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1

Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

NONE

1996-05-01

2

EMI (electromagnetic interference) potential of proposed 115KV line near B-691  

SciTech Connect

The Laser Operated Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) is housed in Building 691. This facility contains electronic measurement and control systems which could be susceptible to interfering electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by sources external to B-691. In particular, concern has been expressed that such harmful EMI signals could be produced by the proposed WAPA 115KV feeder line which would be routed approximately 30 feet from the East side of the facility. Also, there has been some concern expressed about the effects of the resulting electromagnetic (EM) fields on personnel in the proximity of the power line. Since it is necessary to measure the EM fields to ascertain if a hazard does indeed exist, and since we in ERD have been performing such field measurements for many years, we were contacted to determine the field levels from the line that might be expected inside and close to B-691. This report describes our approach, equipment and calibration procedures, analysis techniques used, results, and suggestions for future work in related areas. 9 refs., 41 figs.

Latorre, V.R.; Wythe, D.M.

1989-07-27

3

Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear

Sugano

1988-01-01

4

Transmission  

SciTech Connect

A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

Sugano, K.

1988-12-27

5

Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes  

SciTech Connect

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

Not Available

1989-10-01

6

Transmission assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

Klazura, K.

1990-08-28

7

75 FR 26991 - Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County, Oregon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...right-of-way, serialized TD-02036; (3) Pacific Power for a 115KV electrical transmission line serialized OR-17337; (4) Quantum Communications, LLC, for an underground fiber optic cable serialized OR-54822; and, (5) an Easement Deed to the...

2010-05-13

8

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

9

Tractor transmission  

SciTech Connect

A transmission is described for a tractor including: a transmission case comprising a clutch housing containing a clutch mechanism, a second transmission case, and a first transmission case removably attached from between the clutch housing and second transmission case; a primary speed change mechanism housed in the first transmission case, the primary speed change mechanism being operatively connected through a speed change shaft to a secondary speed change mechanism housed in the second transmission case. The speed change shaft comprises a first shaft and a second shaft connected thereto by means of a first coupler, the first coupler arranged in the second transmission case forwardly of the secondary speed change mechanism; a backward and forward switching mechanism operatively connected to the engine through the clutch mechanism and to the primary speed change mechanism through an intermediate shaft and adapted to be supported by a supporting member removably mounted in a forward portion of the first transmission case; the intermediate shaft comprising a first intermediate shaft and a second intermediate shaft connected thereto by means of a second coupler, the second coupler arranged between the backward and forward switching and primary speed change mechanisms. The first intermediate shaft is supported by the supporting member, the second intermediate shaft supported by the first transmission case and having a portion projecting into the second transmission case. The projecting portion is adapted to mount a reversing mechanism for operatively connecting the second intermediate shaft with the first shaft of the speed change shaft.

Omura, T.; Horii, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Nakata, M.

1986-12-16

10

Transmission eigenvalues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

2013-10-01

11

HIV Transmission  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

2012-01-01

12

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Shingles Home About Shingles Overview Signs & Symptoms Transmission Complications ...

13

Controller for vehicle transmission with auxiliary transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicular transmission having an auxiliary transmission with high-speed and low-speed transmission connected in series to a main transmission and an engine. The auxiliary transmission has a hydraulic clutch disposed in the high-speed transmission line and a one-way clutch disposed in the low-speed transmission line. The low-speed transmission line is engaged through the one-way clutch when the

S. Nishimura; N. Sekine

1987-01-01

14

Prion transmission  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

Maddison, Ben C

2010-01-01

15

Manual with auxiliary transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a

Nishimura

1987-01-01

16

Transmission constraints  

E-print Network

MAXISO MINISO Paradigm is minimum cost gener Paradigm is open access bus Transmission constraints domi­ nate in commodity design; other transactions forced into standard All transactions opportunities if they exist. Notes. 1.Wide latitude in the choice of adjustments to curtailment. In place

Varaiya, Pravin

17

Automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control

M. Hamane; H. Ohri

1989-01-01

18

Transmission synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describe a synchronizer for a gear type transmission in which a pair of gears are provided on input and output shafts. The two gears of each pair are always in mesh with each other with one gear of each pair being fixedly connected to one of the input and output shafts and the other gear of each pair

Kishimoto

1989-01-01

19

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

Miki, N.

1988-10-11

20

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

Ohkubo, M.

1988-02-16

21

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

Aoki, H.

1989-03-21

22

Vented transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vented transmission. It comprises: a housing; a rotary input to the housing; a rotary output from the housing; transmission means within the housing interconnecting the input and the output and including a hollow, rotary shaft journaled within the housing; a vent tube having a first end extending into one end of the hollow shaft and a second end in fluid communication with the exterior of the housing; a shoulder within the hollow shaft and intermediate the ends of the vent tube and defining of relatively smaller diameter section near the first end of the vent tube that is within the hollow shaft and a relatively large diameter section nearer the second end of the vent tube; at least one aperture extending through the hollow shaft from the large diameter section immediately adjacent the shoulder; and a labyrinth seal at the interface of the vent tube and the large diameter section at a location between the aperture (s) and the second end of the vent tube.

Nguyen, T.H.

1990-01-29

23

Planetary transmission  

SciTech Connect

A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

1987-04-21

24

Phasing transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a mechanical power transmission. It comprises a pair of axially aligned rotatable shaft members, a motor member, having a motor housing of thin axial width located within the central housing, fixed to one of the shaft members and axially aligned to rotate wherewith, and a harmonic drive member of thin axial width positioned within the central housing in axial alignment between the motor member and the remaining shaft member, a circular spline fixed to the motor housing for rotation therewith, a flex spline engaged with the dynamic spline and the circular spline, and a wave generator in communication with the flex spline and a wave generator in communication with the flex spline and engaged with the center shaft of the motor member.

Himmelein, M.K.; Haaser, J.D.

1992-06-23

25

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

1989-03-21

26

Controller for vehicle transmission with auxiliary transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicular transmission having an auxiliary transmission with high-speed and low-speed transmission connected in series to a main transmission and an engine. The auxiliary transmission has a hydraulic clutch disposed in the high-speed transmission line and a one-way clutch disposed in the low-speed transmission line. The low-speed transmission line is engaged through the one-way clutch when the hydraulic clutch is released, and the high-speed transmission line is engaged when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A controller improvement comprises, a high-speed transmission control means for applying and maintaining the hydraulic clutch in its applied state when the throttle opening of the engine is below a predetermined level.

Nishimura, S.; Sekine, N.

1987-10-06

27

Auxiliary equipment transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a transmission including a drive train having speed change gearing and a one-way clutch between a transmission input and a transmission output. The improvement comprises: a first cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission input; a second cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission output, the cylindrical surfaces being axially adjacent and coterminous; a wrap

Ogura

1987-01-01

28

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

1991-04-23

29

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

1986-08-26

30

Transmission synchronizer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describe a synchronizer for a gear type transmission in which a pair of gears are provided on input and output shafts. The two gears of each pair are always in mesh with each other with one gear of each pair being fixedly connected to one of the input and output shafts and the other gear of each pair being rotatably connected to the other shaft to be rotatable relative thereto, and the other gear of each couple is adapted to be drivingly connected to the other shaft by way of a clutch hub with a radially extending disc portion and an axially extending boss portion fixedly provided on the other shaft, a gear spline provided on the other gear of each couple integrally therewith, and a hub sleeve which is engaged with the clutch hub to be rotated together therewith and is slidable in the axial direction of the clutch hub to be engaged with the gear spline to transmit rotation of the clutch hub to the gear spline, the synchronizer being for synchronizing the two gears of at least one of the pairs and comprising an inner cone which has a tapered outer surface and is rotatably mounted on a hub portion formed integrally and coaxially with the other gear of the couple and is in engagement with the clutch hub to permit rotation of the inner cone relative to the clutch hub by a predetermined amount, an outer cone which ha a tapered inner surface opposed to the tapered outer surface of the inner cone, and is adapted to be engaged with the hub sleeve by way of splines to be rotated together therewith when the hub sleeve is slid into engagement with the gear spline.

Kishimoto, M.

1989-04-25

31

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01

32

Merchant transmission investment  

E-print Network

We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2003-01-01

33

Transmission reliability performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission reliability performance assessment is undergoing a basic change due to the changes in the electric transmission industry. While fundamental concepts of transmission reliability performance assessment have not changed key trends in the industry signal the need for industry stakeholders to assess transmission reliability data collection capabilities and performance metrics to ensure continued grid reliability and economic benefits of an

E. A. Kram

2006-01-01

34

Manual with auxiliary transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

Nishimura, S.

1987-06-23

35

Seismic fragility analysis of equipment and structures in a Memphis Electric substation. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a seismic fragility analysis of equipment and structures in an electric substation in Memphis, Tennessee. These include the pothead structure, 115 kv switch structure, 97 kv lightning arresters, control house, capacitor banks, 115/12 kv transformers, 12 kv regulators, 115 kv oil circuit breakers, and 12 kv oil circuit breakers. The results from this fragility analysis provide the expected performance of equipment and structures in a substation. They can also be used to evaluate the seismic performance of the entire electric substation and to perform a system reliability analysis of the electric transmission system.

Huo, J.R.; Hwang, H.H.M.

1995-08-10

36

Automatic transmission adapter kit  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

1987-02-10

37

Transmission Cycles of Plague  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

American Society For Microbiology

2004-08-27

38

Auxiliary equipment transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission including a drive train having speed change gearing and a one-way clutch between a transmission input and a transmission output. The improvement comprises: a first cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission input; a second cylindrical surface fixed to rotate with the transmission output, the cylindrical surfaces being axially adjacent and coterminous; a wrap spring about the cylindrical surfaces having a first end attached to the transmission output and a second end; a pivotal actuator mechanism attached to the second end to pivot and bias the second end relative to the first end at a selected speed range of the transmission; and the pivotal actuator mechanism including a centrifugal clutch having input and a clutch output. Clutch input is fixed to rotate with the transmission input and clutch output coupled to the second end of the wrap spring.

Ogura, M.

1987-06-23

39

Transmission line characteristics  

E-print Network

of the transmission line (2) Ohm's law at O/C requires an infinite impedance as current is zero · CreationIZeV -+-+ -=- ·Note: `+' & `-' is used for observer looking into the `load' & `generator' Infinitely long Transmission or current · Similar to "L ", using equation `V(z)=V0 +e-z +V0 - ez =Vtr e-z ' yields; Transmission

Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

40

Series Transmission Line Transformer  

DOEpatents

A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

2004-06-29

41

Understanding ebola virus transmission.  

PubMed

An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

2015-02-01

42

Patterns of transmission investment  

E-print Network

This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2005-01-01

43

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

ScienceCinema

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

44

California Tehachapi transmission study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tehachapi Renewable Transmission Project (TRTP) is a 4,500 MW transmission project connecting the wind energy rich Tehachapi wind resource area north of the Los Angeles Basin, into the Southern California Load Center. The full project has been approved by the CAISO Board, a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN) has been issued by the CPUC for the first

H. Romanowitz

2008-01-01

45

Power transmission for working vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A power transmission is described for working vehicles wherein at least one fluid-operated clutch which selectively connects and disconnects a transmission path by selectively continuing and interrupting the input of power to a transmission shaft is mounted on the transmission shaft within a transmission case. The shaft formed therein with a fluid path for supplying and draining clutch-operating fluid, and

K. Irikura; K. Hikishima; K. Fujisaki

1986-01-01

46

Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

2010-07-01

47

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

48

Transmission of Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

49

Hybrid geared traction transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic configuration of geared traction drives, geometric and structural factors to be considered in their construction, and current work on hybrid helicopter transmissions rated at 500 and 3000 hp are discussed.

Nasvytis, A. L.; White, G.

1983-01-01

50

E. coli Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) occurs when people consume contaminated foods or ...

51

Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Chickenpox can also be spread from people with shingles . Varicella-zoster virus also causes shingles. A person ...

52

Designing electricity transmission auctions  

E-print Network

The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

2012-10-26

53

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1981-01-01

54

Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

55

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

1991-01-01

56

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27

57

Disease transmission in horses.  

PubMed

Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed. PMID:16837034

Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

2006-08-01

58

Automotive transmission linkage system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

1990-10-02

59

Transmissivity variations in mudstones.  

PubMed

Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

2005-01-01

60

Advanced rotorcraft transmission program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

61

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Peter Goodhew

62

Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

2011-01-01

63

Merchant Transmission Investment  

E-print Network

into the development of new transmission capacity. One can think of at least two situations in which free entry is not a good assumption. First, network deepening investments can, as a practical matter, only be implemented efficiently by the owner of the existing lines... ;#7; #8;#2;#15;#1;#24;#12;#15;#11;#4;#17;#1;#25;#7;#3;#7;#2;#19;#4;#5;#1; CMI Working Paper UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Department of Applied Economics Merchant Transmission Investment? Paul Joskow† and Jean Tirole‡ May 6, 2003 Abstract We examine...

Joskow, Paul; Tirole, Jean

2004-06-16

64

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has long been an important tool in the expanding field of microbiology. A major virtue of TEM is the increased resolution afforded by the use of accelerated electron beams at wavelengths significantly shorter than visible light. When coupled with suitable pre...

65

Automatic transmission line monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

1971-01-01

66

Laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

Conway, Edmund J.

1992-01-01

67

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

68

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

69

Electronically controlled automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission control system for an automotive vehicle. It comprises multiple ratio gearing and multiple pressure operated clutches and brakes adapted to establish and disestablish multiple torque flow paths through the gearing from an engine; a source of regulated line pressure, a valve circuit connecting the line pressure source to the clutches and brakes;

R. B. Smith; J. A. Daubenmier; J. I. Zielke

1992-01-01

70

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

71

HBV Perinatal Transmission  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem all around the world. It is a blood-borne and sexually transmitted DNA virus in adults, but mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus also occurs in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive mothers. PMID:23738081

Umar, Muhammad; Hamama-tul-Bushra; Umar, Shifa; Khan, Haider Ali

2013-01-01

72

Continuously variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuously variable transmission means is described for motor vehicles including a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member. The movable member is actuated by a hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. Another movable member is actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped

Y. Tatara; S. Okawa; H. Matsui; Y. Nakawaki

1987-01-01

73

Compact change speed transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means

K. Iwanaga; T. Yamaguchi

1989-01-01

74

Automatic transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed

Hiketa

1987-01-01

75

Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

76

Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

77

Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having

H. Ito; T. Akashi

1986-01-01

78

Drill string transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28

79

Continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A continuously variable transmission means is described for motor vehicles including a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member. The movable member is actuated by a hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. Another movable member is actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening, and a flexible endless member spans the driving and driven pulleys. The continuously variable transmission means comprises such items as: a first output shaft; a first gear; a second gear; a reverse gear; a second output shaft; a third gear; a jaw clutch mounted; a first one-way clutch; a fourth gear; a hydraulic clutch means; and a second one-way clutch.

Tatara, Y.; Okawa, S.; Matsui, H.; Nakawaki, Y.

1987-04-28

80

The Transmission Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

81

Nosocomial transmission of SARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial\\u000a outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high\\u000a risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta\\/fomites. Good\\u000a hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to

Nelson Lee; Joseph J. Y. Sung

2003-01-01

82

Infinitely variable ratio transmission  

SciTech Connect

A variable ratio vehicle transmission is described whose gear ratio is determined essentially only by torque on the output shaft of the transmission, comprising: a housing fixed in the vehicle; a power input shaft entering one end of the housing; a power output shaft entering the other end of the housing; a planet carrier mounted concentrically on the input shaft; a planet shaft mounted rotatably to the planet carrier; planet gears fixed coaxially to the planet shaft, one planet gear being a power transferring gear, a second planet gear being a reaction planet gear; a brake means rotatable about the input shaft sleeve for controlling the rate of rotation of the reaction planet gear about the planet shaft axis when the reaction planet gear orbits about the input shaft axis, the brake means having an inhibitor means for providing a substantially constant drag against rotation of the brake means about the input shaft; the brake means having a disk-like wall encircling the input shaft and a brake gear meshed with the reaction planet gear; the inhibitor means having two sets of annular friction disks disposed between the disk-like wall and the one end of the housing; the transmission further comprising means for operatively connecting the transferring planet gear to the output shaft.

Geppert, E.F.

1989-02-21

83

Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

1989-05-09

84

Compact change speed transmission  

SciTech Connect

A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means including a first clutch, a first one-way clutch, and a second one-way clutch which, when the first clutch is engaged, provide a path of transmission of reaction to the stationary part thereby establishing a path of transmission of torque through at least a part of the first and second planetary gear sets to achieve a predetermined one speed ratio of the forward speed ratios; the clutch and brake means including also a brake and a second slutch which, when both of the brake and the second clutch are engaged, hinder the action of the second one-way clutch and that of the first one-way clutch, respectively, thereby providing engine braking during running with the predetermined one speed ratio; the first clutch including means forming a drum-shaped member disposed radially outwardly of and receiving at least one of the first and second planetary gear sets, and an actuating piston of the first clutch; and the second clutch including an actuating piston slidably disposed within the actuating piston of the first clutch.

Iwanaga, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

1989-06-06

85

Quantitative transmission system reliability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative transmission system reliability is a prerequisite in transmission system planning and operating that supplying industrial and commercial customer loads. A utility industry traditionally has relied on a set of deterministic criteria such as the widely used N-1 criterion to guide transmission planning supplying all customer types, e. g., residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial and sensitive high tech electronic customers. The

A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

2009-01-01

86

Uplink transmission timing in WCDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless network uplink communications, there is a tradeoff between transmission coordination to avoid overload situations, and distributed transmission decisions to adapt to fast channel variations. Here, uplink transmission timing (UTT) is proposed as a scheme to allow some load control support, while transmitting mainly when the channel is favorable. It utilizes channel state feedback in the form of power

Fredrik Gunnarsson; David Tornqvist; Erik Geijer-Lundin; Gunnar Bark; Niclas Wiberg; Eva Englund

2003-01-01

87

Automatic transmission for motor vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft

M. Miura; S. Sakakibara

1989-01-01

88

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

2013-10-01

89

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

2011-10-01

90

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

2010-10-01

91

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...communications; (5) Transmissions necessary to assisting persons learning, or improving proficiency in, the international Morse code; and (6) Transmissions necessary to disseminate information bulletins. (7) Transmissions of telemetry....

2012-10-01

92

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

93

Lightning proof transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

94

Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

Zehner, Richard E.

2012-02-01

95

Simplified power shift transmission  

SciTech Connect

A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

Michael, R.A.

1987-04-21

96

Transmission shift control assembly  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

Dzioba, D.L.

1989-04-18

97

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

Bujold, M P

1981-09-01

98

Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

99

Technology of optical azimuth transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

2012-11-01

100

Transmission seal development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

Brien, M.

1977-01-01

101

Power transmission for working vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A power transmission is described for working vehicles wherein at least one fluid-operated clutch which selectively connects and disconnects a transmission path by selectively continuing and interrupting the input of power to a transmission shaft is mounted on the transmission shaft within a transmission case. The shaft formed therein with a fluid path for supplying and draining clutch-operating fluid, and wherein a brake is provided to one end portion of the transmission shaft for braking the shaft in the non-operated state of the fluid-operated clutch, characterized in that a hollow cylinder which projects inwardly from an inner wall surface of the transmission case and encloses the one end portion of the transmission shaft is formed integrally with a wall of the transmission case. The one end portion of the transmission shaft has at the outer peripheral surface thereof an annular groove communicated to the fluid path and the annular groove being sealed by the inner peripheral surface of the hollow cylinder so as to form an annular fluid chamber between the shaft and the cylinder. A fluid path for connecting the fluid-operated clutch to a control valve for controlling supply and drainage of clutch-operating fluid is formed in the hollow cylinder and is communicated to the annular fluid chamber so as to provide a rotary joint portion of a fluid conduit line for the fluid-operated clutch by the annular fluid chamber, and that a braking mechanism of the brake is arranged within the hollow cylinder by employing the cylinder as a brake case therefor. The wall of the transmission case includes at an outer end of the hollow cylinder an opening through which assembly of the braking mechanism into the hollow cylinder is permitted from the outside of the transmission case, the opening being closed by a separate cover fixedly secured to the wall.

