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1

Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

NONE

1996-05-01

2

Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes  

SciTech Connect

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

Not Available

1989-10-01

3

Transmission INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Transmission INTRODUCTION An electrical power system requires constant, second by second, balancing of supply, demand, and transmission capability. Transmission system operators are primarily responsible for maintaining this delicate balance. Transmission system operations are organized into "control areas," whose

4

8. Transmission 52 8. Transmission  

E-print Network

8. Transmission 52 ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. Transmission 8.1 Introduction The classical approach for calculations of structure-borne sound and vibration transmission is based on the assumption of a source performing rigid body motions. A multi- point coupling

Berlin,Technische Universität

5

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Español: ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

6

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

7

Transmission eigenvalues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission eigenvalue problem. The need to answer these questions became important after a series of papers by Cakoni et al [5], and Cakoni et al [6] suggesting that these transmission eigenvalues could be used to obtain qualitative information about the material properties of the scattering object from far-field data. The first answer to the existence of transmission eigenvalues in the general case was given in 2008 when Päivärinta and Sylvester showed the existence of transmission eigenvalues for the index of refraction sufficiently large [7] followed in 2010 by the paper of Cakoni et al who removed the size restriction on the index of refraction [8]. More importantly, in the latter it was shown that transmission eigenvalues yielded qualitative information on the material properties of the scattering object and Cakoni et al established in [9] that transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the Tikhonov regularized solution of the far-field equation. Since the appearance of these papers there has been an explosion of interest in the transmission eigenvalue problem (we refer the reader to our recent survey paper [10] for a detailed account of the developments in this field up to 2012) and the papers in this special issue are representative of the myriad directions that this research has taken. Indeed, we are happy to see that many open theoretical and numerical questions raised in [10] have been answered (totally or partially) in the contributions of this special issue: the existence of transmission eigenvalues with minimal assumptions on the contrast, the numerical evaluation of transmission eigenvalues, the inverse spectral problem, applications to non-destructive testing, etc. In addition to these topics, many other new investigations and research directions have been proposed as we shall see in the brief content summary below. A number of papers in this special issue are concerned with the question of existence of transmission eigenvalues and the structure of the associated transmission eigenfunctions. The three papers by respectively Robbiano [11], Blasten and P

Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

2013-10-01

8

Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this novel approach significantly decreases the computational effort when compared to conventional approaches, as it requires only local information of the sets of coordinates involved. Numerical simulations and experimental examples are presented and discussed, to illustrate the proposed developments.

Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

2014-10-01

9

Transmission Communication  

E-print Network

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate Communication System (continue) . A pair of transmitter (coder, modulator) and receiver (demodulator, decoder) is called transceiver . Information theory provides us basic communication theory for communication system

Chen, Sheng

10

Prion transmission  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

Maddison, Ben C

2010-01-01

11

Rotorcraft transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1990-01-01

12

Transmission Information  

E-print Network

Transmission Half of the unit: . Information Theory . MODEM (modulator and demodulator) Professor Sheng Chen Some improved 2G, HSCSD: high­speed circuit switched data, GPRS: general packet radio service, EDGE source demodu . Input/output are considered digital (analogue sampled/quantised) . CODEC, MODEM, channel

Chen, Sheng

13

Information Transmission Media  

E-print Network

Outline Information Transmission Media Multiplexing PSTN Local Loops Switching Physical Layer Transmission Media Multiplexing PSTN Local Loops Switching 1 Outline 2 Information Bandwidth Capacity Modulation 3 Transmission Media Guided Transmission Wireless Transmission 4 Multiplexing FDM WDM TDM CDMA 5

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

14

Information Transmission Media  

E-print Network

Outline Information Transmission Media Modulation and Multiplexing Local Loops Physical Layer Transmission Media Modulation and Multiplexing Local Loops 1 Outline 2 Information Bandwidth Capacity 3 Transmission Media Guided Transmission Wireless (Unguided) Transmission 4 Modulation and Multiplexing

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

15

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

16

Rotorcraft transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1987-01-01

17

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2005 Summary and Recommendations ............................................................. 1 Transmission Transmission System Problems............................................................................. 4

18

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2005 ............................................................. 1 Transmission Planning and Permitting.............................................................................................. 2 Transmission System Problems

