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1

Proposed Second Watertown-Brookings 115-KV Transmission Line, Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program. South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the proposed construction of a 45-mile second 115-kv Transmission Line between Watertown and Brookings, South Dakota, in Codington, Deuel and Brookings Counties. The line is scheduled for completion in 1976. A summary of environmental...

1972-01-01

2

Proposed Lyman-Torrington 115-KV Transmission Line and Torrington Substation, Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program. Wyoming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project entails constructing, from the Lyman Substation in the vicinity of Yoder to Torrington (Goshen County), Wyoming, a 115-kv transmission line with 12.5 miles of wood pole and 0.7 of a mile of aesthetically designed steel structures; and construc...

1972-01-01

3

Proposed Lyman-Torrington 115-KV Transmission Line and Torrington Substation-Pick-Sloan Missouri, Basin Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project entails constructing a 115-kv transmission line with 12.3 miles of wood pole and one mile of steel structures at Torrington, Wyoming. The removal and/or trimming of trees will cause a minor adverse impact on wildlife habitat. The landscape wil...

1972-01-01

4

Proposed Second Watertown-Brookings 115-KV Transmission Line, Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program. South Dakota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction is proposed of a 45-mile second 115-kv transmission line between Watertown and Brookings, South Dakota, in Codington, Deuel and Brookings Counties. Wood-pole, H-frame, structures with three conductors and two overhead static wires are planned...

1973-01-01

5

Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

NONE

1996-05-01

6

Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes  

SciTech Connect

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

Not Available

1989-10-01

7

Transmission eigenvalues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

2013-10-01

8

Transmission Eigenvalues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave in an inhomogeneous medium is modeled by the scattering problem for the Helmholtz equation. A transmission eigenvalue is a wavenumber at which the scattering operator has a non-trivial kernel or cokernel. Because many sampling methods for locating scatterers succeed only at wavenumbers that are not transmission eigenvalues, they have been studied for some

Lassi Päivärinta; John Sylvester

2008-01-01

9

Transmission decisions  

SciTech Connect

As the US FERC moves forward to implement the transmission access provisions of the National Energy Policy Act of 1992, the debate over Regional Transmission Groups continues. Independent energy producers have much at stake in this debate and their reaction to the general RTG concept and to specific RTG proposals will weigh heavily in determining the fate of these proposals.

Ellison, C.T. (Grueneich, Ellison Schneider, Sacramento, CA (United States))

1993-03-01

10

Prion transmission  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years.

Maddison, Ben C

2010-01-01

11

Automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the

M. Miura; T. Inuzuka

1986-01-01

12

Overdrive transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the

1986-01-01

13

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

14

Overdrive transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

Miller, G.F.

1986-02-04

15

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01

16

Down hole transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical

David R. Hall; Hall Jr. H. Tracy

2007-01-01

17

Tetanus: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Causes and Transmission Tetanus is an infection caused by bacteria called ... CDC-INFO Tetanus Homepage About Tetanus Causes and Transmission Symptoms and Complications Diagnosis and Treatment Prevention Photos ...

18

Superconducting Microwave Transmission Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superconducting microwave transmission lines can be designed to have lower loss, lower dispersion, and lower phase velocity than conventional metal lines. These properties make superconducting transmission lines attractive for use in many devices and syst...

C. P. McClay P. S. Weitzman S. Soares

1991-01-01

19

Automated manual transmission controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1999-12-28

20

RF Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. After completing this module, learners will be able to describe the type of transmission lines needed in RF systems and how transmission lines work together with other RF system components to deliver maximum power while maintaining reflected power. They also learn how to interpret transmission line specifications, select a transmission line for a given application, calculate transmission line power losses, and measure standing wave ratio. Finally, this module will use visual examples and present industry best practices for identifying type of connectors used with transmission lines and procedures for transmission line testing and troubleshooting.

2012-12-07

21

Radio Transmission Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper divides naturally into three sections. The first section briefly analyses the radio transmission circuit into (a) the sending or radiating portion, (b) the transmitting portion consisting of the ether path thru which the radiated waves travel, and (c) the receiving portion. The relation of these from the standpoint of the radio transmission engineer is discussed, pointing out the

R. Bown; C. R. Englund; H. T. Friis

1923-01-01

22

Transatlantic Radio Telephone Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports upon measurements of trans-Atlantic radio transmission which had been made during the past two years in a study of the possibilities of trans-Atlantic radio telephony. These measurements cover several different frequencies in the range below 60 kilocycles in both directions across the Atlantic and represent probably the most comprehensive study yet made of any transmission path. An

L. Espenschied; C. N. Anderson; A. Bailey

1926-01-01

23

Tubular steel transmission structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that through the use of tubular steel products, transmission lines can be built economically when comparing this product against other products such as wood, lattice steel, tapered and other formed steel poles. H-frame, single and double circuit, single pole and Y-guyed structure designs has shown that the design of the tubular structure at all transmission voltage levels

H. Heerspink

1995-01-01

24

Priority Encoding Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called Priority Encoding Transmission,for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. Whena message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value foreach part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodesthe message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possiblymultiple) receivers. The priority value of each part of the messagedetermines the

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1994-01-01

25

Priority encoding transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called priority encoding transmission, for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. When a message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value for each part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodes the message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possibly multiple) receivers. The priority value of each

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1996-01-01

26

Power transmission in vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission in a vehicle in which a power plant having a rear hanger portion is mounted on a body frame having a pair of frame members extending downwardly generally aft of the engine, and the power of the power plant is transmitted to a driving wheel through a continuous loop transmission mechanism.

Oike, I.; Hiasa, T.

1987-06-09

27

Stereo sequence transmission via conventional transmission channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new stereo sequence transmission technique using digital watermarking for compatibility with conventional 2D digital TV. We, generally, compress and transmit image sequence using temporal-spatial redundancy between stereo images. It is difficult for users with conventional digital TV to watch the transmitted 3D image sequence because many 3D image compression methods are different. To solve such a

Ho-Keun Lee; Chul-Hwan Kim; Kyu-Phil Han; Yeong-Ho Ha

2003-01-01

28

Cestode transmission patterns.  

PubMed

The paradox of high prevalence but low probability of having an egg develop to an adult has been resolved by the evolution of 3 major and basic strategies involving transmission: evolution of life cycles interpolated into host biology; presentation of infective stages that increase probability of contact between host and parasite; and increase in reproductive potential. The rarity of direct cycles confirms that cycles in themselves, with at least 2 hosts, are a key element of cestode success because they provide a vehicle for dispersal and transmission of infective stages. Transmission is primarily by passive stages that become incorporated through intermediate hosts or accidentally in the food chain. High host specificity results from efficient transmission pathways but may represent a fragile system for the evolution of the species. Probability of transmission is increased through diversity of intermediate hosts, making eggs more susceptible to ingestion and by behavioral manipulation of hosts by parasite stages. Spatial and temporal aspects of transmission may be increased through paratenesis. Asexual proliferation of immature stages is uncommon and is favored where there is selective predation; such proliferation may be part of a transmission strategy of colonial cestodes that require high infrapopulations in order to survive. Hyperapolysis may be part of a transmission strategy used by the Tetraphyllidea, Trypanorhyncha, and Lecanicephalidea to increase proglottid production. The dynamics of transmission for cestodes of humans and domestic animals require a different perspective than those of wild hosts. All strategies are reviewed within the framework of certain cestode morphological and ecological constraints. A total of 11 figures and 48 references complements the text. PMID:3282055

Mackiewicz, J S

1988-02-01

29

Superconducting microwave transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting microwave transmission lines can be designed to have lower loss, lower dispersion, and lower phase velocity than conventional metal lines. These properties make superconducting transmission lines attractive for use in many devices and systems such as filters and analog to digital converters. The problem with designing microwave circuits which utilizes these lines is that accurate circuit models do not exist. This paper present models for the microwave transmission line parameters (phase velocity, attenuation, and characteristic impedance) of superconducting lines as a function of temperature and geometry. An experiment to verify these models is also presented.

McClay, C.P.; Soares, S.; Weitzman, P.S.

1991-10-01

30

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...

31

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... available scientific data concerning the safety of products which may be at risk for transmission of ... Division of Communication and Consumer Affairs. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/bloodvaccinesandotherbiologics

32

AAV IRAM Transmission Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to provide the United States Marine Corps Logistics Bases, Albany, GA, engineering support services for the AAV RAM transmission. The TARDEC Fuels and Lubricants Research Facility (TFLRF) at Southwest Research Institute (...

G. B. Bessee D. M. Yost W. E. Likos R. A. Page D. J. Benac

1998-01-01

33

Light transmissive insulation apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A solar collector is described, comprising: a body of material sought to be heated; a layer of solar spectrum radiation transmissive insulation; and means for supporting the layer of solar spectrum radiation transmissive insulation over the body of material and in spaced relationship therewith. The layer of solar spectrum radiation transmissive insulation consists of an array of cells, generally transmissive to solar spectrum radiation and generally opaque to thermal radiation. The array of cells are coated with a coating, which is antireflective in the wavelength range of thermal IR, thereby to enhance absorption of such radiation by the array and prevent back radiation thereof to the atmosphere and is operative to reduce scattering inn the wavelength range of incident solar radiation, the thickness of the coating being generally between 0.01 and 1 micron.

Klier, S.; Novik, O.

1989-03-28

34

Dodder transmission of phytoplasmas.  

PubMed

Transmission of phytoplasmas from naturally infected plant host species using the parasitic plant Cuscuta spp. (dodder) to Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an effective way to maintain a wide range of phytoplasmas for further research. Here, we describe transmission via dodder from an infected medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and from a symptomatic redcurrant plant (Ribes spp.) to C. roseus indicator plants using a "stable bridges" method. In both cases, typical symptoms of phytoplasma disease on periwinkle plants were obtained: virescent flowers with an increased number of axillary shoots and smaller leaves after transmission from R. glutinosa, and greening petals (virescence) after transmission from Ribes spp. Phytoplasmas could be detected in donor and recipient plants by electron microscopy and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal phytoplasma primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of PCR fragments can also be used to confirm the identity of the phytoplasmas from donor and recipient plants. PMID:22987404

P?ibylová, Jaroslava; Spak, Josef

2013-01-01

35

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

36

Downhole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2008-01-15

37

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

38

HIV Transmission Networks  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Over the past several years, one segment of the complex field of HIV transmission dynamics —heterosexual networks—has dominated theoretical and empirical investigation. This review provides an overview of recent work on HIV risks and networks, with a focus on recent findings in heterosexual network dynamics. Recent findings Qualitative (ethnographic) assessments have demonstrated the heterogeneity and complexity of heterosexual connections, particular in Africa where tradition, official polygamy, and unofficial multi-person arrangements lead to concurrency of sexual partnerships. A large, quantitative study on Likoma Island, Malawi, demonstrated the considerable, interlocking sexual connections that arise from a high-concurrency sexual setting, even with a low average number of partnerships (low-degree) of long duration. Such settings, as suggested by ethnographic studies, may be common in Africa and, coupled with newer information about transmissibility during acute and early infection, may provide a plausible explanation for endemic transmission and possibly for rapid HIV propagation. Summary Recognition of high- concurrency, low-degree networks is an important development for understanding HIV transmission dynamics. Their relevance to heterosexual transmission, and possible extension to other epidemiologic settings, reinforces the heterogeneity and complexity of HIV transmission dynamics.

Rothenberg, Richard

2010-01-01

39

Routes of influenza transmission.  

PubMed

Remarkably little is known definitively about the modes of influenza transmission. Thus, important health policy and infection control issues remain unresolved. These shortcomings have been exposed in national and international pandemic preparedness activities over recent years. Indeed, WHO, CDC, ECDC and the U.S. Institute of Medicine have prioritised understanding the modes of influenza transmission as a critical need for pandemic planning. Studying influenza transmission is difficult; seasonality, unpredictable attack rates, role of environmental parameters such as temperature and humidity, numbers of participants required and confounding variables all present considerable obstacles to the execution of definitive studies. A range of investigations performed to date have failed to provide definitive answers and key questions remain. Reasons for this include the fact that many studies have not sought to investigate routes of transmission as a primary objective (instead, they have evaluated specific interventions) and that fieldwork in natural settings, specifically assessing the dynamics and determinants of transmission between humans, has been limited. The available evidence suggests that all routes of transmission (droplet, aerosol and contact) have a role to play; their relative significance will depend on the set of circumstances acting at a given time. Dictating the process are factors related to the virus itself, the host and the environment. PMID:24034483

Killingley, Ben; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan

2013-09-01

40

Insect vector transmission assays.  

PubMed

Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

2013-01-01

41

Technologies of Wireless Power Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three types of the wireless power transmission ; inductive coupling, radio wave, and resonance coupling. These are the same technologies based on Maxwell equations, however, method of the power transmission is different and characteristics are different. In this paper, we show the wireless power transmission technologies, mainly wireless power transmission via microwave.

Shinohara, Naoki

42

China's transmission mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

Thirty years ago, when the People's Republic of China was founded, there were only three high-voltage transmission grids in the entire country, totaling only 500 km (311 mi.) in length. Today, there are 13 distinct major regional networks, plus a number of smaller ones, with a cumulative length of 230,000 km (142,900 mi) and operating at voltages up to 330 kV. Those transmission lines that did exist in 1949 operated at only 35 kV, with the single exception of one regional grid of 220 kV in northeastern China. Even for those modest voltages, essentially all transmission and distribution equipment had to be imported.

Defang, C.

1980-08-01

43

Transmissivity variations in mudstones.  

PubMed

Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

44

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission lines between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figs.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; deGrassie, J.S.

1990-03-02

45

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27

46

Freewheel flywheel transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A freewheel flywheel transmission system is described comprising: a frame; shafts rotatively supported by the frame; flywheels mounted on each shaft; a power means mounted on the frame for providing rotational movement; transmission means for transmitting rotational movement when the power means is activated in succession from the power means to a first through a last shaft of the plurality of shafts and thereby to flywheels mounted on each shaft of the shafts; and a means for converting the rotational movement of shafts and the flywheels mounted on each of the shafts to electrical power.

Molina, A.F.

1986-08-19

47

Transmission line capacitance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacitance of coplanar lines is measured with two new techniques, one utilizing the resistance of the line and the other that of a resistor embedded in the line. The results of both measurements agree closely with calculations. A technique for directly comparing the capacitances of two similar transmission lines is also demonstrated. The relevance of these measurements to the

Dylan F. Williams; Roger B. Marks

1991-01-01

48

Efficient Data Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most data transmission over public carrier and private lines has taken place at bit rates of 1200 bits per second or less. But when large amounts of information must be transmitted, e.g., between computers, bit rates increase by one or more orders of magn...

E. F. Boose

1972-01-01

49

Transmission line optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission line designs have been optimized for many years through comparative estimates of the present worth of revenue required (PWRR), in order to achieve design performance at minimum cost. The method has most commonly been used for conductor selection, but can obviously be applied to other parameters as well, although the economic returns from these other parameters are largely unknown.

Ian S. Grant; Roger E. Clayton

1987-01-01

50

Transmission System Radio Influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

An economic overhead electric power transmission system which produces no radio influence is beyond the present state of the art. However, sound engineering and attention to relevant aspects of design can produce a system having an acceptable (or tolerable) influence level. Such criteria as have been proved by research or experience together with accepted practices in instrumentation and measurement of

1965-01-01

51

Transmission blocking malaria vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission blocking vaccines (TBVs) against malaria are intended to induce immunity against the stages of the parasites which infect mosquitoes so that TBV-immunised individuals cannot transmit malaria. As malarial infections are transmitted mainly within a few hundreds of meters from an infectious human source, TBVs used within in a community would protect the immediate neighbourhood of the vaccinated individuals. TBVs

Richard Carter

2001-01-01

52

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

53

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

54

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

55

Calibrating Atmospheric Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's atmosphere is a wavelength-, directionally- and time-dependent turbid refractive element for every ground-based telescope. Changes in atmospheric transmission are the most significant systematic error limiting photometric measurement precision and accuracy. While considerable resources have been devoted to correcting the effects of the atmosphere on angular resolution, the effects on precision photometry have largely been ignored. To correct photometric measurements for the transmission of the atmosphere requires direct measurements of the wavelength-dependent transmission in the same direction and at the same time that the supported photometric telescope is acquiring its data. We describe the multi-wavelength lidar, the Facility Lidar for Astronomical Measurement of Extinction (FLAME) that observes the stable stratosphere, and a spectrophotometer (the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer - AESoP) that creates and maintains NIST absolute standard stars, the combination of which enables fundamentally statistically limited photometric precision of both the stellar spectra and atmospheric transmission. The throughput of both FLAME and AESoP are calibrated to NIST radiometric standards. This inexpensive and replicable instrument suite provides the lidar-determined monochromatic transmission of Earth's atmosphere at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to 0.25% per airmass and the wavelength-dependent transparency to less than 1% uncertainty per nanometer per minute of time. These atmospheric data are merged to create a metadata stream that allows throughput corrections from data acquired at the time of the scientific observations to be applied to broadband and spectrophotometric scientific data. This new technique replaces the classical use of nightly mean atmospheric extinction coefficients, which invoke a stationary and plane-parallel atmosphere and ultimately limit ground-based all-sky photometry to 1% - 2% precision. This research is supported by NIST Award 60NANB9D9121 and NSF Grant AST-1009878.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Vorobiev, D. M.; Zirzow, D. C.; Karle, J. C.; Lykke, K. R.; Woodward, J. T.; Cramer, C. E.

2012-01-01

56

Transmission of crayfish plague.  

PubMed

Two possible means of transmission of crayfish plague were investigated: via fish (as vectors), and via crayfish (as hosts or vectors when dead). The crayfish transmission experiments focussed on both the viability of the fungus in dead crayfish when kept in simulated field conditions, and on the treatments which kill viable forms of Aphanomyces astaci within the recently dead host (cadaver). It was found that A. astaci remains viable for 5 d, and possibly longer in crayfish kept in water at 21 degrees C after dying of crayfish plague. Heating (boiling for 1 min) was the quickest way of decontaminating crayfish cadavers. Freezing took considerably longer: after 48 h at -20 degrees C, viable stages were still present. It was also found that A. astaci is unlikely to survive passage of the gastrointestinal tract of either mammals or birds as no viable stages were found after 12 h at 37 degrees C. Two basic modes of transmission of crayfish plague via fish were investigated: (1) after passage of initially viable forms of A. astaci through the digestive tract of fish and (2) via fish skin. If A. astaci was fed to fish as infected abdominal cuticle, it was still viable after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. When pure mycelium or spores were fed to fish there was no indication of viable forms of A. astaci after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Transmission via fish skin was not observed under the experimental conditions applied. The results on fish as vectors have practical importance for fish transport and stocking because the present study shows that there is a risk of transmission of crayfish plague via fish faeces. The investigation of crayfish as vectors delivers methods that could be used for treatment of crayfish imported for human consumption into crayfish-plague-free areas. This application is particularly important for the importation of American crayfish, which are in general suspected to carry A. astaci in their cuticle. PMID:12542093

Oidtmann, Birgit; Heitz, Elke; Rogers, David; Hoffmann, Rudolf W

2002-11-22

57

Stereo sequence transmission via conventional transmission channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new stereo sequence transmission technique using digital watermarking for compatibility with conventional 2D digital TV. We, generally, compress and transmit image sequence using temporal-spatial redundancy between stereo images. It is difficult for users with conventional digital TV to watch the transmitted 3D image sequence because many 3D image compression methods are different. To solve such a problem, in this paper, we perceive the concealment of new information of digital watermarking and conceal information of the other stereo image into three channels of the reference image. The main target of the technique presented is to let the people who have conventional DTV watch stereo movies at the same time. This goal is reached by considering the response of human eyes to color information and by using digital watermarking. To hide right images into left images effectively, bit-change in 3 color channels and disparity estimation according to the value of estimated disparity are performed. The proposed method assigns the displacement information of right image to each channel of YCbCr on DCT domain. Each LSB bit on YCbCr channels is changed according to the bits of disparity information. The performance of the presented methods is confirmed by several computer experiments.

Lee, Ho-Keun; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Han, Kyu-Phil; Ha, Yeong-Ho

2003-05-01

58

Drive transmission means  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides apparatus for use in a drive transmission system comprising a pump adapted to perform work on a medium and means repetitively and automatically to unload the pump. When connected with a flywheel driven by a prime mover an embodiment alternately performs work and then is unloaded to permit acceleration of the flywheel. In use in a driven transmission system there is provided a flywheel driven by an engine, a pump driven by the flywheel, powered by the pump, and means repetitively to unload the pump permitting the engine to accelerate the flywheel and compensation means to power the hydraulic motor while the pump is unloaded. The pump is preferably a rotary positive displacement pump having relief galleries eliminating the seal between pumping elements driving each cycle.

Marsh, M. R.

1985-01-15

59

Remanent transmission neutron polarizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to develop magnetically remanent neutron supermirrors using the material combinations Fe\\/Si and FeCo\\/Si. With these we plan to build compact neutron transmission polarizers and neutron polarizers which can be operated with their magnetization oriented antiparallel to the guide field. In the latter case no spin flipper is necessary to switch to the other spin state. The supermirrors

Jochen Stahn; Daniel Clemens

2002-01-01

60

Maintenance of hydrostatic transmissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems in hydrostatic transmission maintenance are identified and ways of overcoming them are suggested. It is found that problems arise from lack of lubrication, impurities in the oil, and cavitation at the pump and at the motor. It is under suggested that under nonsevere operating conditions, oil and filter should be changed every year, or every 1500 to 2000 hr running time. Under severe operating conditions or in dusty environments, the interval should be every 6 months or 1000 hr.

Esposito, A.

1981-10-01

61

Transmission Genetics Online Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmission Genetics, a new resource from Baylor College of MedicineâÂÂs comprehensive website, BioEd Online, is one module of a three-part, interactive Web-based course called Genes, Health and Society. [The course, which explores the rapidly evolving world of genetics and genomics, can be taken free of charge for professional or personal development. Each module stands alone. Educators can work through the modules in sequence or move freely among them.

Nancy Moreno (Baylor College of Medicine;)

2010-05-27

62

The Transmission Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

63

Facsimile transmission standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern tactical communications systems are becoming increasingly compatible with existing civilian systems. This compatibility allows the military to take advantage of the equipment available commercially and spare the expense of developing costly customized systems. It also increases the interoperability of various communications systems employed by allies involved in multinational operations. Finally, the compatibility allows the military to augment its telecommunications assets with existing commercial equipment and networks during times of conflict. One civilian communication standard that has recently been adopted by the military for tactical communications is that of facsimile. Facsimile is now commonly used on the battlefield for the transmission of tactical maps and situation reports. This technical note examines the requirements for facsimile transmission. An overview of the various facsimile standards are given, followed by a detailed description of the most commonly used standard; CCITT Group III. The Group III specifications are a composite of various CCITT modulation and encoding standards. These consist of V.21, V.27ter, and V.29 modulations, as well as T.4 image encoding standards, and T.30 signalling specifications. Each of these standards is described in the context of facsimile transmissions. A complete description of the handshaking which occurs between the facsimile transmitter and receiver is given.

Mudry, Andrew; Poulin, Brad

1993-10-01

64

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet 200 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the testing of a 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automation transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed, and efficiency curves which are reported in the data section. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-03-01

65

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-07-11

66

Automated manual transmission clutch controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

1999-11-30

67

Modulated powershift transmission  

SciTech Connect

The design and development of a four speed transmission, with special emphasis on the electronic control of clutch pressure during engagement involves many engineering interactions. The case at hand had, as a primary objective, creation of a unit which would perform to specific functional requirements while maintaining costs competitive in present and future marketing environments. Specific functional design requirements included the four forward and reverse ratios (from 4.2 to 0.6), and a baseline design point to be turbine torque and speed of 805 lb-ft (1091 N . m) and 500 rpm. A transmission in-service B-10 life of 9000-10,000 h as applied to a 3.5-4.5 yd/sup 3/ (2.7-3.5 m/sup 3/) rubber-tired wheel loader duty cycle was needed. Limitations were placed on maximum shaft slopes at bearing locations, and spline and shaft capacities for a 350 lb-ft (473 N . m) power take-off. Directional clutch thermal capacities had to survive the vehicle's duty cycle. Adjustable and accurate control of clutch supply pressure during engagements was needed, as were four-wheel drive disconnects, ground driven pump, midship, engine, and remote mount, and converter lock-up. Cost effectiveness considerations were: material and processing, commonality of components, serviceability, and operational reliability.

