradually resolved over a period of several months. Our report illustrates an often overlooked yet important cause of reversible pancytopenia owing to suspected amiodarone-induced bone marrow granuloma formation, and guides clinicians in an expected timeline for blood count improvement after cessation of this drug. PMID:22184519

Erie, Andrew J; McClure, Rebecca F; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P

2010-01-26

247

Liver regeneration in a retrorsine\\/CCl 4 – induced acute liver failure model: do bone marrow-derived cells contribute?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Adult bone marrow contains progenitors capable of generating hepatocytes. Here a new liver failure model is introduced to assess whether bone marrow-derived progeny contribute to liver regeneration after acute hepatotoxic liver failure.Methods: Retrorsine was used to inhibit endogenous hepatocyte proliferation, before inducing acute liver failure by carbon tetrachloride. Bone marrow chimeras were generated before inducing liver failure to trace

Marc H Dahlke; Felix C Popp; Ferdinand H Bahlmann; Heiko Aselmann; Mark D Jäger; Michael Neipp; Pompiliu Piso; Jürgen Klempnauer; Hans J Schlitt

2003-01-01

248

A systems approach to the physiology of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A general systems approach to conducting and analyzing research on the human adaptation to weightlessness is presented. The research is aimed at clarifying the role that each of the major components of the human system plays following the transition to and from space. The approach utilizes a variety of mathematical models in order to pose and test alternative hypotheses concerned with the adaptation process. Certain aspects of the problem of fluid and electrolyte shifts in weightlessnes are considered, and an integrated hypothesis based on numerical simulation studies and experimental data is presented.

White, Ronald J.; Leonard, Joel I.; Rummel, John A.; Leach, Carolyn S.

1991-01-01

249

The Development of the Vestibular Apparatus Under Conditions of Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments has been carried out on the effect of space flight conditions on morphogenesis and the structure of the vestibular apparatus in amphibian and fish larvae. Larval development proceeded in weightlessness without serious morphological defects. The vestibular apparatus developed; its organization in the experimental animals did not differ qualitatively from that in the controls. The specific external stimulus (gravitation) appears not to be a necessary condition for the development of a gravitation receptor in ontogenesis although the appearance of the vestibular apparatus in phylogenesis was apparently related to this stimulus.

Vinnikov, Y. A.; Gazenko, O. G.; Lychakov, D. V.; Palmbakh, L. R.

1984-01-01

250

Demonstration of the capacity of nacre to induce bone formation by human osteoblasts maintained in vitro.  

PubMed

Nacre implanted in vivo in bone is osteogenic suggesting that it may possess factor(s) which stimulate bone formation. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that nacre can induce mineralization by human osteoblasts in vitro. Nacre chips were placed on a layer of first passage human osteoblasts. None of the chemical inducers generally required to obtain bone formation in vitro was added to the cultures. Osteoblasts proliferated and were clearly attracted by nacre chips to which they attached. Induction of mineralization appeared preferentially in bundles of osteoblasts surrounding the nacre chips. Three-dimensional nodules were formed by a dense osteoid matrix with cuboidal osteoblasts at the periphery and osteocytic-like cells in the center. These nodules contained foci with features of mineralized structures and bone-like structures, both radiodense to X-ray. Active osteoblasts (e.m.) with abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, extrusion of collagen fibrils and budding of vesicles were observed. Matrix vesicles induced mineral deposition. Extracellular collagen fibrils appeared cross-banded and electrodense indicating mineralization. These results demonstrate that a complete sequence of bone formation is reproduced when human osteoblasts are cultured in the presence of nacre. This model provides a new approach to study the steps of osteoblastic differentiation and the mechanisms of induction of mineralization. PMID:1440586

Lopez, E; Vidal, B; Berland, S; Camprasse, S; Camprasse, G; Silve, C

1992-01-01

251

Role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible role of carbonic anhydrase in bone resorption induced by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was studied using an in vitro neonatal mouse calvarial culture system. PGE2 (10 to the -6th M) was effective in stimulating resorption, as assessed by calcium release into culture media. This enhanced resorption was accompanied by significant increases in calvarial carbonic anhydrase activity over control values at 48 and 96 h. At 48 h, bones treated with PGE2 had 20 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. By 96 h, treated bones contained 79 percent more carbonic anhydrase activity than controls. PGE2-induced bone resorption was inhibited by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide in a dose-dependent fashion from 10 to the -5th to 10 to the -4th M with 77 percent inhibition observed at 10 to the -4th M. The acetazolamide analogue CL 13,850 (N-t-butylacetazolamide), which does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase, failed to inhibit PGE2-induced resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that carbonic anhydrase is a necessary component of the osteoclastic bone resorptive mechanism.

Hall, G. E.; Kenny, A. D.

1985-01-01

252

Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers' Understanding of Weightlessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and related to weightlessness on science student teachers' learning. The sample of the study was 9…

Tural, Guner; Akdeniz, Ali Riza; Alev, Nedim

2010-01-01

253

Effects of prolonged weightlessness on the humoral immune response of humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to examine the possible interrelationship of various classes of immunoglobulins by utilizing the effect of weightlessness as a stress factor and subsequently measuring inhibitory, compensatory, or enhancing interrelationships. A second objective of the experiment is to investigate the state of immune competency under conditions of sustained weightlessness.

Voss, E. W., Jr.

1981-01-01

254

Caspase-2 Maintains Bone Homeostasis by Inducing Apoptosis of Oxidatively-Damaged Osteoclasts  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a silent disease, characterized by a porous bone micro-structure that enhances risk for fractures and associated disabilities. Senile, or age-related osteoporosis (SO), affects both men and women, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying senile osteoporosis are not fully known. Recent studies implicate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress as key factors in SO. Herein, we show that loss of caspase-2, a cysteine aspartate protease involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, results in total body and femoral bone loss in aged mice (20% decrease in bone mineral density), and an increase in bone fragility (30% decrease in fracture strength). Importantly, we demonstrate that genetic ablation or selective inhibition of caspase-2 using zVDVAD-fmk results in increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Conversely, transfection of osteoclast precursors with wild type caspase-2 but not an enzymatic mutant, results in a decrease in TRAP activity. We demonstrate that caspase-2 expression is induced in osteoclasts treated with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and that loss of caspase-2 enhances resistance to oxidants, as measured by TRAP activity, and decreases oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Moreover, oxidative stress, quantified by assessment of the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-HNE, is increased in Casp2-/- bone, perhaps due to a decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2. Taken together, our data point to a critical and novel role for caspase-2 in maintaining bone homeostasis by modulating ROS levels and osteoclast apoptosis during conditions of enhanced oxidative stress that occur during aging.

Sharma, Ramaswamy; Callaway, Danielle; Vanegas, Difernando; Bendele, Michelle; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Horn, Diane; Guda, Teja; Fajardo, Roberto; Abboud-Werner, Sherry; Herman, Brian

2014-01-01

255

Acute effects of etidronate on glucocorticoid-induced bone degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the acute short-term effects on the biochemical\\u000a parameters of calcium and bone homeostasis in post-menopausal women\\u000a treated with a high dose of prednisone alone or with additional\\u000a etidronate, before and during 5 days of treatment. METHODS: Serum calcium,\\u000a phosphorus, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin,\\u000a carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP), cross-linked\\u000a carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I

A. Struijs; A. Smals; Witte de S. A; W. H. L. Hackeng; H. Mulder

2000-01-01

256

Longitudinal live animal micro-CT allows for quantitative analysis of tumor-induced bone destruction.  

PubMed

The majority of breast cancer and prostate cancer patients with metastatic disease will go on to develop bone metastases, which contribute largely to the patient's morbidity and mortality. Numerous small animal models of cancer metastasis to bone have been developed to study tumor-induced bone destruction, but the advancement of imaging modalities utilized for these models has lagged significantly behind clinical imaging. Therefore, there is a significant need for improvements to live small animal imaging, particularly when obtaining high-resolution images for longitudinal quantitative analyses. Recently, live animal micro-computed tomography (?CT) has gained popularity due to its ability to obtain high-resolution 3-dimensional images. However, the utility of ?CT in bone metastasis models has been limited to end-point analyses due to off-target radiation effects on tumor cells. We hypothesized that live animal in vivo ?CT can be utilized to perform reproducible and quantitative longitudinal analyses of bone volume in tumor-bearing mice, particularly in a drug treatment model of breast cancer metastasis to bone. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the MDA-MB-231 osteolytic breast cancer model in which the tumor cells are inoculated directly into the tibia of athymic nude mice and imaged mice weekly by Faxitron (radiography), Imtek ?CT (in vivo), and Maestro (GFP-imaging). Exvivo ?CT and histology were performed at end point for validation. After establishing a high-resolution scanning protocol for the Imtek CT, we determined whether clear, measurable differences in bone volume were detectable in mice undergoing bisphosphonate drug treatments. We found that in vivo ?CT could be used to obtain quantifiable and longitudinal images of the progression of bone destruction over time without altering tumor cell growth. In addition, we found that we could detect lesions as early as week 1 and that this approach could be used to monitor the effect of drug treatment on bone. Taken together, these data indicate that in vivo ?CT is an effective and reproducible method for longitudinal monitoring of tumor-associated bone destruction in mouse models of tumor-induced bone disease. PMID:20685406

Johnson, Lindsay C; Johnson, Rachelle W; Munoz, Steve A; Mundy, Gregory R; Peterson, Todd E; Sterling, Julie A

2011-01-01

257

Postnatally induced inactivation of Osterix in osteoblasts results in the reduction of bone formation and maintenance  

PubMed Central

Osterix (Osx) is a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that is highly specific to osteoblasts in vivo. Because Osx homozygous null mutants die in the immediate perinatal period showing a complete absence of bone formation, it is impossible determine the role that Osx plays in bones that have already formed after birth. To determine whether Osx is essential for bone maintenance and homeostasis, we conditionally inactivated the Osx gene in adult bone using the Cre/loxP recombination system. In previous reports, 2.3-kb Col1a1-CreERT2 mice that expressed a Cre recombinase that is transiently inducible by 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) were intercrossed with Rosa26R (R26R) reporter mice, which resulted in the production of Cre-expressing osteoblasts that were detected upon X-gal staining. In the present study, inducible Col1a1-CreERT2 transgenic mice and conditional Osx mice (Osxflox/+) were used to generate Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice. The Osx gene in Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice was inactivated in the osteoblasts of already formed bones by active Cre recombinase after the administration of 4-OHT. The bones from 4-OHT-treated Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice and oil-treated control mice were analyzed by radiography, histology, and histomorphometry. Even though no significant difference was observed in the radiographic images of the whole mouse skeletons, the mineralized trabecular bone volume and number in lumbar vertebrae were remarkably reduced in 4-OHT-treated Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice. In addition, the rate of bone formation and area of mineralized surface were also reduced in 4-OHT-treated Osxflox/?; Col1a1-CreERT2 mice. Osx inactivation in already formed bones during the postnatal period caused a functional defect in osteoblasts that was followed by a reduction of bone formation, even though there were no apparent differences in osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast formation. Taken together, these results indicate that Osx is required to maintain osteoblast function following adult bone maintenance.

Baek, Wook-Young; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Kim, Jung-Eun

2014-01-01

258

Deficiency of CIZ, a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, prevents unloading-induced bone loss through the enhancement of osteoblastic bone formation in vivo.  

PubMed

Disuse osteoporosis is a major cause to increase the risk of fractures in bed-ridden patients whose numbers are increasing in our modern society. However, the mechanisms underlying the sensing of mechanical stress in bone are largely unknown. CIZ localizes at cell adhesion plaque and transfers into nuclear compartments and activates promoters of the genes encoding enzymes, which degrade matrix proteins to link signals from the cell adhesion site to nuclear events. We examined whether this nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein would be involved in mediation of mechanical stress signaling. Unloading based on tail suspension reduced bone volume in wild-type mice. In contrast, CIZ-deficient mice revealed suppression in such reduction of bone mass due to unloading. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that unloading suppressed the levels of osteoblastic bone formation parameters, and such suppression of bone formation parameters was blocked by CIZ-deficiency. Osteoclastic bone resorption parameters were similar regardless of CIZ-deficiency after 2-week unloading. Mineralized nodule formation in the cultures of bone marrow cells obtained from the bone of mice subjected to unloading was suppressed in wild-type mice. CIZ deficiency blocked such reduction in nodule formation induced by unloading. These data indicated that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, CIZ, plays a pivotal role in the response of bone mass in unloading condition. PMID:17301008

Hino, K; Nakamoto, T; Nifuji, A; Morinobu, M; Yamamoto, H; Ezura, Y; Noda, M

2007-04-01

259

Hemodynamic responses to simulated weightlessness of 24-h head-down bed rest and KAATSU blood flow restriction.  

PubMed

The KAATSU training is a unique method of muscle training with restricting venous blood flow, which might be applied to prevent muscle atrophy during space flight, but the effects of KAATSU in microgravity remain unknown. We investigated the hemodynamic responses to KAATSU during actually simulated weightlessness (6 degrees head-down tilt for 24 h, n = 8), and compared those to KAATSU in the seated position before bed rest. KAATSU was applied to the proximal ends of both the thighs. In the seated position before bed rest, sequential incrementing of KAATSU cuff pressure and altering the level of blood flow restriction resulted in a decrease in stroke volume (SV) with an increase in heart rate (HR). KAATSU (150-200 mmHg) decreased SV comparable to standing. Following 24-h bed rest, body mass, blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) were significantly reduced. Norepinephrine (NOR), vasopressin (ADH), and plasma renin activity (PRA) tend to be reduced. A decrease in SV and CO induced by KAATSU during the simulated weightlessness was larger than that in the seated position before bed rest, and one of eight subjects developed presyncope due to hypotension during 100 mmHg KAATSU. High-frequency power (HF(RR)) decreased during KAATSU and standing, while low-frequency/high-frequency power (LF(RR)/HF(RR)) increased significantly. NOR, ADH and PRA also increased during KAATSU. These results indicate that KAATSU blood flow restriction reproduces the effects of standing on HR, SV, NOR, ADH, PRA, etc., thus stimulating a gravity-like stress during simulated weightlessness. However, syncope due to lower extremity blood pooling and subsequent reduction of venous return may be induced during KAATSU in microgravity as reported in cases of lower-body negative pressure. PMID:18651162

Nakajima, Toshiaki; Iida, Haruko; Kurano, Miwa; Takano, Haruhito; Morita, Toshihiro; Meguro, Kentaro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Yoshihisa; Kawashima, Sino; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tachibana, Shouichi; Ishii, Naokata; Abe, Takashi

2008-11-01

260

Chemoprotective Effects of Zataria multiflora Against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preventive effective of Zataria multiflora (ZM) extract was investigated in mouse bone marrow cells against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Mice were orally (gavaged) pretreated with solutions of ZM extract prepared at 3 different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg\\/kg body weight) for 7 consecutive days. They were injected with CP (50 mg\\/kg body weight) on the seventh day

Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr; Saeb Ahmadashrafi; Farshad Naghshvar; Amirhossein Ahmadi; Soheil Ehasnalavi; Mohammad Tanha

2010-01-01

261

The biocompatibility research of functional Schwann cells induced from bone mesenchymal cells with chitosan conduit membrane.  

PubMed

To explore the adhesion and proliferation characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) to chitosan conduit membrane, MSCs were induced by a sequential composition Beta-mercaptoethanol, retinoic acid, forskolin, basic-FGF, PDGF and heregulin. Schwann Cell markers, namely S-100 and GFAP, were used to discriminate the induced MSCs' properties by immunofluorescent staining. These results suggested that MSCs can take on Schwann cell's phenotype in vitro and the induce MSCs were gifted with good biocompatibility to biogradable chitosan conduit membrane. The results provided the possibilities to using the induced MSCs with chitosan conduit membrane in artificial peripherial nerve fields to promote nerve regeneration. PMID:16519406

Zhang, Peixun; Xu, Hailin; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Baoguo

2006-01-01

262

Leg vascular responsiveness during acute orthostasis following simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of weightlessness on vascular response to orthostatic stress was investigated in human subjects by measuring changes in the arterial pulse volume (APV) of the legs during exposure to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) applied before and after 10 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and impedance rheographic indices of APV were measured during rest and at 1 min of -30 mm Hg LBNP. Bed rest was found not to alter the responses of MAP to LBNP. Resting APV was decreased after bed rest; however, APV was reduced upon transfer from rest to 1-min LBPN by the same relative magnitude before and after bedrest. It is concluded that peripheral arterial vasoconstriction, as indicated by reduction in APV during LBNP, is not affected by bedrest. The results suggest that there was no apparent alteration in responsiveness of the leg vasculature following simulated weightlessness, and that the control mechanisms of peripheral resistance do not contribute significantly to reduced orthostatic tolerance following spaceflight.

Blamick, Cynthia A.; Goldwater, Danielle; Convertino, Victor A.

1988-01-01

263

Simulated weightlessness in fish and neurophysiological studies on memory storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulated weightlessness was used to study the different types of gravity responses in blind fish. It was found that a shift in the direction of low magnitude acceleration in weightlessness causes a rapid 180 deg turn in the blind fish, while a shift in the direction of the applied acceleration in the earth's gravitational field is not significant because of a higher acceleration magnitude threshold than during the zero g condition. This increased responsiveness seems to be explained by a combination of directional sensitivity with a Weber-Fechner relationship of increased receptor sensitivity at diminished levels of background stimulation. Neurophysical studies of the statocyst nerve of the gastropod Mollusc Pleurobranchaea Californica were undertaken in order to understand how complex otolith systems operate. Information storage was investigated on relatively simple neuronal networks in the mollusc Aplysia. Intracellular electrical stimulation of isolated neurons show that a manipulation of autoditonous rhymicity is possible. It was also found that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are involved in inherent rhymicity of Aplysis neurons.

Vonbaumgarten, R. J.

1973-01-01

264

Cadmium-induced bone loss: Increased susceptibility in female beagles after ovariectomy  

SciTech Connect

Bone resorption, as measured by release of bone {sup 45}Ca, was significantly increased in elderly female beagles within 96 h of exposure to 15 mg/L Cd in drinking water. The {sup 45}Ca response was greater in ovariecotomized (OV) animals than in sham-operated (SO) controls and was not mediated by changes in calciotropic hormone concentrations. Mean blood Cd concentrations were 3--8 {mu}g/L during the earliest bone resorption response and 13--15 {mu}g/L at the end of the study. During 7 mo of Cd exposure, bone mineral densities decreased most in the OV animals exposed to Cd: {minus}15.4 {plus minus} 4.3% for the tibia distal end and {minus}7.2 {plus minus} 1.2% for the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) (mean {plus minus} SE, n=4). Results indicate that Cd may act directly on bone and that postmenopausal women exposed to Cd in industry or via cigarette smoke may be at increased risk of Cd-induced bone loss. 21 refs., 4 figs.

Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Sacco-Gibson, N.A.; Peterson, D.P.