19

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

20

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2007. Blevins #12; i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The 2007 Strategic Transmission Investment Plan was prepared: Bartridge, James, Judy Grau, Mark Hesters, Don Kondoleon, Chuck Najarian. 2007 Strategic Transmission

21

STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN Prepared in Support of the 2007 B. B. Blevins Executive Director #12; i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The 2007 Strategic Transmission Kondoleon, Chuck Najarian. 2007 Strategic Transmission Investment Plan. California Energy Commission

22

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01

23

Merchant transmission investment  

E-print Network

We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2003-01-01

24

Flexible AC transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and components of the flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) are described. FACTS, designed to overcome the limitations of the present mechanically controlled AC power transmission systems, uses reliable, high-speed power electronic controllers. Its benefits are examined. These include greater control of power, so that it flows on the prescribed transmission routes; secure loading of transmission lines to levels

N. G. Hingorani

1993-01-01

25

Transmission Cycles of Plague  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

American Society For Microbiology;

2004-08-27

26

Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Español: Transmisión "Chickenpox Parties"—Don't Take the ... For more information about how shingles spreads, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

27

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is spread ... treatment. There are no reports of Lyme disease transmission from breast milk. Although no cases of Lyme ...

28

Transmission of Mumps  

MedlinePLUS

... this page: About CDC.gov . Mumps Share Compartir Transmission of Mumps Español: Transmisión de las paperas Mumps ... and rubs their mouth or nose. Most mumps transmission likely occurs before the salivary glands begin to ...

29

Genetically engineered neural transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural transmission is a communication between neurons and target cells, resulting in behavioral and physiological changes. Defective or altered neural transmission is thought to occur in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative illnesses. To probe the biological consequences of defective or altered neural transmission, various genetically engineered transgenic mouse models have been developed, together with conventional pharmacological manipulation. Via genetic manipulation, we are

J H Son; T H Joh

1997-01-01

30

Scale effects in transmissivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneity accounts for several paradoxes in groundwater flow and solute transport. One of the most striking observations is the emergence of scale effects in transmissivity, that is, the increase in effective transmissivity (or hydraulic conductivity, for that matter) with increasing scale of observation. Traditional stochastic approaches, where transmissivity is treated as a multilog-normal random function, lead to a large-scale effective

Xavier Sánchez-Vila; Jesús Carrera; Jorge P. Girardi

1996-01-01

31

Transmission through the  

E-print Network

Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D. Calabuig, R. Gohary, H. Yanikomero. 1/22 Introduction System model Optimization Algorithm Conclusions Optimum Transmission through the Gaussian Multiple Access Engineering Carleton University Ottawa, Canada July 8, 2013 #12;Optimum Transmission through the GMAC D

Yanikomeroglu, Halim

32

Performance Incentives for Transmission  

E-print Network

Performance Incentives for Transmission FERC's Standard Market Design should accommodate a performance-based regulation mechanism that is designed to align the interests of transmission operators to investment, transmission investors would be entitled to the CRRs or CRR auc- tion revenues engendered

Oren, Shmuel S.

33

Space laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed laser transmission applications are reviewed. Technologies for laser power transmissions are assessed. Feasible laser mission systems are set out. Components by wavelength are summarized. Feasible space to space laser power transmission systems are summarized. Space laser transmitter masses for 1 MW and 100 KW output power are summarized.

1982-01-01

34

RF Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. After completing this module, learners will be able to describe the type of transmission lines needed in RF systems and how transmission lines work together with other RF system components to deliver maximum power while maintaining reflected power. They also learn how to interpret transmission line specifications, select a transmission line for a given application, calculate transmission line power losses, and measure standing wave ratio. Finally, this module will use visual examples and present industry best practices for identifying type of connectors used with transmission lines and procedures for transmission line testing and troubleshooting.

2012-12-07

35

Series Transmission Line Transformer  

SciTech Connect

A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

2004-06-29

36

Patterns of transmission investment  

E-print Network

This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2005-01-01

37

Priority Encoding Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called Priority Encoding Transmission,for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. Whena message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value foreach part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodesthe message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possiblymultiple) receivers. The priority value of each part of the messagedetermines the

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1994-01-01

38

Priority encoding transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called priority encoding transmission, for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. When a message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value for each part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodes the message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possibly multiple) receivers. The priority value of each

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1996-01-01

39

Transmission Enhancement Technology Report  

E-print Network

of Existing Transmission 6 5. Potential New Equipment to Improve Transmission Capability 9 6. Potential New parties for the sites that should be studied as potential locations for new generation and to consult for the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act 2002, Public Law 107-66, states, "Within the amount

40

75 FR 26991 - Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County, Oregon  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...announces a comment period and proposed sale of five parcels...public land totaling 640 acres located in Deschutes County, Oregon...the public comment period and any person may submit written...Power for a 115KV electrical transmission line serialized OR-17337; (4) Quantum Communications, LLC, for...within which the lands are located; or (4) States,......