Goodbar, E.; Testerman, M.D.

1986-09-01

68

Pain pathways and transmission.  

PubMed Central

Pain has been a major concern of humankind since the ancient times, and it remains one of the most important subjects of all health care professionals. Despite the obvious overwhelming clinical importance, the major advances in its diagnosis and therapy have been made only recently. "How do the sensory apparatus of the body and system of signal transmission relate to pain of peripheral origin?" is the topic of discussion. To do this, it is important to understand what constitutes the total pain experience. It consists of: 1) signal transduction at the peripheral receptor site, 2) signal conduction along the peripheral nerve, 3) pain modulation at the level of the spinal cord, 4) pain perception at the supraspinal site, and 5) the associated sensations, emotional reactions, and effective state. The signal transmission related to pain may be modified by various analgesic agents. Specific analgesic agent has a specific site of action which may be at peripheral receptors, at peripheral nerves, at the level of the spinal cord, at supraspinal levels by activating descending inhibitory systems, or at more cephalad levels by reducing the affective component of pain.

Kitahata, L. M.

1993-01-01

69

Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

Hagen, Wilfred R.

2013-01-01

70

Transmission for an automobile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission for an automobile. The method comprises having a main shaft aligned axially with and arranged to be driven by a main drive shaft which is in turn arranged to be driven by an automobile engine. A counter shaft is arranged in parallel with the main shaft. The improvement comprises: the main shaft having one end rotatably journalled in a hollow end of the main drive shaft, the hollow end in turn being rotatably supported by a first bearing. The main shaft is additionally rotatably journalled in a second bearing spaced axially from the first bearing. Speed change gears rotatably are mounted on the main shaft between the bearings. The speed change gears when viewed from the first bearing towards the second bearing are arranged in a progressively descending order on progressively increased diameter portions of the main shaft.

Kawamoto, T.

1987-06-02

71

Flywheel electric transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

In a preferred embodiment, the flywheel electric transmission system is made up of three electric machines and a flywheel and is adapted for use in an automobile. The first electric machine is driven or energized by a prime mover such as a heat engine and is selectively clutched to the second machine. The flywheel and the armatures for both the first and second machines rotate as a unit. The third machine is connected to the second machine through gearing and, under the control of a computer, supplies excess electrical power to or consumes excess electrical power from the first and second machines that are functioning as either a motor or generator as required. In a second embodiment, the energy source is a battery pack.

Bock, D.H.

1982-01-05

72

Nature limits filarial transmission  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies.

Chandra, Goutam

2008-01-01

73

Laptop image transmission equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

Mocenter, Michael M.

1991-12-01

74

Parallel RF transmission in MRI.  

PubMed

Following the development of parallel imaging, parallel transmission describes the use of multiple RF transmit coils. Parallel transmission can be applied to improve RF excitation, in particular, multidimensional, spatially selective RF excitation. For instance, parallel transmission is able to shorten spatially selective RF pulses in two or three dimensions, or to minimize the occurring SAR. One potential major application might be the compensation of patient-induced B(1) inhomogeneities, particularly at high main fields. This paper provides an overview of selected aspects of this new transmission approach. The basic principles of parallel transmission are discussed, initial experimental proofs are described, and the impact of error propagation on coil design for parallel transmission is outlined. PMID:16705630

Katscher, Ulrich; Börnert, Peter

2006-05-01

75

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet 200 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

76

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

Bujold

1980-01-01

77

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

78

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1981-01-01

79

Small passenger car transmission test: Ford C4 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

80

A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

1969-01-01

81

Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsporidia are an ancient and diverse group of protists which have many unusual characteristics. These include prokaryotic-like 70s ribosomes, enclosed nuclear division, a lack of mitochondria and complex life cycles which frequently involve vertical transmission. This use of vertical transmission is unparalleled by other protists and is seen only among bacterial endosymbionts and sex ratio distorters and in host

Alison M. Dunn; Rebecca S. Terry; Judith E. Smith

2001-01-01

82

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01

83

Live work in Eskom Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live line maintenance has been performed with great success by Eskom Transmission (South Africa) over the last 20 years. An aerial live line maintenance capability was established 10 years ago. Techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to maintain the South African transmission network, which is unique in many ways, to a level that meets the expectations of customers as

C. E. Marshall; H. H. Visser

1998-01-01

84

Nanoscale scanning transmission electron tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron tomography enables the study of complex three- dimensional objects with nanometre resolution. In materials science, scanning transmission electron microscopy provides images with minimal coherent diffraction effects and with high atomic number contrast that makes them ideal for electron tomographic reconstruction. In this study, we reviewed the topic of scanning transmission electron microscopy- based tomography and illustrated the power

P. A. MIDGLEY; M. WEYLAND; T. J. V. YATES; I. ARSLAN; R. E. DUNIN-BORKOWSKI; J. M. THOMAS

2006-01-01

85

Gated fiber optic transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gated fiber optic sensor system is disclosed for increasing the effective optical path of a length of optical fiber cable. A pulse of polarized light having a known optical wavelength is directed into a length of optical fiber cable for propagation therethrough in a cyclic path. A planar semiconductor member is mounted in the path of the polarized light pulse at the Brewster angle to permit continuous transmission of the polarized light pulse through the cable until a light pulse of a second optical wavelength is made to impinge upon the semiconductor member, changing the reflectivity characteristics thereof and causing the polarized pulse to be extracted from its cyclic path for detection and processing. In one preferred embodiment, the optical fiber cable is configured in a loop to provide the cyclic path for the polarized light pulse, while in another preferred embodiment, the pulse path is provided by a straight section of optical fiber cable forming a part of a highly reflective cavity having reflectors on either end.

Bobb, L. C.

1984-05-01

86

EC Transmission Line Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-05-01

87

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Chevrolet Citation 125 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid to upper 80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-10-01

88

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

89

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the distrust and diversity of perspectives among affected stakeholders, may make the formation of multi-stakeholder alliances necessary to accomplishing transmission goals. If the wind industry and utilities want to partner with environmental and community advocate groups in supporting a transmission project, they may have to convince these groups that the project would result in a net environmental benefit. The project proponents would have to make the case that the benefits of the additional wind energy will at least offset the emissions of any additional fossil generation made possible by the transmission project, as well as offset the environmental impact of the transmission project itself.

Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

2000-03-01

90

Household transmission of SARS, 2003  

PubMed Central

Background In the 2003 outbreak in Toronto (in Ontario, Canada) of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), about 20% of cases resulted from household transmission. The purpose of our study was to determine characteristics associated with the transmission of SARS within households. Methods A retrospective cohort of SARS-affected households was studied to determine risk factors for household transmission. Questionnaires addressed characteristics of the index case, the household and behaviours among household members. Potential risk factors for secondary transmission of infection were assessed in regression models appropriate to the outcome (secondary cases) and nonindependence of household members. Results The 74 households that participated included 18 secondary cases and 158 uninfected household members in addition to the 74 index cases. The household secondary attack rate was 10.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7%–23.5%). There was a linear association between the time the index patient spent at home after symptom onset and the secondary attack rate. Infected health care workers who were index cases had lower rates of household transmission. Interpretation SARS transmission in households is complex and increases with the length of time an ill person spends at home. Risk of transmission was lower when the index case was a health care worker. Rapid case identification is the public health measure most useful in minimizing exposure in the home.

Wilson-Clark, Samantha D.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Gournis, Effie; Hay, Karen; Bondy, Susan; Kennedy, Erin; Johnson, Ian; Rea, Elizabeth; Kuschak, Theodore; Green, Diane; Abbas, Zahid; Guarda, Brenda

2006-01-01

91

Transmission eigenvalues and thermoacoustic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectrum of the interior transmission problem is related to the unique determination of the acoustic properties of a body in thermoacoustic imaging. Under a non-trapping hypothesis, we show that sparsity of the interior transmission spectrum implies a range separation condition for the thermoacoustic operator. In odd dimensions greater than or equal to 3, we prove that the interior transmission spectrum for a pair of radially symmetric non-trapping sound speeds is countable, and conclude that the ranges of the associated thermoacoustic maps have only trivial intersection.

Finch, David; Hickmann, Kyle S.

2013-10-01

92

Expert systems in transmission planning  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the state of the field of expert systems and knowledge engineering in transmission planning is reviewed. A detailed analysis of the goals, definition, requirements and methodology of transmission planning is presented. Potential benefits of knowledge-based applications in transmission planning are reviewed. This is followed by a thorough review of the area broken down into subareas or important related topics. The conclusions offer a number of suggestions for possible future research and development. Finally, a detailed bibliography divided into subareas is presented.

Galiana, F.D. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (CA)); McGillis, D.T. (Hydro-Quebec Montreal, Planification du reseau, Quebec H2L 4P5 (CA)); Marin, M.A. (Automatismes, Measures et Communications, Inst. de recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, Quebec J0L 2P0 (CA))

1992-05-01

93

Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

Kevin Bryan

2001-05-01

94

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities.

Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustin; Contigiani, Marta S.

2013-01-01

95

18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2...Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement...announced its determination that transmission lines which are not primary...

2013-04-01

96

32 CFR 2001.46 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Transmission. 2001.46 Section 2001...Safeguarding § 2001.46 Transmission. (a) General...only as part of an attention line. The following exceptions...delivery is completed. (c) Transmission methods within and...

2013-07-01

97

Short Connection of HVDC Transmission Without Transformers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Installations for HVDC transmission may be subdivided into four groups according to their application: transmission of high power over long distance; transmission through underwater cables; connection of three-phase mains (short connection); and power sup...

K. Gebhardt

1977-01-01

98

Recombination and Transmission Studies with Influenza Virus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission of influenza virus infection in mice can be correlated with demonstrable airborne virus in the vicinity of infector mice during the period of their infectiousness; the critical difference that distinguishes transmissible and non-transmissible...

E. D. Kilbourne

1966-01-01

99

21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section...Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The electronic...pharmacy] on [date/time] and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic...

2013-04-01

100

10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27...Protection Requirements § 1017.27 Transmission. (a) Physically transmitting...mail; (ii) Any means approved for transmission of classified documents or...

2013-01-01

101

47 CFR 73.277 - Permissible transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Permissible transmissions. 73.277 Section 73.277 ...Stations § 73.277 Permissible transmissions. (a) No FM broadcast licensee...business of any subscriber. (b) The transmission (or interruption) of radio...

2012-10-01

102

Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia.  

PubMed

The microsporidia are an ancient and diverse group of protists which have many unusual characteristics. These include prokaryotic-like 70s ribosomes, enclosed nuclear division, a lack of mitochondria and complex life cycles which frequently involve vertical transmission. This use of vertical transmission is unparalleled by other protists and is seen only among bacterial endosymbionts and sex ratio distorters and in host cell organelles. Transovarially transmitted microsporidia can have unusual and profound effects on host population sex ratios. We here consider the mechanisms of transovarial transmission and its implications for parasite evolution. We review parasite/host relationships and the evolution of virulence under transovarial transmission and consider the implications of these parasites for host ecology and evolution. PMID:11013755

Dunn, A M; Terry, R S; Smith, J E

2001-01-01

103

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short foc...

R. E. Bell

2004-01-01

104

Modeling the Transmission of Sound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)|

Palmer, David H.

2003-01-01

105

Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the nonlinear capacitance and the gaps between provide linear inductive interconnects, this is essentially the same design used by...

B. W. Hoff D. Shiffler D. M. French S. Heidger

2011-01-01

106

Transmission series power flow control  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power now control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Williams, S.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

1995-01-01

107

Transmission Spectrum of Lithium Tantalate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurement of absorbance along the z-axis of a lithium tantalate crystal was completed using a Cary spectrophotometer. Transmission through two polished but uncoated faces was about 62% which compares well with 73% calculated from Fresnel reflectivity eq...

M. L. Spaeth P. R. Hammond

1979-01-01

108

Modeling the Transmission of Sound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)

Palmer, David H.

2003-01-01

109

A Tutorial on Transmission Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This tutorial paper unifies a number,of recent contributions that have collectively developed,a metric for decentralized wireless network analysis known,as transmission capacity. Although it is notoriously difficult to derive general end-to-end capacity results for multi-terminal or ad hoc networks, the transmission capacity (TC) framework,allows for quantification of achievable single-hop rates by focusing on a simplified physical\\/MAC- layer model. By using

Steven Weber; Jeffrey G. Andrews; Nihar Jindal

2009-01-01

110

Fiber optic adaptive digital transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper evaluates fiber-optic adaptive digital transmission system with dummy-bits repetition at the transmitter, 2R hybrid digital transmission and adaptive timing at the receiver. It is shown that the NRZ pulse with third-to-fifth order Bessel filtering can alleviate the problem of accumulation of distortions in the 2R sublines. Several line coding plans have been examined for realizing adaptive timing; a

Y. Takasaki; M. Tanaka

1978-01-01

111

Diversified transmission multichannel detection system  

SciTech Connect

A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

1984-07-03

112

Free-space power transmission  

SciTech Connect

NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

Not Available

1989-11-01

113

Fax Transmission Record - GLASSIA, September 9, 2009  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Fax Transmission Record - GLASSIA, September 9, 2009. FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION RECORD. Division of Blood Applications ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

114

Energy unidirectional transmission in an asymmetrically finite transmission line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of energy unidirectional transmission is numerically investigated by using a system of two coupled discrete nonlinear electrical transmission lines, each line of the network contains a finite number of cells and has different pass band structures, respectively. Using numerical simulations, we examine the frequency multiplication of the driving frequency and the lattice filtering effect in the line. These lead to the generation of energy unidirectional transmission. In the present work, energy is carried by the second harmonic wave in the pass band. In addition, we also study the dependence of the energy efficiency on the driving amplitude and other parameters of the model, such as the system size and the nonlinear coefficient, by calculation. Furthermore, after detailed numerical simulation, an experimental demonstration is realized. The experimental results agree with those in simulation qualitatively.

Tao, Feng; Chen, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Wen; Du, Si-Dan

2012-01-01

115

Numerical results or multiconductor transmission line networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the algorithms and numerical results for a lossless multiconductor transmission-line network which is excited by a number of lumped voltage and current sources located on the transmission lines. As opposed to previous analyses of multiconductor transmission lines, the method described in this report is capable of treating networks which contain one or more closed transmission- line loops.

C. E. Raum; T. K. Liu; F. M. Tesche; S. K. Chang

1977-01-01

116

Midwest Transmission Workshop III Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 On March 12-13, 2002, the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), in cooperation with regional stakeholders, held a two-day workshop: Planning for Electrical Transmission Needs in the Upper Midwest. The workshop was the outgrowth of an effort to develop a forum and process for consideration of transmission options that strives for equitable allocation of benefits and impacts among all affected parties. The goal of this workshop was to provide a catalyst for an enhanced, inclusive process for transmission planning with participation of and acceptance by all affected stakeholders. Participants in the meeting included representatives of state and regional regulatory agencies, utilities and power generators, the wind industry, environmental and landowner interests, and other interested parties (see Attachment A for a list of meeting participants).

Kevin Bryan

2003-03-12

117

Well logging data transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A telemetering system provides improved cable utilization and bi-directional digital communication between a logging sonde and surface electronics over a single balanced transmission line of a multi-conductor logging cable, with significant signal crosstalk reductions. Receiver circuitry downhole decodes pulses delivered on the line from a surface logic generator which fire transmitter-receiver pairs of an acoustic logging tool in an order defined by the pulses. A PCM transmitter in the sonde thereafter samples data generated by other logging instruments, encodes this information into digital data frames, and transmits the data on the same line to a surface PCM receiver. Circuitry limits surface and downhole receiver response to PCM transmitter and logic generator pulses, respectively. A center tap of the same transmission line also provides for simultaneous noise-free transmission of sensitive low level signals such as remote surface potential and the like to the sonde.

Flagg, J.J.

1983-11-15

118

Preventing accidental transmission of human transmissible spongifom encephalopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which humans became infected with the BSE agent is discussed, and the matter of potential person-to person transmission of TSEs through contagion or medical procedures is considered. There is some discussion regarding the current evidence relating to whether or not the blood of humans infected with TSEs is infectious. Considerable emphasis is placed on the fact that

David M Taylor

119

Principles for interregional transmission expansion  

SciTech Connect

In aiming to facilitate the siting of interregional transmission lines, some basic principles might include an approach where the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission uses a variety of tools to capture the value of new transmission, and thus increase the supply of interregional lines. There also may be opportunities for the Commission to work with localities to reduce resistance to new lines by means of economic incentives. Such a tack has the potential to be more efficient than fighting local opposition in the courts. (author)

Benjamin, Richard

2007-10-15

120

Stochastic simulation of transmissivity fields conditional to both transmissivity and piezometric data—I. Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of equally likely realizations of transmissivity fields conditional to both transmissivity and piezometric data is achieved using an iterative technique that couples geostatistics and optimization. By conditioning to both transmissivity fields and piezometric data we mean that the transmissivity field generated honours the transmissivity data and that the solution to the flow equation reproduces the measured piezometric heads.

J. Jaime Gómez-Hernánez; Andrés Sahuquillo; José E. Capilla

1997-01-01

121

Transmission risk of human trichinellosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichinella is a food-borne parasitic zoonoses and human cases are still reported in Europe mainly due to the consumption of pig meat originating from small backyard farms. Infections originating from industrialized pig farming have not been reported for decades in Europe, due to control measures to prevent the transmission of Trichinella from wildlife by indoor housing and good management practices.

Katsuhisa Takumi; Peter Teunis; Manoj Fonville; Isabelle Vallee; Pascal Boireau; Karsten Nöckler; Joke van der Giessen

2009-01-01

122

Remote powered data transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider remote powered data transmission system issues. In the systems under consideration, two stations, one at the beginning and one at the end, provide energy and regenerate the signal; several peripheral stations are serially powered along the line. Particular attention is given to energy problems, cable and operator safety, and noise generation. The objective is to ensure a

A. Fausti; R. Lelli; G. Mesini

1989-01-01

123

Failure analysis of transmission towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advocates the use of nonlinear methodology for structural failure analysis. This approach is used for structural failure prediction rather than forensic analysis. Failure prediction has been confirmed by the expensive full-scale testing of a new transmission tower design that collapsed during the test. Using this approach, tower designs can be easily modified and upgraded, which results in substantial

F. Albermani; S. Kitipornchai; R. W. K. Chan

2009-01-01

124

Tornadoes and transmission reliability planning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to introduce an analytical approach for predicting overhead transmission line outages that are caused by tornadoes. The method is presently being used to determine the effects of tornadoes on various right-of-way configurations associated with a generating station project or the supply to a major substation. 2 refs.

Teles, J.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Landgren, G.L.

1980-01-01

125

Power transmission apparatus for vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a power transmission apparatus for a vehicle comprising: an output shaft for transmitting power from a power unit to the front and rear wheels of the vehicle; a front wheel driving device for driving the vehicle front wheel; a rear wheel driving device for driving the vehicle rear wheel; a driving shaft operatively driven by the output

Oka

1987-01-01

126

Geographical transmission of economic events  

SciTech Connect

A two-region monetary economy is modeled as a five-equation system. Exogenous events in either region (changes in union wages, labor productivity, and banking policy) or at the national level (money supply changes) cause changes in price levels, wages, employment, and money stocks in both regions. The model structure permits explicit examination of transmission processes. 8 references, 1 figure, 18 tables.

Jones, D.W.

1984-04-01

127

Timing recovery for OFDM transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is an effective modulation technique for high-rate and high-speed transmission over frequency selective fading channels. However, OFDM systems can be extremely sensitive and vulnerable to synchronization errors. In this paper, we present a scheme for performing timing recovery that includes symbol synchronization and sampling clock synchronization in OFDM systems. The scheme is based on pilot

Baoguo Yang; Khaled Ben Letaief; Roger S. Cheng; Zhigang Cao

2000-01-01

128

Bulk transmission system loss analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-level hierarchical approach for evaluating capacity and energy losses of power transmission systems was developed and implemented in this project. The approach was adopted following a review of methods currently available to utilities. The review included a literature search of methods for calculating capacity and energy losses in system planning and system operation, as well as a telephone survey

R. Nadira; M. Baran; E. Segev; R. K. Mehra; F. F. Wu

1990-01-01

129

Feasibility of DC transmission networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current status of technology and discusses technical options for developing DC transmission grids. The fast advances in VSC HVDC, the recent offshore VSC projects, the experience with multiterminal HVDC and recent development of fast DC circuit breakers bring large meshed DC grids closer to reality. The most important and most difficult remaining technical challenge is the

Dragan Jovcic; Dirk van Hertem; Kerstin Linden; Jean-Pierre Taisne; Wolfgang Grieshaber

2011-01-01

130

Adaptive Equalizer for Pulse Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported which are of interest in the automatic adaptive equalization of telephone lines or other narrowbandwidth channels where data transmission is limited primarily by intersymbol interference. We describe an algorithm for adjusting the tap gains of a tapped delay line (TDL) equalizer which converges for all channels to the setting, which minimizes the mean-square error (rose) at the

C. Niessen; D. Willim

1970-01-01

131

Gear assisted continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A transmission system is described comprising: a plurality of power transmission paths; a continuously variable speed ratio transmission in one of the paths having a first input means adapted to be driven by an external prime mover, and a first output means; a first ratio changing mechanism having a second input means adapted to be driven by the prime mover and having a second output means; a second ratio changing mechanism having a third input means adapted to be driven by the prime mover and having a third output means, at least one of the ratio changing mechanisms having a plurality of selective ratios other than zero selectively engageable in a respective path; a compound planetary mechanism including fourth, fifth and sixth input means, and a fourth output means providing an output from the transmission system. The first output means is coupled to the fourth input means, the second output means is coupled to the fifth input means, and the third output means is coupled to the sixth input means; first coupling means for selectively engaging and disengaging one of the paths between the prime mover and the fifth input means, and second coupling means for selectively engaging and disengaging another of the paths between the prime mover and the sixth input means. The control means disengages one of the first and second coupling means in one of the paths when the other of the coupling means is engaged in the other of the paths.

Wittke, E.C.

1987-07-28

132

Transmissible Encephalopathies: Speculations and Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs), such as scrapie, CJD, and BSE, are caused by a type of infectious particle that remains enigmatic. The language of prion theory super- sedes the reality of what is, and what is not known. This review questions the predictive value, consistency and accuracy of this now dominant assumption. Many people believe the normal cellular prion

Laura Manuelidis

2003-01-01

133

High Voltage Direct Current Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a brief summary of the technical status of high-voltage direct-current electric-power transmission in the United States and abroad. Since the first major d-c link from Stockholm to the island of Gotland began operation in 1954, at leas...

R. L. Shedden

1971-01-01

134

The Evolution of Trophic Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) is one of the more fascinating tales of parasite evolution. The implications of this go beyond cocktail party anecdotes and science fiction plots as the phenomenon is pervasive and likely to be ecologically and evolutionarily important. Although the subject has already received substantial review, Kevin Lafferty here focuses on evolutionary aspects that have not been

K. D. Lafferty

1999-01-01

135

Viral evolution and transmission effectiveness.  