Irikura, K.; Hikishima, K.; Fujisaki, K.

1986-09-23

102

Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

Hagen, Wilfred R.

2013-01-01

103

Laptop image transmission equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

Mocenter, Michael M.

1991-12-01

104

Dyakonov surface wave resonant transmission.  

PubMed

The role of Dyakonov surface waves in the transmission through structures composed of birefringent media is theoretically explored. In the case of structures using prisms, unexpected high transmission above the critical angle due to resonant excitation of Dyakonov surface waves is predicted. This transmission is produced only when TE polarized incident wave reaches the interface supporting the surface waves within a narrow interval of angles, for both the angle of incidence and the angle with respect to the optic axis of the birefringent media. As a result, over 90% transmission for a single and isolated peak confined in the two transversal directions, with hybrid TE and TM polarization, can be obtained. PMID:21451661

Takayama, Osamu; Nikitin, Alexey Yu; Martin-Moreno, Luis; Torner, Lluis; Artigas, David

2011-03-28

105

Transmission control method providing overlapped engagement of power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for controlling a transmission mechanism for a vehicle wherein: the transmission mechanism comprises an input shaft; and output shaft; a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller

T. Akashi; H. Ito; S. Yamada

1986-01-01

106

On transmission congestion and pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a tutorial review, by example, of how to calculate optimal bus prices and congestion costs for a simple power system, using the “DC” loadflow approximation. It is also shown how to calculate the marginal effect of changing the impedance of a transmission on total system costs, and how this can be used for transmission planning purposes. The role

Thomas W. Gedra

1999-01-01

107

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01

108

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

Directional Transmission for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication on Mobile Sys- tems Hasan Huseyin DumanliRICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION ON MOBILE SYSTEMS by Hasan Huseyin Dumanli A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS

Zhong, Lin

109

The Centre for Power Transmission  

E-print Network

The Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control Centre for PTMC Department of Mechanical STABILITY ­ RAISING OWNER AWARENESS A history of caravan stability work The Centre for Power Transmission the efficacy of the Al- Ko automatic braking system, designed to aid the driver during an emergency, when

Burton, Geoffrey R.

110

Tribology of automatic transmission fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various properties are required in the latest ATFs (Automatic Transmission Fluids) because of the progress made in ATs (Automatic\\u000a Transmissions). In this paper, we will introduce the construction of the AT and describe the tribological issues, including\\u000a anti?shudder property, of ATF.

Takanori Kugimiya; Narihiko Yoshimura; Jun’ichi Mitsui

1998-01-01

111

A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

1969-01-01

112

Automatic transmission for motor vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft with an input end and an output end and an overdrive mechanism of planetary gear type having a reduction ratio smaller than 1, the input shaft and the output shaft of the auxiliary transmission being located close to and on the side of the hydraulic torque converter with respect to the auxiliary transmission, respectively, and being coupled with a planetary gear carrier and a ring gear of the overdrive mechanism, respectively, a one-way clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a sun gear of the overdrive mechanism, a clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a position radially and outwardly of the one-way clutch for engaging the disengaging the planetary carrier and the sun gear, a brake being provided between the transmission housing and the sun gear and positioned radially and outwardly of the clutch for controlling engagement of the sun gear with a stationary portion of the transmission housing, and the output end of the output shaft being disposed between the auxiliary transmission mechanism and the hydraulic torque converter.

Miura, M.; Sakakibara, S.

1989-06-27

113

Automatic transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

Ha, J.S.

1989-04-25

114

Control of schistosomiasis transmission.  

PubMed

Despite the success of control programmes, schistosomiasis is still a serious public health problem in the world. More than 70 countries where 200 million individuals are evaluated to be infected of a total 600 million at risk. Though there have been important local success in the control of transmission, globally the infection has increased. Economic constrains in developing countries, environmental changes associated with migration and water resources development have been blocking the progress. The main objective of schistosomiasis control is to achieve reduction of disease due to schistosomiasis. We discussed the control measures like: health education, diagnosis and chemotherapy, safe water supplies, sanitation and snail control. We emphasized the need to give priority to school-age children and the importance of integrating the measures of control into locally available systems of health care. The control of schistosomiasis is directly related to the capacity of the preventive health services of an endemic country. The strategy of control requires long-term commitment from the international to the local level. PMID:8531673

Dias, L C; Marçal Júnior; Glasser, C M

1995-01-01

115

Electronically controlled automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

1989-03-28

116

Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

The Keystone Center

2005-06-15

117

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the distrust and diversity of perspectives among affected stakeholders, may make the formation of multi-stakeholder alliances necessary to accomplishing transmission goals. If the wind industry and utilities want to partner with environmental and community advocate groups in supporting a transmission project, they may have to convince these groups that the project would result in a net environmental benefit. The project proponents would have to make the case that the benefits of the additional wind energy will at least offset the emissions of any additional fossil generation made possible by the transmission project, as well as offset the environmental impact of the transmission project itself.

Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

2000-03-01

118

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

119

Transmission gearing arrangement  

SciTech Connect

A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

Klemen, D.

1987-08-04

120

Automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

Hiketa, M.

1987-10-06

121

Multistate differential transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a multistate transmission suitable for a colinear configuration having a stationary housing and an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a first pair of planetary gear trains comprising a first common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and a planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the output shaft and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; a second pair of planetary a trains comprising a second common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; carrier means connecting the sun gears in the first pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a free wheeling clutch to provide for rotation in one direction only and to one side of a first operational clutch. The other side of the clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains; means connecting the planetary gears in the reversing mechanism of the second pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a second operational clutch and to one side of a third operational clutch. The other side of the third operational clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear grain in the second pair of planetary gear trains.

Whalen, B.L.

1989-05-30

122

Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

Kevin Bryan

2001-05-01

123

Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2004-12-14

124

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustín; Contigiani, Marta S.

2013-01-01

125

Modeling the Transmission of Sound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)

Palmer, David H.

2003-01-01

126

Noise transmission into propeller aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Papers and reports, most of which were written since 1981, that are concerned with airborne and structure-borne noise transmission into a propeller-driven aircraft are surveyed. Special attention is given to a new propfan aircraft.

Vaicaitis, R.

1985-08-01

127

Diversified transmission multichannel detection system  

SciTech Connect

A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

1984-07-03

128

Free-Space Power Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

1989-01-01

129

Video transmission over wireless networks  

E-print Network

Xiong (Co-Chair of Committee) Xiaodong Wang (Co-Chair of Committee) Andrew K. Chan (Member) Jyh Charn Liu (Member) Chanan Singh (Head of Department) May 2004 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Video Transmission over Wireless Networks.... (May 2004) Shengjie Zhao, B.S., University of Science and Technology of China; M.S., China Aerospace Institutes Co?Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Zixiang Xiong Dr. Xiaodong Wang Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks...

Zhao, Shengjie

2005-08-29

130

Variable Rate Transmission Over Noisy Channels   

E-print Network

Hybrid automatic repeat request transmission (hybrid ARQ) schemes aim to provide system reliability for transmissions over noisy channels while still maintaining a reasonably high throughput efficiency by combining ...

Burger-Scheidlin, Christoph

2009-01-01

131

Transmission control method providing overlapped engagement of power transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

A method for controlling a transmission mechanism for a vehicle wherein: the transmission mechanism comprises an input shaft; and output shaft; a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio.

Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

1986-10-14

132

New Automatic Hybrid Transmissions for Motorcycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systematic approach to designing new automatic transmission systems for motorcycles, including conceptual design, kinematic design, efficiency analysis, engine and transmission matching, and prototype developing and testing. The basic concept is to combine a stepped design and a stepless one into a hybrid transmission system. Four hybrid transmission systems, consisting of a two degrees of freedom planetary

KUEN-BAO SHEU; SHEN-TARNG CHIOU; WEN-MING HWANG; TING-SHAN WANG; HONG-SEN YAN

133

Gear shift controller for automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gear shift controller is described for an automatic transmission having a gear shift, comprising: a hydraulic torque converter; a gear change group, having a plurality of gears, each gear providing a different transmission ratio for the transmission of power from the hydraulic torque converter to the output of the transmission, each of the gears comprising a gear train; a

M. Nishikawa; S. Sakai; T. Sakurai

1987-01-01

134

Remote control apparatus for transmission  

SciTech Connect

A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

Ebina, A.

1989-01-10

135

Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours  

PubMed Central

Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

2015-01-01

136

Lightning Protection for Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the need for lightning protection on low-voltage transmission lines at moderate cost, and particularly for wood-pole lines, a design is presented in this paper that has high insulation strength and uses, in place of a ground wire, a shielding phase conductor with a lightning protector tube. Lightning currents are drained to ground with a minimum number of tubes

A. W. Gothberg; A. S. Brookes

1937-01-01

137

Contactless power and information transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some applications, contacts between two devices are the first cause of dysfunctions. The aim of this paper is to transfer contactless power energy to add new functions to a tool (e.g., drill machine). A bidirectional communication is also needed. This is realized with an ironless high-frequency transformer for both power and information transmission. Different coil geometries have been studied

Thierry Bieler; Marc Perrottet; Valérie Nguyen; Yves Perriard

2002-01-01

138

Contactless power and information transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some applications, contacts between two devices are the first cause of dysfunctions. The aim of this study is to transfer contactless power energy to add new functions to a tool (a drill machine for example). A bi-directional communication is also needed. This is realized with an ironless high frequency transformer for both power and information transmission. Different coil geometries

T. Bieler; M. Perrottet; V. Nguyen; Y. Perriard

2001-01-01

139

Power superconducting power transmission cable  

DOEpatents

The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

2003-01-01

140

Interference aspects of terahertz transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, interference aspects of terahertz transmission are considered. Possible interference effects in indoor THz communication are experimentally proved using a THz photomixer setup. The method of coherent homodyne detection is applied to explain the problem. Fourier Transform is used for precise analysis of the interference effects and calculations of the optical path changes. The paper explains the problem

Przemyslaw Jarzab; Jerzy S. Witkowski; Kacper Nowak; Grzegorz Beziuk; A. Grobelny; R. Wilk; M. Mikulics; E. F. Plinski

2009-01-01

141

High pressure gas transmission compressor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure gas transmission compressor is described for admitting gas at a suction inlet and discharging gas at increased pressure from a discharge outlet comprising: a block-like compressor housing having a substantially horizontal elongated smooth bore cylindrical cylinder extending longitudinally therethrough; cylindrical piston slidably received for reciprocating movement within the cylinder; a pair of vertically extending spaced valve housings positioned

Deminski

1987-01-01

142

Geographical transmission of economic events  

SciTech Connect

A two-region monetary economy is modeled as a five-equation system. Exogenous events in either region (changes in union wages, labor productivity, and banking policy) or at the national level (money supply changes) cause changes in price levels, wages, employment, and money stocks in both regions. The model structure permits explicit examination of transmission processes. 8 references, 1 figure, 18 tables.

Jones, D.W.

1984-04-01

143

Progressive transmission and compression images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

Kiely, A. B.

1996-01-01

144

Tornadoes and transmission reliability planning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to introduce an analytical approach for predicting overhead transmission line outages that are caused by tornadoes. The method is presently being used to determine the effects of tornadoes on various right-of-way configurations associated with a generating station project or the supply to a major substation. 2 refs.

Teles, J.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Landgren, G.L.

1980-01-01

145

Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.  

PubMed

Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

2015-01-01

146

Simulink simulation of transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

MATLAB can manipulate and invert large matrices and can be used in many numerical applications. MATLAB's capabilities can be extended with a recent addition called Simulink, a program which is normally used in the analysis and synthesis of modern control systems. Simulink, now incorporated into MATLAB, can also be used to analyze distributed transmission lines. Hence, it can be directly

K. E. Lonngren; Er-Wei Bai

1996-01-01

147

77 FR 64890 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1000-B] Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating...amending the transmission planning and cost allocation requirements established in...planning process that has: A regional cost allocation method for the cost of new...

2012-10-24

148

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. S1. Purpose...specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence...and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce the...

2014-10-01

149

75 FR 37883 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...transmission planning processes, which...Green Energy Express LLC...transmission planning processes, potentially including interregional...transmission planning process and the roles...Green Energy Express...refusal, including that the...

2010-06-30

150

76 FR 49841 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...existing transmission planning processes are too parochial in design and practice, and it...proposed transmission planning reforms will remedy these...regulations is for transmission planning only, not for design and construction or...

2011-08-11

151

Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio. A first synchronizer connects the input shaft and the output shaft via a series connection of the first on-off clutch, the first one way clutch, and the first gear train when the first synchronizer is shifted to a first side of a neutral position thereof so as to transmit rotational power from the input shaft to the output shaft in a normal rotational direction at a first speed stage and which connects the input shaft and the output shaft via series connection of the first on-off clutch.

Ito, H.; Akashi, T.

1986-11-18

152

Transmission  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an engagement mechanism. It comprises: a hollow shaft; an engagement outer rotatably mounted about the shaft and including an outer race; an engagement inner about the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative thereto. The engagement inner including an inner race having central depressions with two inclined surfaces extending upwardly and outwardly in opposite directions from each the central depression; wedging elements between the inner race and the outer race; a cage between the inner race and the outer race, the cage retaining the wedging elements and being angularly movable relative to the inclined surfaces to selectively couple the engagement outer and the engagement inner through the wedging elements with either of the two inclined surfaces, the cage having a firs actuator portion; an actuator mounted in the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative to the engagement inner. The actuator including a second actuator portion selectively engaging the first actuator portion to angularly displace the cage relative to the inclined surfaces for alignment of the wedging elements with the central depressions and selectively disengaging the first actuator portion to allow movement of the cage for movement of the wedging elements along the inclined surfaces to engage the outer race.

Weismann, P.H.

1991-01-29

153

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Ronald E. Bell

2004-12-08

154

Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission  

E-print Network

We show for the first time that a planar metamaterial, an array of coupled metal split-ring resonators with a unit cell lacking mirror symmetry, exhibits asymmetric transmission of terahertz radiation propagating through it in opposite directions. This intriguing effect, that is compatible with Lorentz reciprocity and time-reversal, depends on a directional difference in conversion efficiency of the incident circularly polarized wave into one of opposite handedness, that is only possible in lossy low-symmetry planar chiral metamaterials. We show that asymmetric transmission is linked to excitation of enantiomerically sensitive plasmons, these are induced charge-field excitations that depend on the mutual handedness of incident wave and metamaterial pattern. Various bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities have been identified indicating the opportunity to develop polarization sensitive negative index and slow light media based on such metamaterials.

Singh, R; Menzel, C; Rockstuhl, C; Azad, A K; Cheville, R A; Lederer, F; Zhang, W; Zheludev, N I

2009-01-01

155

Cultural transmission of social essentialism  

PubMed Central

Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

2012-01-01

156

Influenza Viruses: Transmission Between Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can

R. G. Webster; V. S. Hinshaw; W. J. Bean; G. Sriram

1980-01-01

157

In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the earliest days of transmission electron microscopy, microscopists have realized the potential of microscopy for studying\\u000a dynamic processes. Images recorded sequentially can be used to track the changes caused by deliberate actions, such as heating\\u000a or straining, or uncontrolled processes, such as beam damage. The class of experiments where a specimen is changed or acted\\u000a on while it remains

Frances M. Ross

158

Volume transmission and pain perception.  

PubMed

Volume transmission (VT) is the diffusion through the brain extracellular fluid of neurotransmitters released at points that may be remote from the target cells with the resulting activation of extrasynaptic receptors. VT appears to play multiple roles in the brain in normal and abnormal activity, brain plasticity and drug actions. The relevance of VT to pain perception has been explored in this review. PMID:12920309

Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto C; Bach-y-Rita, Paul

2003-08-01

159

Mosquito age and dengue transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online portal features a research project funded by The Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative to develop new strategies to control mosquitoes that transmit human disease. Specifically, the project is focused on a method to reduce dengue transmission using naturally occurring bacterial symbionts that reduce mosquito life span. The site includes a background of this work, participating research programs and researchers, project publications, current progress, news and events, and FAQs.

The Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative

160

Automatic radio-transmission monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System continuously monitors radio transmissions stored in memory. If spectrum deviates beyond present limits, alarm is tripped and spectrum is transferred to long-term storage for later analysis. Monitor can be useful in ensuring proper power level and spectral quality and in finding cause of failure. It might also be used to monitor radio-frequency interference or power levels of citizen's-band transmitters.

Bernstein, A. J.

1978-01-01

161

Localized transmission of electromagnetic energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel electromagnetic directed-energy pulse train (EDEPT) solutions of Maxwell's equations have been obtained. One particular solution, the modified-power-spectrum (MPS) pulse, will be described in detail. EDEPT's such as the MPS pulses, can be tailored to give localized energy transmission along a specified direction in space that is significantly improved over conventional diffraction-limited beams. Moreover, they represent fields that recover their

Richard W. Ziolkowski

1989-01-01

162

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

1983-01-01

163

Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

Kevin Bryan

2002-12-05

164

Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

We develop some new analytic bounds on transmission probabilities (and the related reflection probabilities and Bogoliubov coefficients) for generic one-dimensional scattering problems. To do so we rewrite the Schroedinger equation for some complicated potential whose properties we are trying to investigate in terms of some simpler potential whose properties are assumed known, plus a (possibly large) 'shift' in the potential. Doing so permits us to extract considerable useful information without having to exactly solve the full scattering problem.

Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.n [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

165

A transmission oscillator ultrasonic spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuous wave ultrasonic instrument capable of measuring very small changes in acoustic attenuation and phase velocity is described. This transmission oscillator ultrasonic spectrometer (TOUS) exhibits high sensitivity because it oscillates marginally. In spite of this high sensitivity, the TOUS system is relatively simple, compact, and inexpensive. These features suggest that the TOUS is suitable not only for precise laboratory measurements of the physical properties of materials, but also for field applications in nondestructive testing.

Conradi, M. S.; Miller, J. G.; Heyman, J. S.

1974-01-01

166

32 CFR 2001.46 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmission. 2001.46 Section 2001.46 National Defense Other Regulations Relating...CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.46 Transmission. (a) General....

2010-07-01

167

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Disclaimer policy. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... 6348 Contact CDC-INFO CMV Homepage Overview Overview-Spanish Transmission Transmission-Spanish Testing and Diagnosis Congenital CMV ...

168

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e) Transmit while on board vessels located on land unless authorized under a public coast station license....

2010-10-01

169

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e) Transmit while on board vessels located on land unless authorized under a public coast station license....

2013-10-01

170

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e) Transmit while on board vessels located on land unless authorized under a public coast station license....

2012-10-01

171

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e) Transmit while on board vessels located on land unless authorized under a public coast station license....

2011-10-01

172

Coiled transmission line pulse generators  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

2010-11-09

173

Simulation of Clutch Slipping Control of Automatic Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic transmission typically includes the following four categories: Hydraulic-mechanical Automatic Transmission (AT), Automated Mechanical Transmission (AMT), Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT), and Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT). AT has better driving comfort, simple operation, but a lower transmission efficiency, higher fuel consumption. In order to improve the transmission efficiency, in recent years, lock-up clutch are generally adopted in torque converter. However, the

Qian Lijun; Yang Nianjiong; Wu Daojun

2010-01-01

174

Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

Chaiko, Lev

1990-01-01

175

Infrastructure Relay Transmission With Cooperative MIMO  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infrastructure relay system that transfers information from a base station to a randomly located mobile station (MS) using fixed-location relay stations (RSs) is studied. Transmission rates are derived for serial, parallel, and hybrid relay transmissions, considering the utilization of RSs as a means to extend the dimensionality of a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) transmission. The derived transmission rate for the serial

Younsun Kim; Hui Liu

2008-01-01

176

Gas transmission through microporous membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes upon passage of the gas through active and non-active membranes by which way the effect of active elements on gas transmission rates could be examined. Probabilistic and mathematical models were proposed to predict gas transmission rates of such membranes and gas permeation experiments were simulated utilizing the proposed models. Modeling results were compared to experimental data and to macrolevel gas transmission models available in literature. The results were found to be in acceptable correlation with experiments for membranes with a well-known morphology. The pressure of the system, porosity and adsorption capacity of the materials, as well as size of the gas molecules and their interaction energies between the surfaces were found to be important parameters which affect permeability.