2010-05-13

41

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

42

Multiplex television transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

Reed, W. R.

1967-01-01

43

Designing electricity transmission auctions  

E-print Network

The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

2012-10-26

44

47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite...transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite...wideband digital services, including digital video services, if the maximum input...

2012-10-01

45

[Nosocomial transmission of listeriosis].  

PubMed

Listeriosis is a severe and possibly fatal disease. Its incidence in the Czech Republic is low, with the most common vehicles of transmission being cheese, pastes, meat products, and salads. Nosocomial transmission is rare in the Czech Republic. Phylogenetic analysis and genotyping of isolated Listeria strains are very helpful in identifying the source of infection. A careful adherence to the preventive anti-epidemic measures in the health care institutions is still critically important. PMID:25025675

Jágrová, Z; Karpíšková, R; Marešová, M; Polanecká, L

2014-06-01

46

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

47

HIV Transmission Networks  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Over the past several years, one segment of the complex field of HIV transmission dynamics —heterosexual networks—has dominated theoretical and empirical investigation. This review provides an overview of recent work on HIV risks and networks, with a focus on recent findings in heterosexual network dynamics. Recent findings Qualitative (ethnographic) assessments have demonstrated the heterogeneity and complexity of heterosexual connections, particular in Africa where tradition, official polygamy, and unofficial multi-person arrangements lead to concurrency of sexual partnerships. A large, quantitative study on Likoma Island, Malawi, demonstrated the considerable, interlocking sexual connections that arise from a high-concurrency sexual setting, even with a low average number of partnerships (low-degree) of long duration. Such settings, as suggested by ethnographic studies, may be common in Africa and, coupled with newer information about transmissibility during acute and early infection, may provide a plausible explanation for endemic transmission and possibly for rapid HIV propagation. Summary Recognition of high- concurrency, low-degree networks is an important development for understanding HIV transmission dynamics. Their relevance to heterosexual transmission, and possible extension to other epidemiologic settings, reinforces the heterogeneity and complexity of HIV transmission dynamics. PMID:19532062

Rothenberg, Richard

2010-01-01

48

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission  

E-print Network

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) provides in situ capabilities that enable atomic-resolution imaging

49

TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 4 TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber 4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio.4 Line-of-Sight Transmission Free Space Loss Atmospheric Absorption Multipath Refraction 4.5 Recommended

Scarano, Vittorio

50

Torque feedback transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

Whalen, B.L.

1987-01-20

51

Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 ± 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 × 10-5 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 ± 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 × 10-4 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported spectrogram of a fundamental mode launch that does not include excitation to asymmetric modes; in stark contrast to a pull in which our cleaning protocol is not followed. These results depend critically on the pre-pull cleanliness and when properly following our pulling protocols are in excellent agreement with simulations.

Hoffman, J. E.; Ravets, S.; Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Kordell, P. R.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

2014-06-01

52

Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

53

China's transmission mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

Thirty years ago, when the People's Republic of China was founded, there were only three high-voltage transmission grids in the entire country, totaling only 500 km (311 mi.) in length. Today, there are 13 distinct major regional networks, plus a number of smaller ones, with a cumulative length of 230,000 km (142,900 mi) and operating at voltages up to 330 kV. Those transmission lines that did exist in 1949 operated at only 35 kV, with the single exception of one regional grid of 220 kV in northeastern China. Even for those modest voltages, essentially all transmission and distribution equipment had to be imported.

Defang, C.

1980-08-01

54

Advanced rotorcraft transmission program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

55

Transmission line capital costs  

SciTech Connect

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01

56

Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

2011-01-01

57

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Goodhew, Peter; Matter.org

58

Quantum Anonymous Transmissions  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of hiding sender and receiver of classical and quantum bits (qubits), even if all physical transmissions can be monitored. We present a quantum protocol for sending and receiving classical bits anonymously, which is completely traceless: it successfully prevents later reconstruction of the sender. We show that this is not possible classically. It appears that entangled quantum states are uniquely suited for traceless anonymous transmissions. We then extend this protocol to send and receive qubits anonymously. In the process we introduce a new primitive called anonymous entanglement, which may be useful in other contexts as well.

Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

2004-09-28

59

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

1991-01-01

60

Production and Transmission Measurement  

E-print Network

Production and Transmission of Light · Measurement · Light and color production ­ Pigments;Sources of color · Pigments ­ Molecules which selectively absorb photons of some wavelengths and transmit others ­ Size of molecule affects wavelength absorption ­ Short chain molecules require high energy

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

61

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

62

The electrical variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, an electromechanical converter with two mechanical ports and one electrical port (consisting of two concentric machines and two inverters) is considered. This converter works as a continuously variable transmission between the mechanical ports and may, for example, replace the clutch, gearbox, generator, and starter motor in a motor vehicle. The working principle of this converter is explained. Next, a

Martin J. Hoeijmakers; Jan A. Ferreira

2004-01-01

63

The electric variable transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, an electromechanical converter with two mechanical ports and one electrical port (consisting of two concentric machines and two inverters) is considered. This converter works as a continuously variable transmission between the mechanical ports and may, e.g., replace the clutch, gearbox, generator, and starter motor in a motor vehicle. The working principle of this converter is explained. Next, a new

Martin J. Hoeijmakers; Jan A. Ferreira

2006-01-01

64

Packetized voice transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of transmitting packetized voice signals are reviewed and the distortions resulting from digitization, speech detection, channel errors, and constant and stochastic transmission delays are analyzed. Measures to overcome distortions, and progress and goals in experimental networks which include satellite-based experiments are discussed.

Noll, P.; Leesemann, V.; Wessels, G.

1984-11-01

65

Torque feedback transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the

Whalen

1987-01-01

66

Multistate differential transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a multistate transmission suitable for a colinear configuration having a stationary housing and an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a first pair of planetary gear trains comprising a first common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and a planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the

Whalen

1989-01-01

67

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

68

Laser power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

Conway, Edmund J.

1992-01-01

69

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

70

A microwave transmission spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and performance of a microwave transmission spectrometer operating in the 12.4-18 GHz frequency range is described. This spectrometer measures the microwave power passing through a magnetic, metallic sample as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Significant features of the apparatus are the use of a solid state microwave amplifier as the homodyne receiver's front end and the inclusion of a calibration signal which is injected into the receiver simultaneously with the signal to be measured. The excellent noise figure (<2 dB) and gain (?34 dB) of the amplifier yield a receiver sensitivity of ?10-20 W in a 1 Hz bandwidth. The present microwave source is a dielectric resonant oscillator which generates 100 mW at 16.95 GHz, although the system can also operate with a klystron or microwave sweep oscillator locked to any frequency between 12.4 and 18 GHz. The first use of the system was to measure the transmission through the amorphous ferromagnet Metglas(R) 2605SC (Allied Chemical Corporation). A peak in the transmission was observed at ferromagnetic resonance. This transmission peak was contaminated by a signal going around, not through, the sample which we tentatively identify with surface acoustic waves.

Waldfried, Carlo; Wadewitz, Scott; Dewar, G.

1994-05-01

71

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

72

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

73

Transmission of gaseous hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

For any hydrogen energy system, pipeline transport of gaseous hydrogen is clearly a major element. A summary is provided of the present status of hydrogen pipeline knowledge. Gas pipelines are considered along with aspects of gas pipeline dynamics, gas pipeline costs, hydrogen pipeline analyses, hydrogen pipeline safety, and hydrogen pipeline operating experience. It is found that the transmission of hydrogen

G. G. Leeth

1977-01-01

74

Drill string transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28

75

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advance configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

76

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

77

Video transmission for telemedicine.  