PubMed

Different viruses transmit among hosts with different degrees of efficiency. A basic reproductive number (R0) indicates an average number of cases getting infected from a single infected case. R0 can vary widely from a little over 1 to more than 10. Low R0 is usually found among rapidly evolving viruses that are often under a strong positive selection pressure, while high R0 is often found among viruses that are highly stable. The reason for the difference between antigenically diverse viruses with low R0, such as influenza A virus, and antigenically stable viruses with high R0, such as measles virus, is not clear and has been a subject of great interest. Optimization of transmissibility fitness considering intra-host dynamics and inter-host transmissibility was shown to result in strategies for tradeoff between transmissibility and diversity. The nature of transmission, targeting either a naïve children population or an adult population with partial immunity, has been proposed as a contributing factor for the difference in the strategies used by the two groups of viruses. The R0 determines the levels of threshold heard immunity. Lower R0 requires lower herd immunity to terminate an outbreak. Therefore, it can be assumed that the outbreak saturation can be reached more readily when the R0 is low. In addition, one may assume that when the outbreak saturation is reached, herd immunity may provide a strong positive selection pressure that could possibly result in an occurrence of escape mutants. Studies of these hypotheses will give us an important insight into viral evolution. This review discusses the above hypotheses as well as some possible mechanistic explanation for the difference in transmission efficiency of viruses. PMID:24175217

Rodpothong, Patsarin; Auewarakul, Prasert

2012-10-12

136

Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, (a) genital; (b) peripheral blood; (2) in the newborn, (a) oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human ?-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49) had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49) there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011). In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed.

Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

2008-01-01

137

76 FR 52945 - Notice of Supplemental Filing; International Transmission Company, d/b/a ITC Transmission.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Transmission Company, d/b/a ITC Transmission. AGENCY: Office of Electricity...Transmission Company, d/b/a ITCTransmission (ITC), filed supplemental documents in an ongoing...Presidential permit proceeding regarding the ITC application to amend Presidential...

2011-08-24

138

EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME) TO CATTLE BY INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare clinicopathological findings of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle (sheep scrapie, and chronic wasting disease, CWD), 2 groups of calves (n = 4...

139

EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME) TO CATTLE BY INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare clinicopathological findings of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle (sheep scrapie and chronic wasting disease (CWD), two groups of calves (n = ...

140

Duobinary transmission using coherent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of chromatic dispersion on the complex electric field of an optical phase-coded duobinary signal is investigated through numerical simulation. The evolution of the optical field is most clearly represented by the optical constellation diagram at varying transmission distances. Dispersion causes distortion and rotation of the optical constellation, leading to eye closure of the received signal. When direct detection is employed rapid eye closure starts after approximately 213km. In this letter, the use of coherent detection is suggested to extend this transmission distance. A decision directed phase locked loop is suggested to establish the feasibility of use of coherent detection for this modulation format. Employing coherent detection increases this dispersion limit by 70km.

Goldfarb, Gilad; Kim, Cheolhwan; Li, Guifang

2006-06-01

141

Cultural transmission of social essentialism  

PubMed Central

Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children.

Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

2012-01-01

142

Automatic transmission for a vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power, each of the first and second pulleys having a fixed sheave and a movable sheave. The first shaft is disposed coaxially with and rotatably coupled with the output shaft of the coupling means, the second shaft being disposed side by side and in parallel with the first shaft; a planetary gear mechanism; a forward-reverse changeover mechanism and a low-high speed changeover mechanism.

Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

1986-12-09

143

Resistor-Transmission-Line Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for a function to be the driving-point impedance of a physically realizable network consisting (essentially) of lumped resistors and lossless transmission lines. The circuits so developed are thoroughly practical for pure reactances and in many other special cases, but, in general, ideal transformers are sometimes required. A rigorous correspondence between lumped-constant circuits and line-resistor

P. I. Richards

1948-01-01

144

Coaxial Transmission-Line Filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave filters based upon coaxial structures are not difficult to construct, and for wide-band applications they have an advantage over cavity types in that the terminal matching problems are more easily met. For narrow-band work the cavity is superior because of its higher Q. A tentative analysis of coaxial transmission-line band-pass filters is given and experimental work in support of

Douglas Mode

1952-01-01

145

Education, Learning, and Cultural Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Education represents the primary means of cultural transmission, and a crucial unit in the set of challenges human groups\\u000a have to meet in time. A variety of educational systems and pedagogic strategies have been created in order to deal with this\\u000a challenge. By promoting the association of their memes with individuals’ psychological selection, cultures can successfully\\u000a survive in the long

Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi

146

High current pulse transmission cable  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

Parsons, W.M.

1990-09-28

147

Mosquito age and dengue transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online portal features a research project funded by The Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative to develop new strategies to control mosquitoes that transmit human disease. Specifically, the project is focused on a method to reduce dengue transmission using naturally occurring bacterial symbionts that reduce mosquito life span. The site includes a background of this work, participating research programs and researchers, project publications, current progress, news and events, and FAQs.

Initiative, The G.

148

Pedigree tests of transmission disequilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution mapping is essential for the positional cloning of complex disease genes. In outbred populations, linkage disequilibrium is expected to extend for short distances and could provide a powerful fine-mapping tool. Current family-based association tests use nuclear family members to define allelic transmission and controls, but ignore other types of relatives. Here we construct a general approach for scoring allelic

Gonçalo R Abecasis; William OC Cookson; Lon R Cardon

2000-01-01

149

Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

Kevin Bryan

2002-12-05

150

Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is two-fold: First; to present the theory of traveling waves on multi-conductor systems, and second, to compile a brief compendium on the general subject of traveling waves on transmission systems. While the application of the multi-conductor theory is more laborious than that of the single-wire theory, yet it does not involve much greater complication, and

L. V. Bewley

1931-01-01

151

TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES IN HUMANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the first transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) to be described in humans, occurs in a sporadic, familial, or iatrogenic form. Other TSEs in humans, shown to be associated with specific prion protein gene mutations, have been reported in different parts of the world. These TSEs compose,a heterogeneous,group of familial diseases that traditionally have been classified as

Ermias D. Belay

1999-01-01

152

Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

We develop some new analytic bounds on transmission probabilities (and the related reflection probabilities and Bogoliubov coefficients) for generic one-dimensional scattering problems. To do so we rewrite the Schroedinger equation for some complicated potential whose properties we are trying to investigate in terms of some simpler potential whose properties are assumed known, plus a (possibly large) 'shift' in the potential. Doing so permits us to extract considerable useful information without having to exactly solve the full scattering problem.

Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.n [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

153

Hyperbolic transmission-line metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate how to realize an indefinite media with hyperbolic isofrequency surfaces in wavevector space by employing two-dimensional metamaterial transmission lines. We classify different types of such media, and visualize the peculiar character of wave propagation by study of the cross-like emission pattern of a current source placed in the lattice center. Our results are supported by a solution of the Kirchhoff equations, an analytical theory, and experimental data.

Chshelokova, Alyona V.; Kapitanova, Polina V.; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Belov, Pavel A.

2012-10-01

154

Fungal transmission of plant viruses.  

PubMed

Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study. PMID:15012536

Campbell, R N

1996-01-01

155

Transmission laser welding of plastics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of lasers for welding plastics was demonstrated in the early 1970s. However, it was not until late in the 1990s that production applications started to be considered widely. This followed the broad realization that by selection of a suitable combination of radiation wavelength and plastics additives, to control light transmission and absorption, heat could be generated at the joint of a pre-assembled part without melting its outer surfaces. It is of added benefit that the window of transmission for an unpigmented and unfilled plastic typically covers the wavelengths delivered by small and cost effective diode lasers. Recent developments in the transmission laser welding process for plastics are discussed, including methods for the generation of welds between two clear plastics, application of similar techniques to the joining of thermoplastic textiles and new equipment, able to heat a complete joint and assist in the sealing of assemblies where the joint surfaces are not particuarly smooth. An analytical heat flow model for the welding of clear plastics is shown in use for selecting process parameters.

Hilton, Paul A.; Jones, I. A.; Kennish, Y.

2003-03-01

156

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry. [54 FR 25857, June 20, 1989, as amended at 56 FR 56171, Nov. 1, 1991; 71 FR 25982, May 3, 2006; 71 FR...

2011-10-01

157

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry. [54 FR 25857, June 20, 1989, as amended at 56 FR 56171, Nov. 1, 1991; 71 FR 25982, May 3, 2006; 71 FR...

2012-10-01

158

Optical Transmission across a Rough Surface.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A ray theory for the transmission of light across a randomly rough surface is formulated. Multiple-scatter and shadowing effects are accounted for in a consistent way. The illumination probabilities for the transmission problem are derived in a nontrivial...

P. J. Lynch R. J. Wagner

1971-01-01

159

Refractory Brick Density by gamma Ray Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission of exp 241 Am gamma radiation was used to measure the density of refractory bricks. The transmission was proportional to the density provided the radiation path lengths were constant; special holders were used to compensate for small differen...

B. J. Barry

1976-01-01

160

Numerical Results or Multiconductor Transmission Line Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the algorithms and numerical results for a lossless multiconductor transmission-line network which is excited by a number of lumped voltage and current sources located on the transmission lines. As opposed to previous analyses of mul...

C. E. Baum T. K. Liu F. M. Tesche S. K. Chang

1977-01-01

161

Cryogenic Engineering for Superconducting Power Transmission Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful introduction of helium-cooled (superconducting) transmission systems into electric utility networks will open a vast market for cryogenic engineering components and services. If only 10 percent of the anticipated investment in transmission ...

E. B. Forsyth

1976-01-01

162

Helicopter Transmission Modularization and Maintainability Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the transmission modularization analysis was to develop a methodology to evaluate helicopter transmission modularization and to demonstrate the feasibility, methods, design criteria, and cost effectiveness of modularization. A U.S. Army C...

J. G. Kish K. R. Cormier P. Menkes

1974-01-01

163

32 CFR 1802.14 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmission. 1802.14 Section 1802.14 National Defense ...EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing Of Challenges § 1802.14 Transmission. Authorized holders must direct challenge requests to...

2013-07-01

164

Real-time multimedia coding and transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper sums up relevant topics covered by the special issue titled `Real-Time Multimedia Coding and Transmission', including efficient content representation, multimedia transmission, hardware and software acceleration, and transcoding techniques.

García-Naya, José A.; López-Granado, Otoniel; Dapena, Adriana; Marcellin, Michael W.; Cruz-Chavez, Marco

2013-12-01

165

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and ...

W. Fong P. S. Yeh V. Sank X. Nyugen W. Xia S. Duran

2002-01-01

166

Gas transmission through microporous membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes upon passage of the gas through active and non-active membranes by which way the effect of active elements on gas transmission rates could be examined. Probabilistic and mathematical models were proposed to predict gas transmission rates of such membranes and gas permeation experiments were simulated utilizing the proposed models. Modeling results were compared to experimental data and to macrolevel gas transmission models available in literature. The results were found to be in acceptable correlation with experiments for membranes with a well-known morphology. The pressure of the system, porosity and adsorption capacity of the materials, as well as size of the gas molecules and their interaction energies between the surfaces were found to be important parameters which affect permeability.

Turel, Tacibaht

167

Radiation extraction for transmission-line interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraction technique of radiation sources for non-uniform, transmission-lines has been introduced for the first time. The technique is to substitute solutions of the method of moments (MoM) for the lossless finite-length non-uniform transmission-line into modified transmission-line equations with dependent radiation sources to extract transmission-line parameters and the radiation source parameters

Y. W. Liu; K. K. Mei; J. S. Hong

2001-01-01

168

Fluctuations of Transmission Distribution in Disordered Conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a microscopic approach to calculate the sample-to-sample fluctuations of transmission distribution in disordered conductors. This bridges the gap between Green's function and random matrix theories (RMT) of quantum transport. The results obtained show that the correlations of transmission eigenvalues (transmissions) obey universal Dyson statistics at small separations between eigenvalues and are nonuniversal otherwise. We compute the interaction between transmissions that must be postulated in a RMT to describe correctly the diffusive quantum transport.

Nazarov, Yuli V.

1996-03-01

169

The real problem with Merchant transmission  

SciTech Connect

Current regulatory policy distinguishes transmission investments that have primarily economic benefits from those that primarily enhance reliability. But no such dichotomy exists; congestion and reliability are inter-related in complex ways. Thus, solving the transmission investment problem is more complex than ''fixing'' merchant transmission; investment in the grid must be treated as a systems problem. (author)

Blumsack, Seth; Lave, Lester B.; Ilic, Marija

2008-03-15

170

Transmission trials of perfluorinated GI-POF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gbps transmission trials of PFGI-POF which has low loss and high bandwidth were successfully performed and the transmission system with commercially available transceivers and switches were confirmed. PFGI-POF duplex cable was applied to the part of LAN system as a demonstration which is working in the labs. We proved the systems high speed transmission capability

Noriyuki Yoshihara; Yuji Watanabe; Tsuyoshi Onishi; Takashi Tsukamoto

2000-01-01

171

Opportunistic transmission scheduling for multiuser MIMO systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An opportunistic transmission scheduling scheme is proposed to make better use of the multiuser diversity gain in a MIMO system. The performance of a MIMO link is quantified by its information-theoretic capacity. Even though the base station has no knowledge of the transmission channel, the proposed algorithm generates a transmission randomizing matrix according to the distribution of the channel, so

Liang Dong; Teng Li; Yih-Fang Huang

2003-01-01

172

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight

Zachary S. Henry

1995-01-01

173

Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.  

PubMed Central

A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data.

Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

1993-01-01

174

Transspecies transmissions of retroviruses: New cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transspecies transmission is common among retroviruses, although the consequences of the transmission are very different. Some transspecies transmissions have resulted in fatal diseases in the new host while others have remained asymptomatic. Some retroviruses are apathogenic in the original species, but pathogenic in a new host and others can be pathogenic or apathogenic in both species. In some cases, endogenization

Joachim Denner

2007-01-01

175

Transmission losses in left-handed materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We numerically analyze the origin of the transmission losses in left-handed structures. Our data confirms that left-handed structures can have very good transmission properties, in spite of the expectable dispersion of their effective permeability and refraction index. The large permittivity of the metallic components improves the transmission. High losses, observed in recent experiments, could be explained by the absorption of

P. Markos; I. Rousochatzakis; C. M. Soukoulis

2002-01-01

176

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.89 Unauthorized transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage...This provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency,...

2012-10-01

177

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.89 Unauthorized transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage...This provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency,...

2011-10-01

178

40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.528-78 Section 86.528-78...Test Procedures § 86.528-78 Transmissions. (a) Vehicles equipped with...tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in âDriveâ (highest gear)....

2013-07-01

179

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

180

Transmission line magnetic fields; Measurements and calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent controversy over 60 Hz magnetic fields has heightened public awareness of overhead transmission lines. As a result, there is increasing motivation to study the magnetic fields form transmission lines. The most cost effective means to conduct research into transmission line magnetic fields is with computer or reduced-scale line models. However, from the standpoint of public perception and acceptance, it

B. A. Clairmont; G. B. Johnson; J. H. Dunlap

1992-01-01

181

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, R.B.

1985-08-15

182

Light transmission through polyethylene samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral calibration Hg(Ar) lamp and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser were employed to study the UV, VIS and IR light transmission through polyethylene samples, as pure and doped with Fe2O3 and carbon nanotubes. Optical measurements were performed in the spectral range between 200 nm and 800 nm. Measurements with 0.1% and 1% in weight of filler concentrations were investigated. The polymers' optical absorption coefficients, calculated from the experimental transmitted component, were tabulated at different wavelengths as a function of the analyzed samples. The radiation depth penetration was also evaluated.

Caridi, F.; Torrisi, L.; Visco, A. M.

2012-03-01

183

Transmission surface plasmon resonance microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a microscopy technique to image minute variations of optical properties at the interface of a metallic thin-film. This technique is based on an original transmission configuration of surface plasmon resonance sensors. It combines high diffraction-limited lateral resolution with unaltered refractive index sensitivity. Transmitted light is obtained by using near-field transducers positioned at the metal/dielectric interface to probe the propagative surface plasmon dispersion curve. This label-free technique can find applications in highly multiplexed molecular sensing or full-field surface microscopy. As an example, we show tomography images of silica nanometric patterns.

Loison, Olivier; Fort, Emmanuel

2013-09-01

184

FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages  

SciTech Connect

A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. (Florida Power Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (United States). Transmission Line Dept.)

1993-10-01

185

Automated manual transmission mode selection controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

1999-11-09

186

Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Rausen, David J. (Denver, CO)

2000-02-01

187

History of wireless power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

188

Ephedrine: effects on neuromuscular transmission.  

PubMed

(-)-Ephedrine has been used in the treatment of patients with myasthenia gravis. To investigate the possible effects of ephedrine on neuromuscular transmission, canine intercostal muscle endplates were studied by microelectrode techniques. At concentrations less than 10(-4) M, ephedrine had no effect on neuromuscular transmission. At a concentration of 10(-4) M, ephedrine increased the quantal content of the endplate potential by 21%. The presynaptic store of acetylcholine quanta available for immediate release was unchanged, but the probability of quantal release was increased by 16%. At this concentration, ephedrine decreased the amplitude of the miniature endplate potential by 38%. In the presence of 10(-3) M ephedrine, the miniature endplate potentials and currents became undetectable. The kinetic properties of the acetylcholine receptor channel were studied by analysis of acetylcholine-induced endplate current noise. At 10(-4) M, ephedrine reduced the channel conductance by 43% but had no effect on the open time. At 5 x 10(-4) M, ephedrine reduced the channel conductance by 84% and increased the open time by 23 percent. PMID:8221087

Sieb, J P; Engel, A G

1993-09-24

189

Preventing accidental transmission of human transmissible spongifom encephalopathies.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which humans became infected with the BSE agent is discussed, and the matter of potential person-to person transmission of TSEs through contagion or medical procedures is considered. There is some discussion regarding the current evidence relating to whether or not the blood of humans infected with TSEs is infectious. Considerable emphasis is placed on the fact that TSE agents are known to be relatively resistant to decontamination by procedures that are effective with conventional micro-organisms, including (under worst-case conditions) the autoclaving procedures used to sterilise surgical instruments. Methods for providing additional re-assurance with regard to the safety of instruments are described. Safety in the pathology laboratory is discussed extensively because TSE agents are not inactivated by the usual processes used to fix tissues, and such laboratories will receive fixed tissues that are still highly infectious as far as TSE agents are concerned. PMID:14522866

Taylor, David M

2003-01-01

190

Continuously variable vehicular transmission for reducing transmission torque applied to belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for a vehicle, comprising: a torque converter driven by an engine; an input shaft connected to an output of the torque converter; a transmission output shaft; a transmission mechanism of variable ratio including a planetary gear mechanism and a controller for controlling rotational states of elements of the planetary gear mechanism. The transmission mechanism has at least reverse and forward low speed ranges of large reduction ratios and a forward high speed range of small reduction ratio. The transmission mechanism of variable ratio is in torque transmitting engagement with the input shaft and the transmission output shaft, the input shaft constituting a first input to the transmission mechanism of variable ratio; a belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism including an input pulley in torque transmitting engagement with the input shaft and an output pulley provided on a sleeve, each pulley having a stationary flange and a movable flange axially movable with respect to the stationary flange, and torque transmitting means of an endless belt type running on the two pulleys. The output pulley is coupled to the transmission output shaft via the planetary gear mechanism in the forward high speed range.

Sumiyoshi, M.; Matsunari, F.

1987-02-24

191

Bulk transmission system loss analysis  

SciTech Connect

This is the User's Guide for the BULKTRAN research computer package developed under EPRI RP 2716-1. This program evaluates bulk transmission capacity and energy losses. The user may choose either a fast, but an approximate solution (the lower level), or an accurate, but a slow one (the higher level). The capacity loss evaluations are based on an optimization algorithm, that minimizes a suitable cost function (such as generation costs), while at the same time satisfying all the constraints associated with a normal operation of the system. These constraints include the load flow equations, line flow constraints and bounds on all control variables. The energy loss evaluation method is based on knowledge of the relationship between the loads and the losses, or the load-loss curve. The energy losses is then integrated according to the load duration curve for the time horizon. The program can be controlled through either a Control Language files, or a menu system. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Nadira, R.; Baran, M.; Segev, E.; Mehra, R.K. (Scientific Systems, Inc., Woburn, MA (USA)); Wu, F.F.; Baran, M. (Public Service Electric and Gas Co., Newark, NJ (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

1990-05-01

192

FEL system for energy transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as the power source for transmission from Earth stations to space assets is discussed. Considerations of requirements including net power transmitted, of system reliability, of system availability, of costs, and of technical maturity are addressed to determine a reasonable development path to an optimal system. Various applications of transmitted power are examined such as supplementary power to communications satellites, orbit raising through the use of electric and thermal thrusters, and supplementary power to manned orbiters and space stations. It is seen that each of these applications leads to different stages of infrastructure development, and that a program following a near optimal development path can lead to a system that has justifiable investments for the services delivered at each stage past the initial technology demonstration.

Burke, R. J.; Curtin, M. S.; Lampel, M. C.; Cover, R. A.

1994-12-01

193

Microwave transmission in graphene oxide.  

PubMed

We investigated the radio-frequency transmission properties of reduced graphene oxide (GO) sheets including contact effects with the metal electrodes. GO sheets were prepared by dielectrophoresis and their structural characteristics were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The contact resistance was much higher than the intrinsic resistance over the entire frequency range, thus the contact resistance was considered as a dominant component of impedance in the radio-frequency regime. In the radio-frequency regime, GO sheets showed a drastic decrease in impedance based on a consistent decrease in the intrinsic and contact resistance. These results support the potential of GO as a radio-frequency interconnector with a solution-based fabrication method. PMID:23221258

Yoon, Hyong Seo; Kim, Whan Kyun; Jung, Young Mo; Cho, Joon Hyong; Kim, D H; Song, In Sang; Choi, Jung Han; Baik, Seunghyun; Jun, Seong Chan

2012-12-05

194

Power transmission apparatus for vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission apparatus for a vehicle comprising: an output shaft for transmitting power from a power unit to the front and rear wheels of the vehicle; a front wheel driving device for driving the vehicle front wheel; a rear wheel driving device for driving the vehicle rear wheel; a driving shaft operatively driven by the output shaft interposed between the front wheel driving device and the rear wheel driving device and having one end connected to the front wheel driving device and the other end connected to the rear wheel driving device; and the front wheel driving device including a unidirectional clutch for transmitting a driving force during forward movement of the vehicle only in one direction from the power unit to the vehicle front wheel.

Oka, Y.

1987-09-15

195

New transmission lines: The challenge  

SciTech Connect

Increasing competition in the electric power industry is likely to entail a little-recognized major complication---difficulty in siting of transmission lines. The stakes will often be greater, the competition could be stronger, and both put a premium on finding a process that can win public acceptance cost-effectively. There are at least three major reasons why siting new lines will become more difficult: (1) More communities in the paths of the new lines will not be served by them and will see no benefit to offset the nuisance, (2) In addition to the perceived health threats of electric and magnetic fields, opposition will arise based on claims about siting of lines in low-income or minority neighborhoods, and (3) Electric power companies that stand to lose market share if the lines are completed may align themselves with the opposition. This article is a review of the challenges that utilities may face in their efforts.

Pierobon, J.R. [Potomac Communications, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Potomac Communications, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-03-15

196

Understanding wiring and volume transmission.  

PubMed

The proposal on the existence of two main modes of intercellular communication in the central nervous system (CNS) was introduced in 1986 and called wiring transmission (WT) and volume transmission (VT). The major criterion for this classification was the different characteristics of the communication channel with physical boundaries well delimited in the case of WT (axons and their synapses; gap junctions) but not in the case of VT (the extracellular fluid filled tortuous channels of the extracellular space and the cerebrospinal fluid filled ventricular space and sub-arachnoidal space). The basic dichotomic classification of intercellular communication in the brain is still considered valid, but recent evidence on the existence of unsuspected specialized structures for intercellular communication, such as microvesicles (exosomes and shedding vesicles) and tunnelling nanotubes, calls for a refinement of the original classification model. The proposed updating is based on criteria which are deduced not only from these new findings but also from concepts offered by informatics to classify the communication networks in the CNS. These criteria allowed the identification also of new sub-classes of WT and VT, namely the "tunnelling nanotube type of WT" and the "Roamer type of VT." In this novel type of VT microvesicles are safe vesicular carriers for targeted intercellular communication of proteins, mtDNA and RNA in the CNS flowing in the extracellular fluid along energy gradients to reach target cells. In the tunnelling nanotubes proteins, mtDNA and RNA can migrate as well as entire organelles such as mitochondria. Although the existence and the role of these new types of intercellular communication in the CNS are still a matter of investigation and remain to be fully demonstrated, the potential importance of these novel types of WT and VT for brain function in health and disease is discussed. PMID:20347870

Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Guescini, Michele; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell

2010-03-27

197

Estimating malaria transmission through mathematical models.  