1991-01-01

265

Prevention of bone loss by Panax ginseng in a rat model of inflammation-induced bone loss.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the protective effect of Panax Ginseng (PG) on bone metabolism in an experimental ovariectomy (OVX) model of osteoporosis in which inflammation was induced by subcutaneous magnesium silicate. The groups were: sham control (Group1, SH), sham+inflammation (Group2, SHinf), OVX (Group3), OVX+inflammation (Group4, OVXinf), OVX+inflammation+PG 100 mg/kg (Group5, OVXinf+PG1), OVX+inflammation+PG 200 mg/kg (Group6, OVXinf+PG2), OVX+PG 100 mg/kg (Group7, OVX+PG1), OVX+PG 200 mg/kg (Group8, OVX+PG1). After the OVX surgery, all the groups were allowed to recover for two months. On the 59th day after the OVX, inflammation was induced in Groups 2, 4, 5, and 6 by subcutaneous injections of magnesium silicate in the back of the animals. Groups 5 and 7 were administered oral PG 100 mg/kg, and Groups 6 and 8 were administered oral PG 200 mg/kg from the 60th to the 80th day. PG 200 mg/kg was able to restore BMD, up to values measured in both the OVX and the SH animals. The levels of OC and OP decreased in OVXinf+PG1 and OVXinf+PG2 groups. The serum levels of TNF—?, IL—1?, and IL—6 were increased significantly in the OVXinf rats compared with the SH group. The present data showed that PG protected against in the OVX model and in inflammation-induced bone loss rat model. PMID:23374453

Avsar, U; Karakus, E; Halici, Z; Bayir, Y; Bilen, H; Aydin, A; Avsar, U Z; Ayan, A; Aydin, S; Karadeniz, A

2013-01-01

266

Genetic Control of Susceptibility to Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice  

PubMed Central

Periodontal disease affects a large percentage of the human population. Resorption of the alveolar bone of the jaw is a pivotal sequela of periodontal disease, because this bone is the attachment site for the periodontal ligaments that anchor the teeth. Using a murine model in which alveolar bone loss is induced by oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative bacterium associated with human adult periodontal disease, we provide evidence suggesting that susceptibility to such bone loss is a genetically determined trait. AKR/J, DBA/2J, and BALB/cByJ or BALB/cJ mice were highly susceptible, while A/J, A/HeJ, 129/J, SJL/J, and C57BL/6J mice were much more resistant. When susceptible BALB/cJ and BALB/cByJ mice were crossed to resistant strains, two patterns were observed. (BALBc/ByJ × C57BL/6J)F1 offspring were susceptible, suggesting C57BL/6J has recessive resistance alleles, while (BALB/cJ × A/J)F1 mice were all resistant, suggesting that A/J mice have dominant resistance alleles. These results suggest a tractable genetic basis for P. gingivalis-induced alveolar bone loss and open the possibility of exploiting the mouse model to identify loci important for host susceptibility and resistance to periodontal disease.

Baker, Pamela J.; Dixon, Mark; Roopenian, Derry C.

2000-01-01

267

Loss of Nrf2 accelerates ionizing radiation-induced bone loss by upregulating RANKL  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy is an integral part of treatment for cancer patients; however, major side effects of this modality include aberrant bone remodeling and bone loss. Ionizing radiation (IR) is a major external factor that contributes to a significant increase in oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been implicated in osteoporotic phenotypes, and has been implicated in osteoporotic phenotypes, bone loss, and fracture risk. One of the major cellular defenses against heightened oxidative stress is mediated by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor that regulates induction of antioxidant gene expression and phase II antioxidant enzymes. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that loss of functional Nrf2 increases radiation-induced bone loss. We irradiated (single dose, 20 Gy) the hindlegs of age- and sex-matched Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2?/? mice. After 1 month, microCT analysis and histology revealed a drastic overall decrease in the bone volume after irradiation of mice lacking Nrf2. Although radiation exposure led to bone loss in mice with intact Nrf2, it was dramatically enhanced by loss of Nrf2. Furthermore, in the absence of Nrf2, a decrease in osteoblast mineralization was noted in calvarial osteoblasts compared with wild-type controls, and treatment with a common antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), was able to rescue the mineralization. As expected, we observed a higher number of osteoclasts in Nrf2?/? mice compared to Nrf2+/+ mice, and after irradiation, the trend remained the same. RT-PCR analysis of calvarial osteoblasts revealed that in the absence of Nrf2, the expression of RANKL was increased after irradiation. Interestingly, RANKL expression was suppressed when the calvarial osteoblasts were treated with NAC before IR exposure. Taken together, our data suggest that loss of Nrf2 leads to heightened oxidative stress and increased susceptibility to radiation-induced bone loss.

Rana, Tapasi; Schultz, Michelle A.; Freeman, Michael L.; Biswas, Swati

2013-01-01

268

Pulsed Laser-Induced Micro-Pits: As Bone Stabilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical interlocking concept is a crucial criteria for osseointegration which is based on micro-porous surface structures. Several surface treatment methods have been used to modify the surface morphology of titanium implants in order to increase the effective interfacial area. The aim of the present preliminary study is two folds: to develop 3D finite element models for micro-pits on implant surfaces as bone stabilizers in order to evaluate the mechanical response of interfacial area and compare the estimated interfacial shear strength and the maximum effective shear strain with other biomechanical theories. Second is to produce novel regular micro-pit patterns using a 20 Watt ytterbium fiber laser and characterize these novel micro-stabilizers.

Çelen, Serap; Efeo?lu, Candan; Özden, Hüseyin

269

Effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density in rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss and suppressed endogenous adrenaline levels by metyrosine  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In this study, effect of methylprednisolone on bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated in rats with overiectomy induced bone lose and suppressed endogenous adrenalin levels, and compared to alendronate. Materials and Methods: Severity of bone loss in the examined material (femur bones) was evaluated by BMD measurement. Results: The group with the highest BMD value was metyrosinemetyrosine + methylprednisolone combination (0.151 g/cm2), while that with the lowest BMD was methylprednisolone (0.123 g/cm2). Alendronate was effective only when used alone in ovariectomized rats (0.144 g/cm2), but not when used in combination with methylprednisolone (0.124 g/cm2). In the ovariectomized rat group which received only metyrosine, BMD value was statistically indifferent from ovariectomized control group. Conclusions: Methylprednisolone protected bone loss in rats with suppressed adrenaline levels because of metyrosinemetyrosine.

Yilmaz, Mehmet; Isaoglu, Unal; Uslu, Turan; Yildirim, Kadir; Seven, Bedri; Akcay, Fatih; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet

2013-01-01

270

Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.  

PubMed

The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol), on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald), exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1), the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT) demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/-) ) female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/-) mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/-) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/-) mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling. PMID:23951127

Nallamshetty, Shriram; Wang, Hong; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kiefer, Florian W; Brown, Jonathan D; Lotinun, Sutada; Le, Phuong; Baron, Roland; Rosen, Clifford J; Plutzky, Jorge

2013-01-01

271

Alteration of newly induced endochondral bone formation in adult mice without tumour necrosis factor receptor 1.  

PubMed

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, a major proinflammatory cytokine, exerts its role on bone cells through two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2). TNFR1, but not TNFR2, is expressed by osteoblasts and its function in bone formation in vivo is not fully understood. We compared in vivo new bone formation in TNFR1-deficient (TNFR1(-/-)) mice and wild-type mice, using two models of bone formation: intramembranous ossification following tibial marrow ablation and endochondral ossification induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Intramembranous osteogenesis in TNFR1(-/-) mice did not differ from the wild-type mice either in histomorphometric parameters or mRNA expression of bone-related markers and inflammatory cytokines. During endochondral osteogenesis, TNFR1(-/-) mice formed more cartilage (at post-implantation day 9), followed by more bone and bone marrow (at day 12). mRNAs for BMP-2, -4 and -7 were increased during the endochondral differentiation sequence in TNFR1(-/-) mice. The expression of receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL) and receptor activator of NF-kappa B (RANK), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also increased significantly during endochondral ossification in TNFR1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, signalling through the TNFR1 seems to be a negative regulator of new tissue formation during endochondral but not intramembranous osteogenesis in an adult organism. BMPs and RANKL and its receptor RANK may be involved in the change of local environment in the absence of TNFR1 signalling. PMID:15654822

Luki?, I K; Grcevi?, D; Kovaci?, N; Katavi?, V; Ivcevi?, S; Kalajzi?, I; Marusi?, A

2005-02-01

272

Methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum inhibits ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.  

PubMed

Several animal and clinical studies have shown that phytoestrogens, plant-derived estrogenic compounds, can be useful in treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. Phytoestrogens and phytoestrogen-containing plants are currently under active investigation for their role in estrogen-related disorders. The present study deals with anti-osteoporotic evaluation of phytoestrogen-rich plant Cuminum cyminum, commonly known as cumin. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and randomly assigned to 3 groups (10 rats/group). Additional 10 animals were sham operated. OVX and sham control groups were orally administered with vehicle while the other two OVX groups were administered 0.15 mg/kg estradiol and 1 g/kg of methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum fruits (MCC) in two divided doses for 10 weeks. At the end of the study blood, bones and uteri of the animals were collected. Serum was evaluated for calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and tartarate resistant acid phosphatase. Bone density, ash density, mineral content and mechanical strength of bones were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of bones (tibia) was performed. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukeys multiple comparison test. MCC (1 g/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced urinary calcium excretion and significantly increased calcium content and mechanical strength of bones in comparison to OVX control. It showed greater bone and ash densities and improved microarchitecture of bones in SEM analysis. Unlike estradiol it did not affect body weight gain and weight of atrophic uterus in OVX animals. MCC prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats with no anabolic effect on atrophic uterus. The osteoprotective effect was comparable with estradiol. PMID:18824723

Shirke, Sarika S; Jadhav, Sanket R; Jagtap, Aarti G

2008-11-01

273

Leishmania donovani Infection Induces Anemia in Hamsters by Differentially Altering Erythropoiesis in Bone Marrow and Spleen  

PubMed Central

Leishmania donovani is a parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis by infecting and replicating in macrophages of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver. Severe anemia and leucopenia is associated with the disease. Although immune defense mechanisms against the parasite have been studied, we have a limited understanding of how L. donovani alters hematopoiesis. In this study, we used Syrian golden hamsters to investigate effects of L. donovani infection on erythropoiesis. Infection resulted in severe anemia and leucopenia by 8 weeks post-infection. Anemia was associated with increased levels of serum erythropoietin, which indicates the hamsters respond to the anemia by producing erythropoietin. We found that infection also increased numbers of BFU-E and CFU-E progenitor populations in the spleen and bone marrow and differentially altered erythroid gene expression in these organs. In the bone marrow, the mRNA expression of erythroid differentiation genes (?-globin, ?-globin, ALAS2) were inhibited by 50%, but mRNA levels of erythroid receptor (c-kit, EpoR) and transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, FOG1) were not affected by the infection. This suggests that infection has a negative effect on differentiation of erythroblasts. In the spleen, erythroid gene expression was enhanced by infection, indicating that the anemia activates a stress erythropoiesis response in the spleen. Analysis of cytokine mRNA levels in spleen and bone marrow found that IFN-? mRNA is highly increased by L. donovani infection. Expression of the IFN-? inducible cytokine, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), was also up-regulated. Since TRAIL induces erythroblasts apoptosis, apoptosis of bone marrow erythroblasts from infected hamsters was examined by flow cytometry. Percentage of erythroblasts that were apoptotic was significantly increased by L. donovani infection. Together, our results suggest that L. donovani infection inhibits erythropoiesis in the bone marrow by cytokine-mediated apoptosis of erythroblasts.

Lafuse, William P.; Story, Ryan; Mahylis, Jocelyn; Gupta, Gaurav; Varikuti, Sanjay; Steinkamp, Heidi; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.

2013-01-01

274

Disruption of claudin-18 diminishes ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.  

PubMed

Claudin-18 (Cldn-18), a member of the tight junction family of proteins, is a negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption (BR) in vivo. Since estrogen deficiency decreases bone mass in part by a RANKL-mediated increase in BR, we evaluated whether estrogen regulates Cldn-18 expression in bone. We found that Cldn-18 expression was reduced in the bones of estrogen deficient mice, whereas it was increased by estrogen treatment in osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. We next evaluated the role of Cldn-18 in mediating estrogen-induced bone loss. Cldn-18 knockout (KO) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham operated at 6 wk of age, and the skeletal phenotype was evaluated at 14 wk of age. PIXImus revealed that total body, femur, and lumbar BMD were reduced 8-13% (P < 0.05) after 8 wk of OVX compared with sham in WT mice. As expected, total body, femur, and lumbar BMD were reduced 14-21% (P < 0.05) in Cldn-18 KO sham mice compared with sham WT mice. However, ovariectomy failed to induce significant changes in BMD of total body, femur, or vertebra in the Cldn-18 KO mice. ?CT analysis of the distal femur revealed that trabecular (Tb) bone volume was decreased 50% in the OVX WT mice compared with sham that was caused by a 26% decrease in Tb number and a 30% increase in Tb separation (all P < 0.05). By contrast, none of the Tb parameters were significantly different in OVX Cldn-18 KO mice compared with sham KO mice. Histomorphometric analyses at the Tb site revealed that neither osteoclast surface nor osteoclast perimeter was increased significantly as a consequence of OVX in either genotype at the time point examined. Based on our findings, we conclude that the estrogen effects on osteoclasts may in part be mediated via regulation of Cldn-18 signaling. PMID:23299504

Kim, Ha-Young; Alarcon, Catrina; Pourteymour, Sheila; Wergedal, Jon E; Mohan, Subburaman

2013-03-01

275

Anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody prevents systemic bone mass loss via reducing the number of osteoclast precursors in bone marrow in a collagen-induced arthritis model.  

PubMed

Systemic bone loss is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 promote bone resorption by osteoclasts. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) controls the migration of osteoclast precursor cells (OCPs) between the blood and bone marrow, in part via S1P receptors (S1PR1 and S1PR2) expressed on the surface of OCPs. OCPs (CD11b(+) Gr-1(low+med) ) isolated from bone marrow of DBA/1J mice were stimulated with IL-6. S1P-directed chemotaxis of OCPs was evaluated using a transwell plate. mRNA expression of S1PR1 and S1PR2 was measured. DBA/1J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (days 0 and 21) and anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) was administered on days 0 and/or 21. Trabecular bone volume was analysed using micro-computed tomography. The percentage of OCPs in tibial bone marrow and S1PR1 and S1PR2 mRNA expression in OCPs were measured. IL-6 stimulation significantly decreased S1P-directed chemotaxis of OCPs. IL-6 induced S1PR2 mRNA expression, but not S1PR1 mRNA expression, in OCPs. Bone volume was significantly lower in arthritic mice than in non-arthritic control mice on day 35. Treatment of immunized mice with MR16-1 significantly inhibited bone loss. In MR16-1-treated mice, the percentage of OCPs and expression of S1PR2 mRNA was each decreased compared with arthritic mice on day 14, but not on day 35. IL-6 increased the number of OCPs in tibial bone marrow via up-regulating S1PR2, thus playing a crucial role in systemic bone loss induced by inflammation. PMID:24028747

Tanaka, Keisuke; Hashizume, Misato; Mihara, Masahiko; Yoshida, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro

2014-02-01

276

Load-induced changes in bone stiffness and cancellous and cortical bone mass following tibial compression diminish with age in female mice.  

PubMed

The vertebrate skeleton is an adaptive structure that responds to mechanical stimuli by increasing bone mass under increased mechanical loads. Although experimental animal models have shown the anabolic cortical bone response to applied load decreases with age, no consensus exists regarding whether this adaptive mechanism is affected by age in cancellous bone, the tissue most impacted by age-related bone loss. We used an established murine in vivo tibial loading model to characterize the load-induced cancellous, cortical and whole-bone responses to mechanical stimuli in growing and mature female mice at 6, 10 and 16 weeks of age. The effects of applied load on tibial morphology and stiffness were determined using microcomputed tomography and in vivo bone strains measured at the medial tibial midshaft during applied loading. At all ages, 2 weeks of applied load produced larger midshaft cortical cross-sectional properties (+13-72%) and greater cancellous bone volume (+21-107%) and thicker trabeculae (+31-68%) in the proximal metaphyses of the loaded tibiae. The relative anabolic response decreased from 6 to 16 weeks of age in both the cancellous and cortical envelopes. Load-induced tibial stresses decreased more in 6-week-old mice following loading, which corresponded to increased in vivo tibial stiffness. Stiffness in the loaded tibiae of 16-week-old mice decreased despite moderately increased cortical cross-sectional geometry, suggesting load-induced changes in bone material properties. This study shows that the cancellous and cortical anabolic responses to mechanical stimuli decline with age into adulthood and that cortical cross-sectional geometry alone does not necessarily predict whole-bone functional stiffness. PMID:24577445

Main, Russell P; Lynch, Maureen E; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

2014-05-15

277

Elemental analysis of bone: proton-induced X-ray emission testing in forensic cases.  

PubMed

Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a spectroscopic technique that provides the researcher with the elemental composition of a given target material. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of PIXE analysis in two forensic contexts: (1) case of cremation in which the nature of the remains is questioned and (2) cases of death by gunshot wound. In the first case, elemental analysis by PIXE reveals that the purported cremated remains are not bone. The last two cases show that radiopaque metallic residue embedded in bone is composed of lead from a projectile. PMID:11852200

Warren, M W; Falsetti, A B; Kravchenko, I I; Dunnam, F E; Van Rinsvelt, H A; Maples, W R

2002-01-24

278

Osteogenic effects of dedifferentiated fat cell transplantation in rabbit models of bone defect and ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have a high proliferative activity and the potential to differentiate into lineages of mesenchymal tissue similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we examined the effects of autologous DFAT cell transplantation on bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model. The formation of tissue-engineered bone (TEB) was observed when rabbit DFAT cells were loaded onto a ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/collagen sponge and cultured in an osteogenic differentiation medium for 3 weeks. Autologous implantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs promoted bone regeneration in a rabbit tibial defect model. Regenerated bone tissue induced by transplantation of DFAT cell-mediated TEB constructs was histologically well differentiated and exhibited higher bone strength in a three-point bending test compared to that induced by the ?-TCP/collagen sponge alone. In OVX-induced osteoporosis model rabbits, DFAT cells were obtained with the osteogenic activity similar to cells from healthy rabbits. Intrabone marrow injection of autologous DFAT cells significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) at the injected site in the OVX rabbits. Transplanted DFAT cells remained mainly on the injection side of the bone marrow by at least 28 days after intrabone marrow injection and a part of them expressed osteocalcin. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that autologous implantation of DFAT cells contributed to bone regeneration in a rabbit bone defect model and an OVX-induced osteoporosis model. DFAT cells may be an attractive cell source for cell-based bone tissue engineering to treat nonunion fractures in all patients, including those with osteoporosis. PMID:23566022

Kikuta, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kazama, Minako; Kano, Koichiro; Ryu, Junnosuke; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Matsumoto, Taro

2013-08-01

279

Development of a Metabolic Cage for Simulation of Weightlessness in a Laboratory Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience many physiological changes during spaceflight and exposure to microgravity. There is a headwardshift of fluids, muscles atrophy, and changes occur in the body's bone structure and hormone levels. This paper describes a unique metabolic cage that was developed to evaluate ground simulation of these effects. Hindlimb or tail suspension in rats has been studied as a model to create the effects of microgravity in order to study how to counteract them. This suspension model, developed by Holton, accurately simulates the effects of weightlessness during spaceflight by unloading the hindlimbs and producing a head-ward shift of fluids. However, obtaining quantitative data on the nutritional state, the gastrointestinal and renal function of these animals has not been possible, until now. Using Holton's tail suspension model, the new metabolic suspension cage effectively separates urine and feces samples for analysis allowing investigators to examine the effects of microgravity in many complex body systems. A description of the cage system, its design, and results of its use is provided along with pictures and details for replication of the cages.

Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Evans, JuliAnn; Gundo, Daniel P.; Skundberg, Thomas L.; Harper, Jennifer; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

280

Bone morphogenetic protein-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells with modulation of STAT3.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, are a group of related proteins that are capable of inducing the formation of cartilage and bone but are now regarded as multifunctional cytokines. We show in this report a novel function of BMPs in hematopoietic cells: BMP-2 induces apoptosis not only in human myeloma cell lines (U266, RPMI 8226, HS-Sultan, IM-9, OPM-2, and KMS-12 cells), but also in primary samples from patients with multiple myeloma. The mechanism of BMP-2-induced apoptosis was investigated with the use of U266 cells, which are dependent on the interleukin-6 autocrine loop. We showed that BMP-2 caused cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase and the subsequent apoptosis of myeloma cells. BMP-2 up-regulated the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1)) and caused hypophosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. In studies of apoptosis-associated proteins, BMP-2 was seen to down-regulate the expression of Bcl-x(L); however, BMP-2 had no effects on the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, or Bad. Therefore, BMP-2 induces apoptosis in various human myeloma cells by means of the down-regulation of Bcl-x(L) and by cell-cycle arrest through the up-regulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1) and by the hypophosphorylation of Rb. Further analysis showed that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was inactivated immediately after BMP-2 treatment. We conclude that BMP-2 would be useful as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of multiple myeloma both by means of its antitumor effect of inducing apoptotis and through its original bone-inducing activity, because bone lesions are frequently seen in myeloma patients. PMID:10979940

Kawamura, C; Kizaki, M; Yamato, K; Uchida, H; Fukuchi, Y; Hattori, Y; Koseki, T; Nishihara, T; Ikeda, Y

2000-09-15

281

Contribution to the Study of Radiation Induced Bone Tissue Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work four original observations of more or less long-delayed cancers induced by ionizing radiations are compared with 34 other cases in the literature, after which an attempt is made to establish a general and prognostic synthesis of the results; ...