Turel, Tacibaht

2008-10-01

177

Terahertz transmission spectroscopy of chalcogenide glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz transmission of a chalcogenide family of glasses is reported. The glasses were processed using established methods for non-oxide glasses. Transmission through the samples was measured using a THz spectrometer. The transmission and optical properties of the glasses are summarized. The results show promise of these glasses for application as THz windows.

S. K. Sundaram; B. J. Riley; J. V. Crum

2008-01-01

178

Fault tolerance of data transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work defines quantitative indices of fault tolerance, i.e., properties of a data transmission system (DTS) that ensure effective data transmission in the presence of system-component failures. Fault tolerance is evaluated according to the mean time of the delivery or the probability of the nondelivery of a message to a DTS based on a data transmission network of general use.

G. I. Shakun; P. I. Trofimov; V. P. Altarev

1984-01-01

179

Parasite transmission: reconciling theory and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Arguably the most important and elusive component of host-parasite models is the transmission function. Considerable empirical and theoretical work has focused on determining the correct formulation of this function although, to date, there has been little attempt to combine these studies to develop general insights into how observed transmission rates affect host-parasite dynamics. 2. Here, estimates of transmission

A. Fenton; J. P. Fairbairn; R. Norman; P. J. Hudson

2002-01-01

180

How Financial Transmission Rights Curb Market Power  

E-print Network

PWP-049 How Financial Transmission Rights Curb Market Power Steven Stoft June 1997 This paper Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;How Financial Transmission Rights Curb that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all

California at Berkeley. University of

181

Engine brake control in automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an engine braking control for a transmission for an automotive vehicle having an engine, the transmission including an input member drivingly coupled to the engine and an output member subject to load from driving wheels of the automotive vehicle, the transmission also including a first rotary member, a second rotary member, a hydraulically operated clutch selectively establishing

K. Hayasaki; K. Sugano

1988-01-01

182

Advanced Power Transmission of the Future  

E-print Network

Electric power is a vital ingredient of modern society. This article is written to provide an insight into the physics and engineering that go into the transmission of electric power and its potential modernization. Topics covered will be Transmission and Distribution, Comparing Overhead and Underground Delivery, Pros and Cons of Underground Delivery, Superconducting Transmission, Cryorisistive Delivery, Hyperconductivity, and Metal-Plated Graphite Fibers.

Mario Rabinowitz

2003-04-19

183

Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

2013-01-16

184

Sound Transmission Through Dry Lined Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound transmission through a double wall with a masonry leaf and a lightweight leaf is examined by using statistical energy analysis (SEA). Some of the theory necessary to predict transmission is well documented and common to other forms of construction. Additional expressions are provided to account for transmission mechanisms specific to double walls. These are used in an SEA model to provide predicted data for comparison with measured results obtained from a wall tested in a transmission suite. Changes were made to the wall in order to examine the effect of placing absorbent quilt in the cavity and the effects of transmission across ties and battens bridging the cavity. The model generally gave good agreement with measured results and for each form of construction the important transmission paths were identified. These, though specific to the wall examined, do provide a general indication of the important transmission paths through this class of structure.

Wilson, R.; Craik, R. J. M.

1996-05-01

185

Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies  

SciTech Connect

In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

Porter, K.

1996-09-01

186

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, R.B.

1985-08-15

187

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

188

Atmospheric transmission computer program CP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

1974-01-01

189

Light transmission through polyethylene samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral calibration Hg(Ar) lamp and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser were employed to study the UV, VIS and IR light transmission through polyethylene samples, as pure and doped with Fe 2O 3 and carbon nanotubes. Optical measurements were performed in the spectral range between 200 nm and 800 nm. Measurements with 0.1% and 1% in weight of filler concentrations were investigated. The polymers' optical absorption coefficients, calculated from the experimental transmitted component, were tabulated at different wavelengths as a function of the analyzed samples. The radiation depth penetration was also evaluated.

Caridi, F.; Torrisi, L.; Visco, A. M.

2012-03-01

190

Transmission surface plasmon resonance microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a microscopy technique to image minute variations of optical properties at the interface of a metallic thin-film. This technique is based on an original transmission configuration of surface plasmon resonance sensors. It combines high diffraction-limited lateral resolution with unaltered refractive index sensitivity. Transmitted light is obtained by using near-field transducers positioned at the metal/dielectric interface to probe the propagative surface plasmon dispersion curve. This label-free technique can find applications in highly multiplexed molecular sensing or full-field surface microscopy. As an example, we show tomography images of silica nanometric patterns.

Loison, Olivier; Fort, Emmanuel

2013-09-01

191

Ultrasonic-Transmission Testing Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic-testing apparatus measures transmission through component under inspection. Includes hand-held ultrasonic transmitter placed on one side of component and ultrasonic receiver placed on other side. However, no need to hold or manually align receiving transducer after initial setup. Transmitter loosely inserted in magnetic assembly on one side, while receiver placed in another magnetic assembly on other side. Magnetic coupling keeps transmitter and receiver assemblies pressed against component and keeps receiver alligned with transmitter as transmitter scans across surface of component. Receiver moved to locations otherwise inaccessible.

Atkins, Victor Ray; Bouvier, Carl

1996-01-01

192

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards...322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards...the stereophonic pilot frequency in a transmission system...19 kHz ±2 Hz, must frequency modulate the main carrier...channel (biphonic) sound transmission,...

2010-10-01

193

Money and transmission of bacteria.  

PubMed

Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people's behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider. PMID:23985137

Gedik, Habip; Voss, Timothy A; Voss, Andreas

2013-01-01

194

History of wireless power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)] [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

195

Money and transmission of bacteria  

PubMed Central

Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people’s behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider. PMID:23985137

2013-01-01

196

Improving Regional Groundwater Models with Transmissivity Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic-conductivity estimates in groundwater-flow models typically are constrained by a range for each hydrogeologic unit. These often-times wide ranges are derived from interpretations of many aquifer tests binned by hydrogeologic unit. Uncertainty is added to these ranges where hydraulic-conductivity estimates derived from aquifer tests use contributing thicknesses that differ from simulated thicknesses in a numerical model. Transmissivity observations from individual aquifer tests constrain model calibration better than hydraulic-conductivity ranges assigned to hydrogeologic units because simulated transmissivity and aquifer-test results are compared directly. Transmissivity comparisons require that simulated thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities for the volume investigated by the aquifer test be extracted from a model and integrated into a simulated transmissivity. Transmissivity observations have been ignored primarily because sampling simulated transmissivities is mechanically painful from complex models. A suite of programs called T-COMP has been developed to sample simulated transmissivities easily from regional MODFLOW models. Transmissivities of model cells are sampled where drawdown exceeds a user-defined threshold. Sampled transmissivities of model cells are averaged within a layer and summed between layers. This computationally intensive process occurs in separate programs that are executed prior to model calibration. Simulated transmissivities can be sampled quickly during calibration because nodes and their fractional contributions have been defined.

Halford, K. J.

2013-12-01

197

Transmission line design for the lunar environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

How the mass, operating temperature, and efficiency of a transmission line operating on the moon are affected by its operating parameters, the lunar environment, and the choice of materials is examined. The key transmission line parameters which have an effect on mass, operating temperature, and efficiency are voltage, power loss, and waveform. The choice of waveform for transmission will be influenced by the waveform of the source and load, and therefore an analysis of both DC and AC transmission is necessary for a complete understanding of lunar power transmission. The data presented are for the DC case only; however, the discussion of the environmental effects and of material selection is pertinent to both AC and DC transmission. The operating voltage is shown to be a key parameter in transmission line design. The role efficiency plays in transmission line design is also examined. The analyses include above- and below-the-surface operation for both a vacuum-insulated, two-wire, transmission line, and a solid-dielectric-insulated, coaxial, transmission line.

Gaustad, Krista L.; Gordon, Lloyd B.

1990-01-01

198

Wireless transmission of ECG signal.  

PubMed

In this study, the ECG signal were measured as noiseless with Ag/AgCl electrodes, then converted digital data using pulse code modulation (PCM) technique. The digital data were then sent to receiver where it is in 433 MHz FM/FSK transmitter, which has 10 mW output power and 9.6 Kps transmission speed. At the receiver, the digital data were reconverted to analog signal to monitor and record on the PC with Sonic Foundry Sound Forge 6.0 program. The power spectrum of measured ECG signal was formed using Matlab program. As a result, the medical supporting system is realized for monitoring the ECG signal on PC of human with chronic heart disease in their living surroundings. PMID:16848136

Güler, Nihal Fatma; Fidan, U?ur

2006-06-01

199

Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

200

The transmission interface constraint problem  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission systems exhibit a number of complex constraints on their operation and usage. When a network is subject to a constraint that limits the amount of power that can be moved from one region to another, there is said to be an interface limit. The power systems literature gives no general treatment of the engineering-economics of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Particular aspects of interface limits are typically discussed in sophisticated technical detail, but the general engineering-economic trade-offs involved in relieving interface constraints have not been systematically addressed. We approach this problem in the spirit of a heuristic model. Such models are quite valuable under current industry conditions because they delineate technical opportunities and choices in situations where there may be conflicting views among competing parties and regulatory authorities. We organize and enumerate the choices, clarify the practical conditions that dictate the optimum in particular cases, and help to motivate the final choices made by planners.

Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.

1993-10-01

201

Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

1987-05-19

202

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28

203

Transmission of information at criticality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of information transmission in complex cooperative systems to prove that adaptivity rather than diffusion is the main source of information transport at criticality. We adopt two different cooperative models, the two-dimensional Decision Making Model (DMM), and the one-dimensional Flock Model (FM) inspired by the cooperation between birds. The criticality-induced consensus is intermittently broken by the occurrence of moments of high susceptibility, which we call free-will states. We construct a network A based on the DMM and FM that is perturbed by a similar network B. Some units of A, called lookout birds, follow the directions of the mean field generated by B, while the rest are blind to B. When both networks are at criticality a small percentage of lookout birds establish the synchronization between B and A as a result of the nonergodic nature of the free-will state dynamics.

Lukovi?, Mirko; Vanni, Fabio; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo

2014-12-01

204

FEL system for energy transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as the power source for transmission from Earth stations to space assets is discussed. Considerations of requirements including net power transmitted, of system reliability, of system availability, of costs, and of technical maturity are addressed to determine a reasonable development path to an optimal system. Various applications of transmitted power are examined such as supplementary power to communications satellites, orbit raising through the use of electric and thermal thrusters, and supplementary power to manned orbiters and space stations. It is seen that each of these applications leads to different stages of infrastructure development, and that a program following a near optimal development path can lead to a system that has justifiable investments for the services delivered at each stage past the initial technology demonstration.

Burke, R. J.; Curtin, M. S.; Lampel, M. C.; Cover, R. A.

1994-12-01

205

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

206

Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

1984-01-01

207

Active control of helicopter transmission noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of an effort to reduce helicopter transmission noise by 10 dB, using active methods, as part of the NASA-Lewis/U.S. Army Propulsion Directorate Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission technology integration and demonstration program. The transmission used as a test stand is that of the CH-47C forward rotor. Attention is presently given to the active control system's actuators, sensors, and control algorithms.

Spencer, R. H.; Burke, M. J.; Tye, G. W.

1991-01-01

208

Electricity transmission pricing: Contracts must reflect costs  

SciTech Connect

Pricing of transmission services in the open-access networks required for competition must take into account the three main costs of providing transmission services: costs of building capacity (including sunk costs); costs of marginal losses; and costs of congestion. This article sets out the main design elements of contracts for use of a transmission system and the basic methods of transmission pricing. It considers two methods of pricing transmission: `top-down` and `bottom-up`. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently established the principle that the terms and prices offered for transmission access must be comparable with those enjoyed by owners of the transmission system. Any comparison of terms must go beyond a simple consideration of the costs of building and maintaining lines. Furthermore, each method requires close links between prices for transmission and costs of generation. Attempts to set transmission prices without reflecting the appropriate costs of generation will destroy incentives for efficient use and development of the transmission system. Regulatory authorities around the world - national governments in Europe and Latin America, the European Commission, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and state public utility commissions in the U.S. - have not yet settled on a single view of transmission access. Several questions remain unanswered: should transmission access be provided on a purely voluntary basis, or must it be mandatory; are the terms of access a matter of law, or of individual concessions, or of negotiation between those involved; can the company which owns the network continue to own generation and/or trade in electricity?

Shuttleworth, G.

1994-12-01

209

Heterosexual Transmission of a Murine AIDS Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexual transmission of a murine leukemia virus mixture named LP-BM5 MuLV, which is known as the murine AIDS virus, was investigated. Our results indicated that the heterosexual transmission of LP-BM5 MuLV occurs in both directions with high frequency and that the frequencies of virus transmission in the cervix and penis are higher than those in other genital organs. The results

YOSHIAKI OKADA; ERI ABE; KATSUTOSHI KOMURO; TOSHIAKI MIZUOCHI

1998-01-01

210

Hybrid Transmission for Correlated MIMO Relay Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the capacity of a correlated MIMO channel, we propose a hybrid transmission (HT) scheme that mixes half-duplex decode-and-forward relaying transmission with direct transmission (DT). Precoding and decoding schemes are considered to convert the original relay channel into several parallel subchannels so that resource allocation can be easily performed. Simulation results show that significant capacity gain can be achieved

Xu Guang Ming; Dai Min; Dong Jie; He Jian Wei; Fang Xin Bin

2009-01-01

211

Quantitative Transmission-System-Reliability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative transmission-system reliability is a prerequisite in transmission-system planning and operation supplying industrial and commercial customer loads. A utility industry traditionally has relied on a set of deterministic criteria such as the widely used N - 1 criterion to guide transmission planning supplying all customer types, e.g., residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial, and sensitive high-tech electronic customers. The conventional deterministic planning

Ali Asraf Chowdhury; Don O. Koval

2010-01-01

212

RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

Ponchak, George E.

1999-01-01

213

Nuclear Generating Stations and Transmission Grid Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear generating stations have historically been susceptible to transmission system voltage excursions. When nuclear plants trip due to voltage excursions, the resulting loss of real and reactive power support can make grid events worse. New standards are being prepared which may help to improve nuclear plant and transmission system reliability. A brief historical perspective is provided. Another reliability issue is the fact that nuclear plants do not provide automatic generation control in response to frequency decay. As 28 new nuclear plants are being considered for connection to an already highly stressed transmission grid, consideration must be given to nuclear plant design features which will enhance, not degrade, transmission system reliability.

Kueck, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL] [ORNL

2007-01-01

214

The hidden value of transmission assets  

SciTech Connect

Numerous utilities have realized that they can do better with their transmission assets than neutering them into ISOs and have proposed the creation of for-profit transmission companies (Transcos). This would turn transmission assets into equity with higher risk but also returns potentially higher than the regulated cost of capital. This article's contribution to the ongoing debate is to show that Transcos constitute a simple and robust solution to transmission congestion problems that would otherwise jeopardize the advent of competitive power markets. Policymakers and regulators should therefore view favorably the emergence of for-profit, regulated transmission companies, and leave them with reasonable room to recover their cost and earn a fully compensatory return on investment. Regulatory benevolence is crucial for Transcos, for electric power transmission is arguably the ultimate regulated activity: significant economies of scale and wide-ranging network externalities (the infamous loop flows) make operation and management of the grid a natural monopoly that must be regulated. A significant share of the value at stake therefore hinges on the regulator's attitude towards the for-profit transmission company: if the regulator is favorable, she will leave enough room to recover the variable and capital costs. If she is unfavorable, the proposition is simply a non-starter. This article first builds a public policy argument in favor of transmission companies, then discusses the key success factors required to create significant value in transmission: regulatory prowess and superior network management.

Nasser, T.O. (McKinsey and Co., Washington, DC (United States))

1999-06-01

215

Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

John Svoboda

2011-04-01

216

Polarized light in turbid medium transmission characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the polarized light in the atmosphere, water and human tissue is more application. For polarized light in turbid medium of different integrated transmission characteristics, this paper adopts the mie scattering theory polarized light scattering method research in turbid medium, the transmission characteristics of polarized light in turbid medium is given in the model, the change law of polarization light intensity change. Finally based on the coherent polarization theory, USES the cross spectral density partially coherent light polarization characteristics of transmission in the transmission process changes to make predictions.

Fu, Qiang; Liu, Boyu; Zhan, Juntong; Duan, Jin; Mo, Chunhe

2014-11-01

217

Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line  

DOEpatents

Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

2014-12-30

218

75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...advantage over a nonincumbent transmission developer. Neither incumbent nor nonincumbent transmission facility developers should, as a result of a Commission...any of the following methods: Agency Web Site: http://www.ferc.gov....

2010-10-07

219

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2013-10-01

220

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2010-10-01

221

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2011-10-01

222

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2012-10-01

223

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2014-10-01

224

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

225

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

2002-01-01

226

Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

Posner, E. C.

1984-01-01

227

Transmission of airborne contaminants in airliner cabins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine flu had already affected 13,000 people in 48 countries within a month of its emergence in Mexico. The risk of disease transmission is augmented by the increasing mobility of people across the world. Nearly two billion people travel on commercial airliners each year. Therefore, knowledge about the transmission mechanism of viruses such as swine flu inside commercial airliner cabins

Sagnik Mazumdar

2009-01-01

228

Ecology and transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied ecological factors affecting transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis, the common large roundworm of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) to intermediate hosts. Infective eggs of B. procyonis are present at raccoon latrines, and these sites may be important in the transmission of this parasite to small vertebrates in forested areas. I found that raccoon latrines exhibited characteristics generally associated with

Laura Kristen Page

1998-01-01

229

Cross-species transmission of TSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents or prions induce fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and in other mammalian species. They are transmissible among their species of origin, but they can also cross the species barrier and induce infection and/or disease in other...

230

Compressed television transmission: A market survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

1981-01-01

231

Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through  

E-print Network

Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays of the resonance enhanced terahertz transmission. Our proof of principle device achieves an intensity modulation 02215, USA chenht@lanl.gov Abstract: We describe the electronic control of extraordinary terahertz

232

RESONANT TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION OF PLASMONIC SUBWAVELENGTH  

E-print Network

RESONANT TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION OF PLASMONIC SUBWAVELENGTH HOLE ARRAYS BY ABUL K. AZAD Bachelor fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May, 2006 #12;ii RESONANT TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION OF PLASMONIC SUBWAVELENGTH HOLE ARRAYS Thesis approved: Dr. Weili Zhang Thesis Advisor Dr. Alan

Oklahoma State University

233

SYLVATIC TRANSMISSION OF ARBOVIRUSES AMONG BORNEAN ORANGUTANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild populations of nonhuman primates live in regions of sylvatic arbovirus transmission. To assess the status of arbovirus transmission in Bornean forests and the susceptibility of wild orangutans to arboviral infection, blood samples of wild orangutans, semi-captive orangutans, and humans were examined. Samples were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test for antibodies to viruses representing three families (Flaviviridae, Alphaviridae, and

NATHAN D. WOLFE; ANNELISA M. KILBOURN; WILLIAM B. KARESH; HASAN A. RAHMAN; EDWIN J. BOSI; BRUCE C. CROPP; MAHEDI ANDAU; ANDREW SPIELMAN; DUANE J. GUBLER

2001-01-01

234

Computer Program for Automatic Transmission Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manual development and economic evaluation of many alternate, long-range transmission system expansions represents a tedious and difficult task. To speed this planning process, a computer program has been developed to plan automatically the new transmission facilities needed to meet a particular generator addition schedule. The program uses an economic dispatch to allocate generation, and a d-c power flow to

J. L. Whysong; R. Uram; H. E. Brown; C. W. King; C. A. Desalvo

1962-01-01

235

An automatic transmission for bicycles: a simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design of an automatic transmission for bicycles was simulated. A sensitivity analysis found most environmental and bicycle variables had little effect but cycling velocity was very important while pedal rpm and gradient of the ground had some effect. The new design transmission therefore emphasizes velocity, pedal rpm and gradient of the ground when selecting the optimum gear ratios.