PubMed

Evaluating the effectiveness of malaria control interventions on the basis of their impact on transmission is increasingly important as countries move from malaria control to pre-elimination programs. Mathematical modeling can examine relationships between malaria indicators, allowing translation of easily measured data into measures of transmission, and addressing key concerns with traditional methods for quantifying transmission. Simulations show these indicators are statistically correlated, allowing direct comparisons of malaria transmission using data collected using different methods across a range of transmission intensities and seasonal patterns. Results from such models can provide public health officials with accurate estimates of transmission, by seasonal pattern, that are necessary for assessing and tailoring malaria control and elimination programs to specific settings. PMID:24001452

Stuckey, Erin M; Smith, Thomas A; Chitnis, Nakul

2013-09-01

198

Wireless optical energy transmission using optical beamforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and demonstrate a wireless optical energy transmission using optical beamforming with a spatial light modulator. We demonstrate an optical beamforming technology to focus the light of an optical source on a desired target, which can be used in various applications. Our experiment shows a wireless energy transmission efficiency of 1.3% with a white light-emitting diode light source. Although the transmission efficiency is currently low in our experimental result, we expect that the transmission efficiency can be improved up to 30% with highly efficient devices. We also propose an algorithm based on the optical beamforming to detect the location of the target device automatically. The proposed wireless optical energy transmission has several advantages over the previous wireless energy transmission methods.

Kim, Sung-Man; Kim, Seong-Min

2013-04-01

199

FERC rate incentives for transmission infrastructure development  

SciTech Connect

With enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress delivered a mandate to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to establish regulations that would provide for incentive-based rate treatments for investments that would improvement the nation's electric transmission system. That has required FERC to move from merely approving cost-based rates for transmission services to enacting new regulations that would make it more attractive to invest in transmission infrastructure without offending the ''just and reasonable'' rate standard. (author)

Snarr, Steven W.

2010-03-15

200

A Transmission Line Taper of Improved Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the design of optimal cascaded transformer arrangements can be extended to the design of continuous transmission-line tapers. Convenient relationships have been obtained from which the characteristic impedance contour for an optimal transmission-line taper can be found. The performance of the Dolph-Tchebycheff transmission-line taper treated here is optimum in the sense that it has minim reflection coefficient magnitude

R. W. Klopfenstein

1956-01-01

201

Radiation transport and image transmission through aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical and thermal properties of aerogels play an important role in their application as transparent insulation, daylighting systems and superinsulated windows. Directional-directional transmission, tdd, as well as the directional-hemispherical transmission, tdh, are presented for 20 mm thick monolithic and granular SiO2 aerogel. For optimized monolithic aerogels, averaged transmission values of t?dh,sol = (91 ± 14)% and t?dd,vis = (84 ±

A. Beck; J Linsmeier; W Körner; H Scheller; J Fricke

1995-01-01

202

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

203

CATV Transmission in Optical Communication System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze analog CATV transmission system where only one wavelength is used for transmission on which multiple analog RF channels modulated. We analyze different modulation distortions such as composite second order (CSO), composite triple beat (CTB) and intermodulation distortions at different frequencies. Good performance of CSO > -36 dBc and CTB > -41 dBc are obtained at 62.5 MHz, 125 MHz and 187.5 MHz in three tone directly modulated CATV transmission system.

Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh; Singh, Kulwinder

2013-09-01

204

Transmission line design optimization: TLOP manuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission line optimization project has the goal of developing innovative optimization techniques for 115 to 500 kV transmission lines to optimize the interdependent electrical, environmental, and structural design parameters with respect to such factors as initial or lifetime cost, electric field strength, and right-of-way requirements. Version 1.2 of the Transmission Line Optimization Program (TLOP) is an initial product from

I. S. Grant; R. E. Clayton; G. E. Scott

1984-01-01

205

Perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus infection.  

PubMed

In industrialized countries, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Perinatal transmission is the leading cause of infection. Perinatal transmission is confined almost always to women with detectable HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the peripheral blood by the polymerase chain reaction but all children born to women with anti-HCV antibodies should be tested for HCV. Some but not all studies found that a high concentration of serum HCV RNA is associated with a higher risk of transmission. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cell infection by HCV, membrane rupture of longer than 6 hr before delivery, and procedures exposing the infant to maternal blood infected with HCV during vaginal delivery are associated with an increased risk of transmission. Maternal coinfection with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus, maternal history of intravenous drug use and of HCV infection of the sexual partner of the mother predict the risk of perinatal transmission and are dependent on the peripheral blood mononuclear cell infection by HCV. Delivery by Cesarean section is not recommended in pregnant women infected with HCV. Infected mothers can breast feed safely their infants if the nipples are not damaged. A previous delivery of a child infected perinatally with HCV does not increase the risk of transmission in subsequent pregnancies. Immunogenetic factors and HCV genotypes are not related to HCV perinatal transmission. Despite an increased understanding of the risk factors involved in perinatal transmission of HCV, to date little is known about the transmission mechanisms and timing. PMID:19319981

Indolfi, Giuseppe; Resti, Massimo

2009-05-01

206

Heterosexual Transmission of a Murine AIDS Virus  

PubMed Central

Heterosexual transmission of a murine leukemia virus mixture named LP-BM5 MuLV, which is known as the murine AIDS virus, was investigated. Our results indicated that the heterosexual transmission of LP-BM5 MuLV occurs in both directions with high frequency and that the frequencies of virus transmission in the cervix and penis are higher than those in other genital organs. The results suggested that infection by LP-BM5 MuLV via heterosexual transmission may initially take place at particular retrovirus-sensitive sites (cells) in the genital organs.

Okada, Yoshiaki; Abe, Eri; Komuro, Katsutoshi; Mizuochi, Toshiaki

1998-01-01

207

Nuclear Generating Stations and Transmission Grid Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear generating stations have historically been susceptible to transmission system voltage excursions. When nuclear plants trip due to voltage excursions, the resulting loss of real and reactive power support can make grid events worse. New standards are being prepared which may help to improve nuclear plant and transmission system reliability. A brief historical perspective is provided. Another reliability issue is the fact that nuclear plants do not provide automatic generation control in response to frequency decay. As 28 new nuclear plants are being considered for connection to an already highly stressed transmission grid, consideration must be given to nuclear plant design features which will enhance, not degrade, transmission system reliability.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL

2007-01-01

208

Final Report Navajo Transmission Project (NTP)  

SciTech Connect

The Diné Power Authority is developing the Navajo Transmission Project (NTP) to relieve the constraints on the transmission of electricity west of the Four Corners area and to improve the operation flexibility and reliability of the extra-high-voltage transmission system in the region. The NTP creates the wholesale transmission capacity for more economical power transfers, sales, and purchases in the region. It will facilitate the development of Navajo energy resources, improve economic conditions on the Navajo Nation as well as allow DPA to participate in the western electrical utility industry.

Bennie Hoisington; Steven Begay

2006-09-14

209

77 FR 32183 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission has not explained why problems created by federal rights of...stakeholders to understand why a particular transmission facility was selected or not selected...stakeholders to understand why a particular transmission project was selected or not...

2012-05-31

210

Transmission crediting: a plea for subsidies disguised as the linchpin of regional transmission planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arguments that FERC's decisions on credits for transmission facilities owned by network customers will chill the development of a regional grid simply are variations on the theme that transmission owning utilities should underwrite the cost of smaller utilities.

Steven J. Ross; Edward J. Twomey

1996-01-01

211

A Generalization of the Transmission\\/Disequilibrium Test for Uncertain-Haplotype Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new transmission\\/disequilibrium-test statistic is pro- posed for situations in which transmission is uncertain. Such situations arise when transmission of a multilocus marker haplotype is considered, since haplotype phase is often unknown in a substantial number of instances. Even for single-locus markers, transmission is uncertain if one or both parents are missing. In both these situa- tions, uncertainty may

David Clayton

1999-01-01

212

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

213

Millimeter Wave Transmission Systems and Related Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structu...

L. M. Hebert

1984-01-01

214

Transient analysis of lossless transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of characteristics provides a simple analytic solution for the transient analysis of a uniform, lossless transmission line. The interpretation of this solution in terms of equivalent network of the input and output behavior of the transmission line leads to an efficient algorithm which yields not only the input and output responses but also the incident and reflected waves.

1967-01-01

215

Ecological benefits of dc power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

Kutuzova, N. B. [JSC 'NIIPT' (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

216

Transmission Emergency Restoration Systems For Public Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the vast expanse of Public Power's operating territory in the United States and the variety of climatic conditions that their electrical transmission lines are subjected to, these lines occasionally fail due to natural disasters. These natural disasters are a result of mudslides, heavy ice, high winds or floods. In addition to these natural causes, transmission lines have also

Keith E. Lindsey

217

Nonrandom Mixing Models of HIV Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of HIV transmission and the AIDS epidemic generally assume random mixing among those infected with HIV and those who are not. For sexually transmitted HIV, this implies that individuals select sex partners without regard to attributes such as familiarity, attractiveness, or risk of infection. This paper formulates a model for examining the impact of nonrandom mixing on HIV transmission.

Peter Cramton; Edward Kaplan; A. David Paltiel

1989-01-01

218

Layered transmission of audio\\/video signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a broadcast channel, a single transmitter communicates with a number of receivers having different channel capacities available to them. A typical example of such a channel is the over the air TV broadcast. For the two-receiver case, we examine the performance of some common orthogonal transmission methods in terms of their achievable rates. Layered transmission, whereby the information intended

Masoud Sajadieh; F. R. Kschischang; Alberto Leon-Garcia

1996-01-01

219

Overview of electric transmission (technology and economics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present time bulk electricity transmission exists in power pools and, to a more limited extent, as interties between pools. A brief summary of the growth of these networks upto the present maximum service voltage of 765 kV is given. Only a small percentage of the transmission circuit mileage is placed underground due to both technical problems and high

Forsyth

1978-01-01

220

Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled

David R. Hall; David S. Pixton; Monte L. Johnson; David B. Bartholomew; Hall Jr. H. Tracy; Michael Rawle

2011-01-01

221

Transmission Investment Timing and Sizing under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We analyse the transmission investment problem by modelling the decision of a private investor holding a perpetual option to construct a transmission line. Using the real options approach, we determine both the optimal investment timing and line capacity under uncertain congestion rents. In particular, we flnd that if consumers at the importing node were to limit the investor’s liability,

Afzal Siddiqui; Himanshu Gupta

222

Reflection and transmission by magnetic multilayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the formalism for transmission of normally incident electromagnetic radiation through a finite superlattice of alternating magnetic and non-magnetic layers. It is assumed that the ordering direction and static field, if any, are perpendicular to the interfaces so that the eigenmodes for propagation are the states of circular polarization. The transmission and reflection coefficients are expressed in terms

X.-F. X.-F. Zhou; J.-J. Wang; X.-Z. X.-Z. Wang; D. R. Tilley

2000-01-01

223

Continuously Variable Transmission. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ford Motor Company over the past two decades has been studying various types of Infinitely Variable (I.V.) Transmissions for improving passenger car fuel economy. Of the traction drive mechanisms investigated, the Forster I.V. transmission appeared the mo...

D. Hughson R. Emmadi A. Topouzian B. Lampinen C. Bhavsar

1977-01-01

224

Chilean perspective. [Regulatory considerations in power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Chilean perspective on how regulatory considerations affect open access to power transmission. Chilean policies have been oriented since 1979 to establish economic efficiency including planning and investment coordination, pricing, economic load dispatch, and common use of the transmission system. The topics of the paper include the regulatory framework for the power sector, requirements for the TOA

Agurto

1994-01-01

225

Head loss testing in transmission mains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately measuring head loss in large-diameter transmission mains is difficult and is therefore seldom done at all. However, if a section of transmission main is installed with provisions for measuring flow and head loss, the testing can be done easily and accurately, allowing better monitoring of long-term trends in pipe roughness and carrying capacity.

Thomas M. Walski; Shaun J. O'Farrell

1994-01-01

226

Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

2004-01-01

227

Monitoring frictional strength with acoustic wave transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We monitored acoustic transmissivity of a frictional interface during laboratory experiments where complex slip history was imposed. Frictional strength, which was also tracked continuously, showed complex changes due to various causes such as aging of the interface in quasi-stationary contact and slip weakening that began with miniscule pre-failure slip. Albeit such complexity, acoustic transmissivity was found to be a unique

Kohei Nagata; Masao Nakatani; Shingo Yoshida

2008-01-01

228

Conductor optimisation for overhead transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conductors make up for about a third of the cost of an overhead transmission line. Power losses in lines account for the bulk of the transmission system losses, which in South Africa is about 1100 MW at peak load. These are critical economic factors which needs careful analysis when selecting a conductor for a new overhead line, which will be

R. Vajeth; D. Dama

2004-01-01

229

Protection of Double Circuit Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes different cases of parallel transmission lines and analyzes some well known application problems associated with their protection. Distance protection performance problems are in the focus due to the fact that they are the most commonly used protection type for parallel transmission lines. The behavior of ground overcurrent protection on double circuit applications is also discussed in the

A. Apostolov; D. Tholomier; S. Sambasivan; S. Richards

2007-01-01

230

Wireless data transmission from inside electromagnetic fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900 MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different

José Ignacio Huertas; Roberto Barraza; J. M. Echeverry

2009-01-01

231

Mapping Environmental Suitability for Malaria Transmission, Greece  

PubMed Central

During 2009–2012, Greece experienced a resurgence of domestic malaria transmission. To help guide malaria response efforts, we used spatial modeling to characterize environmental signatures of areas suitable for transmission. Nonlinear discriminant analysis indicated that sea-level altitude and land-surface temperature parameters are predictive in this regard.

Sudre, Bertrand; Rossi, Massimiliano; Van Bortel, Wim; Danis, Kostas; Baka, Agoritsa; Vakalis, Nikos

2013-01-01

232

Performance Evaluation in Multimedia CDMA Wireless Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates the behavior of block errors in multimedia direct-sequence (DS) CDMA transmission systems operating over slow fading channels. We show that block errors can be accurately modeled by a first-order Markov process. Although Markov models have been used before to analyze packet transmission over radio channels, they have not been applied to CDMA systems that incorporate convolutional codes (CC) with

Mario Rafael Hueda; Carmen E. Rodríguez; Carlos A. Marqués

2000-01-01

233

Noise transmission through nonlinear sandwich panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical study is presented to predict the noise transmission through nonlinear double wall sandwich panel systems subject to random loading. Viscoelastic and nonlinear spring dash-pot models are chosen to characterize the behavior of the core. The noise transmission through this panel system is determined into an acoustic enclosure of which the interiors are covered with porous absorption materials. The

R. Vaicaitis; H.-K. Hong

1983-01-01

234

Compact Macromodel for Lossy Coupled Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a systematic algorithm for obtaining pas- sive time domain reduced order transmission line macromodels. The proposed algorithm makes use of a new order reduction technique that removes the redundant poles obtained using con- ventional order reduction methods. The reduced macromodel is passive by construction. I. Summary At high frequencies interconnects are treated as multi- conductor transmission lines.

Roni Khazaka; Michel S. Nakhla

2002-01-01

235

An educational tool for transmission lines animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission line signal propagation is a mandatory topic of education in high speed electronic packaging. During our didactic activities at “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, we found that our students have difficulties of intuitively perceiving the signal propagation in transmission lines, especially when multiple reflections from impedance discontinuities caused by junctions or unmatched terminations are involved. We considered that the main

Marius Rangu; Catalin Negrea

2010-01-01

236

Transmission Line Simulation for Testing ISDN Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission line model has been developed to simulate the effects of sourcing ISDN (integrated services digital network) waveforms through twisted-pair telephone cable. Circuit simulation models for three different wire gauges have been used to predict the transmission characteristics of arbitrary networks using SPICE simulations. These models have been configured to simulate a standard test network specified by ANSI and

David K. Oka

1989-01-01

237

Overview of the transmission line design process  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented for the design of overhead high-voltage transmission lines. Since most lines constructed by Los Angeles Department of Water and Power in recent years have been extra-high-voltage AC, this paper emphasizes the design of 500 kV AC transmission lines built in the southwest United States. Empirically developed practices are presented throughout the paper.

Robert D. Castro

1995-01-01

238

47 CFR 27.1220 - Transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission standards. 27.1220 Section 27.1220 Telecommunication...Educational Broadband Service Technical Standards § 27.1220 Transmission standards. The width of a channel in the LBS and UBS...

2012-10-01

239

Binary Data Transmission Techniques for Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linearity and highly stable frequency characteristics of modern single-sideband equipment make possible improvements in the frequency spectrum utilization and performance of binary data transmission systems. Problems associated with fully utilizing the binary data transmission potential of an SSB voice channel are discussed. These problems include consideration of frequency and phase stability of the SSB equipment and the propagation media,

M. L. Doelz; E. T. Heald; D. L. Martin

1957-01-01

240

Video Transmission over CDMA-2000 System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a twin-class unequal protected video transmission over mobile channels. As a transport vehicle, we have considered CDMA-2000. A dual priority transmission has been invoked in CDMA-2000 by adopting a relative gain adjustment strategy for...

H. Gharavi

2001-01-01

241

Using Algorithms in Solving Synapse Transmission Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how a simple three-step algorithm can aid college students in solving synapse transmission problems. Reports that all of the students did not completely understand the algorithm. However, many learn a simple working model of synaptic transmission and understand why an impulse will pass across a synapse quantitatively. Students also see…

Stencel, John E.

1992-01-01

242

Chemical processes for energy storage and transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical reaction, adsorption of a gas in a solid, or adsorption of gas in a liquid solvent can be used to solve problems in conservation, storage and transmission of energy. Possible applications of such processes are chemical heat pumps, cooling systems, heat transformers, chemical heat pipes, separation, storage and transmission of hydrogen. In the present paper, the principal chemical processes

G. Cacciola; N. Giordano

1986-01-01

243

Compressed television transmission: A market survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

1981-10-01

244

An ANS based helicopter transmission diagnostic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the development effort for the CH-46 Helicopter Aft Transmission Fault Detector project the following can be concluded. The optimized-entropy training algorithm, successfully configured and optimized an ANS for processing vibration signals, albeit test signals from a test stand transmission with implanted faults. The ANS successfully analyzed the test data with, no false alarms, no failures to detect, and no

X. Xu; H. Vanderveldt; R. Allen

1997-01-01

245

Through air transmission for ultrasonic nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical design and experimental evaluation of a prototype through air ultrasonic inspection system are described. It is based around a ceramic-epoxy composite transducer configuration that is tailored specifically for through transmission scanning in air. A simulation model is used for the design of transmission and reception devices and the main factors influencing transduction performance are discussed with respect to

D. Reilly; G. Hayward

1991-01-01

246

Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a)

Renato L Rombaldi; Eduardo P Serafini; Jovana Mandelli; Edineia Zimmermann; Kamille P Losquiavo

2009-01-01

247

Analytical transmission electron microscopy in materials science  

SciTech Connect

Microcharacterization of materials on a scale of less than 10 nm has been afforded by recent advances in analytical transmission electron microscopy. The factors limiting accurate analysis at the limit of spatial resolution for the case of a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are examined in this paper.

Fraser, H.L.

1980-01-01

248

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

2002-01-01

249

Millimeter-wave nonlinear transmission line tripler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) provide a nonlinear, dispersive medium for soliton propagation. Taking advantage of the soliton propagation effects, electrical impulse compression and harmonic generation can be achieved in NLTL circuits. In this paper, characteristics of solitons propagating along NLTLs have been investigated and simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. Unique nonlinear interactions among solitons propagating along nonlinear transmission

Xudong Wang; Jishi Ren; R. J. Hwu

1998-01-01

250

Intelsat TDMA link design and transmission simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the key factors involved in the transmission design of the Intelsat time-division multiple-access (TDMA) system. Linear channel analysis was supplemented with computer and laboratory hardware simulation to evaluate the impairments arising in the actual nonlinear channel. The required system performance standards, a historical review of the system constraints, a transmission model, link budgets, and a detailed discussion

M. E. Jones; D. E. Weinreich; E. Koh

1986-01-01

251

Planthopper transmission of Phormium yellow leaf phytoplasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonnium yellow leaf (PYL) phytoplasma was transmitted from diseased to healthy New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) by the native planthopper, Oliarus atkinsoni (Homoptera: Cixiidae). By contrast, transmission was not effected by the introduced passionvine hopper, Scolypopa australis (Homoptera: Ricaniidae). Successful transmission of PYL phytoplasma from New Zealand flax to New Zealand flax by O. atkinsoni was demonstrated by symptomatology and

L. W. Liefting; R. E. Beever; C. J. Winksc; M. N. Pearson; R. L. S. Forster

1997-01-01

252

Wireless Transmission of IGBT Driver Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a commutation cell, the implementation of IGBT and MOS requires an insulated signal. Traditionally, the insulated signal is carried out by a DC supply with a high insulation transformer for energy transmission and an optical fiber or pulse transformer for the switch control information. A new approach seems promising: the switch control information by a wireless transmission. Analog or

C. Batard; G. Andrieux; N. Ginot; M. A. Mannah

2009-01-01

253

Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patient fathers, 58 (29%) controls’ mothers and 55 (28%) AD mothers had memory difficulty. More mothers than fathers had memory problems in both groups and the statistical significance persisted after adjusting for parent age at death and APOE for controls (OR=2.40, p=0.004) but not cases (OR=1.63, p=0.14), although results are qualitatively similar. There was no evidence of a real difference between the two groups in interaction analysis (p=0.41). Mothers of both cases and controls were more often affected than fathers, even after adjusting for age. Cases’ mothers were no more often demented than controls’ mothers, which does not support the maternal AD transmission. Rather, the increased number of affected mothers relates, at least in part, to female longevity.

Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

2012-01-01

254

Multi-speed planetary transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a single axis planetary change speed transmission comprising: a stationary housing having wall means defining a hollow interior chamber including interior walls at opposite ends of the chamber defining a pair of axially spaced circular apertures disposed on the axis, a rotatable housing having wall means defining an interior cavity and presenting hollow cylindrical end portions at its opposite ends and in constant rotation therewith, a pair of bearing means rotatably mounting the end portions in the apertures, respectively, the end portions presenting openings, respectively, aligned on the axis, an input shaft coaxial with and extending through the opening in one of the end portions of the rotatable housing, first, second and third coaxial and axially spaced epicyclic gear sets operatively arranged in sequence within the cavity each including a ring gear component, a sun gear component and a planet carrier component rotatably supporting planet gears meshing with the ring and sun gear components, and a first quill shaft encompassing the input shaft and having a central portion extending through the opening in the one of the end portions and presenting an axially inner end connected for rotation with a first of the components of the first gear set.

Quick, D.C.; Mc Cormik, S.J.; Ballendux, G.M.

1987-02-03

255

Leucodepletion for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.  

PubMed

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been recognised around the world for many years. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), one of the human forms of TSE, has been studied widely and thus far has not proved a great threat to human health. The emergence of two new TSEs--bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans in the UK--has caused great concern. BSE has had an economic impact and vCJD is a threat to human health. It has been shown that these two diseases are caused by the same prion agent and are linked. Research indicates that vCJD behaves differently to CJD and there is strong evidence to suggest that vCJD is present in lymphoid tissues and B lymphocytes, which presents a theoretical risk that it may be transmitted by transfusion of blood and blood products. To minimise/prevent this risk, the UK government has decided that plasma should be sourced from abroad and has instructed the National Blood Service to leucodeplete all blood and blood products, at a cost of 70 million pounds per annum, although it is not known if this will remove this risk. PMID:15058746

St Romaine, C; Hazlehurst, G; Jewell, A P

2004-01-01

256

Stress transmission within the cell.  