M. Bouet

1975-01-01

282

Quantitative measurement of the stresses induced during polymerisation of bone cement.  

PubMed

When bone cement cures, residual stresses due to bulk and thermal shrinkage will result. Present finite element (FE) simulations of implanted constructs often do not account for these stresses as an initial condition; this may lead to overestimations of the fatigue life of the cement. In the present study, an instrumented stem equipped with strain gauges and a thermocouple was employed to experimentally quantify the residual stresses induced as a result of bone cement curing within a simulated bone/cement/stem construct. Residual stresses as high as 10 MPa were observed in the cement mantle. Residual stresses of this magnitude are potentially high enough to initiate damage within the cement mantle or at the stem/cement interface immediately post-implantation. The acoustic emission technique has demonstrated that cracking and sliding mechanisms are occurring during curing, resulting in partial relaxation of these stresses. The implications for FE simulations of the implanted construct are discussed. PMID:15046932

Roques, A; Browne, M; Taylor, A; New, A; Baker, D

2004-08-01

283

Human Cementum Protein 1 induces expression of bone and cementum proteins by human gingival fibroblasts  

SciTech Connect

We recently presented evidence showing that a human cementoblastoma-derived protein, named Cementum Protein 1 (CEMP1) may play a role as a local regulator of cementoblast differentiation and cementum-matrix mineralization. This protein was shown to be expressed by cementoblasts and progenitor cells localized in the periodontal ligament. In this study we demonstrate that transfection of CEMP1 into human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) induces mineralization and expression of bone and cementum-matrix proteins. The transfected HGF cells had higher alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation rate and they expressed genes for alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, the transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1, and cementum attachment protein (CAP). They also produced biological-type hydroxyapatite. These findings indicate that the CEMP1 might participate in differentiation and mineralization of nonosteogenic cells, and that it might have a potential function in cementum and bone formation.

Carmona-Rodriguez, Bruno [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Alvarez-Perez, Marco Antonio [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Narayanan, A. Sampath [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, UW, Seattle (United States); Zeichner-David, Margarita [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, School of Dentistry, USC, Los Angeles (United States); Reyes-Gasga, Jose [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Molina-Guarneros, Juan [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, Ana Lilia [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Suarez-Franco, Jose Luis [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Chavarria, Ivet Gil [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Arzate, Higinio [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Odontologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: harzate@servidor.unam.mx

2007-07-06

284

Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

2011-01-01

285

Interdependence of muscle atrophy and bone loss induced by mechanical unloading.  

PubMed

Mechanical unloading induces muscle atrophy and bone loss; however, the time course and interdependence of these effects is not well defined. We subjected 4-month-old C57BL/6J mice to hindlimb suspension (HLS) for 3 weeks, euthanizing 12 to 16 mice on day (D) 0, 7, 14, and 21. Lean mass was 7% to 9% lower for HLS versus control from D7-21. Absolute mass of the gastrocnemius (gastroc) decreased 8% by D7, and was maximally decreased 16% by D14 of HLS. mRNA levels of Atrogin-1 in the gastroc and quadriceps (quad) were increased 99% and 122%, respectively, at D7 of HLS. Similar increases in MuRF1 mRNA levels occurred at D7. Both atrogenes returned to baseline by D14. Protein synthesis in gastroc and quad was reduced 30% from D7-14 of HLS, returning to baseline by D21. HLS decreased phosphorylation of SK61, a substrate of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), on D7-21, whereas 4E-BP1 was not lower until D21. Cortical thickness of the femur and tibia did not decrease until D14 of HLS. Cortical bone of controls did not change over time. HLS mice had lower distal femur bone volume fraction (-22%) by D14; however, the effects of HLS were eliminated by D21 because of the decline of trabecular bone mass of controls. Femur strength was decreased approximately 13% by D14 of HLS, with no change in tibia mechanical properties at any time point. This investigation reveals that muscle atrophy precedes bone loss during unloading and may contribute to subsequent skeletal deficits. Countermeasures that preserve muscle may reduce bone loss induced by mechanical unloading or prolonged disuse. Trabecular bone loss with age, similar to that which occurs in mature astronauts, is superimposed on unloading. Preservation of muscle mass, cortical structure, and bone strength during the experiment suggests muscle may have a greater effect on cortical than trabecular bone. PMID:24127218

Lloyd, Shane A; Lang, Charles H; Zhang, Yue; Paul, Emmanuel M; Laufenberg, Lacee J; Lewis, Gregory S; Donahue, Henry J

2014-05-01

286

High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses.  

PubMed

We examined, in immobilization, the effect of a diet high in sodium chloride (NaCl) on bone markers, nitrogen balance, and acid-base status. Eight healthy male test subjects participated in a 14-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) study. During the bed rest period they received, in a randomized crossover design, a high (7.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) and a low (0.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) NaCl diet. As expected, 24-h excretion of urinary calcium was significantly greater in the high-NaCl-intake HDBR phase than in the low-NaCl-intake HDBR phase (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake caused a 43-50% greater excretion of the bone resorption markers COOH- (CTX) and NH(2)- (NTX) terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in HDBR than low NaCl in HDBR (CTX/NTX: P < 0.001). Serum concentrations of the bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were identical in both NaCl intake phases. High NaCl intake led to a more negative nitrogen balance in HDBR (P < 0.001). Changes were accompanied by increased serum chloride concentration (P = 0.008), reduced blood bicarbonate (P = 0.017), and base excess (P = 0.009) whereas net acid excretion was lower during high than during low NaCl intake in immobilization (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake during immobilization exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. Changes in the acid-base status, mainly caused by disturbances in electrolyte metabolism, seem to determine NaCl-induced degradation processes. PMID:21596917

Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Fimmers, Rolf; May, Francisca; Kluge, Goetz; Heer, Martina

2011-08-01

287

Inactivity-induced bone loss is not exacerbated by moderate energy restriction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe energy restriction leads to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, adolescent females, and in male athletes. Astronauts in space also lose bone mass, and most of them have reduced energy intake (about 25 % below requirements). The aim of our study was to examine if bone loss in space is partly induced by moderate energy restriction. Physiological changes of space flight were simulated by 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR). Nine healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.9 kg/m2, mean ± SD) finished four study phases, two of normocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR, and two of hypocaloric nutrition, either ambulatory or HDBR. Urine samples (24 h) were analyzed for calcium excretion (UCaV) and bone resorption markers (C-Telopeptide, CTX, and N-Telopeptide, NTX). Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone formation markers (Procollagen-I-C-terminal-Peptide, PICP, Procollagen-I-N-terminal-Peptide, PINP, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, bAP) were analyzed. No significant changes in serum calcium or PTH were noted either during HDBR or during hypocaloric nutrition. PICP, but not PINP or bAP, decreased significantly during HDBR (normocaloric: p<0.02; hypocaloric: p<0.005). UCaV increased significantly over time (p<0.01) but no difference between HDBR or hypocaloric nutrition or both (p<0.26) occurred. Both CTX and NTX excretion significantly increased with HDBR (CTX: p<0.05; NTX: p<0.05), but were unaffected by hypocaloric nutrition in ambulatory and HDBR phases. In conclusion, moderate energy restriction did not exaggerate bone resorption during HDBR.

Heer, M.; Boese, A.; Baecker, N.; Zittermann, A.; Smith, S. M.

288

Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo.  

PubMed

Members of the TGF-beta superfamily appear to modulate mesenchymal differentiation, including the processes of cartilage and bone formation. Nothing is yet known about the function of the TGF-beta-related factor vgr-1, also called bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), and only limited studies have been conducted on the most closely related factors BMP-5, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) or BMP-7, and OP-2. Because vgr-1 mRNA has been localized in hypertrophic cartilage, this factor may play a vital role in endochondral bone formation. We developed antibodies to vgr-1, and documented that vgr-1 protein was expressed in hypertrophic cartilage of mice. To further characterize the role of this protein in bone differentiation, we generated CHO cells that overexpressed recombinant murine vgr-1 protein. Western blot analysis documented that recombinant vgr-1 protein was secreted into the media and was proteolytically processed to yield the mature vgr-1 molecule. To assess the biological activity of recombinant vgr-1 in vivo, we introduced the vgr-1-expressing CHO cells directly into the subcutaneous tissue of athymic nude mice. CHO-vgr-1 cells produced localized tumors, and the continuous secretion of vgr-1 resulted in tumors with a strikingly different gross and histological appearance as compared to the parental CHO cells. The tumors of control CHO cells were hemorrhagic, necrotic, and friable, whereas the CHO-vgr-1 tumors were dense, firm, and fibrotic. In contrast with control CHO tumors, the nests of CHO-vgr-1 tumor cells were surrounded by extensive connective tissue, which contained large regions of cartilage and bone. Further analysis indicated that secretion of vgr-1 from the transfected CHO tumor cells induced the surrounding host mesenchymal cells to develop along the endochondral bone pathway. These findings suggest that endochondral bone formation. PMID:8089189

Gitelman, S E; Kobrin, M S; Ye, J Q; Lopez, A R; Lee, A; Derynck, R

1994-09-01

289

Recombinant Vgr-1/BMP-6-expressing tumors induce fibrosis and endochondral bone formation in vivo  

PubMed Central

Members of the TGF-beta superfamily appear to modulate mesenchymal differentiation, including the processes of cartilage and bone formation. Nothing is yet known about the function of the TGF-beta- related factor vgr-1, also called bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6), and only limited studies have been conducted on the most closely related factors BMP-5, osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) or BMP-7, and OP-2. Because vgr-1 mRNA has been localized in hypertrophic cartilage, this factor may play a vital role in endochondral bone formation. We developed antibodies to vgr-1, and documented that vgr-1 protein was expressed in hypertrophic cartilage of mice. To further characterize the role of this protein in bone differentiation, we generated CHO cells that overexpressed recombinant murine vgr-1 protein. Western blot analysis documented that recombinant vgr-1 protein was secreted into the media and was proteolytically processed to yield the mature vgr-1 molecule. To assess the biological activity of recombinant vgr-1 in vivo, we introduced the vgr-1-expressing CHO cells directly into the subcutaneous tissue of athymic nude mice. CHO-vgr-1 cells produced localized tumors, and the continuous secretion of vgr-1 resulted in tumors with a strikingly different gross and histological appearance as compared to the parental CHO cells. The tumors of control CHO cells were hemorrhagic, necrotic, and friable, whereas the CHO-vgr-1 tumors were dense, firm, and fibrotic. In contrast with control CHO tumors, the nests of CHO-vgr-1 tumor cells were surrounded by extensive connective tissue, which contained large regions of cartilage and bone. Further analysis indicated that secretion of vgr-1 from the transfected CHO tumor cells induced the surrounding host mesenchymal cells to develop along the endochondral bone pathway. These findings suggest that endochondral bone formation.

1994-01-01

290

Effect of aging on bone formation induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with fibrous collagen membranes at subperiosteal sites.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the effect of aging on bone formation induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) combined with a fibrous collagen membrane (FCM). Implantation was done subperiosteally in bilateral palatal grooves in 34 male Wistar rats divided into three age groups: a 10-week-old group (10w group), a 30-week-old group (30w group) and a 70-week-old group (70w group). RhBMP-2-combined FCMs were implanted on the left palatal grooves as BMP-implanted sites (BMP site), while rhBMP-2 was not implanted on the right palatal grooves as control sites. The rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after implantation, and histometric evaluations were performed. New bone formation was observed in every site of each age group and the new bone was almost completely continuous with the original bone. The new bone volume (NBV) of the BMP site was significantly higher than that of the control site in each age group. The NBV of both the control and BMP sites were highest in the 10w group and lowest in the 70w group. The disparity of NBV between the control and BMP sites, which indicated the response to implanted BMP excluding the effect of skeletal growth and surgical stimulation, did not significantly differ among the age groups. These results indicate that rhBMP-2-combined FCM has the ability to induce new bone formation continuous with original bone even in senescent rats. Furthermore, it appeared that, in the case of palatal subperiosteal implantation, the responsiveness to implanted BMP was independent of age, although the total volume of newly formed bone declined with aging. PMID:11453116

Matsumoto, A; Yamaji, K; Kawanami, M; Kato, H

2001-06-01

291

Regression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats following bone marrow transplantation.  

PubMed Central

Total body irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation was found to be an effective treatment for adjuvant arthritis induced in rats. This treatment is most effective when applied shortly after the clinical manifestation of arthritis--i.e., 4-7 weeks after administration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transplantation of bone marrow at a later stage results in a limited recovery, in that the inflammatory reaction regresses but the newly formed excessive bone is not eliminated. Local irradiation of the affected joints had no effect on the disease. It could also be excluded that the recovery of arthritis following marrow transplantation is due to lack of available antigen. Transplantation of syngeneic bone marrow is as effective as that of allogeneic bone marrow from a rat strain that is not susceptible to induction of adjuvant arthritis. The beneficial effect of this treatment cannot be ascribed to the immunosuppressive effect of total body irradiation, since treatment with the highly immunosuppressive drug Cyclosporin A resulted in a regression of the joint swelling but relapse occurred shortly after discontinuation of the treatment. Images

van Bekkum, D W; Bohre, E P; Houben, P F; Knaan-Shanzer, S

1989-01-01

292

Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) materials coating evaluation, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Weightless Environment Training Facility Material Coating Evaluation project has included preparing, coating, testing, and evaluating 800 test panels of three differing substrates. Ten selected coating systems were evaluated in six separate exposure environments and subject to three tests for physical properties. Substrate materials were identified, the manner of surface preparation described, and exposure environments defined. Exposure environments included immersion exposure, cyclic exposure, and field exposure. Cyclic exposures, specifically QUV-Weatherometer and the KTA Envirotest were found to be the most agressive of the environments included in the study when all three evaluation criteria are considered. This was found to result primarily from chalking of the coatings under ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Volumes 2 and 3 hold the 5 appendices to this report.

1995-01-01

293

Residual inhibition of tinnitus induced by 30-kHz bone-conducted ultrasound.  

PubMed

Sounds at frequencies of >24-kHz are classified as ultrasound which cannot be heard by humans if presented by air conduction, but can be perceived if presented by bone conduction. Some research studies involving ultrasonic hearing have reported that tinnitus is masked by bone-conducted ultrasound (BCU). However, little is known about residual inhibition (RI), which is a continuous reduction or disappearance of tinnitus after presentation of BCU. This study investigated whether RI could be induced by BCU. Five types of the masker sounds were used to measure RI in 21 subjects with tinnitus. A bone-conducted 30-kHz pure tone was used as a BCU, and an air-conducted 4-kHz pure tone, narrow-band noise, white noise, and a bone-conducted 4-kHz pure tone were used as controls of audible sounds. The masker intensities of the 30-kHz BCU and audible sounds were set at the minimum masking levels of tinnitus plus 3 and 10 dB, respectively, considering the narrow dynamic range of BCU. The duration of RI induced by the 30-kHz BCU was significantly longer than those induced by the 4-kHz sounds, but was not significantly different from that induced by the white noise. BCU activates the cochlear basal turn in response to the high frequency, which may broadly overlap with the frequency range that included the dominant tinnitus pitch in most of our subjects. The longer RI duration for the 30-kHz BCU was probably derived from this characteristic. These results suggested that the peripheral stimulation characteristic of BCU probably contributed to inducing long RI durations. PMID:24530434

Koizumi, Toshizo; Nishimura, Tadashi; Yamashita, Akinori; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imamura, Tomoaki; Hosoi, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

294

Regeneration of bone and periodontal ligament induced by Recombinant amelogenin after periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Regeneration of mineralized tissues affected by chronic diseases comprises a major scientific and clinical challenge. Periodontitis, one such prevalent disease, involves destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, alveolar bone, periodontal-ligament and cementum, often leading to tooth loss. In 1997, it became clear that, in addition to their function in enamel formation, the hydrophobic ectodermal enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) play a role in the regeneration of these periodontal tissues. The epithelial enamel matrix proteins are a heterogeneous mixture of polypeptides encoded by several genes. It was not clear, however, which of these many EMPs induces the regeneration and what mechanisms are involved. Here we show that a single recombinant amelogenin protein (rHAM+), induced in-vivo regeneration of all tooth-supporting tissues after creation of experimental periodontitis in a dog model. To further understand the regeneration process, amelogenin expression was detected in normal and regenerating cells of the alveolar bone (osteocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts), periodontal ligament, cementum and in bone marrow stromal cells. Amelogenin expression was highest in areas of high bone turnover and activity. Further studies showed that during the first two weeks after application, rHAM+ induced, directly or indirectly, significant recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, which later differentiated to form the regenerated periodontal tissues. The ability of a single protein to bring about regeneration of all periodontal tissues, in the correct spatio-temporal order, through recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells, could pave the way for development of new therapeutic devices for treatment of periodontal, bone and ligament diseases based on recombinant amelogenin proteins.

Haze, Amir; Taylor, Angela L.; Haegewald, Stefan; Leiser, Yoav; Shay, Boaz; Rosenfeld, Eli; Gruenbaum-Cohen, Yael; Dafni, Leah; Zimmermann, Bernd; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Fisher, Larry W.; Young, Marian F.; Blumenfeld, Anat; Bernimoulin, Jean P.; Deutsch, Dan

2009-01-01

295

Reversal of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia using GM-CSF promotes bone metastasis that can be blocked with osteoclast inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic growth factors are used to reverse chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. However some factors such as GM-CSF induce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption that can promote cancer growth in bone. Accordingly, we evaluated the ability of GM-CSF to promote bone metastases of breast cancer (BrCa) or prostate cancer (PCa) in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. In this model, GM-CSF reversed cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia but also promoted BrCa and PCa growth in bone but not soft tissue sites. Bone growth was associated with induction of osteoclastogenesis, yet in the absence of tumor GM-CSF did not affect osteoclastogenesis. Two osteoclast inhibitors, the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid and the RANKL inhibitor OPG, each blocked GM-CSF-induced tumor growth in bone but did not reverse the ability of GM-CSF to reverse chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. Our findings indicate that it is possible to dissociate bone resorptive effects of GM-CSF, to reduce metastatic risk, from the benefits of this growth factor in reversing leukopenia caused by treatment with chemotherapy.

Dai, Jinlu; Lu, Yi; Yu, Chunyan; Keller, Jill M.; Mizokami, Atsushi; Zhang, Jian; Keller, Evan T.

2010-01-01

296

Yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interaction in weightlessness.  