PubMed

The transmission of moving pictures to remote locations is an important part of telemedicine. Although the first videoconferencing demonstrations were performed in the 1930s, the technology is still fragmented and its quality is sometimes too poor for it to be useful. Conventional television technology is analogue (the fundamental television standards were developed before the Second World War) and does not 'fit' the digital world very well. This paper reviews video transmission and videoconferencing technologies and the results that can be expected. While trained professionals may be able to make use of poor-quality video systems, real advances in telemedicine require studio-quality video, which is possible only with high-bandwidth technology. PMID:10505363

Squibb, N J

1999-01-01

78

Data transmission networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

Alexovich, Robert

1990-01-01

79

The Transmission Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A typical commercial transmission electron microscope (TEM) costs about 5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to5 for each electron volt (eV) of energy in the beam\\u000a and, if you add on all available options, it can easily cost up to 10 per

David B. Williams; C. Barry Carter

80

Merchant Transmission Investment  

E-print Network

TO investment mediated through a regional planning process appears to be gaining favor. 9 operating or SO) functions in this model is motivated by two considerations. First, a market driven transmission system leads to multiple owners of parts of the grid; while... to exercise market power against themselves (Joskow 2002). The configuration of the legacy network must be taken into account in the evaluation of alternative institutional arrangements to govern its operation and investments to expand its capabilities...

Joskow, Paul; Tirole, Jean

2004-06-16

81

Nosocomial transmission of SARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial\\u000a outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high\\u000a risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta\\/fomites. Good\\u000a hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to

Nelson Lee; Joseph J. Y. Sung

2003-01-01

82

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission.  

PubMed

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts' biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-05-20

83

Manual transmission synchronizer  

SciTech Connect

A transmission synchronizer is described which consists of: a synchro hub formed with an aperture; a coupling sleeve formed with first splines on an internal surface thereof, the splines having chamfers at each end; a baulk ring operatively associated with a transmission gear, the baulk ring being formed with second splines which are engageable with the first splines; and a single piece spring disposed in the aperture, the spring comprising: first and second side members extending radially with respect to the synchro hub and being flexible toward each other in a direction which is essentially normal to the radius of the synchro hub, the first and second side members being formed with portions which are engageable with the chamfers on the first splines; a base member which extends radially inward into the aperture to a level which is radially inferior of the second splines formed on the baulk ring and which is engageable with the baulk ring to bias the baulk ring in an axial direction thereof upon axial movement of the coupling sleeve toward the transmission gear.

Hiraiwa, K.; Kawaguchi, A.

1986-04-29

84

Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Causes & Transmission Share Compartir Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by ... certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease. Transmission Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread through the exchange ...

85

Transmission eigenvalues for elliptic operators  

E-print Network

A reduction of the transmission eigenvalue problem for multiplicative sign-definite perturbations of elliptic operators with constant coefficients to an eigenvalue problem for a non-selfadjoint compact operator is given. Sufficient conditions for the existence of transmission eigenvalues and completeness of generalized eigenstates for the transmission eigenvalue problem are derived. In the trace class case, the generic existence of transmission eigenvalues is established.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-07-03

86

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution...191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering...

2011-10-01

87

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution...191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering...

2012-10-01

88

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution...191.13 Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering...

2010-10-01

89

Planetary Transmission Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the prediction error. The constrained adaptive lifting diagnostic algorithm is validated using data collected from the University of Maryland Transmission Test Rig and the results are discussed.

Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

2004-01-01

90

Conventional transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

2014-01-01

91

Conventional transmission electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

2014-02-01

92

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

93

Transmission vibration viscous damper  

SciTech Connect

A manual transmission is described comprising an input shaft adapted to be clutched to the crankshaft of an internal combustion engine, the input shaft having an input gear integral; the input gear forms with peripheral teeth and has a concentric axial bore formed as an integral part of the input shaft; a transmission output shaft supported at its forward end by journal means located in the axial bore; the output shaft having a speed gear formed with peripheral teeth journalled thereon, a countershaft having an axis of rotation parallel with the axis of rotation of the output shaft. The improvement wherein the countershaft has a viscous fluid damper coupling supported thereon. The coupling comprises a first driven gear journalled on the countershaft, and the first drive gear has peripheral teeth in constant meshed engagement with the input gear peripheral teeth. A second driven gear is fixed on the countershaft for rotation. The second driven gear has peripheral teeth in constant meshed engagement with the speed gear peripheral teeth, a diametrical through bore extending through the countershaft intermediate the first and second driven gears. Each first and second driven gears formed with a set of longitudinally extending mirror image axial teeth are arranged concentrically about axis of rotation. The sets of axial teeth are sized to mesh in a loose fitting manner defining predetermined interconnected clearance spaces between the sets of axial teeth.