PubMed

An outstanding problem in cell biology is how cells sense mechanical forces and how those forces affect cellular functions. During past decades, it has become evident that the deformable cytoskeleton (CSK), an intracellular network of various filamentous biopolymers, provides a physical basis for transducing mechanical signals into biochemical responses. To understand how mechanical forces regulate cellular functions, it is necessary to first understand how the CSK develops mechanical stresses in response to applied forces, and how those stresses are propagated through the CSK where various signaling molecules are immobilized. New experimental techniques have been developed to quantify cytoskeletal mechanics, which together with new computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models for describing mechanics of living cells. In this article, we discuss current understanding of cell biomechanics by focusing on the biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for the development and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell and their effect on cellular functions. We compare and contrast various theories and models of cytoskeletal mechanics, emphasizing common mechanisms that those theories are built upon, while not ignoring irreconcilable differences. We highlight most recent advances in the understanding of mechanotransduction in the cytoplasm of living cells and the central role of the cytoskeletal prestress in propagating mechanical forces along the cytoskeletal filaments to activate cytoplasmic enzymes. It is anticipated that advances in cell mechanics will help developing novel therapeutics to treat pulmonary diseases like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23737186

Stamenovi?, Dimitrije; Wang, Ning

2011-01-01

257

Transmission and reflection SHSG holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra- fine grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to convert employing SHSG processing methods. Therefore, an optimized processing techniques for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal- materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90 percent can be obtained for both transmission and reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, including also high-quality display holograms of the reflection type, both monochrome and full color.

Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung S.; Choi, Yoon S.; Kim, Sun I.; Kim, Jong-Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

2001-06-01

258

Quantum limit for information transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we give two independent and rigorous derivations for the quantum bound on the information transmission rate proposed independently by Bekenstein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 623 (1981)] and Bremermann .ul2 [Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, edited by L. M. LeCam and J. Neyman (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1967], preceded by a heuristic argument showing why such a bound must hold. In both approaches, information carriers are quanta for some field. The first method resembles the microcanonical approach to statistical mechanics, where the strategy of overestimating the real number of states by relaxing the indistinguishability of quanta was adopted. The second is based entirely upon maximum-entropy methods. Amazingly enough, the results obtained by these physically unrelated premises turn out to be identical, namely, that the single (noiseless) channel capacity is ?max=E/2?? bits s-1. It is further shown that, in a finite time ?, no information can ever be conveyed unless the energy threshold 2??/? is reached, allowing the reinterpretation of the time-energy uncertainty in informational-theoretic language.

Schiffer, Marcelo

1991-05-01

259

Bulk transmission system loss analysis  

SciTech Connect

A two-level hierarchical approach for evaluating capacity and energy losses of power transmission systems was developed and implemented in this project. The approach was adopted following a review of methods currently available to utilities. The review included a literature search of methods for calculating capacity and energy losses in system planning and system operation, as well as a telephone survey and personal interviews of various utilities about their concerns and needs. As a result of this review, a two level approach was adopted, wherein the user may interactively choose between a higher level which is accurate but slow, or a lower level which is approximate and fast. Thus, the user can control the level of accuracy of the calculation and the relative speed by which it is performed. The higher level chosen for the capacity loss evaluation is a full Optimal Power Flow (OPF) and the lower level method is a decoupled OPF, in which the constraints of the active sub-problem are linearized. The objective function to be minimized is taken as a fifth order polynomial of the active power generations. The IEEE 118 bus system and the reduced PJM 530 bus system were used to test to performance of the above methods for accuracy, convergence and speed. Two user-interfaces were developed: an interactive menu system that allows the use to prepare the input files and review the results by following various screens and options using a VT100 type terminal, and an interface through control language files. 5 refs., 36 figs., 45 tabs.

Nadira, R.; Baran, M.; Segev, E.; Mehra, R.K. (Scientific Systems, Inc., Woburn, MA (USA)); Wu, F.F.; Baran, M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences)

1990-05-01

260

Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.  

PubMed

Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature. PMID:23875817

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

2013-07-23

261

Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

Klop, Richard J.

262

Simulation research on the secondary regulating transmission system of bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrostatic transmission with secondary regulation is a new kind of hydrostatic transmission, which can regenerate inertial and gravitational energy of load. Based on deeply analyzing the working principles and energy-saving theory of bus secondary regulating transmission system, regenerating the transmission system's inertial energy by controlling constant torque was put forward. Considering large changes of the parameters of the transmission system

Zang Faye; Dai Ruquan

2009-01-01

263

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

264

High Transmission through Sharp Bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate highly efficient transmission of light around sharp corners in photonic band-gap waveguides. Numerical simulations reveal complete transmission at certain frequencies, and very high transmission \\\\(>95%\\\\) over wide frequency ranges. High transmission is observed even for 90° bends with zero radius of curvature, with a maximum transmission of 98% as opposed to 30% for analogous conventional dielectric waveguides. We

Attila Mekis; J. C. Chen; I. Kurland; Shanhui Fan; Pierre R. Villeneuve; J. D. Joannopoulos

1996-01-01

265

Solar collector having a solid transmission medium  

DOEpatents

There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL); Zwerdling, Solomon (Woodridge, IL)

1977-06-14

266

49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192...Maintenance § 192.709 Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each...maintain the following records for transmission lines for the periods...

2011-10-01

267

49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation...Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during...

2011-10-01

268

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751 Section...74.751 Modification of transmission systems. (a) No...antenna pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss characteristics, or...

2012-10-01

269

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77...1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract...calendar year of substation and transmission line construction (including...

2013-01-01

270

49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation...Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during...

2012-10-01

271

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a...Those that would cause the transmission system to exceed the equipment... (2) Replacement of a transmission line with one of a different...

2011-10-01

272

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a...Those that would cause the transmission system to exceed the equipment... (2) Replacement of a transmission line with one of a different...

2012-10-01

273

49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192...Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. ...replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is repaired by cutting...

2011-10-01

274

49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192...Maintenance § 192.709 Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each...maintain the following records for transmission lines for the periods...

2012-10-01

275

49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705...Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission lines: Patrolling. (a) Each...conditions on and adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for...

2011-10-01

276

49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192...Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. ...replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is repaired by cutting...

2012-10-01

277

49 CFR 192.705 - Transmission lines: Patrolling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Transmission lines: Patrolling. 192.705...Maintenance § 192.705 Transmission lines: Patrolling. (a) Each...conditions on and adjacent to the transmission line right-of-way for...

2012-10-01

278

Downhole Transmission System. PAT-APPL-10-878-193.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects b...

D. R. Hall J. Fox

2004-01-01

279

47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information...Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety information...Facilities. (b) The mode and format of the transmissions mentioned in this...

2011-10-01

280

Downhole Transmission System. PAT-APPL-10-878-146.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil c...

D. R. Hall T. Hall

2004-01-01

281

47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 Section 73...Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a) A DTV station...Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS). Except as...

2012-10-01

282

7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209...Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor...system as a condition to the electronic transmission and reception of data by the...

2013-01-01

283

47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312...80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it...

2012-10-01

284

5 CFR 1312.28 - Transmission of classified material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transmission of classified material. 1312.28...Classified Information § 1312.28 Transmission of classified material. Prior to the transmission of classified material to...

2013-01-01

285

47 CFR 5.117 - Suspension of transmission required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Suspension of transmission required. 5.117 Section 5...Requirements § 5.117 Suspension of transmission required. The radiations of...deviation is corrected, except for transmissions concerning the immediate safety...

2012-10-01

286

47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.90 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2011-10-01

287

37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents...1.8 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the situations...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2013-07-01

288

47 CFR 73.1695 - Changes in transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Changes in transmission standards. 73.1695 Section 73...Stations § 73.1695 Changes in transmission standards. The FCC will consider...a proposed change or modification of transmission standards adopted for...

2011-10-01

289

21 CFR 26.44 - Transmission of product evaluation reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission of product evaluation reports. 26...Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.44 Transmission of product evaluation reports. Transmission of product evaluation reports will...

2013-04-01

290

37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents...2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2013-07-01

291

18 CFR 35.34 - Regional Transmission Organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Regional Transmission Organizations. 35.34 Section 35...Procedures and Requirements Regarding Regional Transmission Organizations § 35.34 Regional Transmission Organizations. (a) Purpose....

2009-04-01

292

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2013-04-01

293

18 CFR 2.21 - Regional Transmission Groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Regional Transmission Groups. 2.21 Section 2...Power Act § 2.21 Regional Transmission Groups. (a) General policy...Commission encourages Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs) as a...

2013-04-01

294

47 CFR 73.1695 - Changes in transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Changes in transmission standards. 73.1695 Section 73...Stations § 73.1695 Changes in transmission standards. The FCC will consider...a proposed change or modification of transmission standards adopted for...

2012-10-01

295

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control...The following are typical methods of transmission system operation: (a)...

2012-10-01

296

47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023 Section 73...Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station licensees...television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR 74064, Dec....

2012-10-01

297

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2010-04-01

298

47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 Section 73...Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a) A DTV station...Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS). Except as...

2011-10-01

299

47 CFR 73.644 - Subscription TV transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Subscription TV transmission systems. 73.644 Section 73...Stations § 73.644 Subscription TV transmission systems. (a) Licensees...same program material using normal transmission standards. (4) Modification...

2012-10-01

300

47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312...80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it...

2011-10-01

301

47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023 Section 73...Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station licensees...television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR 74064, Dec....

2011-10-01

302

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control...The following are typical methods of transmission system operation: (a)...

2011-10-01

303

18 CFR 35.34 - Regional Transmission Organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regional Transmission Organizations. 35.34 Section 35...Procedures and Requirements Regarding Regional Transmission Organizations § 35.34 Regional Transmission Organizations. (a) Purpose....

2013-04-01

304

40 CFR 123.43 - Transmission of information to EPA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmission of information to EPA. 123.43...Information and Permit Review § 123.43 Transmission of information to EPA. ...for the following: (1) Prompt transmission to the Regional Administrator...

2013-07-01

305

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2009-04-01

306

18 CFR 35.34 - Regional Transmission Organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional Transmission Organizations. 35.34 Section 35...Procedures and Requirements Regarding Regional Transmission Organizations § 35.34 Regional Transmission Organizations. (a) Purpose....

2010-04-01

307

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12 Section 583.12 Transportation... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied...

2012-10-01

308

47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.90 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2012-10-01

309

7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transmission Specifications for Switched Exchange Access...Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE...Methods and Equipment for Measuring the Transmission...transmission line. (e) Amplitude jitter (AJ...nonloaded subscriber loops. For trunk circuits, the...

2013-01-01

310

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12 Section 583...CONTENT LABELING § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer...

2011-10-01

311

BARRIERS TO THE TRANSMISSION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The multiple barrier concept is applied by public health professionals as they attempt to prevent waterborne transmission of communicable diseases. This chapter discusses two water treatment techniques, filtration and disinfection, that are commonly used to provide barriers to di...

312

Transmission Electron Microscope Studies of Extraterrestrial Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selec...

L. P. Keller

1995-01-01

313

Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

1991-03-01

314

Open access transmission tariff, (Bonneville Power Administration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines the open access transmission tariff for the Bonneville Power Administration. The contents of the document include common service provisions, definitions, ancillary services, open access same-time information system (OASIS), reciproci...

1998-01-01

315

The Hidden Value of Transmission Assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For-profit grid companies are attractive to regulators as they constitute a simple solution to costly network congestion problems. They also constitute an attractive business for the owners of transmission assets.

Thomas-Olivier Nasser

1999-01-01

316

Study of Transmission and Distribution Laboratory Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive survey of existing laboratories and field test facilities, capable of conducting transmission and distribution research, in the United States and Canada and similar well-known facilities located in Europe was made. Major areas covered by t...

1975-01-01

317

32 CFR 1907.14 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

[Title 32 CFR 1907.14] [Code of Federal Regulations (annual...Xix - CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY] [Part 1907 - CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS] [Sec. 1907.14 - Transmission.] 32 NATIONAL...

2009-07-01

318

Continuously variable transmission apparatus for automobile  

SciTech Connect

A continuously variable transmission apparatus is described for a vehicle having a slip type clutch disposed between a drive shaft of an engine and an input shaft of a continuously variable transmission mechanism. The apparatus comprises a torque detecting device to detect torque of the engine, an engine speed detecting device to detect rotational speed of the engine, an output shaft speed detecting device to detect rotational speed of an output shaft of the slip type clutch, a vehicle speed detecting device to detect running speed of the vehicle, a slip clutch control device, a continuously variable transmission mechanism control device, and an electronic control device to control the continuously variable transmission mechanism and the slip type clutch according to signals from the detecting devices.

Hiramatsu, T.; Takamiya, B.

1987-05-19

319

Multipacting breakdown in coaxial transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multipacting breakdown data have been obtained in 50-? rigid coaxial transmission lines for frequencies above 150 MHz. The data show very good scaling correspondence with those obtained previously at frequencies below 150 MHz.

R. Woo

1968-01-01

320

Enhanced terahertz transmission by surface plasmon resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) between metal and dielectric material has a good enhancement on electromagnetic wave transmission. In this paper, a series of two-dimension (2D) metal gratings and spiral structures with different geometrical size were experimentally tested by Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The experiment results show that the 2D metal gratings have almost 70% increment on terahertz transmission than the pure silicon substrate in the range of 0.2-2.5THz, which indicates a strong coupling in the terahertz range, and the resonance mode shows a blue shift. On the other hand, the influence of different radiation directions was analyzed. It presents that the slightly higher transmission can be achieved when terahertz wave radiate from the front side than the back side. It reveals that surface plasmon resonance can enhance the terahertz transmission efficiently and has potential applications in security imaging, biological analysis and spectroscopy.

Wen, Yongzheng; Yang, Jiancheng; Yu, Xiaomei; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua; Dong, Liquan

2012-02-01

321

Unexpected vertical transmission of HIV infection.  

PubMed

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection occurred in a child born from an HIV-infected mother with HIV-RNA undetectable during pregnancy. She was suffering from gastroenteritis in the last 3 weeks of gestation. PMID:23652937

Giacomet, Vania; Viganò, Alessandra; Erba, Paola; Nannini, Pilar; Pisanelli, Stefania; Zanchetta, Nadia; Brambilla, Tiziano; Ramponi, Giulia; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2013-05-01

322

Transmission-Blocking Vaccine against Malaria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to transmission-blocking vaccines against malaria. Vaccines of the invention contain a recombinant Pfs25 Plasmodium falciparum protein produced by yeast cells and to yeast cells producing the protein. Mice and monkeys inoculated with...

D. C. Kaslow P. J. Barr

1991-01-01

323

Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations  

SciTech Connect

Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.

Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.

2012-05-20

324

Fiber Optics with Extended Ultraviolet Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal expansion and viscosity-temperature measurements were made on candidate cladding and core glasses. Scaling-up processes were initiated and a comprehensive program for increasing uv transmission of lanthanum zinc borate and lanthanum barium calcium...

W. R. Bratschun M. A. Ali A. G. Pincus M. A. Schwartz

1969-01-01

325

Nutating Mechanical Transmission (Maroth Drive Principle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report presents an analysis defining the operational characteristics and potential load capacity of the nutating mechanical transmission (NMT) concept. Since a fully operational NMT capable of any substantial loading has not been constructed, th...

A. J. Lemanski R. J. Drago

1974-01-01

326

FACSIMILE TRANSMISSION RECORD - GLASSIA, June 11 ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionFACSIMILE TRANSMISSION RECORD Division of Blood Applications 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 400N, HFM-380 Rockville, Maryland 20852-1448 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

327

Solar power satellite microwave transmission and reception  

SciTech Connect

Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

Dietz, R.H.

1980-12-01

328

Chemical transmission between dopaminergic neuron pairs  

PubMed Central

Midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons play a major regulatory role in in goal-directed behavior and reinforcement learning. DAergic neuron activity, and therefore spatiotemporal properties of dopamine release, precisely encodes reward signals. Neuronal activity is shaped both by external afferences and local interactions (chemical and electrical transmissions). Numerous hints suggest the existence of chemical interactions between DAergic neurons, but direct evidence and characterization are still lacking. Here, we show, using dual patch-clamp recordings in rat brain slices, a widespread bidirectional chemical transmission between DAergic neuron pairs. Hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials were partially mediated by D2-like receptors, and entirely resulted from the inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated depolarizing current (Ih). These results constitute the first evidence in paired recordings of a chemical transmission relying on conductance decrease in mammals. In addition, we show that chemical transmission and electrical synapses frequently coexist within the same neuron pair and dynamically interact to shape DAergic neuron activity.

Vandecasteele, Marie; Glowinski, Jacques; Deniau, Jean-Michel; Venance, Laurent

2008-01-01

329

Robust, Adaptive Filtering for Data Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two improvements are presented for adaptive equalization of communication channels for data transmission. One of them is designed to mitigate the effects of impulsive noise on the channel through data-adaptive nonlinear filtering. The other improvement us...

D. W. Tufts M. Barton A. Efton

1987-01-01

330

Helicopter Transmission Vibration and Noise Reduction Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combined analytical and test program has been performed to develop a method for analytically determining the vibration and noise characteristics of a helicopter transmission. This effort included formulation of the necessary analytical method, validatio...

M. A. Bowes N. Giansante R. B. Bossler A. Berman

1977-01-01

331

Unified Network/Traffic Transmission Media Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This task encompasses an analysis of the present overseas Defense Communications System (DCS) transmission media, network and traffic control methods and procedures and development of recommended unified system control mechanism for the near-term overseas...

1977-01-01

332

Vehicle transmission having countershaft and planetary portions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicle transmission comprising: a countershaft transmission including an input first shaft, a second shaft, an output third shaft, gears operatively associated with the shafts, a reversing idler gear cooperatively engaging two of the gears, and low, high, and reverse clutch assembly means for selectively connecting the gears in a preselected manner. The reverse clutch assembly provides either one of two forward speeds and one reverse speed at the third shaft, the low and high clutch assembly means being disposed generally along the second shaft; and a planetary transmission serially driven by the third shaft and including interconnected planetary gear sets and brake assembly means for selectively actuating one of the planetary gear sets and providing one speed for use with each speed of the countershaft transmission.

Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

1986-09-30

333

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

334

Transmission of an explosion through an orifice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of transmission of an explosion from one chamber to another through an orifice was studied for methane, propane, hydrogen and acetylene mixtures with air. Quenching diameters are determined for various regimes.

P. Thibault; Y. K. Liu; C. Chan; J. H. Lee; R. Knystautas; C. Gurap; B. H. Hjertager; K. Fuhre

1982-01-01

335

Information for Healthcare Professionals: Risk of Transmission ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... patients. Sharing of insulin pens may result in transmission of hepatitis viruses, HIV, or other blood-borne pathogens. The ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

336

47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...institution. (iv) The control operator of a club station...transmissions; and where the control operator does not accept any...for any other service as a control operator. (4) Music...station, except propagation and weather forecast information...

2011-10-01

337

47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...institution. (iv) The control operator of a club station...transmissions; and where the control operator does not accept any...for any other service as a control operator. (4) Music...station, except propagation and weather forecast information...

2012-10-01

338

Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report summarizes design work done for ARDEC Picatinny Arsenal from April to October 2009 as part of an effort to design and fabricate nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) based on ferroelectric materials. These lines were intended to be key...

F. Crowne

2010-01-01

339

Investigation of Solid Lubricants for Helicopter Transmissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using solid lubricants in bearings and gears was demonstrated as a satisfactory method for preventing catastrophic failure and for providing emergency operation of helicopter transmissions in the event of an oil lubrication failure. Mod...

P. H. Bowen

1967-01-01

340

Transmission character of general function photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), whose refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), whose structure grows from two mediums A and B, with different constant refractive indexes na and nb. Based on the Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums A and B, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index functions, which are different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing; Ba, Nuo; Hua, Zhong; Yin, Xin-Guo

2012-08-01

341

Modeling the RITS-6 transmission line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories’ Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS-6) is a six-cell inductive voltage adder accelerator designed to produce currents of 186 kA at 7.8 MV in 70 ns in its low-impedance configuration. The six inductive-adder cells are connected in series to a coaxial magnetically insulated transmission line. Each cell has a single point feed to an azimuthal transmission line which

N. Bruner; C. Mostrom; D. V. Rose; D. R. Welch; V. Bailey; D. L. Johnson; B. V. Oliver

2007-01-01

342

Enhanced optical transmission through tapered metallic gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve non-resonant behavior, we propose a metallic grating device with linearly tapered slits. The tapering provides a gradual impedance variation from the entrance to the exit of the slits, leading to broadband and wide-angle enhanced transmission in the infrared. In addition, the light is strongly localized and enhanced at the slit exits, in contrast with straight slits. We describe the phenomenon with a transmission line model, which is in accordance with rigorous simulations.

Shen, Honghui; Maes, Bjorn

2012-06-01

343

Electronic Communications Instructor Guide: Transmission Line Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Communications equipment, systems and test instruments are generally connected to one another by coaxial cable. For that reason, it is essential that students know the characteristics of transmission lines using coax cable and how to make basic measurements on them. This lesson aims to familiarize students with common measurements on coaxial transmission lines. The module may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format; a quick, free login is required to access the materials.

2012-12-03

344

Cryogenic engineering for superconducting power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful introduction of helium-cooled (superconducting) transmission systems into electric utility networks will open a vast market for cryogenic engineering components and services. If only 10 percent of the anticipated investment in transmission facilities in the U.S. after 1990 is made in helium-cooled systems this will represent a potential annual market of over $120,000,000 for the manufacturers of cryogenic components.

Forsyth

1976-01-01

345

Economic Analysis of Electric Power Transmission Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

When transmission congestion reaches a high level, short-term congestion management tools become more expensive than capital cost investments such as generation or transmission expansion. In such cases, an economics-based investment plan should be developed for the power system. Although there is no well-accepted procedure to accomplish this, numerous models and approaches have been proposed in the power literature. In this

Sevin Sozer; Chan S. Park; Jorge Valenzuela

2008-01-01

346

Overview of the transmission line construction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines various procedures followed in the construction of transmission lines designed by Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP). The transmission line network designed or constructed by LADWP spans about 3500 circuit miles with voltages ranging from 115 kV AC to 1000 kV DC. Since most lines constructed by LADWP in recent years have been extra-high-voltage AC,

Robert D. Castro

1995-01-01

347

Characteristics of twelve-phase power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

High phase order power transmission, particularly twelve-phase, is an option for maximizing power transfer over a right-of-way of given width. This report presents the result of an experimental and analytical program that included construction of a twelve-phase steel lattice portal tower with special insulators, construction of a twelve-phase substation, and subsequent energization of the world's first twelve-phase power transmission line.