PubMed

Both yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interactions at two separate frequencies of chair rotation (0.2 and 0.8 Hz) in combination with a single velocity of optokinetic stimulus (36 degrees/s) were used to investigate the effects of sustained weightlessness on neural strategies adopted by astronaut subjects to cope with the stimulus rearrangement of spaceflight. Pitch and yaw oscillation in darkness at 0.2 and 0.8 Hz without optokinetic stimulation, and constant velocity linear optokinetic stimulation at 18, 36, and 54 degrees/s presented relative to the head with the subject stationary, were used as controls for the visual-vestibular interactions. The results following 8 days of space flight showed no significant changes in: (1) either the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain, phase, or bias; (2) the yaw visual-vestibular response (VVR); or (3) the horizontal or vertical optokinetic (OKN) slow phase velocity (SPV). However, significant changes were observed: (1) when during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz late inflight, the contribution of the optokinetic input to the combined oculomotor response was smaller than during the stationary OKN SPV measurements, followed by an increased contribution during the immediate postflight testing; and (2) when during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz, the component of the combined oculomotor response due to the underlying vertical VOR was more efficiently suppressed early inflight and less suppressed immediately postflight compared with preflight observations. The larger OKN response during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz and the better suppression of VOR during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz postflight are presumably due to the increased role of vision early inflight and immediately after spaceflight, as previously observed in various studies. These results suggest that the subjects adopted a neural strategy to structure their spatial orientation in weightlessness by reweighting visual, otolith, and perhaps tactile/somatic signals. PMID:10436474

Clément, G; Wood, S J; Reschke, M F; Berthoz, A; Igarashi, M

1999-01-01

297

Yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interaction in weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both yaw and pitch visual-vestibular interactions at two separate frequencies of chair rotation (0.2 and 0.8 Hz) in combination with a single velocity of optokinetic stimulus (36 degrees/s) were used to investigate the effects of sustained weightlessness on neural strategies adopted by astronaut subjects to cope with the stimulus rearrangement of spaceflight. Pitch and yaw oscillation in darkness at 0.2 and 0.8 Hz without optokinetic stimulation, and constant velocity linear optokinetic stimulation at 18, 36, and 54 degrees/s presented relative to the head with the subject stationary, were used as controls for the visual-vestibular interactions. The results following 8 days of space flight showed no significant changes in: (1) either the horizontal and vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain, phase, or bias; (2) the yaw visual-vestibular response (VVR); or (3) the horizontal or vertical optokinetic (OKN) slow phase velocity (SPV). However, significant changes were observed: (1) when during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz late inflight, the contribution of the optokinetic input to the combined oculomotor response was smaller than during the stationary OKN SPV measurements, followed by an increased contribution during the immediate postflight testing; and (2) when during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz, the component of the combined oculomotor response due to the underlying vertical VOR was more efficiently suppressed early inflight and less suppressed immediately postflight compared with preflight observations. The larger OKN response during pitch VVR at 0.2 Hz and the better suppression of VOR during pitch VVR at 0.8 Hz postflight are presumably due to the increased role of vision early inflight and immediately after spaceflight, as previously observed in various studies. These results suggest that the subjects adopted a neural strategy to structure their spatial orientation in weightlessness by reweighting visual, otolith, and perhaps tactile/somatic signals.

Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Berthoz, A.; Igarashi, M.

1999-01-01

298

Medical treatment for a fish bone-induced ileal micro-perforation: A case report  

PubMed Central

Ingested fish bone induced intestinal perforations are seldom diagnosed preoperatively due to incomplete patient history taking and difficulties in image evidence identification. Most literature suggests early surgical intervention to prevent sepsis and complications resulting from fish bone migrations. We report the case of a 44-year-old man suffered from acute abdomen induced by a fish bone micro-perforation. The diagnosis was supported by computed tomography (CT) imaging of fish bone lodged in distal ileum and a history of fish ingestion recalled by the patient. Medical treatment was elected to manage the patient’s condition instead of surgical intervention. The treatment resulted in a complete resolution of abdominal pain on hospital day number 4 without complication. Factors affecting clinical treatment decisions include the nature of micro-perforation, the patient’s good overall health condition, and the early diagnosis before sepsis signs develop. Micro-perforation means the puncture of intestine wall without CT evidence of free air, purulent peritoneum or abscess. We subsequently reviewed the literature to support our decision to pursue medical instead of surgical intervention.

Kuo, Chein-Chung; Jen, Tsu-Kang; Wen, Cheng-Hsin; Liu, Chih-Ping; Hsiao, Hai-Sung; Liu, Yao-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Ho

2012-01-01

299

Appliance-induced osteopenia of dentoalveolar bone in the rat: effect of reduced bone strains on serum bone markers and the multifunctional hormone leptin.  

PubMed

To understand, in greater detail, the molecular mechanisms regulating the complex relationship between mechanical strain and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic treatment, passive cross-arch palatal springs were bonded to the maxillary molars of 6-wk-old rats, which were killed after 4 and 8 d. Outcome measures included serum assays for markers of bone formation and resorption and for the multifunctional hormone leptin, and histomorphometry of the inter-radicular bone. The concentration of the bone-formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly reduced at both time points in the appliance group, accompanied by a 50% reduction in inter-radicular bone volume; however, osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) levels remained unaffected. Bone collagen deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks increased 2.3-fold at 4 d only, indicating a transient increase in bone resorption; in contrast, the level of the osteoclast-specific marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b), was unchanged. Leptin levels closely paralleled ALP reductions at both time points, suggesting an important role in the mechanostat negative-feedback loop required to normalize bone mass. These data suggest that an orthodontic appliance, in addition to remodeling the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface, may exert unexpected side-effects on the tooth-supporting alveolar bone, and highlights the importance of recognizing that bone strains can have negative, as well as positive, effects on bone mass. PMID:24112221

Vinoth, Jayaseelan K; Patel, Kaval J; Lih, Wei-Song; Seow, Yian-San; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

2013-12-01

300

Calcium and Bone Homeostasis During 4-6 Months Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bone and calcium homeostasis are altered by weightlessness. We previously reported calcium studies on three subjects from the first joint US/Russian mission to Mir. We report here data on an additional three male subjects, whose stays on Mir were 4 (n= 1) and 6 (n=2) mos. Data were collected before, during, and after the missions. Inflight studies were conducted at 2-3 mos. Endocrine and biochemical indices were measured, along with 3-wk calcium tracer studies. Percent differences are reported compared to preflight. Ionized calcium was unchanged (2.8 +/-2.1 %) during flight. Calcium absorption was variable inflight, but was decreased after landing. Vitamin D stores were decreased 35 +/-24% inflight, similar to previous reports. Serum PTH was decreased 59 +/-9% during flight (greater than we previously reported), while 1,25(OH)(sub 2)-Vitamin D was decreased in 2 of 3 subjects. Markers of bone resorption (e.g., crosslinks) were increased in all subjects. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was decreased (n=1) or unchanged (n=2), while osteocalcin was decreased 34 +/-23%. Previously presented data showed that inflight bone loss is associated with increased resorption and unchanged/decreased formation. The data reported here support these earlier findings. These studies will help to extend our understanding of space flight-induced bone loss, and of bone loss associated with diseases such as osteoporosis or paralysis.

Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K.; Wastney, M.; Morukov, B.; Larina, I.; Abrams, S.; Lane, H.; Nillen, J.; Davis-Street, J.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

301

MKP-1 Knockout Does not Prevent Glucocorticoid-Induced Bone Disease in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GCOP) is predominantly caused by inhibition of bone formation, resulting from a decrease\\u000a in osteoblast numbers. Employing mouse (MBA-15.4) and human (MG-63) osteoblast cell lines, we previously found that the glucocorticoid\\u000a (GC) dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits cellular proliferation as well as activation of the MAPK\\/ERK signaling pathway, essential\\u000a for mitogenesis in these cells, and that both these effects could

Maria M. ConradieAndrew; Andrew C. B. Cato; William F. Ferris; Heidi de Wet; Kay Horsch; Stephen Hough

302

Osteogenic Oxysterol, 20(S)-Hydroxycholesterol, Induces Notch Target Gene Expression in Bone Marrow Stromal Cells  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that specific oxysterols stimulate osteogenic differentiation of pluripotent bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) through activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling and may serve as potential future therapies for intervention in osteopenia and osteoporosis. In this study we report that the osteogenic oxysterol 20(S)-hydroxycholesterol (20S) induces the expression of genes associated with Notch signaling. Using M2-10B4 (M2) MSCs, we found that 20S significantly induced HES-1, HEY-1, and HEY-2 mRNA expression compared with untreated cells, with maximal induction after 48 hours, whereas the nonosteogenic oxysterols did not. Similar observations were made when M2 cells were treated with sonic hedgehog (Shh), and the specific Hh pathway inhibitor cyclopamine blocked 20S-induced Notch target gene expression. 20S did not induce Notch target genes in Smo?/? mouse embryonic fibroblasts, further confirming the role of Hh signaling in 20S-induced expression of Notch target genes. Despite the inability of liver X-receptor (LXR) synthetic ligand TO901317 to induce Notch target genes in M2 cells, LXR knockdown studies using siRNA showed inhibition of 20S-induced HEY-1 but not HES-1 expression, suggesting the partial role of LXR signaling in MSC responses to 20S. Moreover, 20S-induced Notch target gene expression was independent of canonical Notch signaling because neither 20S nor Shh induced CBF1 luciferase reporter activity or NICD protein accumulation in the nucleus, which are hallmarks of canonical Notch signaling activation. Finally, HES-1 and HEY-1 siRNA transfection significantly inhibited 20S-induced osteogenic genes, suggesting that the pro-osteogenic effects of 20S are regulated in part by HES-1 and HEY-1. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

Kim, Woo-Kyun; Meliton, Vicente; Tetradis, Sotirios; Weinmaster, Gerry; Hahn, Theodore J; Carlson, Marc; Nelson, Stanley F; Parhami, Farhad

2010-01-01

303

Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

1975-01-01

304

Central Hemodynamics in Antiorthostatic Hypokinesia and Immersion Models of Weightlessness (Abstract Only).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparative study was conducted on the physiological effects of antiorthostatic hypokinesia (15 deg body angle) and dry immersion on central hemodynamics in weightlessness simulation research. The experiments were conducted over a period of 7 days with ...

V. Y. Katkov L. I. Kakurin V. V. Chestukhin E. M. Nikolayenko

1988-01-01

305

Hydromechanics and heat and mass exchange in weightlessness (Russian book): Table of contents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The table of contents is given for a book on hydromechanics and heat and mass exchange in weightlessness. The book covers such subjects as hydromechanics, convection and heat and mass exchange, and technological experiments and complicated systems.

Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Poleshayev, V. I.

1983-01-01

306

PGC1? Mediates PPAR? Activation of Osteoclastogenesis and Rosiglitazone-Induced Bone Loss  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Long-term usage of rosiglitazone, a synthetic PPAR? agonist, increases fracture rates among diabetic patients. PPAR? suppresses osteoblastogenesis while activating osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that rosiglitazone decreases bone formation while sustaining or increasing bone resorption. Using mouse models with genetically altered PPAR?, PGC1? or ERR?, here we show that PGC1? is required for the resorption-enhancing effects of rosiglitazone. PPAR? activation indirectly induces PGC1? expression by down-regulating ?-catenin and derepressing c-jun. PGC1? in turn functions as a PPAR? coactivator to stimulate osteoclast differentiation. Complementarily, PPAR? also induces ERR? expression, which coordinates with PGC1? to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and osteoclast function. ERR? knockout mice exhibit osteoclast defects, revealing ERR? as an important regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Strikingly, PGC1? deletion in osteoclasts confers complete resistance to rosiglitazone-induced bone loss. These findings identify PGC1? as an essential mediator for the PPAR? stimulation of osteoclastogenesis by targeting both PPAR? itself and ERR?, thus activating two distinct transcriptional programs.

Wei, Wei; Wang, Xueqian; Yang, Marie; Smith, Leslie C.; Dechow, Paul C.; Sonoda, Junichiro; Evans, Ronald M.; Wan, Yihong

2012-01-01

307

Effects of fatigue induced damage on the longitudinal fracture resistance of cortical bone.  

PubMed

As a composite material, cortical bone accumulates fatigue microdamage through the repetitive loading of everyday activity (e.g. walking). The accumulation of fatigue microdamage is thought to contribute to the occurrence of fragility fractures in older people. Therefore it is beneficial to understand the relationship between microcrack accumulation and the fracture resistance of cortical bone. Twenty longitudinally orientated compact tension fracture specimens were machined from a single bovine femur, ten specimens were assigned to both the control and fatigue damaged groups. The damaged group underwent a fatigue loading protocol to induce microdamage which was assessed via fluorescent microscopy. Following fatigue loading, non-linear fracture resistance tests were undertaken on both the control and damaged groups using the J-integral method. The interaction of the crack path with the fatigue induced damage and inherent toughening mechanisms were then observed using fluorescent microscopy. The results of this study show that fatigue induced damage reduces the initiation toughness of cortical bone and the growth toughness within the damage zone by three distinct mechanisms of fatigue-fracture interaction. Further analysis of the J-integral fracture resistance showed both the elastic and plastic component were reduced in the damaged group. For the elastic component this was attributed to a decreased number of ligament bridges in the crack wake while for the plastic component this was attributed to the presence of pre-existing fatigue microcracks preventing energy absorption by the formation of new microcracks. PMID:24715332

Fletcher, Lloyd; Codrington, John; Parkinson, Ian

2014-07-01

308

PGC1beta mediates PPARgamma activation of osteoclastogenesis and rosiglitazone-induced bone loss.  

PubMed

Long-term usage of rosiglitazone, a synthetic PPARgamma agonist, increases fracture rates among diabetic patients. PPARgamma suppresses osteoblastogenesis while activating osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that rosiglitazone decreases bone formation while sustaining or increasing bone resorption. Using mouse models with genetically altered PPARgamma, PGC1beta, or ERRalpha, here we show that PGC1beta is required for the resorption-enhancing effects of rosiglitazone. PPARgamma activation indirectly induces PGC1beta expression by downregulating beta-catenin and derepressing c-jun. PGC1beta, in turn, functions as a PPARgamma coactivator to stimulate osteoclast differentiation. Complementarily, PPARgamma also induces ERRalpha expression, which coordinates with PGC1beta to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis and osteoclast function. ERRalpha knockout mice exhibit osteoclast defects, revealing ERRalpha as an important regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Strikingly, PGC1beta deletion in osteoclasts confers complete resistance to rosiglitazone-induced bone loss. These findings identify PGC1beta as an essential mediator for the PPARgamma stimulation of osteoclastogenesis by targeting both PPARgamma itself and ERRalpha, thus activating two distinct transcriptional programs. PMID:20519122

Wei, Wei; Wang, Xueqian; Yang, Marie; Smith, Leslie C; Dechow, Paul C; Sonoda, Junichiro; Evans, Ronald M; Wan, Yihong

2010-06-01

309

Pyk2 Regulates Megakaryocyte-Induced Increases in Osteoblast Number and Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Pre-clinical and clinical evidence from megakaryocyte (MK) related diseases suggest that MKs play a significant role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Findings from our laboratories reveal that MKs significantly increase osteoblast (OB) number through direct MK-OB contact and the activation of integrins. We therefore examined the role of Pyk2, a tyrosine kinase known to be regulated downstream of integrins, in the MK-mediated enhancement of OBs. When OBs were co-cultured with MKs, total Pyk2 levels in OBs were significantly enhanced primarily due to increased Pyk2 gene transcription. Additionally, p53 and Mdm2 were both decreased in OBs upon MK stimulation, which would be permissive of cell cycle entry. We then demonstrated that OB number was markedly reduced when Pyk2?/? OBs, as opposed to wild-type (WT) OBs, were co-cultured with MKs. We also determined that MKs inhibit OB differentiation in the presence and absence of Pyk2 expression. Finally, given that MK replete spleen cells from GATA-1 deficient mice can robustly stimulate OB proliferation and bone formation in WT mice, we adoptively transferred spleen cells from these mice into Pyk2?/? recipient mice. Importantly, GATA-1 deficient spleen cells failed to stimulate an increase in bone formation in Pyk2?/? mice, suggesting in vivo the important role of Pyk2 in the MK-induced increase in bone volume. Further understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the MK-mediated enhancement of OB number and bone formation will facilitate the development of novel anabolic therapies to treat bone loss diseases.

Cheng, Ying-Hua; Hooker, R. Adam; Nguyen, Khanh; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita; Waning, David L.; Chitteti, Brahmananda R.; Meijome, Tomas E.; Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, Artur P.; Orschell, Christie M.; Srour, Edward F.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

310

Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers’ Understanding of Weightlessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand\\u000a the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and\\u000a related to weightlessness on science student teachers’ learning. The sample of the study was 9 volunteer student teachers\\u000a who were

Güner Tural; Ali R?za Akdeniz; Nedim Alev

2010-01-01

311

Shiga Toxin 2 Induces Macrophage-Granulocyte Colonies from Human Bone Marrow and Cord Blood Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Addition of Shiga toxin 2 to human bone marrow or cord blood cell culture induced macrophage-granulocyte colonies. Although Shiga toxin 2 alone induced colonies mainly composed of macrophages, it induced colonies mainly consisting of granulocytes when combined with physiological doses of interleukin-1?, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, or stem cell factor with interleukin-3.

Chiyoda, Shin; Takeda, Tae; Aoki, Yosuke

2002-01-01

312

Supplementation of L-arginine prevents glucocorticoid-induced reduction of bone growth and bone turnover abnormalities in a growing rat model.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment on bone turnover and bone mineral density in the growing rat. Because of the recent evidence that nitric oxide (NO) can counteract prednisolone-induced bone loss in mature rats, we examined the effect on bone of the NO donor L: -arginine in young male rats, in which bone mass is increased by the same biological mechanism as in children and adolescents. Thirty-six 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to six groups of six animals each, and treated for 4 weeks with either vehicle (once a week subcutaneous injection of 100 microl of sesame oil); prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week by intramuscular injection (i.m.); L-arginine, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) once a day; N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day; prednisolone sodium succinate 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-arginine 10 mg/kg i.p. once a day; or prednisolone sodium succinate, 5 mg/kg, 5 days per week i.m. +L-NAME 50 mg/kg subcutaneously once a day. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin, and the C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (RatLaps) were measured at baseline conditions and after 2 and 4 weeks. Prior to treatment, and after 2 and 4 weeks, the whole body, vertebral, pelvic, and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Prednisolone and prednisolone+L-NAME treated rats had significantly lower ALP and osteocalcin levels than controls at 2 and 4 weeks, and significantly higher levels of Rat-Laps than controls at 4 weeks. Prednisolone, L-NAME, and prednisolone+L-NAME produced a significant inhibition of bone accumulation and bone growth at all sites measured. Supplementation with L-arginine appeared to prevent the inhibition of bone growth and increase in bone resorption induced by prednisolone. These data would suggest, for the first time, that supplementation with an NO donor could be considered as a treatment for steroid-induced osteoporosis in the developing skeleton. PMID:15750691

Pennisi, Pietra; D'Alcamo, Maria Antonia; Leonetti, Concetta; Clementi, Anna; Cutuli, Vincenza Maria; Riccobene, Stefania; Parisi, Natalia; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

2005-01-01

313

High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p=0.06). While HDBR did not affect bAP in both EA and EB, bAP decreased significantly over time in both groups of EB (p<0.001). UCaV significantly increased during HDBR in EA (p=0.002) and EB (p=0.004) compared to the ambulatory controls. UCTX significantly increased on the second day of HDBR by 18% (p<0.001) in EA and by 27% (p=0.03) in EB. We conclude from these results that doubling dietary calcium intake from the recommended level of 1000 mg/d to 2000 mg/d does not prevent the decrease in bone formation activity and the increase of bone resorption activity in disuse-induced bone loss.

Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

314

Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.  

PubMed

Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)?induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2, RhoU/Wrch1, RhoF/Rif, Rac2, RhoG, Rnd1 and RhoBTB1), ROCK1 and ROCK2. In conclusion, podosome distribution was affected by the OPG-induced inhibition of the expression of genes in the RhoGTPase signaling pathway. This resulted in damage to or destruction of the sealing zone, thus inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. PMID:25017214

Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

2014-09-01

315

Retinoid-induced hemorrhaging and bone toxicity in rats fed diets deficient in vitamin K.  