Huai-Ching Chien; Ching-Huan Tseng

2004-01-01

236

Nylon degradation with automatic transmission fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nylon is used as a material in the design of various components of automatic transmissions, namely pump rotor guides and thrust washers. These nylon components must be compatible with automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Field and laboratory cycling testing of experimental ATFs showed that nylon components in contact with ATF underwent color changes and exhibited loss of tensile strength. A laboratory

Pamela L Lann; Thomas S Derevjanik; James W Snyder; William C Ward

2000-01-01

237

Chemical processes for energy storage and transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical reaction, adsorption of a gas in a solid, or adsorption of gas in a liquid solvent can be used to solve problems in conservation, storage and transmission of energy. Possible applications of such processes are chemical heat pumps, cooling systems, heat transformers, chemical heat pipes, separation, storage and transmission of hydrogen. In the present paper, the principal chemical processes

G. Cacciola; N. Giordano

1986-01-01

238

Continuously variable transmission apparatus for automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuously variable transmission apparatus is described for a vehicle having a slip type clutch disposed between a drive shaft of an engine and an input shaft of a continuously variable transmission mechanism. The apparatus comprises a torque detecting device to detect torque of the engine, an engine speed detecting device to detect rotational speed of the engine, an output

T. Hiramatsu; B. Takamiya

1987-01-01

239

Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

240

Robust image transmission strategies for fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a robust still-image transmission scheme and show its performance when used on a frequency flat fading channel. By following a Joint Source- Channel Coding approach, it is shown that image transmission with good visual quality is possible even with BER as high as 4%. Furthermore, this scheme only requires 26% redundancy for

Hervé BOEGLEN; Olivier HAEBERLE; C. Chatellier

2008-01-01

241

Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

2004-01-01

242

Avian influenza biology and disease transmission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

243

Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations. PMID:24727504

Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

2014-01-01

244

Broadband Resonant-Type Metamaterial Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, it is shown that, contrary to previous assumptions, the broadband characteristics of metamaterial transmission lines are not exclusive of the so called CL loaded composite right\\/left handed (CRLH) structures. In the balance condition, the typical frequency gap between the left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) transmission bands of these CRLH lines collapses, the characteristic impedance varies

Marta Gil; Jordi Bonache; Jordi Selga; Joan García-García; Ferran Martín

2007-01-01

245

Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment

Qun Zhou

2011-01-01

246

Hydraulic control system for vehicular automatic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydraulic control system for the automatic transmission of a vehicle wherein the transmission includes a plurality of torque transfer devices which can be engaged and disengaged in response to fluid pressure provided by a pump, the sequence of engagement and disengagement of the torque transfer devices being determined by a pre-programmed, on-board computer so as to

Lentz

1991-01-01

247

Analytical transmission electron microscopy in materials science  

SciTech Connect

Microcharacterization of materials on a scale of less than 10 nm has been afforded by recent advances in analytical transmission electron microscopy. The factors limiting accurate analysis at the limit of spatial resolution for the case of a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are examined in this paper.

Fraser, H.L.

1980-01-01

248

Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in

A. Marm Kilpatrick; Peter Daszak; Matthew J. Jones; Peter P. Marra; Laura D. Kramer

2006-01-01

249

Automatic transmission with add-on overdrive  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overdrive unit is described for use with an automatic transmission, the transmission having an extended output shaft extending rearwardly therefrom through the forward open end of an overdrive outer casing and aligned on the longitudinal axis thereof, the overdrive unit comprising: a planetary gear set concentrically disposed about the longitudinal axis and including a sun gear, an annulus gear

R. E. Eastman; S. J. Woodcock

1989-01-01

250

A market mechanism for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

1996-01-01

251

Contract networks for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contract network extends the concept of a contract path to address the problem of loop flow and congestion in electric power transmission systems. A contract network option provides an internally consistent framework for assigning long-term capacity rights to a complicated electric transmission network. The contract network respects the special conditions induced by Kirchoff's Laws; accommodates thermal, voltage, and contingency

William W. Hogan

1992-01-01

252

Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption

H. A. Buckmaster; C. H. Hansen

1985-01-01

253

Analysis of video transmission over lossy channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the overall mean squared error (MSE) in hybrid video coding is presented for the case of error prone transmission. Our model covers the complete transmission system including the rate-distortion performance of the video encoder, forward error correction, interleaving, and the effect of error concealment and interframe error propagation at the video decoder. The channel model used

Klaus Stuhlmüller; Niko Färber; Michael Link; Bernd Girod

2000-01-01

254

TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick  

E-print Network

TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick Escuela de Ingenier'a Pontificia Universidad Cat--lica de Chile Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile I INTRODUCTION Transmission open access is receiving developed (Chile, Great Britain, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, Peroe, Colombia) [4]. The concept used

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

255

Through air transmission for ultrasonic nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical design and experimental evaluation of a prototype through air ultrasonic inspection system are described. It is based around a ceramic-epoxy composite transducer configuration that is tailored specifically for through transmission scanning in air. A simulation model is used for the design of transmission and reception devices and the main factors influencing transduction performance are discussed with respect to

D. Reilly; G. Hayward

1991-01-01

256

Method of calibrating clutches in transmissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a microprocessor controlling a shuttle shift transmission programmed to effect a calibration of the final drive clutches in the transmission so that the microprocessor can efficiently effect engagement of each respective clutch by applying the proper hydraulic pressure to cause proper engagement thereof. This method of calibrating the final drive clutches in the transmission includes braking the output shaft of the transmission so that any engagement of the selected final drive clutch being calibrated will cause a load to be applied to the engine. The hydraulic pressure is then incrementally increased until the engine RPM's decrease because of the load being placed on the engine. The value of this engagement hydraulic pressure is stored in the microprocessor for use when effecting engagement of the selected clutch during operation of the transmission. Service indicators are programmed into the microprocessor should the selected clutch not be capable of being calibrated.

Bulgrien, G.H.

1991-02-05

257

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct. and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

258

Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

Hebert, L. M.

1984-01-01

259

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

1992-07-01

260

Shift control mechanism for a manual transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a shift control mechanism for a manual transmission having a transmission gear housing and a manual shift selecting lever. It comprises a shift selecting shaft mounted within the transmission gear housing for rotation and axial translation in response to selective manipulation of the shift selecting lever; a shift sleeve supported from the transmission gear housing; an actuating member secured to the shift selecting shaft for rotation and axial translation with the shift selecting shaft; synchronizer assemblies; the actuating member individually operating the synchronizer assemblies in response to selected manipulation of the shift selecting lever; alignment guide means interactive between the shift selecting shaft and the transmission gear housing to permit axial translation of the shift selecting shaft only when the shift selecting shaft has been rotated to align a locator means with a locating means.

Gugin, D.G.

1991-08-06

261

Broadband Transmission Loss Due to Reverberant Excitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise transmission characteristics of candidate curved aircraft sidewall panel constructions is examined analytically using finite element models of the selected panel geometries. The models are validated by experimental modal analyses and transmission loss testing. The structural and acoustic response of the models are then examined when subjected to random or reverberant excitation, the simulation of which is also discussed. For a candidate curved honeycomb panel, the effect of add-on trim panel treatments is examined. Specifically, two different mounting configurations are discussed and their effect on the transmission loss of the panel is presented. This study finds that the add-on acoustical treatments do improve on the primary structures transmission loss characteristics, however, much more research is necessary to draw any valid conclusions about the optimal configuration for the maximum noise transmission loss. This paper describes several directions for the extension of this work.

Barisciano, Lawrence P. Jr.

1999-01-01

262

Network modeling of BVD transmission.  

PubMed

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. PMID:22325043

Tinsley, Mark; Lewis, Fraser I; Brülisauer, Franz

2012-01-01

263

Network modeling of BVD transmission  

PubMed Central

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. PMID:22325043

2012-01-01

264

High pressure gas transmission compressor  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure gas transmission compressor is described for admitting gas at a suction inlet and discharging gas at increased pressure from a discharge outlet comprising: a block-like compressor housing having a substantially horizontal elongated smooth bore cylindrical cylinder extending longitudinally therethrough; cylindrical piston slidably received for reciprocating movement within the cylinder; a pair of vertically extending spaced valve housings positioned on each side of the cylinder and formed within the compressor housing, each of the valve housings enclosing a vertically oriented hollow elongated valve chamber positioned so that the upper and lower ends of each of the chambers extend above and below, respectively, the cylinder, the valve chambers being parallel to each other such that the center line of the cylinder is perpendicular to and non-intersecting with the center lines of the valve chambers; spaced openings extending through the side walls of the cylinder; and a gas passageway connecting each of the openings with one of the valve chambers.

Deminski, R.M.

1987-04-28

265

Stress Transmission within the Cell  

PubMed Central

An outstanding problem in cell biology is how cells sense mechanical forces and how those forces affect cellular functions. During past decades, it has become evident that the deformable cytoskeleton (CSK), an intracellular network of various filamentous biopolymers, provides a physical basis for transducing mechanical signals into biochemical responses. To understand how mechanical forces regulate cellular functions, it is necessary to first understand how the CSK develops mechanical stresses in response to applied forces, and how those stresses are propagated through the CSK where various signaling molecules are immobilized. New experimental techniques have been developed to quantify cytoskeletal mechanics, which together with new computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models for describing mechanics of living cells. In this article, we discuss current understanding of cell biomechanics by focusing on the biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for the development and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell and their effect on cellular functions. We compare and contrast various theories and models of cytoskeletal mechanics, emphasizing common mechanisms that those theories are built upon, while not ignoring irreconcilable differences. We highlight most recent advances in the understanding of mechanotransduction in the cytoplasm of living cells and the central role of the cytoskeletal prestress in propagating mechanical forces along the cytoskeletal filaments to activate cytoplasmic enzymes. It is anticipated that advances in cell mechanics will help developing novel therapeutics to treat pulmonary diseases like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23737186

Stamenovi?, Dimitrije; Wang, Ning

2014-01-01

266

Gear assembly for automobile transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gear assembly including a pair of driving and driven gears permanently in meshing engagement with each other to provide a torque transmission therebetween. The driven gear is formed at one side thereof with a boss portion, and an additional gear axially slidable and rotatable on the boss portion of the driven gear and is permanently in meshing engagement with the driving gear to rotate at a gear ratio different from that of the driving and driven gears, additional gear is also resiliently in contact with a synchronizer mechanism assembled adjaecnt to the additional gear and having a spline piece fixed to the boss portion of the driven gear. The improvement wherein a toothed portion of the driven gear is formed at one end thereof with an annual stepped portion for provision of a predetermined annular gap between the additional gear and the one end face of the toothed portion of the driven gear. The resilient means is a waveshaped ring spring arranged in surrounding relationship with the boss portion of the driven gear and is engaged at its one end face with the additional gear and at its other end face with the spline piece of the synchronizer mechanism.

Ikemoto, K.; Tera Kura, Y.; Miyake, T.

1986-03-25

267

Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

2004-01-01

268

NASA transmission research and its probable effects on helicopter transmission design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmissions studied for application to helicopters in addition to the more conventional geared transmissions include hybrid (traction/gear), bearingless planetary, and split torque transmissions. Research is being performed to establish the validity of analysis and computer codes developed to predict the performance, efficiency, life, and reliability of these transmissions. Results of this research should provide the transmission designer with analytical tools to design for minimum weight and noise with maximum life and efficiency. In addition, the advantages and limitations of drive systems as well as the more conventional systems will be defined.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

1983-01-01

269

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

270

High Transmission through Sharp Bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate highly efficient transmission of light around sharp corners in photonic band-gap waveguides. Numerical simulations reveal complete transmission at certain frequencies, and very high transmission \\\\(>95%\\\\) over wide frequency ranges. High transmission is observed even for 90° bends with zero radius of curvature, with a maximum transmission of 98% as opposed to 30% for analogous conventional dielectric waveguides. We

Attila Mekis; J. C. Chen; I. Kurland; Shanhui Fan; Pierre R. Villeneuve; J. D. Joannopoulos

1996-01-01

271

New insights in cysticercosis transmission.  

PubMed

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

2014-10-01

272

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

273

Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission  

SciTech Connect

For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2011-11-10

274

Gear synchronizer for power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a synchronizer assembly comprising a gear member rotatable on a transmission shaft, an externally splined spline piece, with a conical portion formed at one side thereof, mounted on a hub portion of the gear member for rotating therewith. An externally splined synchronizer ring is mounted on the conical portion of the spline piece for frictional engagement therewith and an externally splined hub member is mounted on the shaft for rotation therewith. A clutch sleeve encircles the hub member and has an internally splined portion in continual engagement with the external splines of the hub member and axially shiftable toward and away from the spline piece to be engaged with the external splines of the synchronizer ring and the spline piece. Circumferentially spaced strut keys are assembled with the inner circumference of the clutch sleeve and are loaded radially outwardly into engagement with the clutch sleeve to abut against and urge the synchronizer ring toward the spline piece in shifting operation of the clutch sleeve. The improvement described here is wherein the externally splined portion of the synchronizer ring is formed smaller in diameter than the externally splined portion of the spline piece, and wherein the internally splined portion of the clutch sleeve includes a first set of internal splines engageable with the external splines of the synchronizer ring and a second set of internal splines engageable with the external splines of the spline piece. The first set of internal splines is formed smaller in axial length and larger in radial length than the second set of internal splines and is arranged to be brought into engagement with an end surface of the spline piece in shifting operation of the clutch sleeve toward the spline piece.

Ikemoto, K.; Terakura, Y.

1986-12-16

275

Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

Klop, Richard J.

276

Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently a national push to create a smarter electric grid; introducing new technologies that will create a more controllable and flexible grid is part of the smart grid concept and integral to its success. The full control of transmission assets are not currently built into electric energy dispatch optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a straightforward way to leverage grid controllability: to make better use of the existing system and meet growing demand with existing infrastructure. Previous research has shown that transmission switching as a corrective mechanism can help relieve line overloading, voltage violations, etc. However, there has been limited focus on the use of transmission switching as a means to improve the economic efficiency of the network by incorporating the control of transmission assets into the overall economic dispatch problem. This research discusses the ways that the modeling of flexible transmission assets can benefit the multi-trillion dollar electric industry. It presents and analyzes novel formulations by which the operator can incorporate this flexibility into the economic dispatch formulation. This research focuses on modeling transmission assets so that they can be temporarily taken out of service, i.e., by opening breakers, or kept in service, i.e., by keeping the breakers closed. By incorporating this control into the network optimization problem, this provides the ability for the operator to consider the state of a transmission line as a decision variable instead of treating it as a static asset, which is the current practice today. The possible benefits demonstrated from this research indicate that the benefits to society are substantial. On the contrary, the benefits to individual market participants are uncertain; some will benefit and other will not. Consequently, this research also analyzes the impacts that optimal transmission switching may have on market participants as well as the policy implications. Methods to improve the solution time of this difficult problem are discussed as well.

Hedman, Kory Walter

277

Thermoelectricity and transmission eigenchannels in buckyball junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission through nanoscale junctions consisting of a single Buckminsterfullerene molecule between two Pt or Au electrodes is investigated in the Coulomb blockade regime using the nonequilibrium Green's function approach. The Green's function of the buckyball is calculated in the isolated-resonance approximation, including the degenerate HOMO and LUMO orbitals. Electron-electron interactions were included in a constant-interaction model derived from ?-electron effective field theory. For junctions with Pt electrodes, we find two transmission channels (despite the 5-fold degenerate HOMO and 3-fold degenerate LUMO resonances) and a positive thermopower. For Au electrodes, the thermopower is strongly affected by quantum interference, and we find just one transmission channel.

Stefferson, Michael; Hudson, Jarred; Barr, Joshua; Bergfield, Justin; Stafford, Charles

2012-02-01

278

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

279

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)] [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1995-01-01

280

Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

Jake P Gentle

2012-08-01

281

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...paragraph (e), for public utilities that join a Transmission Organization, if the...otherwise allow if the public utility did not join a Transmission Organization. The Commission...transmitting utilities or electric utilities that join a Transmission Organization the...

2010-04-01

282

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section...Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An...one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the...

2013-10-01

283

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section...Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An...one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the...

2011-10-01

284

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section...Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An...one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the...

2014-10-01

285

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section...Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An...one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the...

2012-10-01

286

EMBEDDED FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMATIC CHANNEL EQUALIZATION AFTER DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS  

E-print Network

EMBEDDED FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMATIC CHANNEL EQUALIZATION AFTER DIGITAL TRANSMISSIONS Carlos for automatic adaptation of channels equalizers after digital data transmission is presented. Inter-line during transmission and no reference signal is required. The presented methodology was validated

Verleysen, Michel

287

Energy Optimal Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

. Keywords: Sensor networks, Markov channel, automatic repeat request (ARQ), transmission scheduler. I1 Energy Optimal Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks Rahul Srivastava, Student packet transmission attempts at each node due to channel dynamics and interference. Therefore

Koksal, Can Emre

288

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583...PARTS CONTENT LABELING § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. ...transmission for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information, the...

2010-10-01

289

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction...CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line...

2012-01-01

290

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction...CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line...

2010-01-01

291

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction...CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line...

2011-01-01

292

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction...CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line...

2014-01-01

293

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction...CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line...

2013-01-01

294

47 CFR 73.1350 - Transmission system operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73...Stations § 73.1350 Transmission system operation...1213 regarding antenna tower lighting, and § 73.69...73.1680. (g) The transmission system must be...

2010-10-01

295

Two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system.  

PubMed

This Letter proposes and demonstrates a two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission system employing interleavers to deliver intensity-modulated CATV/phase-modulated RoF/intensity-remodulated 16-QAM-OFDM signals over two 20 km SMF links. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that interleavers have been employed in two-way lightwave subcarrier transmission systems. The downstream light is successfully intensity-remodulated with a 16-QAM-OFDM signal for uplink transmission. We obtained excellent performance from the CNR/CSO/CTB/BER for CATV/RoF/16-QAM-OFDM signal transmissions. The proposed systems offer impressive performance features to deliver hybrid CATV/RoF/16-QAM-OFDM signals. PMID:24686588

Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lin, Chun-Yu; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Jhang, Tai-Wei

2014-04-01

296

Transmission scheduling with deadline and throughput constraints  

E-print Network

Today wireless networks are increasingly used to perform applications with Quality of Service constraints (QoS) such as delay, delivery ratio, and channel reliability. Especially, as demand for real-time transmissions ...

Kim, Kyu Seob

2013-01-01

297

The Global Transmission Network of HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression. PMID:24151309

Wertheim, Joel O.; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.; Hepler, N. Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Richman, Douglas D.; Smith, Davey M.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

2014-01-01

298

Pneumococcal Disease Risk Factors and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Risk Factors & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. Children at Risk for Pneumococcal Disease Children at higher risk for ...

299

40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted,...

2010-07-01

300

Synthesis of Lumped Transmission-Line Analogs  

E-print Network

Transmission lines and their lumped approximating networks have long been incorporated into radio-frequency power amplifiers to improve efficiency and shape circuit waveforms and are beginning to perform a similar roles ...