1988-01-01

348

Facsimile Transmission: Progress in Resource Sharing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries have been experimenting with facsimile transmission as a document delivery method throughout the decade of the 1980s, since high-speed machines have become available at affordable cost. The four University Center libraries of the State University of New York, with funding from the U.S. Department of Education, conducted a yearlong experiment using facsimile transmission and\\/or electronic mail via personal computers

Lorre Smith

1993-01-01

349

3 Laser transmission joining in microtechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laser is a joining tool which is particularly suitable for the application in microtechnology. The process variant laser\\u000a transmission joining can be used both for welding thermoplastics and bonding of silicon and glass. The investigations presented\\u000a in this paper cover detailed examinations of both processes. Concerning laser transmission welding of plastics it is examined\\u000a how far the content of

Edmund Haberstroh; Wolf-Martin Hoffmann; Reinhart Poprawe; Fahri Sari

2006-01-01

350

Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program were to achieve a 25 percent weight reduction, a 10 dB noise reduction, and a 5,000 hour mean time between removals (MTBR). A three engine Army Cargo Aircraft (ACA) of 85,000 pounds gross weight was used as the baseline. Preliminary designs were conducted of split path and split torque transmissions to evaluate

Jules G. Kish

1993-01-01

351

Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely

Olivier Andréoletti; Claire Litaise; Hugh Simmons; Fabien Corbière; Séverine Lugan; Pierrette Costes; François Schelcher; Didier Vilette; Jacques Grassi; Caroline Lacroux

2012-01-01

352

The VELCO STATCOM based transmission system project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vermont Electric Power Company, Inc., (VELCO) initiated a major transmission system project involving a reconfiguration of a key 115 kV substation and the installation of a STATCOM-based dynamic reactive compensation system. This project has an in-operation date of May 2001. The paper gives an overview of the VELCO transmission system project with emphasis on the STATCOM-based dynamic reactive compensation

Gregory Reed; J. Paserba; T. Croasdaile; M. Takeda; Y. Hamasaki; T. Aritsuka; N. Morishima; S. Jochi; I. Iyoda; M. Nambu; N. Toki; L. Thomas; G. Smith; D. LaForest; W. Allard; D. Haas

2001-01-01

353

Micronutrients and vertical transmission of HIV-1.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant can occur during pregnancy, at the time of delivery, or post-natally through breast-feeding and is a major factor in the continuing spread of HIV infection. Inadequate nutritional status may increase the risk of vertical HIV transmission by influencing mater-nal and child factors for transmission. The potential effects on these factors include impaired systemic immune function in pregnant women, fetuses, and children; an increased rate of clinical, immunologic, and virologic disease progression; impaired epithelial integrity of the placenta and genital tract; increased viral shedding in breast milk from inflammation of breast tissue; increased risk of low birth weight and preterm birth; and impaired gastrointestinal immune function and integrity in fetuses and children. Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in many HIV-infected populations, and numerous studies have reported that these deficiencies impair immune responses, weaken epithelial integrity, and are associated with accelerated HIV disease progression. Although low serum vitamin A concentrations were shown to be associated with an increased risk of vertical HIV transmission in prospective cohort studies, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have reported that vitamin A and other vitamin supplements do not appear to have an effect on HIV transmission during pregnancy or the intrapartum period. However, the ability of prenatal and postpartum micronutrient supplements to reduce transmission during the breast-feeding period is still unknown. PMID:12036800

Dreyfuss, Michele L; Fawzi, Wafaie W

2002-06-01

354

Point of Connection Transmission Pricing in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Electricity Policy (NEP) [1], issued by the Government of India, mandates transmission prices to be distance and direction sensitive and capture utilization of the network by each network user. In line with the mandate, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) [2] has issued Sharing of Interstate Transmission Charges and Losses Regulations, 2010 [3], to introduce point of connection (PoC)-based transmission pricing methodology in India. The methodology under the above regulations introduces one of the major reforms of its kind in the Indian power sector and seeks to share the total transmission charges in proportion to respective utilization of the transmission system by different entities. In this paper, the authors have enumerated their experience gained from the implementation of PoC-based transmission pricing regime in India. Authors have also discussed various issues encountered in the process of implementation and the methodology adopted.

Soonee, S. K.; Barpanda, S. S.; Joshi, Mohit; Mishra, Nripen; Bhardwaj, Vaishally

2013-05-01

355

Reliability of electric generation with transmission constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new probabilistic load flow (PLF) model for calculating the reliability of large nonequivalenced electric networks with transmission constraints is given. Generation loss of load probability (LOLP) and expected unserved energy (EUE) is calculated first without transmission constraints as a function of load level. Then a two step process is used to (1) calculate the cumulative probabilistic line flows from random generator failures and (2) perform load-generator reductions to remove line overloads. The additional EUE and LOLP due to transmission constraints is calculated. New piecewise-quadratic (PQ) convolution methods are used to accurately calculate probabilistic line flows for the total set of generator failure configurations on every transmission line (>2sp{300}? 10sp{90} for the 300 generator Texas system) in a reasonable amount of computation time. Complete coverage of all generator outage configurations resolves problems associated with Monte Carlo and other enumeration methods. A new method for outaging multiple transmission lines allows the majority of probability space of all transmission line outage events to also be calculated in conjunction with the generation outages. A large network example is presented in which the benefit of an additional autotransformer in a large system is calculated. Another example using the IEEE RTS benchmarks the PLF model against a full configuration enumeration with linear programming solution.

Preston, Eugene Gordon

356

Transmission Measurements in KTP and Isomorphic Compounds.  

PubMed

The optical biaxial nature of crystals in the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) family result in anisotropic transmission that depends on the polarization direction of the transmitted radiation with respect to the fundamental crystal axes. Knowledge of the polarization-dependent crystal transmission is important for all wavelength-conversion applications and in particular is the only limitation on possible combinations of wavelengths when one uses the quasi-phase-matching techniques recently developed for the KTP family materials. In this study, polarized transmission spectra of KTiOPO(4) (KTP), RbTiOPO(4), RbTiOAsO(4) (RTA), and KTiOAsO(4) were measured over the 0.3-6-mum wavelength range with a spectrophotometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. Seven crystal samples were studied, including four samples of KTP crystals of different origins. Variations in spectral transmission on the short- and long-wavelength edges, as well as visible-wavelength transmission and OH(-) absorption properties, are presented and discussed. The transmission of one sample of KTP and of RTA was also measured before and after periodic electric field poling. PMID:18350105

Hansson, G; Karlsson, H; Wang, S; Laurell, F

2000-09-20

357

Laser transmission through thin cirrus clouds.  

PubMed

A near-infrared airborne-laser transmission model for thin cirrus clouds has been developed on the basis of the successive-order-of-scattering approach to account for multiple scattering by randomly and horizontally oriented ice crystals associated with an aircraft-target system. Direct transmission and transmission due to multiple scattering are formulated specifically for this geometric system, in which scattering and absorption associated with aerosols, water vapor, and air are accounted for. A number of sensitivity experiments have been performed for investigation of the effect of aircraft-target position, cirrus cloud optical depth, and ice crystal size on laser transmission for tactical applications. We show that transmission contributions produced by orders of scattering higher than 1 are small and can be neglected. The possibility of horizontal orientation of ice crystals can enhance transmission of laser beams in the aircraft-target geometry. Transmitted energy is strongly dependent on the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the target and on the cloud optical depth as well as on whether the cloud is above or below the aircraft. PMID:18350081

Liou, K N; Takano, Y; Ou, S C; Johnson, M W

2000-09-20

358

Acoustic transmissibility of advanced turboprop aircraft windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced turboprop technology allows propeller aircraft to reach cruise speeds comparable to current jet aircraft yet with considerable fuel savings. Due to the higher blade loading and higher tip speed of these propellers, noise levels of up to 150 dB are expected on the outside of the fuselage in the propeller plane. In this study the transmissibility of triple pane windows, designed to provide 69 dB noise transmission loss at the blade propeller frequency of 164 Hz, was experimentally investigated using insertion loss and three-dimensional intensity techniques. A modal analysis on the outer window panes was conducted to determine pane modal frequencies. Coherence and phase relation of outer panes and window frame were established to obtain double/triple wall and lump mass resonance frequencies. Double/triple wall resonances were found to degrade the transmission loss of the two windows. It was shown that, at the blade passage frequency and the first two overtones, the combinations of window plus scratch shield provide less transmission loss than the average transmission loss of the treated fuselage. Strong disagreement was obtained between the experimental transmission loss of this investigation and the theoretical predictions from another study.

Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

1987-10-01

359

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion.  

PubMed

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion using sheep experimentally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or natural scrapie as donors and susceptible scrapie-free sheep as recipients. Donors and recipients of the same species greatly increase the sensitivity of the bioassay and in sheep large volumes of blood can be injected by the intravenous (i.v.) route. Transmission of BSE to a single animal using this approach was reported recently. This study confirms this result with a second transmission of BSE and four new cases of transmission of natural scrapie. Positive transmissions occurred with blood taken at pre-clinical and clinical stages of infection. Initial studies indicate that following such infection by the i.v. route, deposition of the abnormal prion protein isoform, PrP(Sc), in peripheral tissues may be much more limited than is seen following oral infection. These results confirm the risks of TSE infection via blood products and suggest that the measures taken to restrict the use of blood in the UK have been fully justified. PMID:12388826

Hunter, Nora; Foster, James; Chong, Angela; McCutcheon, Sandra; Parnham, David; Eaton, Samantha; MacKenzie, Calum; Houston, Fiona

2002-11-01

360

Resonant microwave transmission through individual subwavelength slits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that much more radiation may be transmitted through a set of apertures in a metallic screen than a simple calculation from the transmission through the aperture area alone would predict. There has been substantial debate regarding the exact cause of this enhanced transmission, and confusion over the difference between the behaviors of subwavelength apertures as opposed to subwavelength slits. In this study we have analyzed the transmission response of individual slits, using microwave radiation to ensure that transmission is in no part due to direct passage through the metal screen itself. A set of resonant transmission peaks is caused by the excitation of standing-wave-coupled surface plamsons in the finite length slit. It is also found that the high but finite value of the metals" conductivity influences the transmission response of such slit channels when they are less than 100 microns in width. Indeed there is a strong decrease in transmitted resonant frequency, remarkably tending to zero as the slit width decreases. In addition we have explored the effect of misalignment of the two metal plates that comprise the slit. This modifies resonant frequencies and transmitted intensities through the changing boundary conditions at the slit ends.

Lawrence, Chris R.; Suckling, James R.; Sambles, John R.

2004-11-01

361

76 FR 59668 - Notice of Extension of Comment Period; International Transmission Company, d/b/a ITC Transmission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Transmission Company, d/b/a ITC Transmission AGENCY: Office of Electricity...Transmission Company, d/b/a ITCTransmission (ITC), filed a request to extend the comment...Presidential permit proceeding regarding the ITC application to amend Presidential...

2011-09-27

362

76 FR 65503 - Notice of Extension of Comment Period; International Transmission Company, d/b/a ITC Transmission  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Transmission Company, d/b/a ITC Transmission AGENCY: Office of Electricity...Transmission Company, d/b/a ITCTransmission (ITC), filed a request to further extend the...Presidential permit proceeding regarding the ITC application to amend Presidential...

2011-10-21

363

An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.  

SciTech Connect

References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

1994-08-01

364

Layered transmission of audio/video signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a broadcast channel, a single transmitter communicates with a number of receivers having different channel capacities available to them. A typical example of such a channel is the over the air TV broadcast. For the two-receiver case, we examine the performance of some common orthogonal transmission methods in terms of their achievable rates. Layered transmission, whereby the information intended for the better channel is superimposed on the portion of information common to both receivers, can provide an optimal solution. On this premise, we construct a bi-rate transmission model for a Gaussian broadcast channel, in which receivers are distributed according to an exponential pdf. A basic grade of service is thus maintained throughout the entire coverage area in addition to a higher quality video offered to the receivers with better reception conditions. The performance evaluation indicates that this model offers a higher per capita data rate comparing to the conventional single rate transmission systems. The multirate paradigm exhibits a stepwise degradation, mitigating the sharp cutoff threshold of the current digital broadcast systems. Application of this multirate broadcast proves very promising in the area of multiresolution transmission of digital HDTV.

Sajadieh, Masoud; Kschischang, F. R.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

1996-02-01

365

Central Cholinesterase Inhibition Enhances Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Central cholinergic overstimulation results in prolonged seizures of status epilepticus in humans and experimental animals. Cellular mechanisms of underlying seizures caused by cholinergic stimulation remain uncertain, but enhanced glutamatergic transmission is a potential mechanism. Paraoxon, an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, enhanced glutamatergic transmission on hippocampal granule cells synapses by increasing the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in a concentration-dependent fashion. The amplitude of mEPSCs was not increased, which suggested the possibility of enhanced action potential-dependent release. Analysis of EPSCs evoked by minimal stimulation revealed reduced failures and increased amplitude of evoked responses. The ratio of amplitudes of EPSCs evoked by paired stimuli was also altered. The effect of paraoxon on glutamatergic transmission was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine and partially mimicked by carbachol. The nicotinic receptor antagonist ? -bungarotoxin did not block the effects of paraoxon; however, nicotine enhanced glutamatergic transmission. These studies suggested that cholinergic overstimulation enhances glutamatergic transmission by enhancing neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals.

Kozhemyakin, Maxim; Rajasekaran, Karthik

2010-01-01

366

Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of

Margaret L Russell; Julia Keenliside; Richard Webby; Kevin Fonseca; Pam Singh; Lorraine Moss; Mark Loeb

2009-01-01

367

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...automatically stop when the transmission is in reverse gear; and ...vehicle in the normal travel mode in all forward and reverse...vehicle in the normal travel mode in Reverse and at least one...accelerate. S3.1.3.3If the transmission shift position is in...

2011-10-01

368

Acoustic transmission loss and structureborne noise transmission tests on a LASCOR and a reference steel panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LASCOR is a laser welded corrugated steel sandwich developed as a lightweight construct for ship superstructures. Tests were performed to measure acoustic transmission loss and structureborne noise transmission for both a LASCOR panel and a reference conventional rib-stiffened steel panel. This report outlines the test methods used and compares the results for the two panels.

Norwood, C. J.

1993-09-01

369

Cokriging of aquifer transmissivities from field measurements of transmissivity and specific capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new application of the cokriging technique for constructing maps of aquifer transmissivity from field measurements of transmissivity and specific capacity. The technique is illustrated using data from Yolo Basin, California. Cokriging is well-suited for estimating undersampled variables. To improve the accuracy of the estimation, cokriging considers the spatial auto-correlation of the variable to be estimated and

Mohamed Aboufirassi; Miguel A. Marifio

1984-01-01

370

Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

2010-01-01

371

Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

2010-01-01

372

Familial Transmission of Mood Disorders: Convergence and Divergence with Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Both mood disorder and suicidal behavior are familial. In this study, the authors examine the factors associated with the familial transmission of these two related conditions to learn which are shared or unique risk factors for familial transmission. Method: The 285 offspring of 141 probands with mood disorder were studied. Proband…

Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Melhem, Nadine; Ellis, Steven P.; Mann, J. John

2004-01-01

373

Small passenger car transmission. Final report test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1980-01-01

374

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Malibu 200C transmission with lockup  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load

Bujold

1981-01-01

375

Modeling and Simulating Transmission Lines Using Fractional Calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient analysis of transmission lines has recently been received more attention because operating speeds in high - speed digital electronics are increasing. This paper presents a new direction for transient analysis of the transmission lines. The laws of the voltage or current wave transmits in the transmission line obey to diffusion phenomenon. Transmission line equations are hyperbolic partial differential equations,

Zhang Yanzhu; Xue Dingyu

2007-01-01

376

Identifying a balancing point for electricity transmission contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electricity transmission contracts allocate scarce resources, allow hedging against locational price differences, and provide information to guide investment. However, ownership of transmission contracts might enhance market power of strategic generators. If the allocation mechanism for transmission contracts does not prevent generators from obtaining market power-enhancing contracts, explicit restrictions on owning transmission contracts might be required. To ensure that these restrictions

Luis Olmos; Karsten Neuhoff

2006-01-01

377

Development of an EUV polarimeter with a transmission multilayer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an EUV polarimeter consisting of a transmission multilayer and a back-illumination CCD. The transmission of the multilayer at an incident angle of45-deg depends on the polarization angle. We developed a polarimeter by using the transmission. Advantages of usage a transmission multilayer are as follows. 1) The mechanics is simple, because we do not need to move the detectors.

S. Kitamoto; H. Murakami; Y. Shishido; K. Saito; T. Watanabe; J. Kanai; E. Takenaka; K. Nagasaki; D. Takei; M. Morii

2009-01-01

378

Transmission Congestion Management Assessment in Deregulated Electricity Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open access to the transmission network has resulted the problem of management of the transmission system due to congestion. Congestion occurs when the transmission network is not sufficient to transfer electric power according to the market desire. There are several alternatives schemes suitable for different electricity market structures have been proposed to manage the transmission congestion such as re-

F. Hussin; M. Y. Hassan; K. L. Lo

2006-01-01

379

Achievable Transmission Capacity of Secondary System in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the achievable transmission capacity of the secondary system in cognitive radio networks, defined by the spatial density of successful transmissions while guaranteeing the target outage probabilities of the secondary and the primary systems. By using stochastic geometry, the effects of the spatial densities and the transmission powers on the achievable transmission capacity is presented. Subsequently, the optimal

Jemin Lee; Sungmook Lim; Jeffrey G. Andrews; Daesik Hong

2010-01-01

380

Generalized Kuroda's identity and its applications in nonuniform transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuroda's identities are very significant in analysis and synthesis of distributed transmission line circuits, but they can only be used in the two conductor transmission line cases. Therefore they are generalized to multi-conductor transmission line cases, which is called generalized Kuroda's identity. Based on them, the equivalent circuits for lossless multi-conductor transmission lines, whose characteristic impedance distributions obey the binomial

Liang Guishu; Dong Huaying; Wang Tao; Cui Xiang

2003-01-01

381

Numerical results or multiconductor transmission line networks. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithms and numerical results for a lossless multiconductor transmission-line network which is excited by a number of lumped voltage and current sources located on the transmission lines are described. As opposed to previous analyses of multiconductor transmission lines, the method is capable of treating networks which contain one or more closed transmission- line loops. The formulation of this analysis

C. E. Baum; T. K. Liu; F. M. Tesche; S. K. Chang

1977-01-01

382

MIMO minimum leakage — Physically secure wireless data transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that multi antenna communication schemes improve transmission performance in terms of efficiently exploiting available transmission bandwidth and lowering transmission error probability. But in this paper, it is shown that Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems can be used to implement physically secure wireless transmissions. Specifically, it is possible to combine information symbols in a way that only the legitimate

M. S. Mohammadi

2009-01-01

383

Modeling torque transmissibility for automotive dry clutch engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry clutch is a fundamental component in many automotive drivelines. For instance, the clutch torque transmissibility characteristic severely influences gearshift performance in automated manual transmissions. In this paper a novel model of the torque transmissibility of dry clutches is proposed. The dependence of the transmissibility characteristic on wear, slip speed and friction pads geometry and the influence of the

Francesco Vasca; Luigi Iannelli; Adolfo Senatore; Maurizio Taglialatela Scafati

2008-01-01

384

Fixed series compensation protection evaluation using transmission lines faults simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power demands of Brazilian national industries need an economical solution to increase power transmission capacity of existing transmission lines. Due to environmental and economical difficulties for construction of new power transmission lines, the use of fixed series compensation (FSC) has turned into a common practice of power transmission companies in Brazil. The FSC is presented as the best choice,

A. L. P. de Oliveira

2008-01-01

385

Transmission planning and investment under competitive electricity market environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges for power industry restructuring is to maintain transmission system reliability. To this end, transmission expansion may be inevitable especially for developing countries. However, less attention has been devoted to developing institutional structures and incentives to assure appropriate transmission investments are made in the future, and as a result, transmission planning is becoming a problem of extensive

A. K. David; Fushuan Wen

2001-01-01

386

Horizontal Transmission of Mutans Streptococci in Children  

PubMed Central

It has not been established whether transmission of mutans streptococci occurs between unrelated children older than 4 years of age. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible transmission of mutans streptococci genotypes from child to child in kindergarten. We studied 96 children (ages 5-6 yrs) in three San Francisco Bay Area public schools. Mutans streptococci colonies from each child were isolated from selective culture on Mitis Salivarius Sucrose Bacitracin agar. We used arbitrary primed polymerase chain reactions to determine the mutans streptococci genotypes. Two children (not siblings) in each of the three schools (6%) shared an identical amplitype of S. mutans, unique to each pair. The 19 S. sobrinus amplitypes were found in 12 children, and all were unique to each child. The presence of matching genotypes of S. mutans demonstrates horizontal transmission of this species between unrelated children aged 5-6 years.

Domejean, S.; Zhan, L.; DenBesten, P.K.; Stamper, J.; Boyce, W.T.; Featherstone, J.D.

2010-01-01

387

Single transmission line data acquisition system  

DOEpatents

A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

388

Efficient transmission of crossing dielectric slot waveguides.  

PubMed

Transmission properties of two crossing dielectric slot waveguides (Si-Air-Si) are investigated using the finite difference in time domain method. Results show that the low transmission of this system mainly results from the reflection and radiation loss rather than the crosstalk. Using a simple method of filling up the crossing slots locally, the reflection, radiation losses and crosstalk are all greatly suppressed. With moderate parameters in this paper, the transmission efficient increases from 35.0% to more than 97% in a wide range of wavelength around 1.55 mm. The results and method presented in this paper may be very useful in the application of slot waveguide in micro and nano photonics. PMID:21369306

Su, Runzhou; Tang, Donghua; Ding, Weiqiang; Chen, Lixue; Zhou, Zhongxiang

2011-02-28

389

Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

2013-03-01

390

Noise transmission through nonlinear sandwich panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study is presented to predict the noise transmission through nonlinear double wall sandwich panel systems subject to random loading. Viscoelastic and nonlinear spring dash-pot models are chosen to characterize the behavior of the core. The noise transmission through this panel system is determined into an acoustic enclosure of which the interiors are covered with porous absorption materials. The absorbent boundary conditions of the enclosure are accounted for by a two-step transformation of the boundary effect into a wave equation which governs the acoustic pressure field. The nonlinear panel response and interior acoustic pressure are obtained by utilizing modal analyses and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Numerical results include the nonlinear response time histories and noise reduction. It is found that by proper selection of the dynamic parameters and damping characteristics, the noise transmission can be significantly reduced by the double wall sandwich construction.

Vaicaitis, R.; Hong, H.-K.

1983-04-01

391

Whitefly transmission of sweet potato viruses.  

PubMed

Three genera of plant viruses, Begomovirus (Geminiviridae), Crinivirus (Closteroviridae) and Ipomovirus (Potyviridae), contain members that infect sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and are transmitted by whiteflies. The begomoviruses, Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV) and Ipomoea leaf curl virus (ILCV), and the ipomovirus Sweet potato mild mottle virus are transmitted by Bemisia tabaci, the sweet potato whitefly. The crinivirus, Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), is transmitted by B. tabaci and Trialeurodes abutilonea, the bandedwinged whitefly. Transmission experiments were done with three of these viruses using laboratory-reared whiteflies and 2-day acquisition and transmission feeding periods. SPLCV and ILCV were transmitted from single and double infections by B. tabaci at rates of 5-10%. Transmission rates for SPLCV by B. tabaci were 15-20%. T. abutilonea transmitted SPCSV at a rate of ca. 3% but did not transmit ILCV or SPLCV. PMID:15036843

Valverde, Rodrigo A; Sim, Jeonggu; Lotrakul, Pongtharin

2004-03-01

392

Millimeter-wave nonlinear transmission line tripler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) provide a nonlinear, dispersive medium for soliton propagation. Taking advantage of the soliton propagation effects, electrical impulse compression and harmonic generation can be achieved in NLTL circuits. In this paper, characteristics of solitons propagating along NLTLs have been investigated and simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. Unique nonlinear interactions among solitons propagating along nonlinear transmission lines are observed in our model. A novel NLTL millimeter-wave tripler has been developed which is realized by periodically loading back-to-back diodes in a high-impedance transmission line. Our simulation results show that this NLTL tripler has higher conversion efficiency than conventional NLTL triplers.

Wang, Xudong; Ren, Jishi; Hwu, R. J.

1998-11-01

393

Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

2011-05-24

394

NWCC Transmission Case Study Conclusions Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The NWCC Transmission Case Studies Conclusions Summary In the spring of 1999, the Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG), with the cooperation of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a forum on transmission issues associated with the production of energy from wind. As a result of this forum, a number of issues were identified which, if successfully resolved, could help reduce barriers to the future expansion of wind power. The NWCC, being a multi-stakeholder group, was in an ideal position to conduct follow-up activities among a cross-section of the interested parties. The follow-up activities took the form of three case studies in the areas of interest identified by forum participants: (1) Transmission policy and pricing; (2) ''Virtual wheeling'' arrangements; and, (3) Transmission system improvements. The case studies provide an interesting snapshot in time dealing with a range of issues associated with scheduled or planned regulatory and restructuring proceedings related to energy transmission. The NWCC Transmission Subcommittee and the UWIG reviewed early drafts of the case studies in November 1999. The case studies were conducted through a questionnaire and interview process with interested parties. In writing each case study, NWCC staff attempted to identify all stakeholder groups with an interest in each topic and solicit their input. While all parties do not agree on every issue presented, a serious effort has been made to present all views in an unbiased fashion. At the end of each case study, relevant conclusions are drawn and recommendations for next steps are provided where appropriate.