PubMed

The recent increase in the clinical use of synthetic vitamin A compounds has led to concern of possible side effects. Some of these effects are known to be influenced by dietary levels of vitamin K. We therefore compared the toxic effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA), retinyl acetate (ROAc), and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) in male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on diets containing different levels of vitamin K. Animals were fed either an NIH-07 diet supplemented with menadione (3.1 ppm vitamin K3), an NIH-07 diet not supplemented with menadione, or an AIN-076 purified diet devoid of vitamin K. The retinoids had no effect on prothrombin times of animals fed the supplemented diet. When menadione was omitted from the diet, however, 4HPR-dosed animals had elevated prothrombin times. This effect was observed as early as Day 7 and was accompanied by one confirmed hemorrhagic death. 13cisRA-dosed animals showed no change in prothrombin times. In the high-dose ROAc group, there was a twofold increase in prothrombin times but only after prolonged dosing. In animals fed the NIH-07 diets, 13cisRA and ROAc induced multiple bone fractures at all dose levels. In contrast, 4HPR administered at the highest dose induced only one fracture in one animal. Animals fed the purified diet lost weight faster and diet sooner than those maintained on the other diets. Bone fractures were not observed in these animals because of early deaths resulting from hemorrhaging. For all retinoid-dosed groups maintained on the purified diet, changes in prothrombin times occured as early as 1 week. The order of effect was 4HPR greater than ROAc greater than 13cisRA, with increases in prothrombin times correlating with increases in hemorrhagic deaths. Hence, the degree of retinoid-induced hemorrhage, but not the incidence of bone fractures, was inversely related to vitamin K levels in the diet. 13cisRA and ROAc, but not 4HPR, caused a dose-dependent reduction in plasma osteocalcin, an effect that correlated with retinoid-induced bone effects. In contrast, serum alkaline phosphatase was elevated in animals dosed with 13cisRA or 4HPR but not in those dose with ROAc. For this enzyme, the electrophoretic pattern on agarose gel showed a decrease, compared to controls, in the major isozyme in serum of ROAc-dosed animals. Hence, plasma osteocalcin is a better predictor of retinoid-induced bone effects than serum alkaline phosphatase. PMID:2922761

McCarthy, D J; Lindamood, C; Gundberg, C M; Hill, D L

1989-02-01

316

Tripterygium hypoglaucum (level) Hutch induces aneuploidy of chromosome 8 in mouse bone marrow cells and sperm.  

PubMed

Aneuploidy of mouse chromosome 8 induced by a Chinese medicinal herb, Tripterygium hypoglaucum (level) Hutch (THH) was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in vivo. Male mice were treated with THH (single i.p. injection) at doses of 120, 240 and 480 mg/kg. Colchicine (COL, 1.5 mg/kg i.p.) was used as a positive control. Bone marrow cells and epididymal sperm were collected 24 h and 22 days after treatment, respectively. Chromosome 8 aneuploidies induced by THH in bone marrow cells and sperm were determined by FISH with a biotin-16-dUTP labelled DNA probe corresponding to the centromeric region of chromosome 8. The hybridized probe was detected with avidin-FITC. The frequencies of trisomy 8 in bone marrow cells were 0.16% in the solvent control group, 0.39% in the COL-treated group and 0.33, 0.41 and 0.41% in the THH-treated groups, respectively. The frequencies of disomy 8 sperm were 0.11% in the solvent control group, 0.27% in the COL-treated group and 0.23, 0.27 and 0.27% in the THH-treated groups, respectively. The experiment showed that induced aneuploidy frequencies were higher in bone marrow cells than in sperm with COL and the two higher doses of THH (P < 0.05). All groups were significantly different from the corresponding solvent controls (P < 0.01-0.001), but there was no dose-related increase in either cell type. Considering the present results together with our previous studies, it appears that THH is a potent mammalian aneugen which may pose a genetic risk to human patients. PMID:15388810

Xu, Wang; Ziqing, Liang; Yinrun, Ding; Xiaoyan, Wang; Jinglun, Xue

2004-09-01

317

Bone tissue engineering of induced pluripotent stem cells cultured with macrochanneled polymer scaffold.  

PubMed

A reliable source of osteogenic cells is an essential factor for bone tissue engineering. In this study, human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) without an embryoid body step were cultured in macrochanneled poly(caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds prepared using a robotic dispensing technique, after which osteogenesis was promoted by the addition of exogenous osteogenic factors. The osteogenesis of the hiPSCs was demonstrated based on the detection of osteogenic molecules, such as osteopontin, using flow cytometry analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Thereafter, the cell-scaffold constructs were transplanted into the subcutaneous site of male athymic mice. At 4 weeks after implantation, histological assays (hematoxylin & eosin staining, Alizarin red staining, and osteocalcin immunostaining) were conducted to determine the bone induction of hiPSCs. The results indicated a production of pronounced levels of extracellular matrices and their mineral deposition within the cell-scaffold implant, suggesting possible in vivo bone induction by the hiPSCs-based tissue engineering approach. The results presented here provide useful information regarding the tissue engineering of bone utilizing hiPSCs in conjunction with cell-supporting scaffolds. PMID:23065721

Jin, Guang-Zhen; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Won, Jong-Eun; Yoo, So-Young; Choi, Seong-Jun; Hyun, Jung Keun; Kim, Hae-Won

2013-05-01

318

Optimal management of cancer treatment-induced bone loss: considerations for elderly patients.  

PubMed

Hormone manipulation, commonly used in breast and prostate cancer, can result in significant bone loss. In multiple myeloma (MM), corticosteroids play an important role in therapy but increase the risk of fracture over that expected for any given bone mineral density. These adverse effects on the skeletal system are particularly relevant in the elderly population, in whom osteoporosis can significantly affect not only quality of life but also survival. The associated health and social care costs are becoming increasingly important. Screening with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and lifestyle advice on smoking, alcohol and dietary intake are essential parts of the management of patients with cancer treatment-induced bone loss. The value of exercise also cannot be underestimated. A careful drug review should be carried out to eliminate agents that may potentially exacerbate bone toxicity. Therapies to address bone toxicities include bisphosphonates, which have been shown to play an increasingly important role in preventing declines in bone health. The issues of compliance when oral agents are used should not be underestimated. Renal toxicity and osteonecrosis of the jaw are relevant toxicities, especially in the elderly. Cardiac toxicity has not been proven, but there is evidence to suggest that the suppression of bone turnover seen with some, although not all, bisphosphonates is not reversed following cessation of treatment. The implications of this finding need to be borne in mind when treating elderly patients. The possibility of atypical fractures in patients taking bisphosphonates also needs to be given consideration, although this remains a rare complication. Recently, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) ligand antibody denosumab has been shown to be of value in fracture prevention, and its subcutaneous route of administration offers a potential advantage. Oncologists should also remember that tamoxifen, which has little effect on bone integrity, remains a useful drug for breast cancer patients. A multidisciplinary approach involving the hospital specialist, general practitioner, nurse and, most importantly, the patient, family and carers should ensure that the maximal benefit is received from the anti-cancer treatment, with minimal cost to the patient. As cancer cure rates increase, late toxicity is increasingly relevant and challenging. The skeletal system warrants more research to maximize the care of all our patients, especially the elderly, who may be most at risk. PMID:22054228

Tipples, Karen; Robinson, Anne

2011-11-01

319

An IL-7-dependent rebound in thymic T cell output contributes to the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency  

PubMed Central

The bone wasting induced by estrogen deficiency is, in part, a consequence of increased T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine TNF-?. This phenomenon is due to an expansion of T cells, but the responsible mechanism is unknown. We now show that ovariectomy (ovx) disregulates T lymphopoiesis and induces bone loss by stimulating, through a rise in IL-7 levels, both thymic-dependent differentiation of bone marrow-derived progenitors and thymic-independent, peripheral expansion of mature T cells. Attesting to the relevance of the thymic effects, thymectomy decreases by ?50% the bone loss and the stimulation of T lymphopoiesis induced by ovx. In contrast, in vivo attenuation of the elevated IL-7 completely prevents the stimulation of T lymphopoiesis and the bone loss that follow ovx. Thus, the disruption of both T cell and bone homeostasis induced by ovx is mediated by IL-7 and due to both the thymic and extrathymic mechanisms. We conclude that IL-7 is a pivotal upstream target through which estrogen regulates hematopoietic and immune functions that are critical for bone homeostasis.

Ryan, Michaela Robbie; Shepherd, Rebecca; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Gao, Yuhao; Grassi, Francesco; Schnell, Frederick J.; Qian, Wei-Ping; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Pacifici, Roberto

2005-01-01

320

An IL-7-dependent rebound in thymic T cell output contributes to the bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.  

PubMed

The bone wasting induced by estrogen deficiency is, in part, a consequence of increased T cell production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine TNF-alpha. This phenomenon is due to an expansion of T cells, but the responsible mechanism is unknown. We now show that ovariectomy (ovx) disregulates T lymphopoiesis and induces bone loss by stimulating, through a rise in IL-7 levels, both thymic-dependent differentiation of bone marrow-derived progenitors and thymic-independent, peripheral expansion of mature T cells. Attesting to the relevance of the thymic effects, thymectomy decreases by approximately 50% the bone loss and the stimulation of T lymphopoiesis induced by ovx. In contrast, in vivo attenuation of the elevated IL-7 completely prevents the stimulation of T lymphopoiesis and the bone loss that follow ovx. Thus, the disruption of both T cell and bone homeostasis induced by ovx is mediated by IL-7 and due to both the thymic and extrathymic mechanisms. We conclude that IL-7 is a pivotal upstream target through which estrogen regulates hematopoietic and immune functions that are critical for bone homeostasis. PMID:16267136

Ryan, Michaela Robbie; Shepherd, Rebecca; Leavey, Jennifer K; Gao, Yuhao; Grassi, Francesco; Schnell, Frederick J; Qian, Wei-Ping; Kersh, Gilbert J; Weitzmann, M Neale; Pacifici, Roberto

2005-11-15

321

Bisphosphonate as a Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Bone Loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this research is to determine whether anti-resorptive pharmaceuticals such as bisphosphonates, in conjunction with the routine in-flight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density and bone strength and the increased renal stone risk documented on previous long-duration space flights [1-3]. Losses averaged 1 to 2 percent per month in such regions as the lumbar spine and hip. Although losses showed significant heterogeneity among individuals and between bones within a given subject, space flight-induced bone loss was a consistent finding. More than 90 percent of astronauts and cosmonauts on long-duration flights (average 171 days) aboard Mir and the ISS, had a minimum 5 percent loss in at least one skeletal site, 40 percent of them had a 10 percent or greater loss in at least one skeletal site, and 22 percent of the Mir cosmonauts experienced a 15 to 20 percent loss in at least one site. These losses occurred even though the crewmembers performed time-consuming in-flight exercise regimens. Moreover, a recent study of 16 ISS astronauts using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) demonstrated trabecular bone losses from the hip averaging 2.3 percent per month [4]. These losses were accompanied by significant losses in hip bone strength that may not be recovered quickly [5]. This rapid loss of bone mass results from a combination of increased and uncoupled remodeling, as demonstrated by increased resorption with little or no change in bone formation markers [6-7]. This elevated remodeling rate likely affects the cortical and trabecular architecture and may lead to irreversible changes. In addition to bone loss, the resulting hypercalciuria increases renal stone risk. Therefore, it is logical to attempt to attenuate this increased remodeling with anti-resorption drugs such as bisphosphonates. Success with alendronate was demonstrated in a bed rest study [8]. This work has been extended to space flight and two dosing regimens: 1) an oral dose of 70 mg of alendronate taken weekly during flight or 2) a single intravenous (IV) dose of 4 mg of zoledronic acid given several weeks before flight. Currently the study is focusing on the oral option because of NASA s safety concerns with the IV-administered drug. The protocol requests 10 male or female crewmembers on ISS flights of 90 days or longer. Controls are 16 previous ISS crewmembers with QCT scans of the hip performed by these same investigators. The primary outcome measure for this study is hip trabecular bone mineral density measured by QCT, but other measures of bone mass are performed including peripheral QCT (pQCT) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Serum and urinary bone markers and renal stone risk measured before, during, and after flight are included. Postflight data are currently being collected from 2 ISS crewmembers. Two additional crewmembers will return this spring after 6-month missions. To date no untoward effects have been encountered.

Spector, Elisabeth; LeBlanc, A.; Sibonga, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Jones, J.; Smith, S. M.; Shackelford, L.; Shapiro, J.; Lang, T.; Evans, H.; Spector, E.; Nakamura, T.; Kohri, K.; Ohshima, H.

2009-01-01

322

A prostanoid receptor EP4 agonist enhances ectopic bone formation induced by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anabolic effects of prostaglandin E2 on bone are effected through the activation of EP4, a G protein-coupled receptor. In the present study, we examined the effects of a prostanoid receptor-selective agonist (ONO-4819) in an experimental system of ectopic bone formation using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Collagen pellets containing rhBMP-2 were implanted onto the back muscles of mice

Ryuichi Sasaoka; Hidetomi Terai; Hiromitsu Toyoda; Yuuki Imai; Ryo Sugama; Kunio Takaoka

2004-01-01

323

Green tea polyphenols improve bone microarchitecture in high-fat-diet-induced obese female rats through suppressing bone formation and erosion.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on bone microarchitecture in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese female rats. Thirty-six 3-month-old female rats were fed either a control diet or a HFD for 4 months. Animals in the control group continued on the control diet for another 4 months. Animals in the HFD group were divided into two groups, with 0.5?g/100?mL GTP (the HFD+GTP group) or without GTP (the HFD group) in drinking water, in addition to the HFD for another 4 months. Compared to the control group, the HFD group increased bone formation and erosion rates at the tibia, decreased trabecular volume and thickness, but had no impact on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular number (Tb.N), and separation. Compared to the control group, the HFD+GTP group demonstrates a greater Tb.N at the proximal tibia, and a greater trabecular thickness at the femur and the lumbar vertebrae, but a smaller trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and mineralizing surface at the proximal tibia, and a reduced endocortical mineral apposition rate (MAR) at the tibia shaft. Relative to the HFD group, the HFD+GTP group demonstrates (1) a higher BMD at the femur, a greater trabecular volume, thickness, and number at the proximal tibia, a larger cortical area and thickness at the tibial shaft, and a greater trabecular volume and thickness at the femur and the lumbar vertebrae, (2) a smaller Tb.Sp, MAR, bone formation rate, and eroded surface at the tibia. We concluded that GTP supplementation in drinking water improves bone microarchitecture in the HFD-induced obese female rats, possibly through suppressing bone turnover, resulting in a larger net bone volume. PMID:23631490

Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J; Yeh, James K

2013-05-01

324

The Dose of Growth Factors Influences the Synergistic Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4-Induced Ectopic Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to act synergistically with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2 and BMP4 to promote ectopic endochondral bone formation via cell-based BMP gene therapy, the optimal ratio of VEGF to either of the BMPs required to obtain this beneficial effect remains unclear. In the current study, two cell types (C2C12, NIH/3T3) were retrovirally transduced to express BMP4 only or both BMP4 and VEGF. The resulting groups of cells were tested for their cellular proliferation, in vitro mineralization capacity, survival potential, and ability to undergo ectopic bone formation when implanted into a gluteofemoral muscle pocket created in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Results showed that VEGF inhibited the in vitro calcification of C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells transduced to express BMP4. In vivo, C2C12 and NIH/3T3 cells expressing BMP4 and VEGF displayed significantly less bone formation than the same cells expressing only BMP4. In vivo, our results indicated that, when the ratio of VEGF to BMP4 is high, a detrimental effect on ectopic bone formation is observed; however, when the ratio is kept low and constant over time, the detrimental effect that VEGF has on ectopic bone formation is lost. Our studies revealed that VEGF's synergistic role in BMP4 induced ectopic bone formation is dose and cell-type dependent, which is an important consideration for cell-based gene therapy and tissue engineering for bone healing.

Li, Guangheng; Corsi-Payne, Karin; Zheng, Bo; Usas, Arvydas; Peng, Hairong

2009-01-01

325

Micro-architectural changes in cancellous bone differ in female and male C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet-induced low bone mineral density.  

PubMed

The relationship between fat and bone mass at distinct trabecular and cortical skeletal compartments in a high-fat diet (HFD) model was studied. For this, C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups of eight animals each. Two groups, each of males and females, received a standard chow diet while the remaining other two groups received the HFD for a period of 10 weeks. Male mice on the HFD were heavier and gained more weight (15·8 %; P<  0·05) v. those on the control diet or when compared with the female rats fed the HFD. We observed an increased lipid profile in both males and females, with significantly higher lipid levels (about 20-25 %; P< 0·01) in males. However, glucose intolerance was more pronounced in females than males on the HFD (about 30 %; P< 0·05). The micro-architectural assessment of bones showed that compared with female mice on the HFD, male mice on the HFD showed more deterioration at the trabecular region. This was corroborated by plasma osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTx) levels confirming greater loss in males (about 20 %; P< 0·01). In both sexes cortical bone parameters and strength remained unchanged after 10 weeks of HFD treatment. The direct effect of the HFD on bone at the messenger RNA level in progenitor cells isolated from femoral bone marrow was a significantly increased expression of adipogenic marker genes v. osteogenic genes. Overall, the present data indicate that obesity induced by a HFD aggravates bone loss in the cancellous bone compartment, with a greater loss in males than females, although 10 weeks of HFD treatment did not alter cortical bone mass and strength in both males and females. PMID:24506951

Gautam, Jyoti; Choudhary, Dharmendra; Khedgikar, Vikram; Kushwaha, Priyanka; Singh, Ravi Shankar; Singh, Divya; Tiwari, Swasti; Trivedi, Ritu

2014-05-28

326

Chaeoglobosin Fex inhibits poly(I:C)-induced activation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) are implicated in the induction of autoimmune diseases and exist in lesions associated with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Chaeoglobosin Fex (Cha Fex), a cytochalasan-based alkaloid, was isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum QEN-14. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Cha Fex on poly(I:C)-induced bone marrow-derived DCs. The results showed that Cha Fex attenuated the production of IFN-? both at the mRNA and protein level in poly(I:C)-induced DCs. Cha Fex markedly inhibited the maturation and function of the DCs with a reduced capacity to uptake antigens and low level of expression of costimulatory molecules. Moreover, Cha Fex abrogated the ability of poly(I:C)-induced DCs to promotion of T cell proliferation, Furthermore, Cha Fex inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B-? and IRF-3 in poly(I:C)-induced DCs. Cha Fex also reduced the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK, without affecting ERK1/2. These data demonstrate that that Cha Fex can exhibit an immunosuppressive effect on mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) via TLR3 signaling, which suggests potential application of Cha Fex in the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases. PMID:22424786

Sun, Lin; Hua, Chunyan; Yang, Yonghong; Dou, Huan; Li, Erguang; Tan, Renxiang; Hou, Yayi

2012-06-01

327

Cysteine: A Novel Neural Inducer for Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Objective Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into various cell types. Since cysteine has structural similarities to neuronal inducers ?-mercaptoethanol and glutathione, we examined its effect on neural induction of rat bone marrow MSCs. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, cells were treated in a medium containing 1mM cysteine for 24 hours prior to treatment with neuron inducing medium containing 10 mM cysteine for 1, 2 and 3 hours. Cell viability and morphology were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and, Hoechst, propidium iodide and acridine orange staining respectively. Expression of nestin and ?-Tubulin III genes, as neural cell-specific markers, was studied reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data was statistically analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey’s test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results After 3 hours of treatment, neuron like morphology with a considerable expression of nestin and ?-Tubulin III genes was apparent. The mean cell viability was not significantly different at 1, 2 and 3 hours following induction, compared with the control cells. Conclusion Cysteine can induce neural features in rat bone marrow MSCs without reducing cell viability. Therefore, it can be considered as a safer alternative to toxic neural inducer agents such as ?-mercaptoethanol.