Phinney, Joshua W.

301

Load-resistant coaxial transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

2006-01-03

302

Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-01-03

303

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

304

Transmission character of general function photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), whose refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), whose structure grows from two mediums A and B, with different constant refractive indexes na and nb. Based on the Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums A and B, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index functions, which are different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing; Ba, Nuo; Hua, Zhong; Yin, Xin-Guo

2012-08-01

305

BARRIERS TO THE TRANSMISSION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The multiple barrier concept is applied by public health professionals as they attempt to prevent waterborne transmission of communicable diseases. This chapter discusses two water treatment techniques, filtration and disinfection, that are commonly used to provide barriers to di...

306

Terahertz and millimeter wave transmission of soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission spectra were measured over the range 90-140 GHz and 300-4200 GHz for 20 soil samples that span a number of soil orders that have extensive worldwide distribution. A vector network analyzer equipped with 16 degree horn antennas covered the spectral range 90-140 GHz. Transmission measurements were also taken for some organic materials in the 90-140 GHz range. A Fourier spectrometer equipped with Hg arc lamp, pellicle beamsplitter, and Si bolometer collected transmission spectra over the range 300 to 4200 GHz. Transmittance ranged from 10-7 to almost 1. In all cases, transmission drops to zero for wavelengths shorter than the characteristic particle size of the sample as a consequence of scattering. In samples of mixed particle size, low transmittance in the 90-140 GHz range was found to be caused by the coarse component. This work is relevant to mine detection using THz and millimeter wave (mmW) radiation.

Du Bosq, Todd W.; Peale, Robert E.; Weeks, Arthur; Jardine, Phil; Stewart, Melanie; Grantham, Jeffrey; Dillery, Daniel; Lee, Don; Muh, David; Boreman, Glenn

2005-03-01

307

Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

Robinson, W. J., Jr.

1968-01-01

308

INVESTIGATION Genome Scans for Transmission Ratio  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION Genome Scans for Transmission Ratio Distortion Regions in Mice Joaquim Casellas,*,,1, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8521, Departments of Medicine, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics and Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908

Yandell, Brian S.

309

Transmission Issues and Power Exchanges in Texas  

E-print Network

to build. This paper presents a historical background on the development of the transmission system and describes the problems of assessing the impact and properly pricing certain bulk power transactions. In addition, it briefly describes the Electro-Magnetic...

Hughes, H. L.

310

Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.  

PubMed

Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue. PMID:25498979

Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

2015-02-01

311

Airborne transmission of disease in hospitals  

PubMed Central

Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is an important public health issue with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality, over the last 5 years. Disease can be transmitted by air (over large distances), by direct/indirect contact or a combination of both routes. While contact transmission of disease forms the majority of HAI cases, transmission through the air is harder to control, but one where the engineering sciences can play an important role in limiting the spread. This forms the focus of this themed volume. In this paper, we describe the current hospital environment and review the contributions from microbiologists, mechanical and civil engineers, and mathematicians to this themed volume on the airborne transmission of infection in hospitals. The review also points out some of the outstanding scientific questions and possible approaches to mitigating transmission. PMID:19828499

Eames, I.; Tang, J. W.; Li, Y.; Wilson, P.

2009-01-01

312

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, tr...

313

Transmission Expansion Planning with Re-design  

E-print Network

‡CEPEL, Electric Energy Research Center, Eletrobrás Group. ... transmission network to operate correctly for a given set of generation values, computed apriori ... model with re-design when considering (N ? 1) security constraints, some ...

2010-05-17

314

Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities  

E-print Network

strict requirements on system security. The optimization results could suggest operating procedures which Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Coordination of Transmission Line

315

Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

Dietz, R. H.

1980-01-01

316

Continuously variable transmission apparatus for automobile  

SciTech Connect

A continuously variable transmission apparatus is described for a vehicle having a slip type clutch disposed between a drive shaft of an engine and an input shaft of a continuously variable transmission mechanism. The apparatus comprises a torque detecting device to detect torque of the engine, an engine speed detecting device to detect rotational speed of the engine, an output shaft speed detecting device to detect rotational speed of an output shaft of the slip type clutch, a vehicle speed detecting device to detect running speed of the vehicle, a slip clutch control device, a continuously variable transmission mechanism control device, and an electronic control device to control the continuously variable transmission mechanism and the slip type clutch according to signals from the detecting devices.

Hiramatsu, T.; Takamiya, B.

1987-05-19

317

Marketing Plan for Transmission Planning Services  

E-print Network

to grow the company profitably. Based on market analysis and developed plans, it is recommended that Consultation Company invest $14,000 initially in marketing costs to expand the company’s service markets in transmission planning. This marketing plan...

Tu, Linh

2006-12-15

318

Neuromotor Transmissibility of Horizontal Seatpan Vibration  

E-print Network

Exposure to occupational whole body vibration (WBV) is associated with low back pain disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and degeneration of spine. Transmission of vibration to the neuromotor system may play a role in the etiology...

Channamallu, Raghu Ram

2007-12-16

319

Transmission modes and the evolution of virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of evolutionary principles to epidemiological problems indicates that cultural characteristics influence the evolution\\u000a of parasite virulence by influencing the success of disease transmission from immobilized, infected hosts. This hypothesis\\u000a is supported by positive correlations between virulence and transmission by biological vectors, water, and institutional attendants.\\u000a The general evolutionary argument is then applied to the causes and consequences of increased

Paul W. Ewald

1991-01-01

320

Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

Srivastava, Santosh K.

1989-01-01

321

Trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce.  

PubMed

I use data from the 1973-1996 NORC General Social Survey to examine trends in the intergenerational transmission of divorce, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. The rate of divorce transmission declined by almost 50% in the study period. This result was essentially unchanged by statistical controls for various personal and family background differences between respondents. PMID:10472505

Wolfinger, N H

1999-08-01

322

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

323

Improvements in Fatigue Evaluations of Helicopter Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Helicopter transmission is a critical assembly which significantly contributes to helicopter performance, life cycle costs\\u000a and safety. Any improvement in fatigue evaluation can therefore give relevant benefits to the customer. AgustaWestland and\\u000a Politecnico di Milano have carried out several research and development activities which can be considered a comprehensive\\u000a project toward improved fatigue evaluation of transmissions.

Ugo Mariani; Rosanna Molinaro; Sergio Sartori; Giuseppe Gasparini; Carlo Gorla

324

An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.  

SciTech Connect

References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

1994-08-01

325

Laser transmission through thin cirrus clouds.  

PubMed

A near-infrared airborne-laser transmission model for thin cirrus clouds has been developed on the basis of the successive-order-of-scattering approach to account for multiple scattering by randomly and horizontally oriented ice crystals associated with an aircraft-target system. Direct transmission and transmission due to multiple scattering are formulated specifically for this geometric system, in which scattering and absorption associated with aerosols, water vapor, and air are accounted for. A number of sensitivity experiments have been performed for investigation of the effect of aircraft-target position, cirrus cloud optical depth, and ice crystal size on laser transmission for tactical applications. We show that transmission contributions produced by orders of scattering higher than 1 are small and can be neglected. The possibility of horizontal orientation of ice crystals can enhance transmission of laser beams in the aircraft-target geometry. Transmitted energy is strongly dependent on the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the target and on the cloud optical depth as well as on whether the cloud is above or below the aircraft. PMID:18350081

Liou, K N; Takano, Y; Ou, S C; Johnson, M W

2000-09-20

326

Low voltage transmission electron microscopy of graphene.  

PubMed

The initial isolation of graphene in 2004 spawned massive interest in this two-dimensional pure sp(2) carbon structure due to its incredible electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal effects. This in turn led to the rapid development of various characterization tools for graphene. Examples include Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, the one tool with the greatest prowess for characterizing and studying graphene is the transmission electron microscope. State-of-the-art (scanning) transmission electron microscopes enable one to image graphene with atomic resolution, and also to conduct various other characterizations simultaneously. The advent of aberration correctors was timely in that it allowed transmission electron microscopes to operate with reduced acceleration voltages, so that damage to graphene is avoided while still providing atomic resolution. In this comprehensive review, a brief introduction is provided to the technical aspects of transmission electron microscopes relevant to graphene. The reader is then introduced to different specimen preparation techniques for graphene. The different characterization approaches in both transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy are then discussed, along with the different aspects of electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The use of graphene for other electron microscopy approaches such as in-situ investigations is also presented. PMID:25408379

Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zhao, Jiong; Gorantla, Sandeep Madhukar; Martinez, Ignacio Guillermo Gonzalez; Wiedermann, Jerzy; Lee, Changgu; Eckert, Juergen; Rummeli, Mark Hermann

2015-02-01

327

Graphene-supported tunable extraordinary transmission.  

PubMed

By depositing a graphene layer on the metallic film with subwavelength hole arrays, the tunable extraordinary transmission property based on the metal-dielectrics-graphene (MDG) structure has been investigated in the terahertz (THz) and near-infrared (NIR) regimes. The influences of operation frequency, composed materials, and the Fermi level of the graphene layer have been taken into account. The results show that by varying the Fermi level of the graphene layer, the transmission of the MDG structure can be tuned in a wide range and the modulation depth of the peak value of the transmission can reach more than 50%. But the tunable mechanisms in the THz and NIR regimes are quite different. In the infrared (THz) regime, the graphene behaves like the dielectric (metallic) layer; its dielectric constant decreases (increases) with the increase of Fermi level, resulting in the transmission increasing (decreasing). Compared with the metallic structure, the transmission of the semiconductor structure can also be modulated by using the doping or varying temperature; its peak position can also be changed in a much broader range. The results are very useful to understand the mechanism of the graphene plasmonic devices and to design novel filters, switchers, modulators, and sensors. PMID:25060732

He, Xiaoyong; Lu, Hongxia

2014-08-15

328

Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

Zhou, Qun

2011-12-01

329

Graphene-supported tunable extraordinary transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By depositing a graphene layer on the metallic film with subwavelength hole arrays, the tunable extraordinary transmission property based on the metal-dielectrics-graphene (MDG) structure has been investigated in the terahertz (THz) and near-infrared (NIR) regimes. The influences of operation frequency, composed materials, and the Fermi level of the graphene layer have been taken into account. The results show that by varying the Fermi level of the graphene layer, the transmission of the MDG structure can be tuned in a wide range and the modulation depth of the peak value of the transmission can reach more than 50%. But the tunable mechanisms in the THz and NIR regimes are quite different. In the infrared (THz) regime, the graphene behaves like the dielectric (metallic) layer; its dielectric constant decreases (increases) with the increase of Fermi level, resulting in the transmission increasing (decreasing). Compared with the metallic structure, the transmission of the semiconductor structure can also be modulated by using the doping or varying temperature; its peak position can also be changed in a much broader range. The results are very useful to understand the mechanism of the graphene plasmonic devices and to design novel filters, switchers, modulators, and sensors.

He, Xiaoyong; Lu, Hongxia

2014-08-01

330

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01

331

Paternal transmission of congenital myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of paternally transmitted congenital myotonic dystrophy (DM). The proband is a 23 year old, mentally retarded male who suffers severe muscular weakness. He presented with respiratory and feeding difficulties at birth. His two sibs suffer from childhood onset DM. Their late father had the adult type of DM, with onset around 30 years. Only six other cases of paternal transmission of congenital DM have been reported recently. We review the sex related effects on transmission of congenital DM. Decreased fertility of males with adult onset DM and contraction of the repeat upon male transmission contribute to the almost absent occurrence of paternal transmission of congenital DM. Also the fathers of the reported congenitally affected children showed, on average, shorter CTG repeat lengths and hence less severe clinical symptoms than the mothers of children with congenital DM. We conclude that paternal transmission of congenital DM is rare and preferentially occurs with onset of DM past 30 years in the father. PMID:9391889

de Die-Smulders, C E; Smeets, H J; Loots, W; Anten, H B; Mirandolle, J F; Geraedts, J P; Höweler, C J

1997-11-01

332

Transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring.  

PubMed

We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU). This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT), provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT) and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT) are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association. PMID:25535968

Wei, Qinyu; Chen, Yuanli; Zeng, Zheng; Shu, Chang; Long, Lu; Lu, Jianhua; Huang, Yangxin; Yin, Ping

2014-01-01

333

Transmission/Disequilibrium Tests Incorporating Unaffected Offspring  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU). This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT), provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT) and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT) are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association. PMID:25535968

Zeng, Zheng; Shu, Chang; Long, Lu; Lu, Jianhua; Huang, Yangxin; Yin, Ping

2014-01-01

334

Automatic transmission with add-on overdrive  

SciTech Connect

An overdrive unit is described for use with an automatic transmission, the transmission having an extended output shaft extending rearwardly therefrom through the forward open end of an overdrive outer casing and aligned on the longitudinal axis thereof, the overdrive unit comprising: a planetary gear set concentrically disposed about the longitudinal axis and including a sun gear, an annulus gear and a carrier with fore and aft carrier rings supporting a plurality of planetary pinion gears in meshing engagement with the sun gear and the annulus gear, the aft carrier ring concentrically engaged with the transmission output shaft; and a one-way clutch including inner and outer concentrically disposed races with coupling means located therebetween, the one-way clutch positioned rearward of the aft carrier ring, the annulus gear having a rearwardly projecting portion surrounding a portion the outer race concentrically engaged therewith, the inner race concentrically engaged with the transmission output shaft and the outer race concentrically engaged with an overdrive output shaft disposed coaxial with the transmission output shaft.

Eastman, R.E.; Woodcock, S.J.

1989-01-17

335

Familial Transmission of Mood Disorders: Convergence and Divergence with Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Both mood disorder and suicidal behavior are familial. In this study, the authors examine the factors associated with the familial transmission of these two related conditions to learn which are shared or unique risk factors for familial transmission. Method: The 285 offspring of 141 probands with mood disorder were studied. Proband and…

Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Melhem, Nadine; Ellis, Steven P.; Mann, J. John

2004-01-01

336

TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME) TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) BY INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the transmissibility of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent to raccoons and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of TSEs in raccoons, 4 raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with a br...

337

Cluster Transmission Time Synchronization for Cooperative Transmission Using Software-Defined Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-We consider the time synchronization of concurrent transmissions from a cluster of cooperating software-defined radios (SDRs). In this type of cooperative transmission (CT), each cooperating node derives its timing autonomously from a signal received from a source or another cluster. Timing errors, caused by SDR processing delays, cause excessively high delay spreads of the signal received at the destination node.

Yong Jun Chang; Mary Ann Ingram; R. Scott Frazier

2010-01-01

338

Transmission line arrester energy, cost, and risk of failure analysis for partially shielded transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of metal oxide surge arresters in power systems has been traditionally linked to electrical equipment protection. The industry has noted a very significant increase in the application of metal oxide arresters on transmission lines in an effort to reduce lightning initiated flashovers. This paper describes a cost-effective installation of surge arresters on a partially shielded transmission line. It compares

Eva J. Tarasiewicz; Finn Rimmer; Atef S. Morched

2000-01-01

339

Progressive compression for lossless transmission of triangle meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lossless transmission of 3D meshes is a very challenging and timely problem for many applications, ranging from collaborative design to engineering. Additionally, frequent delays in transmissions call for progressive transmission in order for the end user to receive useful successive refinements of the final mesh. In this paper, we present a novel, fully progressive encoding approach for lossless transmission of

Pierre Alliez; Mathieu Desbrun

2001-01-01

340

Global state estimation for whole transmission and distribution networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, transmission and distribution state estimators are studied and developed separately. But lots of large cities have their hybrid transmission and distribution networks. In order to face keen competition in market, the requirement of coordinated operation between transmission and distribution systems is now here. Therefore, in order to balance the boundary mismatch between the transmission and distribution network models existing

H. B. Sun; B. M. Zhang

2005-01-01

341

Almost There: Transmission Routes of Bacterial Symbionts between Trophic Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many intracellular microbial symbionts of arthropods are strictly vertically transmitted and manipulate their host's reproduction in ways that enhance their own transmission. Rare horizontal transmission events are nonetheless necessary for symbiont spread to novel host lineages. Horizontal transmission has been mostly inferred from phylogenetic studies but the mechanisms of spread are still largely a mystery. Here, we investigated transmission of

Elad Chiel; Einat Zchori-Fein; Moshe Inbar; Yuval Gottlieb; Tetsuya Adachi-Hagimori; Suzanne E. Kelly; Mark K. Asplen; Martha S. Hunter; Jason E. Stajich

2009-01-01

342

Topology Optimization for Hybrid Electric Vehicles With Automated Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, many different topologies are designed with different transmission technologies such as automated manual transmission (AMT) and continuously variable transmission (CVT). The choice of topology determines the energy-flow efficiency between the hybrid system, the engine, and the vehicle wheels. The optimal topology minimizing fuel consumption is influenced by the transmission technology. Therefore, an AMT (high efficiency) and a push-belt CVT

Theo Hofman; Søren Ebbesen; Lino Guzzella

2012-01-01

343

Transmission Range Control in Multihop Packet Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for analyzing the performance of transmission strategies in a multihop packet radio network where each station has adjustable transmission radius. A larger transmission radius will increase the probability of finding a receiver in the desired direction and contribute bigger progress if the transmission is successful, but it also has a higher probability of collision with

Ting-Chao Hou; Victor Li

1986-01-01

344

Airborne transmission and precautions: facts and myths.  

PubMed

Airborne transmission occurs only when infectious particles of <5?m, known as aerosols, are propelled into the air. The prevention of such transmission is expensive, requiring N95 respirators and negative pressure isolation rooms. This lecture first discussed whether respiratory viral infections are airborne with reference to published reviews of studies before 2008, comparative trials of surgical masks and N95 respirators, and relevant new experimental studies. However, the most recent experimental study, using naturally infected influenza volunteers as the source, showed negative results from all the manikins that were exposed. Modelling studies by ventilation engineers were then summarized to explain why these results were not unexpected. Second, the systematic review commissioned by the World Health Organization on what constituted aerosol-generating procedures was summarized. From the available evidence, endotracheal intubation either by itself or combined with other procedures (e.g. cardiopulmonary resuscitation or bronchoscopy) was consistently associated with increased risk of transmission by the generation of aerosols. PMID:25578684

Seto, W H

2015-04-01

345

Horizontal Transmission of Mutans Streptococci in Children  

PubMed Central

It has not been established whether transmission of mutans streptococci occurs between unrelated children older than 4 years of age. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible transmission of mutans streptococci genotypes from child to child in kindergarten. We studied 96 children (ages 5-6 yrs) in three San Francisco Bay Area public schools. Mutans streptococci colonies from each child were isolated from selective culture on Mitis Salivarius Sucrose Bacitracin agar. We used arbitrary primed polymerase chain reactions to determine the mutans streptococci genotypes. Two children (not siblings) in each of the three schools (6%) shared an identical amplitype of S. mutans, unique to each pair. The 19 S. sobrinus amplitypes were found in 12 children, and all were unique to each child. The presence of matching genotypes of S. mutans demonstrates horizontal transmission of this species between unrelated children aged 5-6 years. PMID:19918090

Doméjean, S.; Zhan, L.; DenBesten, P.K.; Stamper, J.; Boyce, W.T.; Featherstone, J.D.

2010-01-01

346

Development of a transmission positron microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A practical transmission positron microscope (TPM) JEM-1011B has been developed to survey differences in the interaction of positron and electron beams with materials, and is installed in the Slow Positron Facility of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The TPM can share positron and electron beams, and can also be used as a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Positron transmission images up to magnification 10,000× (resolution: 50 nm) and positron diffraction patterns up to 044 family were successfully obtained by the TPM comparing them with those of electrons. The differences in material transmittances for both beams have been measured, and can be explained by the calculated results of the Monte Carlo simulation code PENELOPE-2008.