Steve Wiese, Terry Allison

2000-09-01

395

Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion  

PubMed Central

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 103ID50 as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID50 IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 103.6 ID50 IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC inoculation.

Andreoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbiere, Fabien; Lugan, Severine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, Francois; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

2012-01-01

396

Image transmission through a stable paraxial cavity  

SciTech Connect

We study the transmission of a monochromatic 'image' through a paraxial cavity. Using the formalism of self-transform functions, we show that a transverse degenerate cavity transmits the self-transform part of the image, with respect to the field transformation over one round-trip of the cavity. This formalism gives insight into the understanding of the behavior of a transverse degenerate cavity, complementary to the transverse mode picture. An experiment of image transmission through a hemiconfocal cavity shows the interest of this approach.

Gigan, Sylvain; Lopez, Laurent; Treps, Nicolas; Maitre, Agnes; Fabre, Claude [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Case 74, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

2005-08-15

397

Development of thermoplastic coated multifunctional transmission elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on key challenges of the development of steel cords reinforced thermoplastic elastomer composites with smart functionalities: adhesion tailoring for a durable mechanical load transfer through steel cords or other transmission elements by the use of surface treatments and primers, and integrated distributed temperature and strain sensing by the use of embedded fiber optic sensors. Traditional surface treatments including silane coupling agent were outperformed in processing time, adhesion and durability by a fast-curing coupling method using a UV-curable primer; and the integrated distributed temperature and strain sensing capability was demonstrated. The practical applications of the resulting multifunctional transmission element are then discussed in light of these results.

Golaz, B.; Michaud, V.; de Oliveira, R.; Månson, J.-A. E.

2012-03-01

398

EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-04-01

399

Fault-tolerant almost exact state transmission.  

PubMed

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault-tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose an experimental implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. PMID:24185259

Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Lian-Ao; Modugno, Michele; Yao, Wang; Shao, Bin

2013-11-04

400

Nonlinear transient analysis of coupled transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for the analysis of transients in coupled transmission lines is presented. The method uses a modal scattering parameter formulation and is applicable to the case of lossy lines and nonlinear terminations. The advantage of this method over other techniques resides in the computational stability, in its flexibility in the choice of a reference system, and in the

J. E. Schutt-Aine; R. Mittra

1989-01-01

401

Optimal transient simulation of transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an attempt to formulate a high-level description of the optimal transmission line simulation method. To formulate the optimal approach, most significant aspects of the problem are identified, and alternative approaches in each of the aspects are analyzed and compared to find the combination that results in the maximum efficiency, accuracy and applicability for the transient analysis of

Dmitri Borisovich Kuznetsov; J. E. Schutt-Aine

1996-01-01

402

The Lineage Transmission of Interpersonal Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that interpersonal competence in intimate and general social relationships is transmitted down generational lines. Studied a sample of college students (N=105) and their parents for evidence of lineage effects. The strongest evidence of lineage transmission of characteristics was for interpersonal competence in general social situations.…

Filsinger, Erik E.; Lamke, Leanne K.

1983-01-01

403

Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana  

PubMed Central

Autochthonous transmission of the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was detected in a patient in rural New Orleans, Louisiana. The patient had positive test results from 2 serologic tests and hemoculture. Fifty-six percent of 18 Triatoma sanguisuga collected from the house of the patient were positive for T. cruzi by PCR.

Perniciaro, Leon; Yabsley, Michael J.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Balsamo, Gary; Diaz, James; Wesson, Dawn

2007-01-01

404

How financial transmission rights curb market power  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

Stoft, S.

1997-06-01

405

A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We

Monika Bright; Silvia Bulgheresi

2010-01-01

406

40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle shall be driven with minimum accelerator pedal movement to maintain the desired...transmissions, the operator shall release the accelerator pedal during each shift and accomplish...shall be run in gear using brakes or accelerator pedal as necessary to...

2013-07-01

407

Secure information transmission for mobile radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for secure information transmission in a mobile environment is described. This technique uses the short term reciprocity of the radio channel so that information is intelligible only to an intended receiver. The exchange of information does not require the availability of a common secure key between two users; however, the proposed technique can also be used for

Havish Koorapaty; Amer A. Hassan; Sandeep Chennakeshu

2000-01-01

408

Transmission Zeros of Flexible Spinning Spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that the transmission zeros of flexible spinning spacecraft exhibit properties entirely analogous to those of undamped, non-spinning flexible space structures. Thus, the extensive results concerning the zeros in the undamped case (relationships to the poles; sensitivites; computation) apply without change to the zeros of spinning flexible spacecraft.

Trevor Williams

1991-01-01

409

Image Transmission via Spread Spectrum Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper addresses the design of a spread spectrum image transmission system to provide increased antijam protection to a television link from a small remotely piloted vehicle. Transform encoding and frame rate control may be used to remove the natural r...

R. W. Means J. M. Speiser H. J. Whitehouse

1974-01-01

410

Vibration Signal Transmission in Spider Orb Webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration transmission from the prey-catching region to the hub of the unloaded orb web of Nuctenea sclopetaria was measured by laser vibrometry. Compared to transverse or lateral vibrations, longitudinal vibration shows less attenuation and contains more directional information. It is transmitted well throughout the entire frequency range measured (1 to 10,000 hertz).

W. Mitchell Masters; Hubert Markl

1981-01-01

411

Volatility transmission patterns and terrorist attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to analyse volatility transmission between the US and Eurozone stock markets considering the financial market responses to the September 11, March 11 and July 7 terrorist attacks. In order to do this, we use a multivariate GARCH model and take into account the asymmetric volatility phenomenon, the non-synchronous trading problem and the turmoil periods

Helena Chuliá; Francisco Climent; Pilar Soriano; Hipòlit Torró

2009-01-01

412

Variable Transmission Silicate Glasses Sensitive to Sunlight.  

PubMed

The process of variable transmission in silicate glasses has been accomplished by optically pumping color centers by electron transfer from europium (II) or cerium (III) which absorb sunlight at higher energies than the color center. Absorbed energy quickly pumps the visible color center band to a maximum. Upon removal of activating light, the visible color spontaneously decays. PMID:17782734

Cohen, A J; Smith, H L

1962-09-21

413

Establishing Communication Systems without Explicit Meaning Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the development of experience-based meaning creation and explores the problem of establishing successful communication systems in a population of agents. The aim of the work is to investigate how such systems can develop, without reliance on phe- nomena not found in actual human language learning, such as the explicit transmission of meaning or the provision of reliable

Andrew D. M. Smith

2001-01-01

414

Broadband digital transmission over passive optical networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a low-cost digital technique for broadband transport which is capable of transparently carrying distribution quality video, data, and digital audio services economically over a passive optical network. Two possible upgrade routes from unidirectional to bidirectional services are discussed, one using optical technology, the other using electrical techniques. The use of digital transmission, with its inherent scrambling abilities,

A. R. J. Cook; D. W. Faulkner; P. J. Smith

1991-01-01

415

HVDC transmission: a path to the future?  

SciTech Connect

Direct current transmission has been the poor stepchild of the U.S. electric industry. Although early-generation plants were based on DC technology, it was soon deemed uneconomical to transmit electricity over long distances, but it now appears poised for a change. Both the increasing technical potential and changing economics of HVDC lines promise a growing role in the future. (author)

Teichler, Stephen L.; Levitine, Ilia

2010-05-15

416

Control of organelle transmission in Chlorophytum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of pollen ultrastructure in Chlorophytum comosum plastids were found to be present and apparently unaltered in both vegetative and generative cells. These ultrastructural data are consistent with the biparental transmission of plastids in this genus. However, mitochondria appear degenerate when compared to leaf mitochondria, exhibiting small myelin-like figures in addition to an abnormal cristae system. Since the

Kevin C. Vaughn; Donald L. Kimpel; Kenneth G. Wilson

1981-01-01

417

Hydraulic transients in transmission and distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hammer can degrade the integrity of a transmission or distribution system in one of two ways: through catastrophic failure or by benign failure. Catastrophic failure occurs during a water hammer event when pipes rupture, joints move, excessive noise occurs, etc. Benign failure may occur over a period of years and may consist of lining failure, pipe wall pitting, and

Allen Davis

2004-01-01

418

Dynamic modeling and analysis of automatic transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the dynamics and control of vehicle automatic transmissions. In order to get realistic predictions about the system behavior during the gear shift operations, the models of all drive train components are presented. Particular attention is paid to the detailed description of the electronically hydraulically controlled wet-clutches

Ali Haj-Fraj; F. Pfeiffer

1999-01-01

419

Decoupling the multiconductor transmission line equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive discussion is presented of the method of decoupling the multiconductor transmission line (MTL) equations by the method of transformation of the voltages and currents to mode voltages and currents in order to obtain their general solution. Various ways of defining and obtaining the transformations are shown which serve to connect the myriad of such definitions and also point

Clayton R. Paul

1996-01-01

420

The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has given rise to a more epidemiological meaningful and robust taxonomy. Importantly, molecular tools are now available for ‘typing’ isolates of the parasites directly from clinical and environmental samples. As a consequence, information on zoonotic potential has been obtained although the frequency of zoonotic transmission is still poorly understood. Analysis of outbreaks and

Paul R. Hunter; R. C. Andrew Thompson

2005-01-01

421

Hybrid Propulsion System Transmission Evaluation. Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose was to assess the practicality of a transmission for use in a heat engine/flywheel propulsion system to reduce emissions. The system was to be suitable for incorporation into a full size 'family car' automobile. The different possible link typ...

M. A. Cordner D. H. Grimm

1972-01-01

422

Moon Echoes and Transmission through the Ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moon echoes at a frequency of about 20 Mc have been studied, mainly to obtain information on low-angle transmission through the ionosphere. Using a broadcast transmitter in its free time, with fixed aerial systems, thirty experiments were carried out in just over a year, echoes being received in twenty-four cases. Experimental results have been compared with those to be expected

F. J. Kerr; C. A. Shain

1951-01-01

423

Economic Incentives for Larger Transmission Conductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power industry initially designed 500 kV transmission lines in the early 1960's. Then, as now, cost of losses versus installed cost evaluations were made to assess conductor requirements. At that time, independent of the economic analysis, electrical environmental criteria limited the minimum allowable conductor sizes. That is, radio interference mitigation required larger conductor sizes than did economic requirements. By

Ian Grant; Vito Longo

1981-01-01

424

Conductor optimisation for overhead transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous changes in the cost of suitable (conductive) material for bare overhead conductors, changes in electrical and mechanical requirements, and improvements in manufacturing technology, have resulted in the development of a variety of possible applications or options for overhead transmission lines. In the early days, simple copper wire or copper based bare conductors were used but nowadays, more cost effective

D. Dama; D. Muftic; R. Vajeth

2005-01-01

425

Voltage uprating of overhead transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, uprating of existing overhead power line has become a popular option for electric utilities to address increasing demand for power. Uprating overhead line by increasing voltage allows considerable increase in power transfer capability. This paper initially examines technical issues and conventional methods of uprating the voltage of overhead transmission lines. It then considers a case of existing

R. Bhattarai; A. Haddad; H. Griffiths; N. Harid

2010-01-01

426

Loop Transmission Aspects of ISDN Basic Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of the formulation of standards for loop transmission to provide Basic Access in the North American loop plant is reviewed. The impact of loop plant bridged taps on performance is discussed, the reasons for preferring echo canceller technology over time compression multiplexing are reviewed, and issues involved in the specification of echo canceller requirements are discussed. This includes

JOSEPH W. LECHLEIDER

1986-01-01

427

Oscillatory stability considerations in transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with the transmission expansion planning of a longitudinal power system is reported. To reach an optimal choice among several feasible expansion plans, indices such as maximum power transfer limits, fault currents, transient stability, system losses, and cost, which have been widely used by utilities, are computed to compare the relative merits of these alternatives. In view of past experience

Hsu Yuan-Yih; Huang Pei-Hwa; Lin Chia-Jen; Huang Chiang-Tsung

1989-01-01

428

Inhibiting sexual transmission of HIV1 infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide infection rate for HIV-1 is estimated to be 14,000 per day, but only now, more than 20 years into the epidemic, are the immediate events between exposure to infectious virus and the establishment of infection becoming clear. Defining the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission, the target cells involved and how the virus attaches to and fuses with these cells,

John P. Moore; Robin J. Shattock

2003-01-01

429

Laptop image transmission equipment (LITE): program update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laptop Imagery Transmission System (LITE) integrates various imaging sensors, both analog and digital. Analog imaging sensors include still video and 8 mm video. Digital imaging sensors include the Kodak Digital Camera System. These sensors (with imagery of various sizes up to 1024 X 1024 pixels) provide significant color imagery in 24-bit color or 8-bit black and white.

Michael M. Mocenter

1993-01-01

430

Corporate finance and the monetary transmission mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in a general equilibrium model of securities markets and banking with asymmetric information. Banks' optimal asset\\/liability policy is such that in equilibrium capital adequacy constraints are always binding. Asymmetric information about banks' net worth adds a cost to outside equity capital, which limits the extent to which banks can relax their

Patrick Bolton; Xavier Freixas

2000-01-01

431

Corporate Finance and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper analyses the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy in a general equilibrium model of securities markets and banking with asymmetric information. Banks' optimal asset\\/liability policy is such that in equilibrium capital adequacy constraints are always binding. Asymmetric information about banks' net worth adds a cost to outside equity capital, which limits the extent to which banks can relax their

Patrick Bolton; Xavier Freixas

2001-01-01

432

Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

Siebert, Fred S.

433

Effects of artemisinin derivatives on malaria transmissibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground On the western border of Thailand the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of falciparum malaria has declined while gametocyte carriage rates have increased, which suggests increased transmissibility of these resistant infections. We compared the following antimalarial drugs in relation to subsequent Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage: mefloquine, halofantrine, quinine, and the artemisinin derivatives.Methods Between 1990 and 1995 we assessed

R. N Price; F Nosten; C Luxemburger; F. O ter Kuile; L Paiphun; T Chongsuphajaisiddhi; N. J White

1996-01-01

434

Electric control system for automobile transmission  

SciTech Connect

An electric control system for an automobile transmission includes an endless transmission member running on a pair of V-shaped pulley units, the mutual distances of the conical sheaves of which are hydraulically adjustable to transmit an output torque of an engine to a driven apparatus. The electric control system is arranged to determine an optimum fluid pressure in relation to the actual output torque of the engine and to determine an optimum transmission ratio for low fuel consumption in relation to the actual output power of the engine. The control system produces a first electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum fluid pressure and the actual fluid pressure in one of actuators for the respective pulley units and produces a second electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum and actual transmission ratios. The pressure of fluid applied to one of the actuators is controlled in response to the first electric control signal, and the flow quantity of fluid applied to the other actuator is controlled in response to the second electric control signal.

Hattori, Y.; Goshima, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Matsui, K.; Takei, T.

1984-08-21

435

A hybrid simulation of numerical transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure for simulating the transmission of a lengthy sequence of symbols while analytically taking into account the effect of thermal noise and other interference is described. Computing time for the simulation is reduced by assuming periodicity of the transmitted sequence, by employing the Fast Fourier Transform for calculation, and by taking better advantage of the computer's memory capacity.

G. Jacovitti; P. Mandarini

1977-01-01

436

Digital transmission of HDTV on satellite channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspectives for digital HDTV on satellite channels are investigated in light of the recent progress on bit-rate reduction algorithms and on modulation and channel coding methods. A design example of a complete satellite chain at 30/20 GHz shows the feasibility of a 140 Mbit/s HDTV transmission system based on the described methods.

Cominetti, Mario; Morello, Alberto; Castellani, Valentino; Visintin, Monica; Casoria, Atanasio; Losquadro, Giacinto; Puccio, Antonio

1991-04-01

437

Transmission Theory of the Risk Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of general project risk element transmission theory, in order to consider an effective solution of portfolio selection problem. This research proposed a new neural network model: risk neural network model. Based on artificial neural network model analysis, we introduced three computational rules: analysis, weighted and polymerization in risk neural network. By solving the hidden layer of random

Cunbin Li; Kecheng Wang

2007-01-01

438

Household credit and the monetary transmission mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the importance of household credit in the transmission of monetary policy and in explaining the positive correlation between money and credit services over the business cycle. It does so in the context of a general equilibrium framework of cash and household credit with two distinguishing features. There is an explicit financial sector with firms specializing in the

Victor Li

1998-01-01

439

Household Credit and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the importance of household credit in the transmission of monetary policy and explaining the positive correlation between money and credit services over the business cycle. It does so in the context of a general equilibrium framework with an explicit financial sector. Within this sector, there are firms which specialize in the production of household credit services and

Victor E. Li

2000-01-01

440

Transmission techniques for digital terrestrial TV broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the potential of OFDM signaling, with its limitations and inherent problems, as well as another potential technique that has so far been overlooked: single-carrier transmission with frequency-domain equalization. The carrier synchronisation issue is dealt with before the authors introduce coded-OFDM (COFDM), which makes use of channel coding and frequency-domain interleaving

Hikmet Sari; Georges Karam; Isabelle Jeanclaude

1995-01-01

441

Very high intensity fiber transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

Various applications are currently motivating interest in the transmission of very high laser intensities through optical fibers. As intensities within a fiber are increased, however, laser breakdown or laser-induced fiber damage will eventually occur and interrupt fiber transmission. For a number of years we have been studying these effects during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through step-index, multimode, fused-silica fiber. We have found that fiber transmission is often limited by a plasma-forming breakdown occurring at the fiber entrance face. This breakdown results in subtle surface modifications that can leave the surface more resistant to further breakdown or damage events. Catastrophic fiber damage can also occur as a result of a number of different mechanisms, with damage appearing at fiber end faces, within the initial ``entry`` segment of the fiber path, and at other internal sites due to effects related to the particular fiber routing. An overview of these past observations is presented, and issues requiring further study are identified.

Setchell, R.E.

1995-12-31

442

Fiber Optics with Extended Ultraviolet Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report under the contract for work performed between 1 July 1967 and 30 March 1971. The objective of this project was to develop and fabricate fiber optic faceplates for cathode ray tubes with a high numerical aperture and high transmiss...

M. A. Ali M. A. Schwartz

1971-01-01

443

Using Cable Television for Library Data Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses information gained from a test of cable data circuits on a Geac bibliographic control system at the Wayne Oakland Library Federation (WOLF) (Michigan). Highlights include an introduction to cable, hardware profile, the WOLF experience, and key questions that will affect the future use of cable for data transmission. (EJS)|

Whitaker, Douglas A.

1985-01-01

444

Intrinsic modulators of auditory thalamocortical transmission.  

PubMed

Neurons in layer 4 of the primary auditory cortex receive convergent glutamatergic inputs from thalamic and cortical projections that activate different groups of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Of particular interest in layer 4 neurons are the Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which hyperpolarize neurons postsynaptically via the downstream opening of GIRK channels. This pronounced effect on membrane conductance could influence the neuronal processing of synaptic inputs, such as those from the thalamus, essentially modulating information flow through the thalamocortical pathway. To examine how Group II mGluRs affect thalamocortical transmission, we used an in vitro slice preparation of the auditory thalamocortical pathways in the mouse to examine synaptic transmission under conditions where Group II mGluRs were activated. We found that both pre- and post-synaptic Group II mGluRs are involved in the attenuation of thalamocortical EPSP/Cs. Thus, thalamocortical synaptic transmission is suppressed via the presynaptic reduction of thalamocortical neurotransmitter release and the postsynaptic inhibition of the layer 4 thalamorecipient neurons. This could enable the thalamocortical pathway to autoregulate transmission, via either a gating or gain control mechanism, or both. PMID:22726616

Lee, Charles C; Sherman, S Murray

2012-04-10

445

Joint slip in steel electric transmission towers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint slip is the relative displacement of a bolted joint under shear. It is greater in transmission towers as bolt diameters are small, members joined are thin, bearing type joints with a lower clamping force are used, and coefficient of friction of galvanized faying surfaces is low. This study on behaviour of such joints, incorporated 36 joint tests, generated joint

N Ungkurapinan; S. R. De S Chandrakeerthy; R. K. N. D Rajapakse; S. B Yue

2003-01-01

446

Polish-Produced Television Transmission Van.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The all-Polish-produced WR-0042 television transmission van (manufactured and assembled at the Warsaw Television Plant) is said to be on a par with the best Western models. Carrying a crew of from 10 to 15 operators, the remote-coverage TV vehicle, measur...

J. Swiatek K. Tyminska

1971-01-01

447

Effects of Crack Closure on Ultrasonic Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ultrasonic waves are attenuated as they propagate past the tip of a crack due to the reflection of the energy at the crack face and diffraction at the crack tip. Crack closure modifies the situation since partial transmission can occur at points along the...

R. B. Thompson B. J. Skillings L. W. Zachary L. W. Schmerr O. Buck

1983-01-01

448

Environmental impacts associated with electric transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of electrical generating facilities has necessitated a ; concomitant growth in transmission line facilities. Since inspection, ; maintenance, and repair by work crews must be performed, the requirements of the ; line corridors include accessibility, even in remote areas. Also endemic ; ecological systems are altered to produce a stabilized, low-growing plant ; community desired by the utility. The

J. T. Kitchings; H. H. Shugart; J. D. Story

1974-01-01

449

Transmission electron microscopy of the bacterial nucleoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-containing biological material cannot withstand the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. The classical solution to this problem has been to dehydrate chemically fixed biological samples and then embed them in resin. During such treatment, the bacterial nucleoid is especially prone to aggregation, which affects its global shape and fine structure. Initial attempts to deal with aggregation by optimizing chemical

Mikhail Eltsov; Benoît Zuber

2006-01-01

450

Raman-amplifier-based submarine transmission systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broad bandwidth and low noise figure of a distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) makes it attractive for use in high-capacity, long-haul transmission systems. This paper discusses key technologies for such systems using Raman amplifiers (RAs), such as a method to expand the signal bandwidth for hybrid DRA//EDFAs and all-RAs. The combination of two different types of optical amplifiers enables them to compensate for each other's gain profiles through adjustment of the RA's pump wavelength allocation to reduce the accumulated gain deviation. A variable gain equalization scheme is also described. Furthermore, we have developed a form of dispersion management suitable for a system using DRAs. The overall system performance with this management during a transmission experiment was 1.6 dB better than that with conventional management. Using these techniques, we successfully demonstrated 2.1-Tb//s 7221-km transmission in a system using hybrid DRA//EDFAs and 2.4-Tb//s 7404-km transmission in a system using DRAs.

Tanaka, T.; Naito, T.

2002-07-01

451

Housing and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The housing market is of central concern to monetary policy makers. To achieve the dual goals of price stability and maximum sustainable employment, monetary policy makers must understand the role that housing plays in the monetary transmission mechanism if they are to set policy instruments appropriately. In this paper, I examine what we know about the role of housing in

Frederic S. Mishkin

2007-01-01

452

Automatic transmission control system for vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an automatic transmission control system for a vehicle. This system consists of: a throttle valve-opening detector including a detection arm mounted on a rotary member associated with an accelerator operating system for controlling opening and closing of an engine throttle valve and being pivotally supported on a vehicle body. An electronic controller interposed between the throttle valve-opening

Y. Sakurai; J. Miyake

1986-01-01

453

Antishudder Gearshift Controller Design for Automatic Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

To enhance gearshift quality and the durability of frictional elements, an antishudder gearshift controller design for automatic transmissions is discussed, which both makes turbine speed precisely track the desired trajectory and suppresses the output shaft oscillation. Moreover, these targets are achieved by clutch pressure control only. This paper also considered the model uncertainties of the electrohydraulic control system and disturbance,

Zhiyuan Liu; Jinwu Gao; Quan Zheng

2011-01-01

454

Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an automatic transmission consisting of: fluid operated friction units, including a first clutch, a second clutch and a brake, which are selectively made operative and inoperative to produce first, second, third and fourth speed ratios, the first clutch having a first chamber and being engaged when the first chamber is pressurized, the second clutch having a second

Sugano

1986-01-01

455

Modelling Solar Radiation Transmission in Cloudy Atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of solar radiation through cloudy atmospheres was examined using nine years of continuous hourly radiation and meteorological records. Transmittances of clouds were empirically determined using data from five stations in southern Canada. Statistical parameters were evaluated for exponential, linear and constant expressions for transmittance of global irradiances after correcting for multiple reflection between the surface and atmosphere. Exponential

James E. Howard

1982-01-01

456

Bird streamer flashovers on FPL transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

FPL transmission lines with excessive unknown cause outages were investigated and determined to have experiences bird streamer flashovers. Findings are extended to similar lines and the frequency of bird streamer occurrences are estimated. Outage patterns associated with bird streamer flashovers are presented.