Soleimani Mehranjani, Malek; Chian, Milad Falahat

2014-01-01

328

Dexamethasone-Induced Oxidative Stress Enhances Myeloma Cell Radiosensitization While Sparing Normal Bone Marrow Hematopoiesis1  

PubMed Central

Dexamethasone (Dex) and radiation therapy are established modalities in multiple myeloma. In this study, we propose a novel combination of Dex plus radiation that shows superior clonogenic cell killing and apoptosis of myeloma cells and selectively eliminates myeloma cells when cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Dex was found to inhibit the release of interleukin-6 from irradiated BMSCs, which is an established myeloma cell proproliferative cytokine. In 5TGM1 model, the combination of Dex with skeletal targeted radiotherapy (153-Sm-EDTMP) prolonged median survival time and inhibited radiation-induced myelosuppression. A two-cycle treatment of Dex plus 153-Sm-EDTMP was well tolerated and further improved median survival time. Mechanistically, Dex increased superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and augmented radiation-induced oxidative stress and cell death of myeloma cells. In contrast, Dex inhibited radiation-induced increase in pro-oxidant levels and enhanced the clonogenic survival in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Treatment with either N-acetylcysteine or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase, and PEG-catalase significantly protected myeloma cells from Dex-induced clonogenic death. Overall, these results demonstrate that Dex in combination with radiotherapy enhances the killing of myeloma cells while protecting normal bone marrow hematopoiesis through a mechanism that involves selective increases in oxidative stress.

Bera, Soumen; Greiner, Suzanne; Choudhury, Amit; Dispenzieri, Angela; Spitz, Douglas R; Russell, Stephen J; Goel, Apollina

2010-01-01

329

Temporal response of bone to unloading  

SciTech Connect

A model of weightlessness in which the hindlimbs of rats are elevated by their tails at a 40 degrees angle to unload the hindlimbs while maintaining normal weight bearing on the forelimbs has been used to simulate certain conditions of space flight. When we used this model in growing rats, we found that growth in bone weight ceased by 1 week in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae, whereas growth in bone weight in the forelimbs and cervical vertebrae remained unaffected. Within 2 weeks, however, the accretion of bone weight in the hindlimbs and lumbar vertebrae returned to normal despite continued skeletal unloading. Since bone weight in the growing rat is primarily determined by bone formation (bone resorption is modest), we investigated the effects of selective skeletal unloading on bone formation during 2 weeks of hindlimb elevation using radioisotope incorporation (with /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline) and histomorphometry (with tetracycline labeling). The studies using radioisotope incorporation showed that bone formation was inhibited by the fifth day of skeletal unloading. By the 10th to 12th day, bone formation had returned toward normal. In comparison with cortical bone, cancellous bone (lumbar vertebrae and proximal tibiae) incorporated more /sup 45/Ca and (/sup 3/H)proline (indicating greater metabolic activity) and had a greater absolute response to skeletal unloading. The results of these studies were confirmed by histomorphometric measurements of bone formation using triple tetracycline labeling. We conclude that this model of simulated weightlessness results in an initial inhibition of bone formation in the unloaded bones. This temporary cessation of bone formation is followed by a cessation in the accretion of bone weight, which then resumes at a normal rate by 14 days despite continued skeletal unloading.

Globus, R.K.; Bikle, D.D.; Morey-Holton, E.

1986-02-01

330

Second All-Union Seminar on Hydromechanics and Heat-Mass Transfer in Weightlessness. Abstracts of reports: Table of contents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts of reports are given which were presented at the Second All Union Seminar on Hydromechanics and Heat-Mass Transfer in Weightlessness. Topics inlcude: (1) features of crystallization of semiconductor materials under conditions of microacceleration; (2) experimental results of crystallization of solid solutions of CDTE-HGTE under conditions of weightlessness; (3) impurities in crystals cultivated under conditions of weightlessness; and (4) a numerical investigation of the distribution of impurities during guided crystallization of a melt.

Gershuni, G. Z.; Zhukhovitskiy, Y. M.

1984-01-01

331

[Treatment of malignant or aggressive bone tumors with microwave induced hyperthermia].  

PubMed

Limb-sparing procedures have been well established for dealing with malignant bone tumors. Unfortunately, these procedures have different problems. We used an alternative operation combined with microwave-induced hyperthemia to modify the surgical methods. Thermotherapy with microwave intracorporeal irradiation was used to treat 112 patients with bone tumors. In this series, 79 had malignant tumors and 33 aggressive benigh tumors. Postoperatively, immune therapy was carried out regularly. The patients immunologic functions were monitored by assay of the subpopulation of T cells, IL-2 and sIL-2R (soluble IL-2 receptor). Follow-up varied from 3 to 50 months (mean 23 month) s. Excluding 5 patients with malignancy in the vertebrae treated for palliation, 107 were evaluated by oncological and orthopedic criteria. 10 patients had local recurrence and required amputation. The remaining 97 had excellent local control. In 12 of the 74 patients with malignancy of the extremities, lung metastasis occurred 4 months to 2 years after surgery. Pathological fracture occurred at devitalized bone in 8 patients. In 29 out of 40 tumor-free cases followed for more than 2 years, the knee joints functioned properly with almost full range of motion. Single photon emission computered tomography (SPECT) study revealed revascularization of the devitalized tumor bearing bone segment could accomplish in one year or more. The immune state was improved after thermotherapy plus immunotherapy in the majority of patients. These results indicated that the use of microwave hyperthermia and adjuvant immunotherapy in the surgical treatment of bone tumors can be considered a definitive procedure, which is safe and well-tolerated. PMID:10678071

Fan, Q; Ma, B; Guo, A

1997-08-01

332

Effect of calcitonin on anastrozole-induced bone pain during aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate calcitonin as an effective therapy for osteoporosis in patients with bone pain during the anastrozole treatment of breast cancer. Ninety-one patients, who were on anastrozole treatment for breast cancer and also suffered anastrozole-induced bone pain, were randomly divided into two groups: the calcitonin group received salmon calcitonin and Caltrate D, and the control group received Caltrate D. All patients were evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and underwent the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry test for bone mineral density (BMD), and serum osteocalcin (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) were measured at three months before and after the treatment. Significant differences in serum Ca, P, BGP, and ALP were found in each group between before and after treatment (P < 0.05), while no differences between the calcitonin and control groups were found. No difference was observed in femur BMD between the two groups, or between before and after treatment in each group. There was a significant difference in spine BMD between before and after treatment in the control group (P < 0.05) but not in the calcitonin group, while no difference was found between the calcitonin and control groups. Futhermore, VAS score significantly declined in each group after treatment (P < 0.05), but much more in the calcitonin group than the control group (P < 0.05). Our finding suggests that calcitonin may alleviate bone pain during the anastrozole treatment of breast cancer but has no effect on bone loss during cancer treatment. PMID:25078584

Liu, P; Yang, D Q; Xie, F; Zhou, B; Liu, M

2014-01-01

333

Effect of resveratrol on chromosomal aberrations induced by doxorubicin in rat bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (RES) on doxorubicin (DXR) induced rat bone marrow cell chromosome aberrations. RES, a polyphenolic compound, has attracted considerable attention because of its antioxidant and antimutagenic effects. DXR, a chemotherapeutic agent, is known to cause chromosomal aberrations in healthy cells in cancer patients. In this study, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 6 groups with 6 animals each. The control group received distilled water i.p. and the DXR group received an i.p. injection of doxorubicin (90mg/kgbw). For the 2 RES dose groups (12.5 and 25mg/kgbw, respectively), RES was injected i.p. 5 times during the 24h study period to coincide with the schedule for the DXR+RES groups. The DXR-RES groups received DXR (90mg/kgbw) and RES at either 12.5 or 25mg/kgbw, i.p. 30min before, concurrently, and then every 6h after DXR administration. Bone marrow collection was timed to coincide with 24h after DXR administration in all groups. RES administration alone did not induce any significant increase in frequency of chromosome aberrations or abnormal metaphases compared with controls (p>0.05) while DXR alone did (p<0.05). In the DXR-RES 12.5mg/kgbw group, frequency of chromosome aberrations and abnormal metaphases were slightly reduced compared to DXR alone, but this was not statistically significant. However, in the DXR-RES 25mg/kgbw group, RES resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the frequency of chromosome aberrations and abnormal metaphases compared to those induced by DXR alone (p<0.05). These results indicate that RES (25mg/kgbw) significantly reduces frequency of DXR induced chromosome damage in bone marrow cells. PMID:24713549

Bingöl, Günsel; Gülkaç, Mehmet Do?an; Dillio?lugil, Meltem Özlen; Polat, Fikriye; Kanli, Aylin Özön

2014-05-15

334

Gradient structural bone-like apatite induced by chitosan hydrogel via ion assembly.  

PubMed

Polymers with negatively charged groups (-COOH, -OH or -PO(4)H(2)) were frequently adopted to induce or promote apatite deposition through electrostatic interaction. However, chitosan with positively charged groups (-NH(2)) was ignored, although it could bind most of metal ions through chelation. Based on the chelation properties of the amino group, a chitosan hydrogel obtained via physical cross-linking was used as template for ion assembly. Gradient structural bone-like apatite induced by chitosan hydrogel was achieved via ion assembly within a few hours under ambient conditions, in which amino groups of chitosan acted as anchors between chitosan and apatite nucleation. The phase and component of bone-like apatite were similar to apatite in rabbit ribs according to XRD patterns and FT-IR spectra. XRD results revealed that bone-like apatite was carbonated apatite and preferred growth orientation in the direction of c-axis. The profile of elements distribution in chitosan suggested that the content of calcium and phosphorous elements decreased with the increase of depth along the radius direction, which was accompanied by the formation of apatite-rich regions near the outer layer. When chitosan was dipped in calcium ions solution, Ca(2+) ions bound amino groups of chitosan and formed chitosan/calcium ions complexes (CS-NH(2)…Ca(2+)). CS-NH(2)…Ca(2+) subsequently attracted negatively-charged phosphate ions through electrostatic interaction. When ion assembly finished, Ca and P ions in the chitosan hydrogel converted into ACP with Ca/P ratio of 1.19. ACP converted into bone-like apatite with Ca/P ratio of 2.01 after alkali treatment. PMID:20566043

Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yongliang; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

2011-01-01

335

Extract of Magnoliae Flos inhibits ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by blocking osteoclastogenesis and reducing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.  

PubMed

Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Osteoporosis occurs when osteoclast activity surpasses osteoblast activity. Pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulate osteoclast differentiation and activity by increasing production of macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL). In this study, we investigated whether Magnoliae Flos (MF), one of the most commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs for managing rhinitis, sinusitis and headache, could effectively inhibit osteoporosis. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice compared to sham mice, the body weight increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b, calcium, and osteocalcin were significantly elevated. However, orally administrated MF extract substantially inhibited the increased body weight and serum levels of bone turnover markers, without any evidence of tissue toxicity. MF extract treatment significantly reversed the morphometric parameters of ovariectomy-induced bone loss, including trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, separation, and bone density, to almost the same levels of the sham mice. Furthermore, MF extract reduced the RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by inhibiting the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsin K in mouse bone marrow macrophages. MF extract appeared to increase ALP activity in murine osteoblastic cells. Taken together, MF extract may be a beneficial supplement for the blockade of osteoporosis progression, particularly for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:22981503

Jun, Ah Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Son, Kun Ho; Lee, Dong Hwa; Woo, Mi-Hee; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Sang Kook; Chung, Won-Yoon

2012-12-01

336

In-Vivo Effect of Andrographolide on Alveolar Bone Resorption Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Its Relation with Antioxidant Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20?mg/kg and 10?mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1?:?1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20?mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P < 0.05). We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.

Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H.; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M. Jamil

2013-01-01

337

Response to muscular exercise following repeated simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of 10-d 6-deg-head-down bed rest (BR1), 14 d of recovery, another 10 d bed rest (BR2), and another 14-d recovery on the cardiovascular response to a graded supine cycle ergometer test (4 min unloaded 60-rpm pedaling followed by 15-W/min increasing work load to volitional fatigue) are investigated experimentally in seven male nonsmokers of mean age 41 yrs, mean weight 80.2 kg, mean height 178 cm, and mean body fat content 22.3 percent. Ergometer tests are performed before BR1, after BR1 and BR2, and 14 d after BR2. The results are presented in tables, and it is found that the significantly decreased maximum-O2-uptake, gas-exchange-aerobic-threshold, and plasma-volume responses and the increased submaximal and maximal heart rates observed (relative to pre-BR1 levels) after BR1 and BR2 return to pre-BR1 values 14 d after BR2. It is inferred that 14 d of mild exercise are adequate for recovery from even repeated exposure to this type of simulated weightlessness.

Convertino, V. A.; Kirby, C. R.; Karst, G. M.; Goldwater, D. J.

1985-01-01

338

Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Walton, K.

1998-01-01

339

Water immersion and its computer simulation as analogs of weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental studies and computer simulations of water immersion are summarized and discussed with regard to their utility as analogs of weightlessness. Emphasis is placed on describing and interpreting the renal, endocrine, fluid, and circulatory changes that take place during immersion. A mathematical model, based on concepts of fluid volume regulation, is shown to be well suited to simulate the dynamic responses to water immersion. Further, it is shown that such a model provides a means to study specific mechanisms and pathways involved in the immersion response. A number of hypotheses are evaluated with the model related to the effects of dehydration, venous pressure disturbances, the control of ADH, and changes in plasma-interstitial volume. By inference, it is suggested that most of the model's responses to water immersion are plausible predictions of the acute changes expected, but not yet measured, during space flight. One important prediction of the model is that previous attempts to measure a diuresis during space flight failed because astronauts may have been dehydrated and urine samples were pooled over 24-hour periods.

Leonard, J. I.

1982-01-01

340

Noggin is novel inducer of mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis: implications for bone health and obesity.  

PubMed

Noggin is a glycosylated-secreted protein known so far for its inhibitory effects on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling by sequestering the BMP ligand. We report here for the first time a novel mechanism by which noggin directly induces adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells independently of major human adipogenic signals through C/EBP?, C/EBP? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?. Evaluation of a possible mechanism for noggin-induced adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells identified the role of Pax-1 in mediating such differentiation. The relevance of elevated noggin levels in obesity was confirmed in a preclinical, immunocompetent mouse model of spontaneous obesity and in human patients with higher body mass index. These data clearly provide a novel role for noggin in inducing adipogenesis and possibly obesity and further indicates the potential of noggin as a therapeutic target to control obesity. PMID:22351751

Sawant, Anandi; Chanda, Diptiman; Isayeva, Tatyana; Tsuladze, George; Garvey, W T; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

2012-04-01

341

Plumbagin inhibits osteoclastogenesis and reduces human breast cancer-induced osteolytic bone metastasis in mice through suppression of RANKL signaling.  

PubMed

Bone loss is one of the major complications of advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma; agents that can suppress this bone loss have therapeutic potential. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a major role in cancer-associated bone resorption and thus is a therapeutic target. We investigated the potential of vitamin K3 analogue plumbagin (derived from Chitrak, an Ayurvedic medicinal plant) to modulate RANKL signaling, osteoclastogenesis, and breast cancer-induced osteolysis. Plumbagin suppressed RANKL-induced NF-?B activation in mouse monocytes, an osteoclast precursor cell, through sequential inhibition of activation of I?B? kinase, I?B? phosphorylation, and I?B? degradation. Plumbagin also suppressed differentiation of these cells into osteoclasts induced either by RANKL or by human breast cancer or human multiple myeloma cells. When examined for its ability to prevent human breast cancer-induced bone loss in animals, plumbagin (2 mg/kg body weight) administered via the intraperitoneal route significantly decreased osteolytic lesions, resulting in preservation of bone volume in nude mice bearing human breast tumors. Overall, our results indicate that plumbagin, a vitamin K analogue, is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis induced by tumor cells and of breast cancer-induced osteolytic metastasis through suppression of RANKL signaling. PMID:22090419

Sung, Bokyung; Oyajobi, Babatunde; Aggarwal, Bharat B

2012-02-01

342

Plumbagin Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Reduces Human Breast Cancer-induced Osteolytic Bone Metastasis in Mice through Suppression of RANKL Signaling  

PubMed Central

Bone loss is one of the major complications of advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma; agents that can suppress this bone loss have therapeutic potential. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a major role in cancer-associated bone resorption, and thus is a therapeutic target. We investigated the potential of vitamin K3 analogue plumbagin (derived from Chitrak, an Ayurvedic medicinal plant), to modulate RANKL signaling, osteoclastogenesis and breast cancer–induced osteolysis. Plumbagin suppressed RANKL-induced NF-?B activation in mouse monocytes, an osteoclast precursor cell, through sequential inhibition of activation of I?B? kinase, I?B? phosphorylation and I?B? degradation. Plumbagin also suppressed differentiation of these cells into osteoclasts induced either by RANKL or by human breast cancer or human multiple myeloma cells. When examined for its ability to prevent human breast cancer–induced bone loss in animals, plumbagin (2 mg/kg body weight), when administered via the intraperitoneal route, significantly decreased osteolytic lesions resulting in preservation of bone volume in nude mice bearing human breast tumors. Overall, our results indicate that plumbagin, a vitamin K analogue, is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis induced by tumor cells and of breast cancer–induced osteolytic metastasis through suppression of RANKL signaling.

Sung, Bokyung; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

2011-01-01

343

Bone Marrow and Nonbone Marrow Toll Like Receptor 4 Regulate Acute Hepatic Injury Induced by Endotoxemia  

PubMed Central

Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in immune cells and hepatocytes. We examined whether hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in the acute hepatic injury caused by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (septic shock model). Methods Wild type (WT), TLR4-deficient and chimera mice underwent myeloablative bone marrow transplantation to dissociate between TLR4 expression in the liver or in the immune-hematopoietic system. Mice were injected with LPS and sacrificed 4 hours later. Results Compared to TLR4 deficient mice, WT mice challenged with LPS displayed increased serum liver enzymes and hepatic cellular inflammatory infiltrate together with increased serum and hepatic levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) ,Up-regulation of hepatic mRNA encoding TLR4, I?B and c-jun expressions. TLR4 mutant mice transplanted with WT bone marrow were more protected than WT chimeric mice bearing TLR4 mutant hemopoietic cells from LPS, as seen by IL-1? and TNF? levels. We then used hepatocytes (Huh7) and macrophages from monocytic cell lines to detect TLR mRNA expression. Macrophages expressed a significantly higher level of TLR4 mRNA and TLR2 (more than 3000- and 8000-fold respectively) compared with the hepatocyte cell line. LPS administration induced TLR4 activation in a hepatocyte cell line in a dose dependent manner while TLR2 mRNA hardly changed. Conclusions These results suggest that TLR4 activation of hepatocytes participate in the immediate response to LPS induced hepatic injury. However, in this response, the contribution of TLR4 on bone marrow derived cells is more significant than those of the hepatocytes. The absence of the TLR4 gene plays a pivotal role in reducing hepatic LPS induced injury.

Hochhauser, Edith; Avlas, Orna; Fallach, Reut; Bachmetov, Larissa; Zemel, Romy; Pappo, Orit; Shainberg, Asher; Ben Ari, Ziv

2013-01-01

344

Implantation of silicon dioxide-based nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and pure phase beta-tricalciumphosphate bone substitute granules in caprine muscle tissue does not induce new bone formation  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoinductive bone substitutes are defined by their ability to induce new bone formation even at heterotopic implantation sites. The present study was designed to analyze the potential osteoinductivity of two different bone substitute materials in caprine muscle tissue. Materials and methods One gram each of either a porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) or an hydroxyapatite/silicon dioxide (HA/SiO2)-based nanocrystalline bone substitute material was implanted in several muscle pouches of goats. The biomaterials were explanted at 29, 91 and 181 days after implantation. Conventional histology and special histochemical stains were performed to detect osteoblast precursor cells as well as mineralized and unmineralized bone matrix. Results Both materials underwent cellular degradation in which tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast-like cells and TRAP-negative multinucleated giant cells were involved. The ß-TCP was completely resorbed within the observation period, whereas some granules of the HA-groups were still detectable after 180 days. Neither osteoblasts, osteoblast precursor cells nor extracellular bone matrix were found within the implantation bed of any of the analyzed biomaterials at any of the observed time points. Conclusions This study showed that ß-TCP underwent a faster degradation than the HA-based material. The lack of osteoinductivity for both materials might be due to their granular shape, as osteoinductivity in goat muscle has been mainly attributed to cylindrical or disc-shaped bone substitute materials. This hypothesis however requires further investigation to systematically analyze various materials with comparable characteristics in the same experimental setting.