Matsuya, M.; Jinno, S.; Ootsuka, T.; Inoue, M.; Kurihara, T.; Doyama, M.; Inoue, M.; Fujinami, M.

2011-07-01

347

Life and reliability models for helicopter transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer models of life and reliability are presented for planetary gear trains with a fixed ring gear, input applied to the sun gear, and output taken from the planet arm. For this transmission the input and output shafts are co-axial and the input and output torques are assumed to be coaxial with these shafts. Thrust and side loading are neglected. The reliability model is based on the Weibull distributions of the individual reliabilities of the in transmission components. The system model is also a Weibull distribution. The load versus life model for the system is a power relationship as the models for the individual components. The load-life exponent and basic dynamic capacity are developed as functions of the components capacities. The models are used to compare three and four planet, 150 kW (200 hp), 5:1 reduction transmissions with 1500 rpm input speed to illustrate their use.

Savage, M.; Knorr, R. J.; Coy, J. J.

1982-01-01

348

Single transmission line data acquisition system  

DOEpatents

A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

349

Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigated the influence of mirror symmetry on the transmission spectra of quasiperiodic magnonic multilayers arranged according to Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double period quasiperiodic sequences. We consider that the multilayers composed of two simple cubic Heisenberg ferromagnets with bulk exchange constants JA and JB and spin quantum numbers SA and SB, respectively. The multilayer structure is surrounded by two semi-infinite slabs of a third Heisenberg ferromagnetic material with exchange constant JC and spin quantum number SC. For simplicity, the lattice constant has the same value a in each material, corresponding to epitaxial growth at the interfaces. The transfer matrix treatment was used for the exchange-dominated regime, taking into account the random phase approximation (RPA). Our numerical results illustrate the effects of mirror symmetry on (i) transmission spectra and (ii) transmission fingerprints.

Coelho, I. P.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Bezerra, C. G.

2011-12-01

350

Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

2011-05-24

351

Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors  

DOEpatents

A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

Nambu, Shigeo (Fuchu, JP)

1985-01-01

352

Experiment of THz transmission through plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on terahertz wave transmission through plasma is significant for researches on plasma itself and transmission discipline of terahertz wave through plasma. It is possible for plasma with suitable density to be an available stealth outerwear for plane or missile in THz waveband. In this paper, plasma is gotten by ionizing inert gases such as argon and helium gases with pulsed high alternating voltage. With electro-optic pump-probe measurement, THz transmission phenomena through plasma have been studied. The experiments show that some parts of THz frequency components have been cut off by plasma, and with the density of plasma rising, the starting frequency of THz prohibited by plasma is going higher. Experiments also provide an assistant scheme for plasma diagnose with terahertz technique.

Sun, Jinhai; Gallacher, Jordan; Issac, Riju; Huang, Zhixun; Jaroszynski, Dino

2014-12-01

353

Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans  

PubMed Central

Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains. PMID:25279820

Levavasseur, Etienne; Privat, Nicolas; Martin, Juan-Carlos Espinosa; Simoneau, Steve; Baron, Thierry; Flan, Benoit; Torres, Juan-Maria; Haïk, Stéphane

2014-01-01

354

Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

1979-01-01

355

Method and apparatus for actuating vehicle transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of actuating a vehicle parallel-gear transmission having gears and an internal lever for moving shift blocks connected with shift rods and shift forks for changing gear ratios of the transmission, a hydraulically controlled select actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a select direction, a hydraulically controlled shift actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a shift direction substantially normal to the select direction, a hydraulically controlled clutch actuator for connecting and disconnecting a clutch of the transmission, and a common fluid discharge passage connected to fluid discharge ports of the select and shift actuators and a fluid discharge port of the clutch actuator, the select and shift actuators being alternately actuatable to effect a gear changing operation.

Ishida, H.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

1988-11-15

356

Highly efficient prion transmission by blood transfusion.  

PubMed

It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 10³ID?? as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID?? IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 10³·?ID?? IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC inoculation. PMID:22737075

Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

2012-01-01

357

Transmission properties of periodically patterned triangular prisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission properties of plasmonic structure arrays are simulated by finite element method. The array unit is composed of two combined triangular prisms. Results reveal that several resonant modes are found in the transmission spectra, which are due to the resonance of the surface plasmon polariton in the metal slit or to the localized surface plasmon resonance of the combined prisms. The resonant wavelengths can be tuned by changing the structural parameters of the combined prisms. In addition, the resonant modes are sensitive to small refractive index changes of the surrounding media, revealing potential detection applications in nanophotonic systems.

Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Yongkai; Cao, Liang; Zhang, Zhongyue

2014-11-01

358

Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

359

Fault-tolerant almost exact state transmission  

PubMed Central

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault-tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose an experimental implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. PMID:24185259

Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Lian-Ao; Modugno, Michele; Yao, Wang; Shao, Bin

2013-01-01

360

Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2006-07-07

361

EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-04-01

362

Fault-Tolerant Exact State Transmission  

E-print Network

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault- tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose the implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices.

Zhao-Ming Wang; Lian-Ao Wu; Michele Modugno; Wang Yao; Bin Shao

2012-05-02

363

Microwave transmission system for space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wavelength microwaves.

Dickinson, R. M.

1976-01-01

364

A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts  

PubMed Central

The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

2010-01-01

365

Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities. PMID:25411971

Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

2014-01-01

366

Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

Keller, Lindsay P.

1995-01-01

367

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts  

E-print Network

Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts Roberto Brenes1 *, Matthew J. Gray2 ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla

Gray, Matthew

368

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission  

E-print Network

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission Disequilibrium Tests for Quantitative Traits Jinming Li , Dai Wang , Jianping Dong, Renfang Jiang, Kui Zhang, Shuanglin Zhang, Hongyu Zhao, Fengzhu Sun of freedom involved that may reduce the overall power to detect linkage. To overcome this limitation, we

Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

369

Electrical characterization of textile transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, electrical characterization and modeling of conductive textiles are presented. A dedicated measurement setup has been developed to allow reliable connection of the textile samples with the equipment cables. Geometrical fabric structures and fabrication tolerances as well as high frequency properties up to 6 GHz for four types of textiles have been determined. Transmission lines with controlled characteristic

Didier Cottet; Janusz Grzyb; Tünde Kirstein; Gerhard Tröster

2003-01-01

370

Aumann-Shapley transmission congestion pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology for congestion cost allocation based on marginal costs and game-theoretic principles (Aumann-Shapley pricing). The methodology provides fair, economically efficient prices and ensures that the revenue collected from the transmission users will be equal to the cost of relieving the congestion

A. G. Bakirtzis

2001-01-01

371

How financial transmission rights curb market power  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

Stoft, S.

1997-06-01

372

Effects of artemisinin derivatives on malaria transmissibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground On the western border of Thailand the efficacy of mefloquine in the treatment of falciparum malaria has declined while gametocyte carriage rates have increased, which suggests increased transmissibility of these resistant infections. We compared the following antimalarial drugs in relation to subsequent Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage: mefloquine, halofantrine, quinine, and the artemisinin derivatives.Methods Between 1990 and 1995 we assessed

R. N Price; F Nosten; C Luxemburger; F. O ter Kuile; L Paiphun; T Chongsuphajaisiddhi; N. J White

1996-01-01

373

77 FR 26686 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...statistics or preformed a survey concerning the prospective...taken as outcomes of the planning review process, are...the local transmission planning collaborative is the...in deciding the proper path forward.\\52\\ APPA...stakeholder comments and planning authority...

2012-05-07

374

HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION STUDIES ON ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS  

E-print Network

in the peripheral blood was the proof of a successful transmis- sion. Meanwhile, a seroconversion appears) How close, physically, must the contact be in order to facilitate transmission ? Materials and methods by adding 10 ml distilled water followed by the addition of the same volume of 1,7 % NaCI solution 30

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit  

E-print Network

Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit 3rd Europlanet workshop ­ 4th PHC/Sakura meeting: Venus as a transiting exoplanet March 5 ­ 7 2012, Paris, France A. García Muñoz (Formerly at) Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain Frank P. Mills (Venus work) The Australian National

Widemann, Thomas

376

Economics Of Optical Fibre Transmission Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical fibre as a telecommunication transmission medium has become one of the most significant developments so far of the digital era. A major contributory factor to the availability of optical fibre transmission systems has been the outstanding progress in the technology of manufacturing high quality glass fibre having relatively low attenuation and broad bandwidths. This and other achievements has enabled manufacturers in the United Kingdom to develop a range of optical fibre cables and transmission equipment for operation over short and long distances at the CCITT recommended digital hierarchical rates of 2, 8, 34 and 140Mbit/s which have been adopted by British Telecom (BT) for modernisation to an all digital transmission network. These optical fibre systems are now becoming increasingly price and performance competitive with conventional technology in many parts of telecommunications networks. In the British Telecom (BT) network the 140Mbit/s optical fibre systems are now economically competitive with equivalent systems on coaxial cable and microwave radio. The economics of 8 and 34Mbit/s systems are not yet sufficiently attractive, compared with 2Mbit/s digital line systems on pair type copper cables, for large scale use in rural and local distribution networks and are presently only justified on cost in and around large cities. As system costs decrease large applications are predicted particularly in support of future high speed data, cable television and visual information services.

Murray, W. J.

1983-08-01

377

Effects of crack closure on ultrasonic transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic waves are attenuated as they propagate past the tip of a crack due to the reflection of the energy at the crack face and diffraction at the crack tip. Crack closure modifies the situation since partial transmission can occur at points along the crack face where asperities come in contact. This phenomenon is important in defining the ability to

R. B. Thompson; B. J. Skillings; L. W. Zachary; L. W. Schmerr; O. Buck

1983-01-01

378

Transmission electron microscopy of the bacterial nucleoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-containing biological material cannot withstand the vacuum of the transmission electron microscope. The classical solution to this problem has been to dehydrate chemically fixed biological samples and then embed them in resin. During such treatment, the bacterial nucleoid is especially prone to aggregation, which affects its global shape and fine structure. Initial attempts to deal with aggregation by optimizing chemical

Mikhail Eltsov; Benoît Zuber

2006-01-01

379

DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Qing Zhao and Lang Tong School Strategy We consider the problem of information retrieval in sensor networks with mobile access points on Communica- tion and Networks under Grant DAAD19-01-2-0011. ¢ Fig. 1: Sensor networks with mobile access

Islam, M. Saif

380

Horizontal transmission of streptococcus mutans in schoolchildren  

PubMed Central

Objetive: The aim of this study was to analyze possible horizontal transmission patterns of S. mutans among 6-7-yr-old schoolchildren from the same class, identifying genotypes and their diversity and relationship with caries disease status. Study Design: Caries indexes and saliva mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts were recorded in 42 schoolchildren. Mutans streptococci colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and all S. mutans strains were genotyped by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. A child was considered free of S. mutans when it could not be isolated in 3 samples at 1-week intervals. Results: S. mutans was isolated in 30 schoolchildren: 20 having one genotype and 10 two genotypes. Higher mutans streptococci and caries index values were found in those with two genotypes. Five genotypes were isolated in more than 1 schoolchild and one of these was isolated in 3 schoolchildren. Our results suggest that horizontal transmission may take place. Conclusion: Schoolchildren aged 6-7 yrs may be the source of mutual transmission of S. mutans. Key words:Streptococcus mutans, Horizontal transmission, AP-PCR, genotyping PMID:22143733

Castillo, Ana M.; Liébana, Maria J.; Castillo, Francisca; Martín-Platero, Antonio; Liébana, José

2012-01-01

381

Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

Koju, Vijay [Computation Science Program, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Rowe, Ebony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Robertson, William M., E-mail: William.Robertson@mtsu.edu [Computation Science Program, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States)

2014-07-15

382

Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus from infected mothers to their infants. We studied eight babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis E in third trimester. One baby was icteric at birth with elevated transaminases and four babies had anicteric hepatitis. Two babies were born with hypothermia and hypoglycaemia and died within 24 h; one had

M. S. Khuroo; S. Kamali; S. Jameel

1995-01-01

383

Criminalising HIV transmission: punishment without protection.  

PubMed

Allegations of the reckless or intentional transmission of HIV raise challenging questions about how states can best address a disease which is transmitted primarily through behaviours that both states and community "police" in different ways. This paper argues that in the rare cases in which someone engages in specific behaviour with the intent to infect another person with HIV, existing laws such as laws against battery are sufficient to allow for the application of the criminal law. It discusses three key points: the potential consequences of new laws criminalising the transmission of HIV, why vague laws criminalising the knowing transmission of HIV fail to meet key requirements of criminal law and are an abuse of the state's policing power, and thirdly, the growing inclusion of such laws within sexual offences legislation. Laws criminalising the transmission of HIV risk bringing within the scope of legal sanction people living with HIV who are acting in ways that do not merit punishment and may as a result of prosecution face adverse human rights consequences. PMID:19962645

Brown, Widney; Hanefeld, Johanna; Welsh, James

2009-11-01

384

Advances in terahertz waveguides and transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review recent progress towards efficient and versatile waveguides and transmission lines for terahertz applications. Terahertz waveguides are compared in terms of loss and coupling efficiency. Different loss mechanisms and fundamental limits are treated. We also propose a slot-line structure suitable for terahertz frequencies.

Hamid Pahlevaninezhad; Thomas Edward Darcie; Barmak Heshmat

2011-01-01

385

Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

2014-07-01

386

Social transmission of face preferences among humans.  

PubMed

Previous studies demonstrating mate choice copying effects among females in non-human species have led many researchers to propose that social transmission of mate preferences may influence sexual selection for male traits. Although it has been suggested that social transmission may also influence mate preferences in humans, there is little empirical support for such effects. Here, we show that observing other women with smiling (i.e. positive) expressions looking at male faces increased women's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women with neutral (i.e. relatively negative) expressions looking at male faces. By contrast, the reverse was true for male participants (i.e. observing women with neutral expressions looking at male faces increased male participant's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women smiling at male faces). This latter finding suggests that within-sex competition promotes negative attitudes among men towards other men who are the target of positive social interest from women. Our findings demonstrate that social transmission of face preferences influences judgments of men's attractiveness, potentially demonstrating a mechanism for social transmission of mate preferences. PMID:17251104

Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Feinberg, David R

2007-03-22

387

Corrosion Resistant Conductor for Overhead Transmission Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum, a main conductive material for overhead transmission lines, has excellent resistive property against corrosion in normal environment as far as its stable skin is not broken. However there are so many lines going through coastal and\\/or industrial areas where corrosive particles tend to occur. Under such circumstances the conductors filled with the grease among those wire layers have been

Takanori Hita; Yuji Asano

2004-01-01

388

Hydrostatic transmission development for wave energy converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

innovative approach for electric power conversion from the vast ocean wave energy. Here, a floating-buoy wave energy converter (WEC) using hydrostatic transmission (HST), which is shortened as HSTWEC, is proposed and designed to enhance the wave energy generation task during wave fluctuations. In this HSTWEC structure, the power take-off system (PTO) is a combination of the designed HST circuit and

Hoang Huu Tien; Dinh Quang Truong; Kyoung Kwan Ahn

2011-01-01

389

Transmission for self-propelled working vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission is described for self-propelled working vehicles, having a speed change mechanism which comprises: first change gears fixedly mounted on a first shaft; second change gears rotatably mounted on a second shaft, the second shaft being arranged in parallel with the first shaft; the second change gears are meshed with the first gears, respectively; key means disposed within the

K. Yamaoka; H. Okada

1987-01-01

390

Corporate Finance and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the transmission effects of monetary policy in a general equilibrium model of the financial sector, with bank lending and securities markets. Bank lending is constrained by capital adequacy requirements, and asymmetric information adds a cost to outside bank equity capital. In our model, monetary policy does not affect bank lending through changes in bank liquidity; rather, it operates

Patrick Bolton; Xavier Freixas

2005-01-01

391

The Integrated Control System in Automatic Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated control system is proposed aiming at the automatic transmission. Engine control is introduced into the gear shift operation, which is different from the traditional control method. Through analysing the gear shift process, different strategies are presented for different phases. Engine speed, engine torque and oil pressure of the clutches are used as control parameters, values of which are

Nuo Xu; Huiyan CHen; Yuhui Hu; Haiou Liu

2007-01-01

392

Fuzzy expert system for automatic transmission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent electronic transmission control system using both fuzzy logic and conventional methods is presented. The controller is part of the drive train, so that special attention must be paid to the system's security. Two different methods for prioritizing the controller outputs are proposed, and it is shown how these methods can be realized within fuzzy control theory. Next, it

H.-G. Weil; G. Probst; F. Graf

1992-01-01

393

An automatic transmission model for vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a dynamically-correct model of an automatic transmission, extending previous research results. The bond graph method is used in the modeling. The bond graph method is ideally suited for modeling “power” systems, because the method is based on generalized “power” variables. The bond graph method is capable of providing correct dynamic constraints and kinematic constraints, as well as

Jung-Ho Kim; Dong-Il Dan Cho

1997-01-01

394

FATE: fuzzy logic automatic transmission expert system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the engineering of automatic transmission is by now a mature field, gears do not always shift properly under certain driving conditions. As a basis for a more human-friendly controller, we propose FATE: a fuzzy logic gear shift selection expert system

A. Bastian; S. Tano; T. Oyama; T. Arnould

1995-01-01

395

Dynamic modeling and analysis of automatic transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the dynamics and control of vehicle automatic transmissions. In order to get realistic predictions about the system behavior during the gear shift operations, the models of all drive train components are presented. Particular attention is paid to the detailed description of the electronically hydraulically controlled wet-clutches

Ali Haj-Fraj; F. Pfeiffer

1999-01-01

396

Social transmission of face preferences among humans  

PubMed Central

Previous studies demonstrating mate choice copying effects among females in non-human species have led many researchers to propose that social transmission of mate preferences may influence sexual selection for male traits. Although it has been suggested that social transmission may also influence mate preferences in humans, there is little empirical support for such effects. Here, we show that observing other women with smiling (i.e. positive) expressions looking at male faces increased women's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women with neutral (i.e. relatively negative) expressions looking at male faces. By contrast, the reverse was true for male participants (i.e. observing women with neutral expressions looking at male faces increased male participant's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women smiling at male faces). This latter finding suggests that within-sex competition promotes negative attitudes among men towards other men who are the target of positive social interest from women. Our findings demonstrate that social transmission of face preferences influences judgments of men's attractiveness, potentially demonstrating a mechanism for social transmission of mate preferences. PMID:17251104

Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Feinberg, David R

2007-01-01

397

Secure Image Transmission over Wireless Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advances in communication technology have seen strong interest in digital signal transmission. However, illegal data access has become more easy and prevalent in wireless and general communication networks. Data security has become a critical issue. In order to protect valuable data from undesirable readers, data encryption is essential. Furthermore, the wireless channels have fluctuating channel qualities and high bit

M. Padmaja; Syed Shameem

2007-01-01

398

Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according

Y. Sakaguchi; Y. Taga; Y. Kashihara

1989-01-01

399

Hydraulic control unit for automotive transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydraulic control unit for use in an automotive transmission having a speed change gear and a clutch, the hydraulic control unit including a housing, a change gear operating mechanism means for hydraulically operating the speed change gear, and a clutch operating mechanism means for hydraulically operating the clutch. The change gear operating mechanism means and the

Y. Kojima; H. Ishida

1986-01-01

400

Air conditioner response to transmission faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two multi-phase faults events which occurred during periods of high air conditioning use. There was a significant loss of load in these events which is attributed to air conditioner motor protection. The overall response of the transmission system is simulated using induction motor models based on the characteristics of a typical residential air conditioner compressor motor. The

J. W. Shaffer

1997-01-01

401

Hybrid mode analysis of coplanar transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequency dependent hybrid mode analysis of general coplanar transmission lines is presented. A Fourier transform technique is applied and the resulting expressions are evaluated numerically using the method of moments. Shielded slot line resonators as well as dispersion characteristic and characteristic impedance of open and closed boundary slot lines, coupled slot lines and coplanar strip lines are obtained. An

K. D. Kuchler

1975-01-01

402

Transmission scheduling for efficient wireless utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an “opportunistic” transmission scheduling policy that exploits time-varying channel conditions and maximizes the system performance stochastically under a certain resource allocation fairness constraint. We establish the optimality of the scheduling scheme and also describe a practical scheduling procedure to implement our scheme. Through simulation results, we show that the scheme also works well for nonstationary scenarios and results

Xin Liu; Edwin K. P. Chong; Ness B. Shroff

2001-01-01

403

Increasing transmission capacity by real time monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real time monitoring of the thermal capability of transmission lines can typically increase the line capability by 10-30%. This additional capability can be achieved with a typical cost of $80000-$120000 per circuit, which is generally a small fraction of a cost of a new line or a major physical upgrade. It thus appears clear that real time thermal rating could

Tapani O. Seppa

2002-01-01

404

Optimal transient simulation of transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an attempt to formulate a high-level description of the optimal transmission line simulation method. To formulate the optimal approach, most significant aspects of the problem are identified, and alternative approaches in each of the aspects are analyzed and compared to find the combination that results in the maximum efficiency, accuracy and applicability for the transient analysis of

Dmitri Borisovich Kuznetsov; J. E. Schutt-Aine

1996-01-01

405

Wireless Channels Overview of Wireless Transmissions  

E-print Network

Wireless Channels Jie Gao 09/03/2009 #12;Overview of Wireless Transmissions source coding bit stream channel coding analog signal sender modulation 2 source decoding bit stream channel decoding 824- 849, 869-894 TDMA , CDMA , GSM 1850 - 1910, 1930 -1990 PDC 810- 826, 940-956, 1429- 1465, 1477

Gao, Jie

406

Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

1990-01-01

407

Measurement of ozone transmissivity at low temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low temperature medium resolution measurements of the transmissivity of the ozone band have been made in the laboratory. The range of conditions under which the measurements were made are: -48 to -22 C, .0029 U .71 atmo.cm., 680 P 742 mmHg. The apparatus used is described briefly, measurement conditions are summarized and the resulting spectra are shown.