Burnham, J.T. [Florida Power and Light, Juno Beach, FL (United States). Transmission Line Dept.

1995-04-01

457

Advanced transmission solutions for offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future offshore wind farms will have large power ratings and will be situated much further offshore than current projects. The associated costs for grid connection will be high. This paper explores alternative methods of grid connection. By creating synergies with other applications for offshore power transmission, the total costs will be lower. Such synergies include the bundling of multiple wind

W. L. Kling; R. L. Hendriks; J. H. den Boon

2008-01-01

458

Upgrading a 24-in. gas transmission line  

SciTech Connect

Because of increasing population density, Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. removed an existing 24-in. gas line and replaced it with a higher yield line pipe with a greater wall thickness. Work was through exclusive lake subdivisions and across a golf course and required special construction techniques.

Stiles, R.E.

1986-10-01

459

Hydraulic characteristics in superconducting power transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic characteristics of sub-cooled nitrogen in superconducting power transmission line have been investigated to design the transmission line. To estimate the friction factor in corrugated pipes, the pressure drop was measured across a 10-m length corrugated pipe for various mass flow rates and compared with that in smooth pipes (Proc. 17th Cryo. Eng. Conf. (1998) 475). Another concern is the cooling method of the transmission line. A usual counter-flow cooling method has been found to be very difficult at liquid nitrogen temperature, because the thermal conductivity of the dielectric materials between the counter-flows at liquid nitrogen temperature are 10 times larger than that at liquid helium temperature. Instead, an externally cooling method was proposed (Proc. 17th Cryo. Eng. Conf. (1998) 475). As the results, the friction factor of outer corrugated jacket within three cables has become an important parameter to design the transmission lines. This friction factor is measured and compared with various formulas in this paper.

Fuchino, S.; Tamada, N.; Ishii, I.; Higuchi, N.

2001-05-01

460

Mathematical model of transmission pulse oximetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of optical propagation in tissue based on the one-dimensional photon diffusion theory is used to analyze the response of transmission pulse oximeters. The model predicts that errors of over 5% oxygen saturation can occur if there are changes in the emission spectra of the LEDs, the fraction of blood in tissue, the hematocrit or the arterial venous

David R. Marble; Peter W. Cheung

1988-01-01

461

Vertical transmission of Babesia microti, United States.  

PubMed

Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue. PMID:22840424

Joseph, Julie T; Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Moore, Julie M; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P

2012-08-01

462

Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States  

PubMed Central

Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue.

Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J.; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W.; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Moore, Julie M.; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P.

2012-01-01

463

Laser Beam Transmission Through the Atmosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical evaluation of the transmission of a laser beam at 10.6 microns has been investigated using the techniques of geometric optics. The interaction is non-linear because the refractive index depends through the mechanism of absorption, upon the int...

J. Wallace M. Camac

1970-01-01

464

Transmission and Biology of Filarial Parasites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies have centered on exploring the oral transmission of filarial parasites to definitive hosts, and on the escape of third-stage (L-3) filarial parasites from infected mosquito intermediate hosts. The major findings include: Brugia pahangi L-3s were s...

E. Chernin

1976-01-01

465

Interlock assembly for a vehicle transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes, in a vehicle transmission including a housing and a shift lever extending into the housing, a means for urging the shift lever toward a predetermined position within the housing. It comprises: an aperture formed through the housing, the aperture including a first diameter portion and a second diameter portion, a shoulder being defined between the first and

R. S. Meyers; C. R. Jones

1990-01-01

466

VCSEL-based parallel optical transmission module  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design process and performance of the optimized parallel optical transmission module. Based on 1×12 VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array, we designed and fabricated the high speed parallel optical modules. Our parallel optical module contains a 1×12 VCSEL array, a 12 channel CMOS laser driver circuit, a high speed PCB (Printed Circuit Board), a MT

Rongxuan Shen; Hongda Chen; Chao Zuo; Weihua Pei; Yi Zhou; Jun Tang

2005-01-01

467

Tunable Nonlinear Transmission Lines with switched varactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) have been used in many applications for waveform shaping and impedance engineering. To minimize insertion loss and jitter, adaptive impedance is desirable. Here we propose to use switched varactors on NLTL to achieve impedance-tuning. We present an analytical model to examine the impact of switch parasitics on the performance of the NLTL. We find that for

Fan Yu; K. G. Lyon; E. C. Kan

2009-01-01

468

Study of Monolithic Nonlinear Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the physics of nonlinear phenomena on a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) system and its applications have been investigated. An exact counterpart of the 1-D exponential lattice model, proposed by M. Toda, was built by utilizing microfabrication and MBE techniques. An advantage of the current approach over previous lumped element circuits is that it precisely reproduces the physics of the

Hui Shi

1995-01-01

469

Transmission Electron Microscopy: Overview and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

We review recent advances in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy that allow sub-Angstrom beams to be used for imaging and spectroscopy, with enormous improvement in sensitivity for single atom detection and the investigation of interfacial electronic structure. Comparison is made between the electronic and structural width of gate oxides, with interpretation through first-principles theory. Future developments are discussed.

Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Borisevich, Albina Y [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Peng, Yiping [ORNL; Nellist, Peter D. [Nion Company, WA; Duscher, Gerd J M [ORNL; Buczko, R. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

2003-01-01

470

40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-00 Transmissions. Section 86.128-00...

2011-07-01

471

Coaxial Tube Array Space Transmission Line Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array...

C. A. Switzer D. J. Bents

1987-01-01

472

New technologies for transmission line uprating  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies and methods have been applied to a 230 kV transmission line uprating project. Significant savings have been documented in field investigation efforts, data collection, design time, line outages and construction costs. Advancements in software and data collection instruments have been combined with innovative line engineering to improve the accuracy and reduce the costs of uprating projects. Laser surveying,

R. J. Carrington

1998-01-01

473

230 kV transmission conductor selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently Puget Power decided to standardize on a conductor for use on 230 kV transmission lines. This report is a summary of the selection process. The study began with the identification of nine ACSR candidate conductors, all of which meet minimum load capacity and audible noise criteria. in addition to cost, five other factors were considered important in selecting the

Milan Brace

1994-01-01

474

Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long-haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circulating loop transmission experiment is a useful tool for the research and development of long-haul transmission systems that use erbium-doped fiber-amplifier repeaters. Circulating loop techniques, applied to an amplifier chain of modest length, can provide an experimental platform to study a broad range of transmission phenomena for EDFA-based transmission systems. A loop experiment attempts to simulate the transmission performance

Neal S. Bergano; C. R. Davidson

1995-01-01

475

A Improved Transmission System Harmonic Modeling Technique.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a comprehensive approach to the modeling of electric power transmission systems at harmonic frequencies is presented. For harmonic analysis it is not practically possible to model a large transmission system with its neighboring interconnected systems in detail due to computer time and memory limitations. A large number of components of a large system also makes switching studies a recognized problem with respect to the desired accuracy, and required engineering and computer time. Current methods depend on the trial and error approach or the individual analyst's knowledge of the system, which are imprecise and expensive to develop at harmonic frequencies. The approach to solve this problem involves the development of a formal method for dividing large-scale transmission systems into a main study system and a group of external systems. Then, using an efficient and appropriate method of adjoint network sensitivity analysis, the size of the system model is reduced, keeping the same frequency characteristics as that of the original system. This reduction in model size in turn accommodates larger transmission system size and increases the accuracy and computational efficiency. An efficient and accurate method is also presented that determines the relative importance of external system equivalents on the harmonic impedance of a transmission network. The bilinear theorem provides an economical method of determining the appropriate locations for simplification of external systems. Using this technique, the system model error bounds can be fixed and the high error range of the external system equivalent impedance can be reduced. For filter designs, the most important issue of computing harmonic impedance boundaries is improved by using an efficient adjoint network sensitivity analysis. Using this sensitivity analysis an order of critical components is developed. The number of outage contingencies to be analyzed is reduced by a large factor which considerably reduces the engineering time and increases dependability. Two transmission systems have been studied to demonstrate the proposed methods. This work will provide transmission system planners and designers an efficient and economical tool of known accuracy for the analysis of harmonic propagation, switching studies and design of harmonic filters.

Akram, Muhammad Fayyaz

1994-01-01

476

New instruments to calibrate atmospheric transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing atmospheric transmission accounts for the largest systematic errors limiting photometric measurement precision and accuracy for ground-based telescopes. While considerable resources have been devoted to correcting the effects of the atmosphere on image resolution, the effects on precision photometry have largely been ignored. To correct for the transmission of the atmosphere requires direct measurements of the wavelength-dependent transmission in the same direction and time that the supported photometric telescope is acquiring its data. We describe a multi-wavelength lidar, the Facility Lidar for Astronomical Measurement of Extinction (FLAME) that observes the stable upper stratosphere, and the Astronomical Extinction Spectrophotometer (AESoP), a spectrophotometer that creates and maintains NIST absolute standard stars. The combination of these two instruments enables high photometric precision of both the stellar spectra and atmospheric transmission. The throughput of both FLAME and AESoP are calibrated to NIST radiometric standards. This inexpensive and replicable instrument suite provides the lidar-determined monochromatic transmission of Earth’s atmosphere at visible and near-infrared wavelengths to better than 0.25% per airmass and the wavelength-dependent transparency to better than 1% uncertainty per minute. These atmospheric data are merged to create a metadata stream that allows throughput corrections from data acquired at the time of the scientific observations to be applied to broadband and spectrophotometric scientific data. This new technique replaces the classical use of nightly mean atmospheric extinction coefficients, which invoke a stationary and plane-parallel atmosphere and ultimately limit ground-based all-sky photometry to 1% - 2% precision.

Zimmer, Peter; McGraw, John T.; Zirzow, Daniel C.; Cramer, Claire; Lykke, Keith; Woodward, John T.

2012-09-01

477

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT...distribution, who also operates gas transmission or gathering pipelines shall submit separate reports...gathering, who also operates gas distribution pipelines shall submit separate...

2010-10-01

478

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE; ANNUAL REPORTS, INCIDENT...distribution, who also operates gas transmission or gathering pipelines shall submit separate reports...gathering, who also operates gas distribution pipelines shall submit separate...

2009-10-01

479

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

480

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

481

La transmission par solitons sur fibre optique soliton transmission on optical fibres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  ?amplification optique a considérablement modifié la conception des systèmes de transmission sur fibre optique, particulièrement\\u000a celle des systèmes à grande distance tels que les systèmes transocéaniques. Elle a conduit à prendre en compte ?accumulation\\u000a des effets de la dispersion chromatique et de ?automodulation de phase ainsi que celle du bruit ?émission spontanée amplifiée.\\u000a Dans ce contexte, la technique de transmission

Patrick Vandamme; Jean-Baptiste Thomine; Philippe Gallion

1995-01-01

482

Gb/s Raman-Amplified Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-capacity terrestrial optical transmission systems are now being deployed, offering aggregate capacities of 1 Tb/s or higher over distances of more than 1000 km. These systems use dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) operating with more than 100 channels at a 10 Gb/s line rate and channel spacing of 50 GHz in both the C- and L-bands. In order to offer scalable solutions for future traffic growth in the backbone network, the 40 Gb/s line rate appears to be the natural successor to 10 Gb/s. However, with the downturn in the telecommunications industry in 2001 and 2002, natural questions to ask are: why are 40 Gb/s line rates needed, and why are researchers pursuing 40 Gb/s technologies and transmission? The answers are twofold: 40 Gb/s line rates will help to meet increased bandwidth demands and 40 Gb/s line rates reduce cost.

Nelson, L.; Zhu, B.

483

Efficient remote transmission line probe tuning.  

PubMed

An approach is described which allows remote tuning of a probe via a length of transmission line, while retaining nearly ideal efficiency relative to the equivalent locally tuned coil. This preservation of efficiency is accomplished through the principle of "partial local matching." In comparison to common methods of remote tuning which involve half-wavelength cables, or in which a length of transmission line is itself utilized as a tuning element, the partial matching method results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of power transfer to the coil, and therefore increased B1 field intensity and signal-to-noise ratio. Applications in which the use of local variable tuning capacitors is made difficult by either space, accessibility, or environmental considerations should benefit from this method. PMID:2325537

Rath, A R

1990-03-01

484

Electroreceptor neuron dynamics shape information transmission.  

PubMed

The gymnotiform weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus can capture prey using electrosensory cues that are dominated by low temporal frequencies. However, conventional tuning curves predict poor electroreceptor afferent responses to low-frequency stimuli. We compared conventional tuning curves with information tuning curves and found that the latter predicted substantially improved responses to these behaviorally relevant stimuli. Analysis of receptor afferent baseline activity showed that negative correlations reduced low-frequency noise levels, thereby increasing information transmission. Multiunit recordings from receptor afferents showed that this increased information transmission could persist at the population level. Finally, we verified that this increased low-frequency information is preserved in the spike trains of central neurons that receive receptor afferent input. Our results demonstrate that conventional tuning curves can be misleading when certain noise reduction strategies are used by the nervous system. PMID:15806098

Chacron, Maurice J; Maler, Leonard; Bastian, Joseph

2005-04-03

485

Voice transmission problems in packet switching networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technologies available for voice transmission in packet switching networks are assessed and the development objectives are indicated. The most frequently used technique is pulse code modulation but it is inappropriate for applications with limited channel resources. Other algorithms yield a quality proportionate to their complexity, the implementing cost and the coding rate. A comparison of the relative complexity of various coding systems is presented referred to the comparatively simple adaptive delta modulator. (A channel vocoder for instance is 100 times more complex). The problem of packet loss and its influence on voice intelligibility is analyzed, showing that for 16 kbit/sec voice coding and 1 kbit packet length, the loss of about one packet per 100 may result in poor quality transmission. It is concluded that reseach should be oriented towards the 9.6 kbit/sec limit with very high quality coding with the necessary adaptive characteristics.

Prina-Ricotti, L.

1980-12-01

486

Strongly Enhanced Transmission through a Subwavelength Aperture.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical throughput of a subwavelength aperture in a metal film is strongly enhanced, by up to a factor 150, by a resonant interaction of the incident light with surface plasmons, excitation modes at the metal surface. This occurs through grating coupling at a periodically corrugated metal surface. The strength of the interaction, and thus of the transmission enhancement, is determined by the topography of the surface surrounding the aperture. In a systematic study, we find that the optimal surface corrugation is axially symmetric, consisting of a set of concentric circular grooves around the central aperture, with a groove depth a few times the skin depth of the metal. We present a model of the surface plasmon modes which give rise to the large transmission enhancement. URL:http://www.neci.nj.nec.com/homepages/thio/arrays.html

Thio, Tineke; Pellerin, K. M.; Linke, R. A.; Ebbesen, T. W.; Lezec, H. J.

2002-03-01

487

Prion protein and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.  

PubMed

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that occur in a wide variety of mammals. In humans, TSE diseases include kuru, sporadic and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). So far, TSE diseases occur only rarely in humans; however, scrapie is a widespread problem in sheep, and the recent epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease) has seriously affected the British cattle industry. Of special concern is the recent appearance of a new variant of CJD in humans that is suspected of being caused by infections from BSE-infected cattle products. In all these diseases, an abnormal form of a host protein, prion protein (PrP), is essential for the pathogenic process. The relationship of this protein to the transmissible agent is currently the subject of great interest and controversy and is the subject of this review. PMID:17708907

Caughey, B; Chesebro, B

1997-02-01

488

Medical Data Transmission Using Cell Phone Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A big challenge in telemedicine systems is related to have the technical requirements needed for a successful implementation in remote locations where the available hardware and communication infrastructure is not adequate for a good medical data transmission. Despite of the wide standards availability, methodologies, applications and systems integration facilities in telemedicine, in many cases the implementation requirements are not achievable to allow the system execution in remote areas of our country. Therefore, this paper presents an alternative for the messages transmission related to medical studies using the cellular network and the standard HL7 V3 [1] for data modeling. The messages are transmitted to a web server and stored in a centralized database which allows data sharing with other specialists.

Voos, J.; Centeno, C.; Riva, G.; Zerbini, C.; Gonzalez, E.

2011-12-01

489

Dispersion-free radial transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA)

2011-04-12

490

Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens as it drifted eastward interrupting both the ground- and first hop sky-wave paths and that this ash cloud is the source of the conductivity and/or ionization necessary to produce this interruption. Small phase retardations are also reported which could be correlated with other Mount St. Helens volcanic events during May-July 1980.

Buckmaster, H. A.; Hansen, C. H.

1985-07-01

491

Development of superconducting transmission-line metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, various metamaterials have received substantial attention for their ability to exhibit simultaneous negative permittivity and permeability. Such systems are commonly referred to as left-handed materials and display a variety of counterintuitive properties. We are investigating one-dimensional metamaterials consisting of superconducting circuit elements that operate in the microwave regime. In this talk, we will discuss our efforts to develop a superconducting left-handed transmission line (LHTL) coupled to a coplanar waveguide resonator (right-handed line --RHTL) to create a composite transmission line. Such a structure is predicted to exhibit an intriguing mode structure and we will discuss possible schemes for coupling superconducting qubits to these metamaterials.

Wang, Haozhi; Rouxinol, Francisco; Plourde, B. L. T.

2013-03-01

492

Cote d'Ivoire satellite transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) initiated a rural telecommunications study to analyze its national telecommunications network and to make recommendations for future growth and expansion. The study analyzed voice and data communications capabilities and requirements together with distribution and radio programming through the Cote d'Ivoire. Transmission alternatives were then investigated, and the optimum system configuration was defined. Concurrent with the study, a pilot system was installed using SCPC and DAMA transmission techniques; the system consisted of 60 voice channels for use with the public network and 12 executive channels for use with PABX and FX lines. This paper presents the results of the study, the verification of the study recommendations with the pilot system, and the future plans for the expansion of the network through the Cote d'Ivoire.

Geiling, J. I.; Rasmussen, K. E.

493

Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

Guest Feature Editors

Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors

Submission deadline: 15 June 2007
Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems.

Scope of Submission

The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics related to the interworking between core and edge networks. The core network topics suitable for inclusion in this feature issue are:
  • Optically transparent system design issues, transmission experiments, and field trials
  • Optically transparent network architectures and topologies
  • Dispersion management in reconfigurable and mesh systems
  • Optically transparent network device and sub-system performance, design, characterization and control, including: amplifiers, transmitters, receivers, switches, add/drop multiplexers
  • Transient and fault management
  • Physical layer system control
  • Monitoring and compensation to support transparency
  • Wavelength routing and planning as they relate to physical layer transmission>
  • Hardware cost and configuration optimization for optically transparent networks
To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select "TTCN" in the features indicator of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "TTCN." Additional information can be found on the JON website: . Submission Deadline: 15 June 2007

Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

2007-03-01

494

Troubleshooting natural gas processing: Wellhead to transmission  

SciTech Connect

This book describes practical, day-to-day problems of natural gas handling. This book combines field experience with technical principles on natural gas production treating and transmission. This volume is dominated by illustrative case histories and rules of thumb. The book also provides a checklist of distillation problems which is a summary of causes and cures of the problems encountered in the fractionation of propane, butane and natural gasoline. A glossary of terms used in natural gas transmission is another good part of this book. The author has avoided complex mechanical details in favor of simple line drawings. Among the topics discussed are; wellhead pressure and gas flow, vapor-liquid separation at the wellhead, wellhead compression, corrosion in gathering systems, gas sweetening using amines, sulfur recovery, dehydration, centrifugal gas compression, reciprocal gas compression, hydrates, gas cooling and condensate recovery.

Lieberman, N.

1987-01-01

495

Rectangular coils optimization for wireless power transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wirelessly coupled coils are crucial for efficient power transmission in various applications. Previous design methods are only eligible for improving the efficiency of circular or square coils. This paper presents a method of characterizing and optimizing rectangular coils used in inductively coupled systems. After setting up a lumped component model for inductive coils, the efficiency can be expressed in terms of geometrical parameters of the coils. Subsequently, the power efficiency can be plotted versus these parameters in Matlab, thus getting the desired coils for optimum power transfer. With this design procedure from mathematical optimization, we eventually designed two rectangular coils spaced 10 mm apart, which achieves a power transmission efficiency of 46.4% at a frequency of 3 MHz. The design methodology is verified by simulation and measurement.

Duan, Zhu; Guo, Yong-Xin; Kwong, Dim-Lee

2012-01-01

496

Mucosal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

PubMed Central

Since the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, and following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the etiological agent of the disease, it was clear that the virus gains access to the human host predominantly through the mucosal tissue after sexual exposure. As a consequence, the female genital tract (vaginal and cervical), as well as the rectal, penile, and oral mucosae have been extensively studied over the last thirty years towards a better understanding of - and to develop strategies to prevent - sexual HIV transmission. This review seeks to describe the biology of the events leading to HIV infection through the human mucosa and introduce some of the approaches attempted to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV.

Tebit, Denis M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Weinberg, Aaron; Quinones-Mateu, Miguel E.

2013-01-01

497

Cascading failures in Europe's transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cascading failures constitute an important vulnerability of infrastructure networks, hence understanding the origin and propagation of these failures is of great interest. To this end, we study cascades of overload failures within the framework of the cascade model introduced by Motter and Lai (2002) applied for flows that have a distributed character. We investigate numerically the properties of these failures in the high-voltage European electric power transmission system from 2002 (Zhou and Bialek, 2005). The network consists of 1254 nodes (substations) specified by geographical locations, and 1812 links (transmission lines) that are assumed to be undirected. We find that assigning excess capacities in proportion to initial loads does not significantly mitigate cascading failures. Moreover, increasing the fractional excess capacity does not yield monotonically increasing gains. Using a simple model of spatial network - random geometric graph - we investigate methods beyond the proportional excess capacity allocation in order to improve the gains in mitigating such failures.

Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, G.

2013-03-01

498

Real-time coherent OFDM transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the recent development in real-time coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) transmission for their algorithm and implementation. The unique challenge of real-time implementation of OFDM for high speed optical data transmission including relatively large phase noise, frequency offset and dynamically changing optical channels are discussed. The fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) architectures of transmitter and receiver are presented in the manner achievable in state of the art field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) or application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). Primary DSP components' algorithms and implementations are presented and discussed. The successful demonstration of real-time CO-OFDM receivers includes a receiver with sampling rate of 2.5-Gsamples/s to receive a 3.55-Gb/s single channel and 53.3-Gb/s multi-band CO-OFDM signal.

Kaneda, Noriaki; Pfau, Timo; Yang, Qi; Chen, Y. K.

2011-01-01

499

Seams issues in European transmission investments  

SciTech Connect

European policy goals are challenging for transmission networks, requiring investments in cross-border capacity. Despite those goals, an increased awareness of the need for investments and the voluntary cooperation among countries sharing the challenges, a regulatory gap between national and European interests persists. Further development of a European cross-border planning and financing framework is required. U.S. experiences may serve as food for thought. (author)

Buijs, Patrik; Bekaert, David; Belmans, Ronnie

2010-12-15

500

Blind Collision Resolution Using Cooperative Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network-assisted diversity multiple access (NDMA) was recently developed to resolve collision and achieve high throughput. The blind NDMA method using independent component analysis (ICA), named ICA-NDMA, has been shown to overcome the difficulties of synchronization and orthogonal identification codes required by the training-based NDMA protocols. In this paper, we propose a novel blind collision resolution strategy by employing cooperative transmission

Junliang Yao; Xiaoniu Yang; Jiandong Li; Zhao Li; Yan Zhang

2010-01-01