2013-01-01

345

Antileukemic therapies induce cytogenetic changes of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BM-HCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) may have cytogenetic aberrations in leukemic\\u000a patients, and anti-leukemic therapy may induce cytogenetic remission of BM-HCs. The impact of anti-leukemic therapy on BM-MSCs\\u000a remains unknown. Cytogenetic studies of BM-MSCs from 15 leukemic patients with documented cytogenetic abnormalities of BM-HCs\\u000a were investigated. To see the influence of anti-leukemic therapy on

Su-Peng Yeh; Wen-Jyi Lo; Chiao-Lin Lin; Yu-Min Liao; Chen-Yuan Lin; Li-Yuan Bai; Ji-An Liang; Chang-Fang Chiu

346

Cytokine-induced killer cells eradicate bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.  

PubMed

Unresectable metastatic bone sarcoma and soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are incurable due to the inability to eradicate chemoresistant cancer stem-like cells (sCSC) that are likely responsible for relapses and drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the preclinical activity of patient-derived cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against autologous bone sarcoma and STS, including against putative sCSCs. Tumor killing was evaluated both in vitro and within an immunodeficient mouse model of autologous sarcoma. To identify putative sCSCs, autologous bone sarcoma and STS cells were engineered with a CSC detector vector encoding eGFP under the control of the human promoter for OCT4, a stem cell gene activated in putative sCSCs. Using CIK cells expanded from 21 patients, we found that CIK cells efficiently killed allogeneic and autologous sarcoma cells in vitro. Intravenous infusion of CIK cells delayed autologous tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Further in vivo analyses established that CIK cells could infiltrate tumors and that tumor growth inhibition occurred without an enrichment of sCSCs relative to control-treated animals. These results provide preclinical proof-of-concept for an effective strategy to attack autologous sarcomas, including putative sCSCs, supporting the clinical development of CIK cells as a novel class of immunotherapy for use in settings of untreatable metastatic disease. PMID:24356422

Sangiolo, Dario; Mesiano, Giulia; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Leuci, Valeria; Todorovic, Maja; Giraudo, Lidia; Cammarata, Cristina; Dell'Aglio, Carmine; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Pisacane, Alberto; Sarotto, Ivana; Miano, Sara; Ferrero, Ivana; Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Pignochino, Ymera; Sassi, Francesco; Bertotti, Andrea; Piacibello, Wanda; Fagioli, Franca; Aglietta, Massimo; Grignani, Giovanni

2014-01-01

347

Curcumin Protects against Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Changes in Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease affecting both men and women especially in postmenopausal women. Curcumin possesses many medicinal properties. In this study, thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to determine the potential effect of curcumin in prevention of bone loss following ovariectomy. The animals were divided into Sham group, ovariectomised control, ovariectomised treated with curcumin 110?mg/kg and ovariectomised treated with Premarin 100??g/kg. The treatments were given via daily oral gavages for 60 days. The structural parameters such as bone volume, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and trabecular separation were found to be deteriorated in ovariectomised rats compared to Sham group. Moreover, the reduced osteoblast count, the increased osteoclast count and increased eroded surface were found in ovariectomised groups. Treatment with curcumin was able to reverse all these ovariectomy-induced deteriorations. Curcumin treatment was as effective as Premarin in most parameters except the bone volume and eroded surface, which were better than Premarin. The high dose of curcumin treatment was not only able to reduce the osteoclast number but also increase the osteoblast count. Therefore, the potential effect of curcumin can be applied as an alternative to oestrogen for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Hussan, Farida; Ibraheem, Nawwar Ghassan; Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Othman, Faizah

2012-01-01

348

SR-BI in Bone Marrow Derived Cells Protects Mice from Diet Induced Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis and Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

SR-BI deficient mice that are also hypomorphic for apolipoprotein E expression develop diet induced occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and early death. To test the role of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells, we used bone marrow transplantation to generate SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice in which SR-BI expression was restored solely in bone marrow derived cells. SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice were transplanted with SR-BI+/+apoE-hypomorphic, or control, autologous SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic bone marrow. Four weeks later, mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol, cholate-containing diet to induce coronary artery atherosclerosis. Mice transplanted with autologous bone marrow developed extensive aortic atherosclerosis and severe occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis after 4 weeks of feeding. This was accompanied by myocardial fibrosis and increased heart weights. In contrast, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived-cells reduced diet induced aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis and the increase in heart weights in SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice. Restoration of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells did not, however, affect steady state lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but did reduce plasma levels of IL-6. Monocytes from SR-BI-null mice exhibited a greater capacity to bind to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 than those from SR-BI+/+ mice. Furthermore, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived cells attenuated monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques in mice fed high fat, high cholesterol cholate containing diet. These data demonstrate directly that SR-BI in bone marrow-derived cells protects against both aortic and CA atherosclerosis.

Pei, Ying; Chen, Xing; Aboutouk, Dina; Fuller, Mark T.; Dadoo, Omid; Yu, Pei; White, Elizabeth J.; Igdoura, Suleiman A.; Trigatti, Bernardo L.

2013-01-01

349

Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF-2) Potentiates BMP-9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Formation  

PubMed Central

Efficient osteogenic differentiation and bone formation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) should have clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing. MSCs are adherent bone marrow stromal cells that can self-renew and differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic lineages. We have identified bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9) as one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Here we investigate the effect of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) on BMP-9-induced bone formation. We have found that endogenous IGF-2 expression is low in MSCs. Expression of IGF-2 can potentiate BMP-9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of later markers. IGF-2 has been shown to augment BMP-9-induced ectopic bone formation in the stem cell implantation assay. In perinatal limb explant culture assay, IGF-2 enhances BMP-9-induced endochondral ossification, whereas IGF-2 itself can promote the expansion of the hypertropic chondrocyte zone of the cultured limb explants. Expression of the IGF antagonists IGFBP3 and IGFBP4 leads to inhibition of the IGF-2 effect on BMP-9-induced ALP activity and matrix mineralization. Mechanistically, IGF-2 is further shown to enhance the BMP-9-induced BMPR-Smad reporter activity and Smad1/5/8 nuclear translocation. PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 abolishes the IGF-2 potentiation effect on BMP-9-mediated osteogenic signaling and can directly inhibit BMP-9 activity. These results demonstrate that BMP-9 crosstalks with IGF-2 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combination of BMP-9 and IGF-2 may be explored as an effective bone-regeneration agent to treat large segmental bony defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Chen, Liang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Jiayi; He, Bai-Cheng; Zuo, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Luo, Qing; Shi, Qiong; Zhang, Bing-Qiang; Wagner, Eric R; Luo, Jinyong; Tang, Min; Wietholt, Christian; Luo, Xiaoji; Bi, Yang; Su, Yuxi; Liu, Bo; Kim, Stephanie H; He, Connie J; Hu, Yawen; Shen, Jikun; Rastegar, Farbod; Huang, Enyi; Gao, Yanhong; Gao, Jian-Li; Zhou, Jian-Zhong; Reid, Russell R; Luu, Hue H; Haydon, Rex C; He, Tong-Chuan; Deng, Zhong-Liang

2010-01-01

350

Space flight and bone formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major physiological changes which occur during spaceflight include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiovascular and immune response alterations. When trying to determine the reason why bone loss occurs during spaceflight, one must remember that all these other changes in physiology and metabolism may also have impact on the skeletal system. For bone, however, the role of normal weight bearing is a major concern and we have found no adequate substitute for weight bearing which can prevent bone loss. During the study of this problem, we have learned a great deal about bone physiology and increased our knowledge about how normal bone is formed and maintained. Presently, we do not have adequate ground based models which can mimic the tissue loss that occurs in spaceflight but this condition closely resembles the bone loss seen with osteoporosis. Although a normal bone structure will respond to application of mechanical force and weight bearing by forming new bone, a weakened osteoporotic bone may have a tendency to fracture. The study of the skeletal system during weightless conditions will eventually produce preventative measures and form a basis for protecting the crew during long term space flight. The added benefit from these studies will be methods to treat bone loss conditions which occur here on earth.

Doty, St B.

2004-01-01

351

Characterization of blood drawn rapidly for use in blood volume expansion studies: An animal model for simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was demonstrated that up to 8ml of blood can be drawn from donar rats without significantly increasing volume and stress sensitive hormones, and thus can be used for volume expansion studies. Infusion of whole blood allows more physiological changes that can be seen with volume expansion by saline or other ionic solutions. The infusion of whole blood to induce hypervolemia may provide an improved model to study the fluid balance and control mechanisms operative in weightlessness. Blood samples were drawn as quickly as possible from femoral artery catheters chronically implanted in Sprague Dawley rats and analyzed for hematocrit, plasma sodium, potassium, osmolality, corticosterone, epinepherine, norepinephrine, and vasopressin. The levels were found to be comparable to those of normal rats.

Chenault, V. Michelle; Lynch, Colleen D.; Morris, Mariana; Clodfelter, Jill; Hutchins, Phillip M.

1990-01-01

352

Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers' Understanding of Weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and related to weightlessness on science student teachers' learning. The sample of the study was 9 volunteer student teachers who were in their first grade in Science Teaching Program in Fatih Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered to find answers to the research questions. Findings revealed that all physics textbooks reviewed gave gravitational definition of weight. Also the concept of weightlessness hasn't been covered in high school and some university textbooks. It was determined that before the implementation student teachers had non-scientific explanations about weightlessness. The implementation of the 5E teaching model and materials developed are effective on learning the weightlessness. It is suggested that similar applications can also be used in other physics subjects or in other fields of science.

Tural, Güner; Akdeniz, Ali R?za; Alev, Nedim

2010-10-01

353

Effects of simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow specifically during cardiovascular stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant changes in the cardiovasular system of humans and animals have been observed following exposure to prolonged periods of weightlessness during space flight. Although adaption to weightlessness is relatively uncomplicated, marked changes in cardiovascular deconditioning become evident upon return to normal gravity, including orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. Some evidence that myocardial degeneration occurs has been demonstrated in animals who have been immobilized for two months. Also, evidence of possible loss of myocardial mass following manned space flight has been obtained by means of echocardiographic studies. These findings have serious implications in light of the increasing frequency and duration of Space Shuttle missions and the prospect of extended space station missions in the future. A number of both military and civilian investigators, including middle-aged scientists, will probably encounter prolonged periods of weightlessness. It has been imperative, therefore, to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on cardiovascular deconditioning and whether such effects are cumulative or reversible. The research project conducted under NASA Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-126 was undertaken to determine the effects of prolonged simulated weightlessness on regional blood flow. Research results are reported in the three appended publications.

Harrison, D. C.

1986-01-01

354

Motor coordination in weightless conditions revealed by long-term microgravity adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional approach to studying human motor systems attempts to give a better understanding of the processes behind planning movements and their coordinated performance by relying on weightlessness as a particularly enlightening experimental condition. Indeed, quantitative monitoring of sensorimotor adaptation of subjects exposed to weightlessness outlines the functional role of gravity in motor and postural organization. The recent accessibility of the MIR Space Station has allowed for the first time experimental quantitative kinematic analysis of long-term sensorimotor and postural adaptation to the weightless environment though opto-electronic techniques. In the frame of the EUROMIR'95 Mission, two protocols of voluntary posture perturbation (erect posture, EP; forward trunk bending, FTB) were carried out during four months of microgravity exposure. Results show that postural strategies for quasistatic body orientation in weightlessness are based on the alignment of geometrical body axes (head and trunk) along external references. A proper whole body positioning appears to be recovered only after months of microgravity exposure. By contrast, typically terrestrial strategies of co-ordination between movement and posture are promptly restored and used when performing motor activities in the weightless environment. This result is explained under the assumption that there may be different sensorimotor integration processes for static and dynamic postural function and that the organisation of coordinated movement might rely stably on egocentric references and kinematic synergies for motor control.

Baroni, Guido; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Massion, Jean; Pedotti, Antonio

2001-08-01

355

Particle-induced osteolysis is not accompanied by systemic remodeling but is reflected by systemic bone biomarkers.  

PubMed

Particle-induced osteolysis is caused by an imbalance in bone resorption and formation, often leading to loss of implant fixation. Bone remodeling biomarkers may be useful for identification of osteolysis and studying pathogenesis, but interpretation of biomarker data could be confounded if local osteolysis engenders systemic bone remodeling. Our goal was to determine if remote bone remodeling contributes to biomarker levels. Serum concentrations of eight biomarkers and bone remodeling rates at local (femur), contiguous (tibia), and remote (humerus and lumbar vertebra) sites were evaluated in a rat model of particle-induced osteolysis. Serum CTX-1, cathepsin K, PINP, and OPG were elevated and osteocalcin was suppressed in the osteolytic group, but RANKL, TRAP 5b, and sclerostin were not affected at the termination of the study at 12 weeks. The one marker tested longitudinally (CTX-1) was elevated by 3 weeks. We found increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation locally, subtle differences in contiguous sites, but no differences remotely at 12 weeks. Thus, the skeletal response to local particle challenge was not systemic, implying that the observed differences in serum biomarker levels reflect differences in local remodeling. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:967-973, 2014. PMID:24604767

Ross, R D; Virdi, A S; Liu, S; Sena, K; Sumner, D R

2014-07-01

356

Metal ions induce bone-resorbing cytokine production through the redox pathway in synoviocytes and bone marrow macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the biological reactions to metal ions potentially released from prosthetic implants, we examined the ability of metal ions to produce bone-resorbing cytokines and the underlying mechanism using synoviocytes and bone marrow (BM) macrophages. The cells were incubated with NiCl2, CoCl2, CrCl3 or Fe2(SO4)3 at optimal concentrations, which are detectable in joint fluid following total joint arthroplasty. The production

Yasuo Niki; Hideo Matsumoto; Yasunori Suda; Toshiro Otani; Kyosuke Fujikawa; Yoshiaki Toyama; Noriyuki Hisamori; Akira Nozue

2003-01-01

357

Protection against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liu, W-C., Wang, S-C., Tsai, M-L., Chen, M-C., Wang, Y-C., Hong, J-H., McBride, W. H. and Chiang, C-S. Protec- tion against Radiation-Induced Bone Marrow and Intestinal Injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese Herbal Medicine. Radiat. Res. 166, 900-907 (2006). Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body

Wei-Chung Liu; Shu-Chi Wang; Min-Lung Tsai; Meng-Chi Chen; Ya-Chen Wang; Ji-Hong Hong; William H. McBride; Chi-Shiun Chiang

2006-01-01

358

Increased fat due to estrogen deficiency induces bone loss by elevating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced estrogen withdrawal resulted in both bone loss and an increase in fat. We observed elevated osteoclast\\u000a (OC) formation by bone marrow-derived macrophages treated with medium conditioned by fats from OVX mice, but not from sham-operated\\u000a mice. Fats from OVX mice expressed and secreted higher levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) than those from\\u000a sham-operated mice. Increased fat resulting

Youn-Young Kim; Song-Hee Kim; Sora Oh; Ok-Joo Sul; Hye-Young Lee; Hyun-Ju Kim; Shin-Yoon Kim; Hye-Seon Choi

2010-01-01

359

Concentrated autologous bone marrow aspirate transplantation treatment for corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate concentrated autologous bone marrow aspirate transplantation (CABMAT) treatment\\u000a for corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Bone marrow was\\u000a aspirated from iliac crests, concentrated on a conventional manual blood bag centrifugation technique that is used to extract\\u000a buffy coats and then injected into nine hips with drilling.

Tomokazu Yoshioka; Hajime Mishima; Hiroshi Akaogi; Shinsuke Sakai; Meihua Li; Naoyuki Ochiai

2011-01-01

360

Synergistic effects of green tea polyphenols and alphacalcidol on chronic inflammation-induced bone loss in female rats  

PubMed Central

Summary Studies suggest that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol is promising agent for preventing bone loss. Findings that GTP supplementation plus alphacalcidol administration increased bone mass via a decrease of oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a significant role of GTP plus alphacalcidol in bone health of patients with chronic inflammation. Introduction Studies have suggested that green tea polyphenols (GTP) or alphacalcidol are promising dietary supplements for preventing bone loss in women. However, the mechanism(s) related to the possible osteo-protective role of GTP plus D3 in chronic inflammation-induced bone loss is not well understood. Methods This study evaluated bioavailability, efficacy, and related mechanisms of GTP in combination with alphacalcidol in conserving bone loss in rats with chronic inflammation. A 12-week study of 2 (no GTP vs. 0.5% GTP in drinking water) × 2 (no alphacalcidol vs. 0.05 ?g/kg alphacalcidol, 5×/week) factorial design in lipopolysaccharide-administered female rats was performed. In addition, a group receiving placebo administration was used to compare with a group receiving lipopolysaccharide administration only to evaluate the effect of lipopolysaccharide. Results Lipopolysaccharide administration resulted in lower values for bone mass, but higher values for serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine, and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2 in spleen. GTP supplementation increased urinary epigallocatechin and epicatechin concentrations. Both GTP supplementation and alphacalcidol administration resulted in a significant increase in bone mass, but a significant decrease in serum TRAP levels, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels, and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-? and cyclooxygenase-2 in spleen. A synergistic effect of GTP and alphacalcidol was observed in these parameters. Neither GTP nor alphacalcidol affected femoral bone area or serum osteocalcin. Conclusion We conclude that a bone-protective role of GTP plus alphacalcidol during chronic inflammation bone loss may be due to a reduction of oxidative stress damage and inflammation.

Yeh, J. K.; Cao, J. J.; Tatum, O. L.; Dagda, R. Y.; Wang, J.-S.

2010-01-01

361

Temporal gene expression profiling during rat femoral marrow ablation-induced intramembranous bone regeneration.  

PubMed

Enhanced understanding of differential gene expression and biological pathways associated with distinct phases of intramembranous bone regeneration following femoral marrow ablation surgery will improve future advancements regarding osseointegration of joint replacement implants, biomaterials design, and bone tissue engineering. A rat femoral marrow ablation model was performed and genome-wide microarray data were obtained from samples at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28, and 56 days post-ablation, with intact bones serving as controls at Day 0. Bayesian model-based clustering produced eight distinct groups amongst 9,062 significant gene probe sets based on similar temporal expression profiles, which were further categorized into three major temporal classes of increased, variable, and decreased expression. Osteoblastic- and osteoclastic-associated genes were found to be significantly expressed within the increased expression groups. Chondrogenesis was not detected histologically. Adipogenic marker genes were found within variable/decreased expression groups, emphasizing that adipogenesis was inhibited during osteogenesis. Differential biological processes and pathways associated with each major temporal group were identified, and significantly expressed genes involved were visually represented by heat maps. It was determined that the increased expression group exclusively contains genes involved in pathways for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Wnt signaling, TGF-? signaling, and inflammatory pathways. Only the variable expression group contains genes associated with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, the notch signaling pathway, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and the B cell receptor signaling pathway. The decreased group exclusively consists of genes involved in heme biosynthesis, the p53 signaling pathway, and the hematopoietic cell lineage. Significant biological pathways and transcription factors expressed at each time point post-ablation were also identified. These data present the first temporal gene expression profiling analysis of the rat genome during intramembranous bone regeneration induced by femoral marrow ablation. PMID:20957030

Wise, Joel K; Sena, Kotaro; Vranizan, Karen; Pollock, Jacob F; Healy, Kevin E; Hughes, W Frank; Sumner, D Rick; Virdi, Amarjit S

2010-01-01

362

Temporal Gene Expression Profiling during Rat Femoral Marrow Ablation-Induced Intramembranous Bone Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Enhanced understanding of differential gene expression and biological pathways associated with distinct phases of intramembranous bone regeneration following femoral marrow ablation surgery will improve future advancements regarding osseointegration of joint replacement implants, biomaterials design, and bone tissue engineering. A rat femoral marrow ablation model was performed and genome-wide microarray data were obtained from samples at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28, and 56 days post-ablation, with intact bones serving as controls at Day 0. Bayesian model-based clustering produced eight distinct groups amongst 9,062 significant gene probe sets based on similar temporal expression profiles, which were further categorized into three major temporal classes of increased, variable, and decreased expression. Osteoblastic- and osteoclastic-associated genes were found to be significantly expressed within the increased expression groups. Chondrogenesis was not detected histologically. Adipogenic marker genes were found within variable/decreased expression groups, emphasizing that adipogenesis was inhibited during osteogenesis. Differential biological processes and pathways associated with each major temporal group were identified, and significantly expressed genes involved were visually represented by heat maps. It was determined that the increased expression group exclusively contains genes involved in pathways for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), Wnt signaling, TGF-? signaling, and inflammatory pathways. Only the variable expression group contains genes associated with glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, the notch signaling pathway, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and the B cell receptor signaling pathway. The decreased group exclusively consists of genes involved in heme biosynthesis, the p53 signaling pathway, and the hematopoietic cell lineage. Significant biological pathways and transcription factors expressed at each time point post-ablation were also identified. These data present the first temporal gene expression profiling analysis of the rat genome during intramembranous bone regeneration induced by femoral marrow ablation.