Bartman, F. L.; Loh, L. T.; Kuhn, W. R.

1976-01-01

408

A MIXED INTEGER DISJUNCTIVE MODEL FOR TRANSMISSION ...  

E-print Network

the transmission network expansion problem cannot guarantee finding the optimal .... For each iteration, a trial expansion proposal x is obtained by solving a mixed integer ..... The greedy randomized adaptive search procedure [11] is a metaheuristic ... the RCL size is controlled by the parameter ?, where 0 ? ? ?. 1.

Laura

2001-10-26

409

Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document  

SciTech Connect

Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

1994-01-01

410

Microwave transmission through metamaterials in free space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In order to investigate properties of metamaterials, we constructed a composite structures which consists of periodical arrangement of thin copper wires and SRRs on a circuit board We first measured the transmission spectra of the thin wire and SRR mediums individually. The measurements are performed in free space by using a HP 8510C network analyzer and

K. Aydin; M. Bayindir; E. Ozbay

2002-01-01

411

Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus  

PubMed Central

In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually. PMID:25625872

Roche, Claudine; Robin, Emilie; Nhan, Tuxuan; Teissier, Anita; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

2015-01-01

412

Cooling apparatus for a gas transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved cooling apparatus is described for a gas transmission system, including: input means for receiving a medium to be cooled; output means for transmitting the medium after it is cooled; and, cooling means intercoupling the input means and the output means including radiator means having an input end and an output end, the input end connected to the input

1987-01-01

413

Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States  

PubMed Central

Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue. PMID:22840424

Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J.; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W.; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Moore, Julie M.; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P.

2012-01-01

414

Transmission of data over electric power lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brochure, covering the description of communications equipment for electric power lines, and a review of the principal trends in the use of this type of communications for dispatcher control, the transmission of telemechanics signals, relaying, and automatic systems operations was introduced.

Y. L. Bykhovskiy

1975-01-01

415

The transgenerational transmission of holocaust trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an attachment-theory based model of transgenerational trauma inspired by the successful psychoanalytic treatment of a severely disturbed adolescent with obsessive-compulsive disorder who was the first child of the first daughter of a holocaust survivor. It is proposed that the transmission of specific traumatic ideas across generations may be mediated by a vulnerability to dissociative states established in

Peter Fonagy

1999-01-01

416

Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical analysis and modelling is central to infectious disease epidemiology. Here, we provide an intuitive introduction to the process of disease transmission, how this stochastic process can be represented mathematically and how this mathematical representation can be used to analyse the emergent dynamics of observed epidemics. Progress in mathematical analysis and modelling is of fundamental importance to our growing understanding

Christophe Fraser; Nicholas C. Grassly

2008-01-01

417

Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

Siebert, Fred S.

418

Methods and systems for micro transmissions  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

Stalford, Harold L

2014-12-23

419

A neutron transmission study of environmental Gd  

E-print Network

A new method for the determination of environmental Gd by neutron transmission (NT) experiments is proposed. The NT method is based on the measurements of neutron spectra passing through a target. From the attenuation neutron spectra new data as concentration, width, resonance energies and cross section have been obtained.

Cristiana Oprea; Ioan Alexandru Oprea; Alexandru Mihul

2014-06-02

420

Intergenerational Transmission of Maternal Behavior in  

E-print Network

transmission of maternal rejection from mothers to daughters. ß 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49 of both their foster and their biological mothers, and analyzed in relation to the cerebrospinal fluid) measured in their second year of life. Crossfostered females were similar to their foster mothers

Maestripieri, Dario

421

Energy-Efficient Image Transmission in Sensor  

E-print Network

, with an emphasis on low-power data transmission and routing protocols. N. Krommenacker received his PhD in Computer in microelectronics and wireless communications, it is predicted that wireless sensor net- works (WSN) will become. A wide range of emerging WSN applications, like object detection, surveillance, recognition, localiza

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Brake and speed responsive controlled transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control apparatus is described for multi-speed, oil pressure operated vehicle transmission having an oil pressure operated clutch for each speed drive train, a lowest and a highest speed drive train, and a one-way clutch in the lowest speed drive train. The apparatus comprises means for detecting a brake actuated condition and a stopped condition of the vehicle including means

M. Maezono; T. Shimizu; K. Ishikawa

1987-01-01

423

Upgrading a 24-in. gas transmission line  

SciTech Connect

Because of increasing population density, Texas Eastern Transmission Corp. removed an existing 24-in. gas line and replaced it with a higher yield line pipe with a greater wall thickness. Work was through exclusive lake subdivisions and across a golf course and required special construction techniques.

Stiles, R.E.

1986-10-01

424

Wolbachia transmission dynamics in Formica wood ants  

PubMed Central

Background The role of Wolbachia endosymbionts in shaping the mitochondrial diversity of their arthropod host depends on the effects they have on host reproduction and on the mode of transmission of the bacteria. We have compared the sequence diversity of wsp (Wolbachia surface protein gene) and the host mtDNA in a group of Formica ant species that have diverged approximately 0.5 million years ago (MYA). The aim was to study the relationship of Wolbachia and its ant hosts in terms of vertical and horizontal transmission of the bacteria. Results All studied ant species were doubly infected with two Wolbachia strains (wFex1 and wFex4) all over their geographical distribution area in Eurasia. The most common haplotypes of these strains were identical with strains previously described from a more distantly related Formica ant, with an estimated divergence time of 3.5 – 4 MYA. Some strain haplotypes were associated to the same or closely related mtDNA haplotypes as expected under vertical transmission. However, in several cases the wsp haplotypes coexisted with distant mtDNA haplotypes, a pattern which is more compatible with horizontal transmission of the bacteria. Conclusion Two lines of evidence suggest that the sharing of Wolbachia strains by all F. rufa species is rather due to horizontal than vertical transmission. First, the fact that endosymbiont strains identical to those of F. rufa ants have been found in another species that diverged 3.5–4 MYA strongly suggests that horizontal transfer can and does occur between Formica ants. Second, the frequent sharing of identical Wolbachia strains by distant mitochondrial lineages within the F. rufa group further shows that horizontal transmission has occurred repeatedly. Nevertheless, our dataset also provides some evidence for longer-term persistence of infection, indicating that Wolbachia infection within this host clade has been shaped by both horizontal and vertical transmission of symbionts. The fact that all the ants were infected irrespective of the family structure of their societies gives no support to the proposed hypotheses that the spreading of Wolbachia in ants might be associated to the types of their societies. PMID:18291041

2008-01-01

425

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

Henry, Zachary S.

1995-06-01

426

Infrared Applications In Transmission System Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five California Utilities participated in an electric power transmission and distribution system survey in the late fall of 1987. The survey consisted of visual and Infrared (IR) inspection of 12.5-kV to 230-kV AC transmission lines and equipment. This paper summarizes the results of the survey, including a cost/benefit analysis. The participating utilities, under Western Area Power Administration's sponsorship, were the City of Lodi, City of Roseville, Plumas-Sierra Rural Electric Cooperative, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, and Sierra Pacific Power Company. Three hundred miles of line and thirty substations were inspected using a helicopter and a high resolution infrared camera with visual recording capabilities. The transmission and distribution system covered a broad range of terrain; valleys, foothills, and mountains. All five utilities recognized the value of the IR inspection. The procedure gave the maintenance staff advanced notice of problem areas such as (1) loose connections on switches, (2) unbalanced lines, (3) poor splices, and (4) capacitor and transformer bank malfunction. In addition, the staff saw its potential in environmental and safety applications. The initial data shows an increased capacity carrying and reliability providing capability of about 50 KW per 100 transmission line miles. This capability increase results in a B/C ratio of about three. Other applications in transmission system surveys are worthy of study. These applications include power theft and vandalism. Also, the Utility can use technology as an effective public relations tool with customers by providing services such as roof and building envelope inspections.

Nelson, Guy; Fernandez, Joe

1988-01-01

427

Global dynamic modeling of a transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on global dynamic simulation and noise correlation of gear transmission systems at the University of Akron is outlined. The objective is to develop a comprehensive procedure to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system coupled with the effects of gear box vibrations. The developed numerical model is benchmarked with results from experimental tests at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modal synthesis approach is used to develop the global transient vibration analysis procedure used in the model. Modal dynamic characteristics of the rotor-gear-bearing system are calculated by the matrix transfer method while those of the gear box are evaluated by the finite element method (NASTRAN). A three-dimensional, axial-lateral coupled bearing model is used to couple the rotor vibrations with the gear box motion. The vibrations between the individual rotor systems are coupled through the nonlinear gear mesh interactions. The global equations of motion are solved in modal coordinates and the transient vibration of the system is evaluated by a variable time-stepping integration scheme. The relationship between housing vibration and resulting noise of the gear transmission system is generated by linear transfer functions using experimental data. A nonlinear relationship of the noise components to the fundamental mesh frequency is developed using the hypercoherence function. The numerically simulated vibrations and predicted noise of the gear transmission system are compared with the experimental results from the gear noise test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Results of the comparison indicate that the global dynamic model developed can accurately simulate the dynamics of a gear transmission system.

Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.

1993-01-01

428

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

2009-02-02

429

La Transmission de l'information dans une ecole (Information Transmission in a School Situation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected portions of a longer paper entitled "Incidence relationnelle et institutionelle de la transmission de l'information dans une ecole," presented at the Institut Superieur de Pedagogie, 1973. (HW)

Versel, Simone

1973-01-01

430

77 FR 32183 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...other alternative dispute resolution procedures. 646. Transmission...other alternative dispute resolution procedures, as suggested...Florida PSC argues that ambiguities on this issue and what constitutes...ultimately unable, to reach resolution with neighboring...

2012-05-31

431

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

432

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

433

Effect of the One-Child Policy on Influenza Transmission in China: A Stochastic Transmission Model  

PubMed Central

Background China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? Methods and Findings To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21%) in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, ?0.15% (SD 1.85%), between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. Conclusions This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a decrease in household size and the proportion of children in the population. PMID:24516519

Liu, Fengchen; Enanoria, Wayne T. A.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Coffee, Megan P.; Gordon, Aubree; Aragón, Tomás J.; Yu, Guowei; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Porco, Travis C.

2014-01-01

434

Transmission Line Theory for Field-to-Transmission Line Coupling Calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses basic principles and validity limits of the field–to–transmission line coupling calculation using Transmission Line (TL) theory. Particular attention is given to the EMP–power lines interaction. A detailed review of the fundamental equations and method of solution is given, considering that two equivalent formulations are possible. These result in two equivalent circuits for an elementary section of the

M. lanoz; C. A. Nucci; F. M. Tesche

1988-01-01

435

System for detecting the transmission ratio in an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

An improved system is described for detecting the transmission ratio in an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine. The transmission comprises primary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc and a secondary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the secondary pulley. The transmission has a belt engaged with both pulleys, a hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil, a transmission ratio control valve responsive to engine speed for controlling the oil and for shifting the disc of the primary pulley to change the transmission ratio, and a pressure regulator valve having a spool responsive to the transmission ratio for increasing the line pressure of the hydraulic circuit with an increase of the transmission ratio. A spring is held by a retainer for urging the spool in a direction. The improvement described here comprises: a sensor slidably mounted on a guide tube so as to move in parallel with the axial direction of the primary pulley; the sensor having a sensor head engaged with the disc of the primary pulley and an arm engaged with the retainer so as to shift the spool in dependency on the movement of the disc of the primary pulley to control the line pressure; and a lubricating system comprising passages provided in the guide tube and the sensor so as to communicate a part of the hydraulic circuit with an end opening of the passage of the sensor for lubricating contact surfaces of the head of the sensor and the disc of the primary pulley.

Sakai, Y.

1986-10-28

436

Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project  

SciTech Connect

In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the EERC, in collaboration with Meridian Environmental Services, developed and demonstrated the efficacy of a wind energy forecasting system for use in scheduling energy output from wind farms for a regional electrical generation and transmission utility. With the increased interest at the time of project award in the production of hydrogen as a critical future energy source, many viewed hydrogen produced from wind-generated electricity as an attractive option. In addition, many of the hydrogen production-related concepts involve utilization of energy resources without the need for additional electrical transmission. For this reason, under Task 4, the EERC provided a summary of end uses for hydrogen in the region and focused on one end product in particular (fertilizer), including several process options and related economic analyses.

Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

2012-06-09

437

The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review.  

PubMed

This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

Coura, José Rodrigues

2014-12-01

438

When More Transmission Equals Less Disease: Reconciling the Disconnect between Disease Hotspots and Parasite Transmission  

PubMed Central

The assumed straightforward connection between transmission intensity and disease occurrence impacts surveillance and control efforts along with statistical methodology, including parameter inference and niche modeling. Many infectious disease systems have the potential for this connection to be more complicated–although demonstrating this in any given disease system has remained elusive. Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is one of the most important diseases of white-tailed deer and is caused by viruses in the Orbivirus genus. Like many infectious diseases, the probability or severity of disease increases with age (after loss of maternal antibodies) and the probability of disease is lower upon re-infection compared to first infection (based on cross-immunity between virus strains). These broad criteria generate a prediction that disease occurrence is maximized at intermediate levels of transmission intensity. Using published US field data, we first fit a statistical model to predict disease occurrence as a function of seroprevalence (a proxy for transmission intensity), demonstrating that states with intermediate seroprevalence have the highest level of case reporting. We subsequently introduce an independently parameterized mechanistic model supporting the theory that high case reporting should come from areas with intermediate levels of transmission. This is the first rigorous demonstration of this phenomenon and illustrates that variation in transmission rate (e.g. along an ecologically-controlled transmission gradient) can create cryptic refuges for infectious diseases. PMID:23579922

Park, Andrew W.; Magori, Krisztian; White, Brad A.; Stallknecht, David E.

2013-01-01

439

Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

1987-01-01

440

Vibration signature analysis of multistage gear transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented for multistage multimesh gear transmission systems. The analysis predicts the overall system dynamics and the transmissibility to the gear box or the enclosed structure. The modal synthesis approach of the analysis treats the uncoupled lateral/torsional model characteristics of each stage or component independently. The vibration signature analysis evaluates the global dynamics coupling in the system. The method synthesizes the interaction of each modal component or stage with the nonlinear gear mesh dynamics and the modal support geometry characteristics. The analysis simulates transient and steady state vibration events to determine the resulting torque variations, speeds, changes, rotor imbalances, and support gear box motion excitations. A vibration signature analysis examines the overall dynamic characteristics of the system, and the individual model component responses. The gear box vibration analysis also examines the spectral characteristics of the support system.

Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Savage, M.; Townsend, D. P.

1989-01-01

441

Layout and source dependent transmission tuning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in photomask technology, exposure system flexibility and lithographic computation has enabled the practical exploration of jointly optimized lithographic imaging variables. The interaction between certain components, such as mask and illuminator, allows co-optimized solutions to frequently achieve better results when compared with sequential, single factor optimizations. In this work, we focus on the automated co-optimization of embedded phase shift mask transmission factor and exposure system illumination source profile for improving image based merit functions. Algorithm descriptions are provided and the critical interaction of optimization parameters with mask layout is highlighted. Our co-optimization algorithm is exercised on the more challenging random logic case and the concept of manipulating or restricting layout conditions to improve the achieved merit function is studied. Finally, suggestions for the experimental prototyping of solutions are provided and an assessment on deviating from the industry accepted 6% transmission discussed.

Progler, Chris; Conley, Will; Socha, Bob; Ham, Young

2005-05-01

442

Prospects for suppressing transmission of Lyme disease.  

PubMed

A variety of methods have been developed to prevent human infection by the Lyme disease spirochete in the northeastern United States, mainly based on the observations that nymphal Ixodes dammini serve as vector, that deer serve as hosts for the reproductive stage of this tick, that white-footed mice serve as the reservoir of infection, and that nymphs are most abundant in early summer and must attach for 2 days before infection is transmitted. Methods for personal protection included seasonal avoidance of infested sites, the use of repellants, and prompt removal of attached ticks. Destruction of mouse habitat, but not of mice, was locally effective. Nondestructive acaricidal treatment of deer proved ineffective, but the elimination of these hosts resulted in reduced transmission after several years. Treatment of mice by means of acaricide-impregnated bedding material effectively reduced transmission. PMID:3190093

Spielman, A

1988-01-01

443

Cote d'Ivoire satellite transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) initiated a rural telecommunications study to analyze its national telecommunications network and to make recommendations for future growth and expansion. The study analyzed voice and data communications capabilities and requirements together with distribution and radio programming through the Cote d'Ivoire. Transmission alternatives were then investigated, and the optimum system configuration was defined. Concurrent with the study, a pilot system was installed using SCPC and DAMA transmission techniques; the system consisted of 60 voice channels for use with the public network and 12 executive channels for use with PABX and FX lines. This paper presents the results of the study, the verification of the study recommendations with the pilot system, and the future plans for the expansion of the network through the Cote d'Ivoire.

Geiling, J. I.; Rasmussen, K. E.

444

Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a review.  

PubMed

Canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) is a contagious venereal tumour of dogs, commonly observed in dogs that are in close contact with one another, or in stray and wild dogs that exhibit unrestrained sexual activity. CTVT represents a unique, naturally transmissible, contagious tumour, where the mutated tumour cell itself is the causative agent and perpetuates as a parasitic allograft in the host. Clinical history, signalment and cytological features are often obvious for establishing a diagnosis though biopsy and histological examination may be needed in atypical cases. Most cases are curable with three intravenous injections of vincristine sulphate at weekly intervals. The role of stray and wild dogs makes the disease difficult to control and necessitates sustained animal birth control in stray dogs along with prompt therapy of the affected dogs. This review captures the manifold developments in different areas embracing this fascinating tumour, including its biology, diagnosis and therapeutic alternatives. PMID:23981098

Ganguly, B; Das, U; Das, A K

2013-08-25

445

Noise transmission and attenuation by stiffened panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study of noise transmission into semi-cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures due to turbulent boundary layer pressure and propeller noise (prop-fan) is presented. The structural noise transmission models include a single panel, discretely stiffened elastic panel and stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panel. Response characteristics of the stiffened panels are evaluated using a transfer matrix procedure. The interior noise field is determined by a Galerkin-like method. The effect on interior noise due to aerodynamic surface flow, cavity back-up pressure, pressurization, mass, stiffness, and damping addition to the structure is investigated. It is shown that stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panels, while providing the same stiffening benefits as an equivalent elastic panel, could significantly reduce vibration levels and subsequently give similar benefits for interior noise control.

Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.; Chang, M. T.

1980-06-01

446

Astroglial Metabolic Networks Sustain Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrocytes provide metabolic substrates to neurons in an activity-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this function, as well as its role in synaptic transmission, remain unclear. Here, we show that the gap-junction subunit proteins connexin 43 and 30 allow intercellular trafficking of glucose and its metabolites through astroglial networks. This trafficking is regulated by glutamatergic synaptic activity mediated by AMPA receptors. In the absence of extracellular glucose, the delivery of glucose or lactate to astrocytes sustains glutamatergic synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity only when they are connected by gap junctions. These results indicate that astroglial gap junctions provide an activity-dependent intercellular pathway for the delivery of energetic metabolites from blood vessels to distal neurons.

Rouach, Nathalie; Koulakoff, Annette; Abudara, Veronica; Willecke, Klaus; Giaume, Christian

2008-12-01

447

Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring are presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp ([minus]ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is ([minus]1)[sup 1/2]. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed. 20 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1992-07-07

448

Design guide for helicopter transmission seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed approach for the selection and design of seals for helicopter transmissions is presented. There are two major types of seals presently being used and they are lip type seals and mechanical type seals. Lip type seals can be divided in conventional lip seals and hydrodynamic lip seals. Conventional lip seals can be used for slow-speed, low-pressure, low-temperature sealing. Hydrodynamic lip seals although they are as pressure and temperature limited as conventional lip seals, can operate at a higher speed. Mechanical types seals are comprised of face seals and circumferential seals. Face seals are capable of high speed, high pressure, and high temperature. Circumferential seals can be used in high-speed and high-temperature applications, but will leak excessively at moderate pressures. The performance goals of transmission seals are a life that is at least equal to the scheduled overhaul interval of the gearbox component and a leakage rate of near zero.

Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

1974-01-01

449

Development of helicopter transmission seals, task 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High speed helicopter transmission seal concepts were designed, fabricated and tested. The concepts were a dual element split ring seal and a circumferential seal. The tests were performed in a rig using an actual input quill assembly. The test conditions were selected to simulate transmission operation and were 230 F oil temperature, and a sliding speed of 9400 ft/min. The split ring seal exhibited gross leakage and was considered unsatisfactory, while the circumferential seal leakage was less than 1 c.c./hour; this leakage is within acceptable limits. The circumferential seal wear was only to .0005 inches during a 100 hour run (40 starts and stops). During a 40 hour contamination test (mesh silica flour) the seal total wear was a maximum of .004 inches. This wear is considered acceptable.

Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

450

Dispersion-free radial transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA)

2011-04-12

451

The makings of a regional transmission group  

SciTech Connect

The Southwest Regional Transmission Association (SWRTA) plans to file this month at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for recognition as a regional transmission group (RTG), pursuant to the FERC's July 1993 policy statement on RTGs. As the provision of electricity becomes less regulated and more competitive, many industry observers expect RTGs to play a key role in increasing the efficiency of our nation's electricity supply system. What exactly is an RTG There are as many definitions as there are interested parties. SWRTA's working group has spent over two years turning an idea into an RTG. Along the way they have learned a few important things about the FERC, congressional intent, the amended Federal Power Act, the dynamics of large groups, and fairness. This article describes the creation of the SWRTA RTG.

Peterson, H.

1994-04-15

452

Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus.  

PubMed Central

Transmission of hepatitis B virus from carrier mothers to their infants seems most likely to occur during birth. Both cord blood and breast milk have been found to be positive (in 35% and 72% of cases respectively) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), but they do not appear to play an important role in transmission. To control this problem high-risk women should be tested during pregnancy for HBsAg. The infants of infected women should be given several doses of hepatitis B immunoglobulin starting at birth. In less developed regions, where hepatitis B is endemic, administration of the immunoglobulin in combination with vaccine, or even the vaccine alone, may be preferable in order to provide infants with lasting protection. PMID:6825030

Chaudhary, R. K.

1983-01-01

453

Transmission of Brucella canis by contact exposure.  

PubMed

Transmission studies demonstrated that canine brucellosis can spread from infected to susceptible males maintained in close contact after 4 to 6 months of cohabitation. Spread by males occurred after epididymitis was observed in the infected dogs. Transmission via contaminated urine was suspected, but not proved. The bladder urine of infected males, probably contaminated with seminal fluid, contained higher numbers of B. canis organisms than did that of female dogs. Highest concentrations of bacteria in urine were found between postinfection weeks 8 and 12. Infected females transmitted the infection to contact females after 5 months. Immature females or males infected with B. canis did not transmit brucellosis until after an estrus or a mating was observed--about post-contact months 10-12. PMID:3335131

Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C

1988-01-01

454

Sound transmission in pipes with porous walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pipes with porous (permeable) walls have received the attention of several authors as a noise control element in automotive intake systems; however, a closed theory of sound transmission including the effect of the coupling of the internal and external acoustic fields and the presence of mean flow does not appear to be available. The present paper proposes an integro-differential system for the propagation of plane sound waves in pipes with porous walls, and presents its general numerical solution, as well as an approximate analytical solution. The predicted effect of the coupling between the internal and external acoustic fields in a circular pipe made of reinforced woven fabric walls is shown, and the transmission loss predictions are compared with the existing experimental data in the literature.

Dokumaci, E.

2010-12-01

455

Brake and speed responsive controlled transmission  

SciTech Connect

A control apparatus is described for multi-speed, oil pressure operated vehicle transmission having an oil pressure operated clutch for each speed drive train, a lowest and a highest speed drive train, and a one-way clutch in the lowest speed drive train. The apparatus comprises means for detecting a brake actuated condition and a stopped condition of the vehicle including means responsive to the throttle opening and governor of the vehicle engine. It also includes means responsive to the detecting means for supplying oil pressure to the clutch for the highest speed drive train during the continuance of either the brake actuated or stopped vehicle condition for minimizing the torque transmitted through the transmission.

Maezono, M.; Shimizu, T.; Ishikawa, K.

1987-02-24

456

Constraining exoplanet mass from transmission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Determination of an exoplanet's mass is a key to understanding its basic properties, including its potential for supporting life. To date, mass constraints for exoplanets are predominantly based on radial velocity (RV) measurements, which are not suited for planets with low masses, large semimajor axes, or those orbiting faint or active stars. Here, we present a method to extract an exoplanet's mass solely from its transmission spectrum. We find good agreement between the mass retrieved for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b from transmission spectroscopy with that from RV measurements. Our method will be able to retrieve the masses of Earth-sized and super-Earth planets using data from future space telescopes that were initially designed for atmospheric characterization. PMID:24357312

de Wit, Julien; Seager, Sara

2013-12-20

457

Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring is presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp (-ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is (-1).sup.1/2. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed.

Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1992-01-01

458

Prions and the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the prion protein, which is expressed in a wide range of tissues and most likely\\u000a has a variety of important cellular functions, and its role in producing the neurodegenerative diseases known as the transmissible\\u000a spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The protein is a normal cellular protein; however, it possess a unique property, so that

Richard C. Wiggins

459

Modeling Malaria Transmission in Thailand and Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Malaria Modeling and Surveillance is a project in the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Applications Program. The main objectives of this project are: 1) identification of the potential breeding sites for major vector species: 2) implementation of a malaria transmission model to identify they key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementation of a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. Remote sensing and GIs are the essential elements of this project. The NASA Earth science data sets used in this project include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP and SIESIP. Textural-contextual classifications are used to identify small larval habitats. Neural network methods are used to model malaria cases as a function of precipitation, temperatures, humidity and vegetation. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Examples for spatio-temporal modeling of malaria transmissions in Southeast Asia are given. Discrete event simulations were used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results are in good agreement with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired by Coleman et al. over 4.5 years in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in western Thailand. Application of our models is not restricted to Southeast Asia. The model and techniques are equally applicable to other regions of the world, when appropriate epidemiological and vector ecological parameters are used as input.

Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

2007-01-01

460

Secure sequential transmission of quantum information  

E-print Network

We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of $n$-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmission (QST) protocol in depth.

Kabgyun Jeong; Jaewan Kim

2015-01-19

461

Voltage Induction in Parallel Transmission Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

General formulas are developed with calculation examples for determining the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence voltage induced in transmission circuits paralleled either on the same tower or on adjacent towers. For nontransposed lines the induced voltages are a function of all three sequence currents. The positive-and negative-sequence mutual impedance is less than 10% of the self-impedance of the lines while the

J. L. Blackburn

1962-01-01

462

Tablet Content Analysis Using Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of pressed tablets with acetaminophen content between 60 mg and 120 mg were scanned in the terahertz spectral region\\u000a (2 cm?1–120 cm?1) in transmission mode. Tablet acetaminophen content was determined by a standard HPLC method. Despite the lack of discernible\\u000a spectral features and the tablets being opaque above 45 cm?1, a working partial least squares model could be constructed. The results show the

John A. Spencer; Everett H. Jefferson; Ajaz S. Hussain; David Newnham; Thomas Lo

2007-01-01

463

Improved Bend Waveguide Design for Terahertz Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bending waveguides with 90$^{\\\\circ}$ corners based on a two-dimensional photonic crystal with metallic cylinders arranged in a square lattice are studied for THz wave guiding. Considering single- and double-line defects, five different designs are investigated and assessed in terms of their transmission performance. A better structure is proposed by increasing the number of rods in the bending arc, thus achieving

E. Degirmenci; F. Surre; S. Philippe; R. Maldonado-Basilio; P. Landais

2012-01-01

464

Data transmission system by photoelectric encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component, principles as well as practical applications for photoelectric encoding transmission system are described in detail. The infrared LED and corresponding IR receiver were used in the system to realize E-O and O-E transformation. The inspected data are transmitted by IR-LED after being converted and encoded to serial signals. The infrared modulated light which is obtained by IR receiver

Xiaorong Gao; Li Wang

2001-01-01

465

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

466

Electromagnetic shock waves from transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subpicosecond electrical pulses have been observed to propagate in 5-micron coplanar transmission lines at velocities faster than the phase velocity in the underlying dielectric. This situation produces an electromagnetic shock wave in a manner similar to Cherenkov radiation and electrooptic Cherenkov radiation. Using time-domain spectroscopy, the strong frequency-dependent loss of energy in the propagating electrical pulse due to this radiation

D. Grischkowsky; I. N. Duling III; J. C. Chen; C.-C. Chi

1987-01-01

467

Gear shift controller for automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

A gear shift controller is described for an automatic transmission having a gear shift, comprising: a hydraulic torque converter; a gear change group, having a plurality of gears, each gear providing a different transmission ratio for the transmission of power from the hydraulic torque converter to the output of the transmission, each of the gears comprising a gear train; a one-way clutch interposed in at least one of the gear trains; a plurality of clutch means operatively connected with the gear trains for actuating each of the gear trains selectively; a gear change determination circuit operatively connected with the clutch means to control the operation of each of the clutch means according to a predetermined gear shifting program for engaging a gear train selected by the program; a coasting detection circuit for detecting a car in the coasting state; a gear shift limiting circuit, operatively connected with the gear change determination circuit and with the coasting detection circuit. The circuit is for actuating only the gear train in which the one-way clutch is interposed immediately, regardless of the selected gear train and of the operation of the gear change determination circuit, when the coasting detection circuit has determined the car to be coasting; and an operation transfer control system including a brake operation detecting means and a mode selector switch means for transferring the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit. The operation transfer control system is adapted to stop, upon detection of one of the brake operation and a reset state of the mode selector switch, the operation of the gear shift limiting circuit and to place the plurality of clutch means under the control of the gear change determination circuit.

Nishikawa, M.; Sakai, S.; Sakurai, T.

1987-01-20

468

Engine brake control in automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine braking control for a transmission for an automotive vehicle having an engine, the transmission including an input member drivingly coupled to the engine and an output member subject to load from driving wheels of the automotive vehicle, the transmission also including a first rotary member, a second rotary member, a hydraulically operated clutch selectively establishing a drive connection between the first rotary member and the second rotary member, and a one-way clutch arranged in parallel to the hydraulically operated clutch such that when the hydraulically operated clutch is released, the one-way clutch transmits forward torque from the first rotary member to the second rotary member, but interrupts transmission of revers torque to the first rotary member from the second rotary member, the engine braking control comprising: means for providing an engine braking command fluid pressure signal when demanded by a vehicle operator; a valve means for normally discharging hydraulic fluid from the hydraulically operated clutch to deactivate the hydraulically operated clutch, the valve means being fluidly connected to the hydraulically operated clutch, the engine braking command fluid pressure signal providing means and a drain port. The valve means including a valve spool having a first position where the hydraulically operated clutch is allowed to communicate with the drain port to permit discharge of hydraulic fluid therefrom and thus the hydraulically operated clutch is caused to be deactivated and a second position where the hydraulically operated clutch is disconnected from the drain port and allowed to communicate with the engine braking command fluid pressure signal.

Hayasaki, K.; Sugano, K.

1988-09-13

469

Cell-free Transmission of Mouse Neuroblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFTER the description of the cell-free transmission of neuroblastoma C1300, a transplantable tumour in strain A\\/J mice, by Prasad et al.1, we made ten attempts to reproduce their results, first using their extraction procedure and then by using the viral concentration procedure of Moloney2, modified by Huebner et al.3. We inoculated twenty-eight prenatal, forty-seven newborn, and sixteen 4-week-old A\\/J mice

David D. Myers; Hans Meier; ROBERT J. HUEBNER; L. VERNON; J. WALKER

1971-01-01

470

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73.1400 Section 73...73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control. The licensee...other location. The remote control system must provide sufficient...

2010-10-01

471

Noise transmission loss of aircraft panels using acoustic intensity methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-microphone, cross-spectral, acoustic intensity measurement technique was used to determine the acoustic transmission loss of three different aircraft panels. The study was conducted in the transmission loss apparatus in the Langley aircraft noise reduction laboratory.

Mcgary, M. C.

1982-01-01

472

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall...

2011-10-01

473

21 CFR 26.44 - Transmission of product evaluation reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.44 Transmission of product evaluation reports. Transmission of product evaluation reports will...

2010-04-01

474

18 CFR 37.7 - Auditing Transmission Service Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Auditing Transmission Service Information. 37.7 Section 37.7 Conservation...POWER ACT OPEN ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.7 Auditing Transmission Service Information. (a) All OASIS database...

2012-04-01

475

18 CFR 37.7 - Auditing Transmission Service Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Auditing Transmission Service Information. 37.7 Section 37.7 Conservation...POWER ACT OPEN ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.7 Auditing Transmission Service Information. (a) All OASIS database...

2014-04-01

476

18 CFR 37.7 - Auditing Transmission Service Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Auditing Transmission Service Information. 37.7 Section 37.7 Conservation...POWER ACT OPEN ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.7 Auditing Transmission Service Information. (a) All OASIS database...

2013-04-01

477

18 CFR 37.7 - Auditing Transmission Service Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Auditing Transmission Service Information. 37.7 Section 37.7 Conservation...POWER ACT OPEN ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.7 Auditing Transmission Service Information. (a) All OASIS database...

2011-04-01

478

Pipe Leakage Detection and Remote Transmission System Is Collected  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce oil leakage accidents in transmission process, this system with the advanced algorithm and precise GPRS remote transmission technology, can be in one of the circumstances, automatic completion of leak detection and alarm and troubleshooting.

Li Wei; JiLin Baicheng

2010-01-01

479

Mode conversation losses in overmolded millimeter wave transmission lines  

E-print Network

Millimeter wave transmission lines are integral components for many important applications like nuclear fusion and NMR spectroscopy. In low loss corrugated transmission lines propagating the HE,1 mode with a high waveguide ...

Tax, David S. (David Samuel)

2008-01-01

480

Statistical Image Reconstruction Algorithms Using Paraboloidal Surrogates for PET Transmission  

E-print Network

Statistical Image Reconstruction Algorithms Using Paraboloidal Surrogates for PET Transmission Reconstruction Algorithms Using Paraboloidal Surrogates for PET Transmission Scans by Hakan Erdogan Chair: Jeffrey A. Fessler Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a diagnostic imaging tool that provides images

Fessler, Jeffrey A.

481

Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

2008-02-01

482

42 CFR 412.614 - Transmission of patient assessment data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Transmission of patient assessment data. 412.614 Section...Units § 412.614 Transmission of patient assessment data. (a) Data format...Using the computerized version of the patient assessment instrument available from...

2010-10-01

483

SURVIVAL AND TRANSMISSION OF PATHOGENS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide and apply scientific knowledge regarding the survival and transmission of pathogens in the clinical setting to their potential survival and transmission in the natural environment. Similar to the hospital environment where pathogens reside in organic debris treated wi...

484

Transmission and reflection properties of composite metamaterials in free space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured transmission and reflection from split ring resonators, thin wires, and composite metamaterials in free space. X-band measurement exhibits high transmission magnitude for frequencies where both SRR and wire have effective negative permeability and permittivity, respectively.

K. Aydin; E. Cubukcu; E. Ozbay; M. Bayindir

2003-01-01

485

Occupational HIV Transmission and Prevention among Health Care Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir Occupational HIV Transmission and Prevention Among Health Care Workers Fast Facts Occupational transmission of HIV to ... every hour counts. Building Better Prevention Programs for Health Care Workers Continued diligence in the following areas is ...

486

49 CFR 220.61 - Radio transmission of mandatory directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio transmission of mandatory directives. ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.61 Radio transmission of mandatory directives....

2013-10-01

487

49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial...

2010-10-01

488

49 CFR 220.33 - Receiving a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Receiving a radio transmission. 220.33 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.33 Receiving a radio transmission. (a) Upon receiving...

2010-10-01

489

49 CFR 220.31 - Initiating a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Initiating a radio transmission. 220.31 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.31 Initiating a radio transmission. Before transmitting...

2010-10-01

490

49 CFR 220.33 - Receiving a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Receiving a radio transmission. 220.33 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.33 Receiving a radio transmission. (a) Upon receiving...

2012-10-01

491

49 CFR 220.61 - Radio transmission of mandatory directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio transmission of mandatory directives. ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.61 Radio transmission of mandatory directives....

2014-10-01

492

49 CFR 220.61 - Radio transmission of mandatory directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio transmission of mandatory directives. ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.61 Radio transmission of mandatory directives....

2011-10-01

493

49 CFR 220.31 - Initiating a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Initiating a radio transmission. 220.31 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.31 Initiating a radio transmission. Before transmitting...

2014-10-01

494

49 CFR 220.33 - Receiving a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Receiving a radio transmission. 220.33 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.33 Receiving a radio transmission. (a) Upon receiving...

2013-10-01

495

49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial...

2012-10-01

496

49 CFR 220.33 - Receiving a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Receiving a radio transmission. 220.33 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.33 Receiving a radio transmission. (a) Upon receiving...

2011-10-01

497

49 CFR 220.33 - Receiving a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Receiving a radio transmission. 220.33 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.33 Receiving a radio transmission. (a) Upon receiving...

2014-10-01

498

49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ending a radio transmission. 220.35 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for...

2012-10-01

499

49 CFR 220.61 - Radio transmission of mandatory directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio transmission of mandatory directives. ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.61 Radio transmission of mandatory directives....

2012-10-01

500

49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial...

2011-10-01