Wise, Joel K.; Sena, Kotaro; Vranizan, Karen; Pollock, Jacob F.; Healy, Kevin E.; Hughes, W. Frank; Sumner, D. Rick; Virdi, Amarjit S.

2010-01-01

363

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r-/-) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r-/- mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r+/+ mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r-/- mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r-/- mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z.; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D.

2013-11-01

364

Study of Histopathological and Molecular Changes of Rat Kidney under Simulated Weightlessness and Resistance Training Protective Effect  

PubMed Central

To explore the effects of long-term weightlessness on the renal tissue, we used the two months tail suspension model to simulate microgravity and investigated the simulated microgravity on the renal morphological damages and related molecular mechanisms. The microscopic examination of tissue structure and ultrastructure was carried out for histopathological changes of renal tissue morphology. The immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms associated the observations. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed severe pathological kidney lesions including glomerular atrophy, degeneration and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in two months tail-suspended rats. Ultrastructural studies of the renal tubular epithelial cells demonstrated that basal laminas of renal tubules were rough and incrassate with mitochondria swelling and vacuolation. Cell apoptosis in kidney monitored by the expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 accompanied these pathological damages caused by long-term microgravity. Analysis of the HSP70 protein expression illustrated that overexpression of HSP70 might play a crucial role in inducing those pathological damages. Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), one of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, was up-regulated significantly in the kidney of tail suspension rat, which implied that ER-stress was associated with apoptosis. Furthermore, CHOP and caspase-12 pathways were activated in ER-stress induced apoptosis. Resistance training not only reduced kidney cell apoptosis and expression of HSP70 protein, it also can attenuate the kidney impairment imposed by weightlessness. The appropriate optimization might be needed for the long term application for space exploration.

Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; Abdelalim, Saed; Du, Fang; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Tan, Cheng; Wang, Huijuan; Chen, Wenjuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

2011-01-01

365

The effects of an antiosteoporosis herbal formula containing epimedii herba, ligustri lucidi fructus and psoraleae fructus on density and structure of rat long bones under tail-suspension, and its mechanisms of action.  

PubMed

An innovative anti-osteoporosis herbal formula containing epimedii herba, ligustri lucidi fructus and psoraleae fructus (ELP) has been previously shown its bone protecting effects in ovariectomized osteoporotic rats and also in post-menopausal osteopenic women. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of ELP against bone loss during physical inactivity or weightlessness. A hindlimb unloading tail-suspended rat model was used for studying the effects of ELP on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone micro-architecture. For in vitro mechanistic studies, rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were used for studying the effects of ELP on osteogenic/adipogenic differentiations and osteoclastogenesis, respectively. Our data illustrated that ELP had a significant preventive effect against bone loss induced by tail-suspension (TS) at day 28 (p?bone micro-architecture. ELP could significantly promote the osteogenesis and suppress the adipogenesis (p?bone loss induced by TS through the actions of enhancing osteogenesis, suppressing adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22628292

Siu, Wing-Sum; Wong, Hing-Lok; Lau, Ching-Po; Shum, Wai-Ting; Wong, Chun-Wai; Gao, Si; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Hung, Leung-Kim; Ko, Chun-Hay; Leung, Ping-Chung

2013-04-01

366

Bone morphogenetic proteins and receptors are over-expressed in bone-marrow cells of multiple myeloma patients and support myeloma cells by inducing ID genes.  

PubMed

We assessed the expression pattern and clinical relevance of BMPs and related molecules in multiple myeloma (MM). MM bone-marrow samples (n=32) had increased BMP4, BMP6, ACVR1 and ACVR2A, and decreased NOG expression compared with controls (n=15), with BMP6 having the highest sensitivity/specificity. Within MM bone-marrow, the source of BMPs was mainly CD138(+) plasma-cell population, and BMP6 and ACVR1 expression correlated with plasma-cell percentage. Using myeloma cell lines NCI H929 and Thiel we showed that BMPs induced ID1, ID2 and IL6, and suppressed CDKN1A and BAX gene expression, and BAX protein expression. Finally, BMPs partially protected myeloma cells from bortezomib- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We concluded that BMPs may be involved in MM pathophysiology and serve as myeloma cell biomarkers. PMID:19926132

Grcevi?, Danka; Kusec, Rajko; Kovaci?, Natasa; Luki?, Anita; Luki?, Ivan Kresimir; Ivcevi?, Sanja; Nemet, Damir; Seiwerth, Ranka Serventi; Ostoji?, Slobodanka Koloni?; Croucher, Peter I; Marusi?, Ana

2010-06-01

367

Soluble Jagged 1\\/Fc chimera protein induces the differentiation and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble Jagged 1\\/Fc chimera protein (Jagged 1\\/Fc) was directly used to induce differentiation and maturation of bone marrow-derived\\u000a dendritic cells (DCs) in mice in vitro. A model of inducing and amplifying DCs in vitro was established. The effect of Jagged 1\\/Fc on morphology of DCs induced by both rmGM-CSF and rmIL-4 was observed under a\\u000a confocal microscope. A fluorescein-labeled

FeiYue Xing; Jing Liu; Zhe Yu; YuHua Ji

2008-01-01

368

Effect of weightlessness conditions on the somatic embryogenesis in the culture of carrot cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A carrot cell culture seeded in Petri dishes in the United States and transported to the USSR was subjected to weightlessness for 20 days during the flight of Kosmos 782. The controls were cultures placed on a centrifuge (1 g) inside the satellite and cultures left on ground in the U.S.S.R. and the United States. A count of structures in the dishes after the flight showed that the number of developing embryonic structures and the extent of their differentiation in weightlessness did not reliably differ from the number and extent of differentiation in structures developed on the ground. Structures with long roots developed in weightlessness. Analysis of the root zones showed that these roots differed by the increased size of the zone of differentiated cells. The increased size of the zones of differentiated cells can indicate earlier development of embryonic structures.

Butenko, R. G.; Dmitriyeva, N. N.; Ongko, V.; Basyrova, L. V.

1977-01-01

369

Influences of chemical sympathectomy and simulated weightlessness on male and female rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to a study aimed at determining whether the sympathetic nervous system is associated with the changes in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), run time, and mechanical efficiency observed during simulated weightlessness in male and female rats. Female and male rats were compared for food consumption, body mass, and body composition in conditions of simulated weightlessness to provide an insight into how these parameters may influence aerobic capacity and exercise performance. It is concluded that chemical sympathectomy and/or a weight-bearing stimulus will attenuate the loss in VO2max associated with simulated weightlessness in rats despite similar changes in body mass and composition. It is noted that the mechanisms remain unclear at this time.

Woodman, Christopher R.; Stump, Craig S.; Stump, Jane A.; Sebastian, Lisa A.; Rahman, Z.; Tipton, Charles M.

1991-01-01

370

Research into Students' Views About Basic Physics Principles in a Weightless Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research project, students are asked to explain what they think would occur if some everyday events were to take place in a weightless environment. The purpose of the study is to investigate: 1) whether students can understand the concept of "weightlessness"; and 2) how the level of understanding of such events develops as students progress from high school to college. We have investigated the nature of students' perceptions of the weightlessness concept by asking four open-ended questions and by conducting semi-structured interviews in the case of incomplete answers. The results show that most students lack a sense of "order of magnitude" when they imagine an experience different from what they are familiar with in daily life. We also describe the mental images that the students form, and the physical relations that the students infer from these images.

Gürel, Zeynep; Acar, Hatice

371

Effect of weightlessness and centrifugation on red cell survival in rats subjected to space flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 936 for 18.5 d during August, 1977. Five rats were subjected to near-weightless space flight, as with Cosmos 782, and five rats were subjected to a 1-G force via an on-board centrifuge. These rats and three control groups were injected with 2-(C-14) glycine 19 d preflight. The flight rats were recovered from orbit after 18.5 d of space flight. Erythrocyte hemolysis and lifespan were evaluated in the five groups of rats by quantitation of radioactive carbon monoxide exhaled in the breath which arises from the breakdown of the previously labeled hemoglobin. The results support the previous findings wherein hemolysis was found to increase as a result of weightless space flight. A comparison to the centrifuged animals indicates that artificial gravity attenuates the effect of weightlessness on hemolysis and appears to normalize the hemolytic rate in the early postflight period.

Leon, H. A.; Serova, L. V.; Landaw, S. A.

1980-01-01

372

Decreased swelling pressure of rat nucleus pulposus associated with simulated weightlessness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data are presented on the effects of actual and simulated weightlessness on the swelling pressure of nucleus pulposus in rats exposed to 12.5 days of flight aboard Cosmos 1887 or to seven days of tail suspension, respectively. The flight-exposed rats were adapted to normal gravity for over 50 hrs prior to sacrifice and tissue harvesting. In the experiments with flight-exposed rats, swelling pressures were 690, 675, and 622 mm Hg for flight rats, synchronous controls, and vivarium controls, respectively. In experiments with simulated weightlessness, swelling pressures were 295, 610, and 527 mm Hg for tail-suspended rats, cage controls, and vivarium controls, respectively, suggesting that fluid moves into the disc during seven days of simulated weightlessness.

Hargens, Alan R.; Mahmood, Mubashar

1989-01-01

373

Use of eletronic speckle pattern interferometers for the analysis of convective states of liquids in weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometry has always been a powerful tool to diagnose the response of liquids when changes of status parameters induce modifications in their optical properties. Interferometric measurements are based on the ability to measure variations in the optical path length around a reference configuration. Investigations done so far on heat convention driven by capillary forces indicate that the observation of both the bulk phase and of the free surface is instrumental for understanding the physical mechanisms steering the heat transfer phenomena in 'weightless liquids.' When used in space applications, conventional interferometers suffer some fundamental drawbacks because of the severe requirements in terms of the mechanical stability of the optical elements. Holographic interferometry removes the most stringent limitations of classical interferometry, but requires precise positioning of the recording plate, with accuracy better than half a wavelength. The superior feature of an electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) is that it enables real time correlation fringes to be recorded by a video camera and displayed on a television monitor, without recourse to any form of photographic processing or plate relocation. This comparative ease of operation enables the technique of electronic speckle pattern interferometry to be extended to considerably more complex problems of deformation analysis and measurement of refractive index modulation. Since it basically works as a time differential interferometer, measurements can always be referred to a well known configuration and condition of the test sample, reducing or even eliminating the requirements on mechanical stability. We describe how a double-path ESPI is accommodated within the optical diagnostics of a microgravity payload, fluid physics facility, due for launch in 1999 on the Russian retrievable capsule Foton. The ESPI here described enables one to observe and quantify the deformation of the free surface of a liquid subjected to a thermal gradient. Motions induced by the convective flows in the bulk phase can be monitored at the same time. The main features of the ESPI are presented together with design outlines and optical performances.

Verga, Antonio; Baglioni, Pietro; Dupont, Olivier; Dewandel, Jean-Luc; Beuselinck, Tom; Bouwen, Jan

1998-07-01

374

Use of electronic speckle pattern interferometers for the analysis of convective states of liquids in weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometry has always been a powerful tool to diagnose the response of liquids, when changes of status parameters induce modifications in their optical properties. Interferometric measurements are based on the ability to measure variations, around a reference configuration, in the optical path length or the refractive index. Investigations done so far on heat convection driven by capillary forces, indicate that the observation of both the bulk phase and of the free surface, is instrumental for the understanding of the physical mechanisms steering the heat transfer phenomena in 'weightless liquids'. When used in space application, conventional interferometers suffer of some fundamental drawbacks, because of the severe requirements in terms of mechanical stability of the optical elements. Holographic interferometry removes the most stringent limitations of classical interferometry, but requires precise positioning of the recording plate, with accuracy better than half a wavelength. The superior feature of an electronic speckle pattern interferometer (ESPI) is that it enables real time correlation fringes to be recorded by a video camera and displayed on a television monitor, without recourse to any form of photographic processing or plate relocation. This comparative ease of operation allows the technique of ESPI to be extended to considerably more complex problems of deformation analysis and measurement of refractive index modulation. Since it basically works as a time differential interferometer, measurements can always be referred to a well known configuration and condition of the test sample, reducing or even eliminating the requirements on mechanical stability. This paper describes how double-path ESPI are accommodated within the optical diagnostics of a microgravity payload, fluid physics facility, due to launch in 1998 on the Russian retrievable capsule FOTON. The two- ESPI layout permits one to observe and quantify the deformation of the free surface of a liquid subjected to a thermal gradient.Motions induced by the convective flows in the bulk phase can be monitored at the same time. The main features of the ESPI are presented together with design outlines and optical performances.

Verga, Antonio; Baglioni, Pietro; Dupont, Olivier; Dewandel, J. L.; Beuselinck, Tom; Bouwen, J.

1997-11-01

375

Influence of proprioceptive information on space orientation on the ground and in orbital weightlessness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conscious space orientation depends on afferent information from different sense organs including the labyrinth, the eyes, tactile cues from the skin, joint receptors, muscle spindles, tendon organs and possibly viscera. An important role is played by impulses from the cervical position receptors in interaction with concomitant information from the otolith system. In order to isolate the effect of cervical position receptors from that of the otolith system, space experiments in orbital weightlessness and in parabolic aircraft flight were performed. It was found that stimulation of the neck receptors in weightlessness markedly influences the perception of the subjective vertical and horizontal and in addition has a weak effect on ocular torsion.

von Baumgarten, R.; Kass, J.; Vogel, H.; Wetzig, J.

376

Osteopontin-Deficient Mice are Resistant to Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteopontin is one of the major noncollagenous bone matrix proteins produced by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, bone cells that are uniquely responsible for the remodeling of mineralized tissues. Osteoclasts express the alpha vbeta 3 integrin, which is one of the receptors for osteopontin. Recent knockout studies revealed that noncollagenous bone matrix proteins are functionally important in regulation of bone metabolism. However,

Hiroyuki Yoshitake; Susan R. Rittling; David T. Denhardt; Masaki Noda

1999-01-01

377

Sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations induced by radiosensitizing agents in bone marrow cells of treated tumor-bearing mice  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in vivo and chromosome aberrations and/or alterations were analyzed from the bone marrow cells of the treated dbrB tumor-bearing DBA/1J inbred mouse host. The results were compared with analogous data obtained from the bone marrow cells of untreated tumor-bearing mice for evaluation of the ''indirect,'' i.e., somatic stress, effect on the normal host cells following triple-agent therapy intended for a mammary adenocarcinoma. Misonidazole (MIS), which is a known radiosensitizing drug, microwave hyperthermia (delta), and X-radiation (X) were used as therapeutic agents. Significant (P less than 0.05) numbers of SCE were induced in the bone marrow cells of the mice whose tumors received these triple-agent treatments (MIS + delta + X) simultaneously as compared with values of SCE per cell noted in bone marrow cells of untreated tumor-bearing control mice. The highest number of chromosome aberrations and alterations, including an increase in heteroploidy, was also noticed in the bone marrow cells of the mice whose tumors were treated simultaneously with MIS + delta + X. The triple-agent therapy on dbrB tumor also resulted in an unusually high polyploid metaphase plate in the bone marrow cell consisting of 320 chromosomes, indicating that this mode of therapy may act directly on the genetic material of the tumor-bearing host cells, inducing cytogenetic abnormalities as a side effect.

Banerjee, R.; Goldfeder, A.; Mitra, J.

1983-03-01

378

Bone formation in vivo induced by Cbfa1-carrying adenoviral vectors released from a biodegradable porous ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overexpression of Cbfa1 (a transcription factor indispensable for osteoblastic differentiation) is expected to induce the formation of bone directly and indirectly in vivo by accelerating osteoblastic differentiation. Adenoviral vectors carrying the cDNA of Cbfa1/til-1(Adv-Cbf1) were allowed to be adsorbed onto porous blocks of ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP), a biodegradable ceramic, which were then implanted subcutaneously and orthotopically into bone defects. The adenoviral vectors were released sustainingly by biodegradation, providing long-term expression of the genes. Results of the subcutaneous implantation of Adv-Cbfa1-adsorbed ?-TCP/osteoprogenitor cells suggest that a larger amount of bone formed in the pores of the implant than in the control material. Regarding orthotopic implantation into bone defects, the released Adv-Cbfa1 accelerated regeneration in the cortical bone, whereas it induced bone resorption in the marrow cavity. A safer gene transfer using a smaller amount of the vector was achieved using biodegradable porous ?-TCP as a carrier.

Uemura, Toshimasa; Kojima, Hiroko

2011-06-01

379

The Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Pathway, Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein Inhibitors, and Their Roles in Bone Repair and Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are oxygen-dependent transcriptional activators that play crucial roles in angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, energy metabolism, and cell fate decisions. The group of enzymes that can catalyse the hydroxylation reaction of HIF-1 is prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs). PHD inhibitors (PHIs) activate the HIF pathway by preventing degradation of HIF-? via inhibiting PHDs. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are tightly coupled during bone repair and regeneration. Numerous studies suggest that HIFs and their target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are critical regulators of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. In this brief perspective, we review current studies about the HIF pathway and its role in bone repair and regeneration, as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Additionally, we briefly discuss the therapeutic manipulation of HIFs and VEGF in bone repair and bone tumours. This review will expand our knowledge of biology of HIFs, PHDs, PHD inhibitors, and bone regeneration, and it may also aid the design of novel therapies for accelerating bone repair and regeneration or inhibiting bone tumours.

Fan, Lihong

2014-01-01

380

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells induce monocyte emigration in response to circulating Toll-like receptor ligands  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory (Ly6Chi CCR2+) monocytes provide defense against infections but also contribute to autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. Monocytes originate from bone marrow and their entry into the bloodstream requires stimulation of CCR2 chemokine receptor by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1). How monocyte emigration from bone marrow is triggered by remote infections remains unclear. We demonstrated that low concentrations of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in the bloodstream drive CCR2-dependent emigration of monocytes from bone marrow. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, including CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells, rapidly expressed MCP1 in response to circulating TLR ligands or bacterial infection and induced monocyte trafficking into the bloodstream. Targeted deletion of MCP1 from MSCs impaired monocyte emigration from bone marrow. Our findings suggest that bone marrow MSCs and CAR cells respond to circulating microbial molecules and regulate bloodstream monocyte frequencies by secreting MCP1 in proximity to bone marrow vascular sinuses.

Shi, Chao; Jia, Ting; Mendez-Ferrer, Simon; Hohl, Tobias M.; Serbina, Natalya V.; Lipuma, Lauren; Leiner, Ingrid; Li, Ming O.; Frenette, Paul S.; Pamer, Eric G.

2011-01-01