Filkins, T.J.

1987-07-07

94

Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

Richard E. Zehner

2012-02-01

95

Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures  

E-print Network

Light Transmission through Sub-Wavelength Apertures #12;#12;VRIJE UNIVERSITEIT Light Transmission Transmission through a Single Sub-wavelength Slit 59 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.2 The configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3.3 Transmission

Visser, Taco D.

96

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission  

E-print Network

Power of TDT The Power of Transmission Disequilibrium Tests for Quantitative Traits Jinming Li propose to group haplotypes on the basis of haplotype similarity before performing transmission words: transmission/disequilibrium test, quantitative trait, haplotype INTRODUCTION The transmission

Sun, Fengzhu - Sun, Fengzhu

97

Transmission seal development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

Brien, M.

1977-01-01

98

Television Transmission Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

1996-01-01

99

Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

2012-10-12

100

Nature limits filarial transmission  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

Chandra, Goutam

2008-01-01

101

Jupiter's transmission spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In relation to the gas giants that have been observed, Jupiter is located relatively far from its star. Observing Jupiter as an exoplanet can provide information about what to expect when getting data from similar gas giants around other stars. Even though Jupiter's transmission spectrum can be difficult to observe when looking from the Earth, it is possible to do it by using one of the Moons orbiting the planet as a mirror while in Jupiter's shadow. For example, Formisano et al. (2003) reported the detection of Jupiter's methane absorption bands when the Cassini VIMS experiment observed the occultation of the moon Io during its flyby in December 2000. Here, we present the first detection of Jupiter's transmission spectrum from ground-based observations. The first set of observations were taken from La Palma, Spain on the night of the 6th of October 2012, with the William Herchel Telescope (WHT) using the Long-slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) instrument, which covers the spectral range of 900- 2400 nm with a spectral resolution, R, around 2000: we used Ganymede as a mirror that night. The second set of observations were taken during the nights of the 10th and 17th of November, 2012 from Cerro Paranal using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and Xshooter, a multiwavelength spectrograph with three different arms: UVB, with the wavelength range of 300- 559.5 nm and R=9900, VIS for 559.5-1024 nm and R=18200 and NIR, for 1024-2480 nm and R=10500. During the first night, Europa was used as a mirror, while during the second one it was Ganymede again.

González-Merino, B.; Montañes-Rodríguez, P.; Palle, E.

2014-03-01

102

Arbovirus Phenotype Alters Transmission Potential.  

E-print Network

??Extrinsic and environmental factors are known to affect the transmission of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), including variations in the arthropod vector populations. Differences among these factors… (more)

Christofferson, Rebecca C.

2011-01-01

103

Worldwide underground transmission cable practices  

SciTech Connect

Underground transmission cables are a vital part of any power transmission system which means that the selection of a particular cable must be based upon many considerations ranging from the cost of losses to environmental concerns. The focus of this paper is on the design, selection, and testing of transmission cables within specific geographic regions. Design considerations on a regional basis includes temperature constraints, voltage and voltage stress limits, capacity and ampacity, backfill requirements, cooling and bonding. The material presented in this paper covers land based transmission cables only. Submarine cables, URD or UD cables are not included.

Orton, H.E. [Consulting Engineers International Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)] [Consulting Engineers International Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Samm, R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)] [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-04-01

104

The interior transmission problem and bounds on transmission eigenvalues  

E-print Network

We study the interior transmission eigenvalue problem for sign-definite multiplicative perturbations of the Laplacian in a bounded domain. We show that all but finitely many complex transmission eigenvalues are confined to a parabolic neighborhood of the positive real axis.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-09-28

105

Transmission of digital data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

Showen, Charles R.

1971-01-01

106

Sealed pressure transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive program was developed and carried out by The Babcock and Wilcox company (BandW) for the design, fabrication, and testing of both pressure and differential pressure transducers that will operate reliably, accurately, and safely at process operating conditions of 380 psi and 800/degree/F. All of the development work was preformed at the BandW Research and Development Division. The program included the following tasks: project work plan, survey of past experience, and preliminary design; detailed design; and construction, fabrication, and laboratory testing. The field testing was conducted at the Stearns-Catalytic, Inc. coal liquefaction pilot plant located in Wilsonville, Alabama. On completion of the field test, the instrumentation was returned to the BandW Research and Development Center for analysis. A previous report, DOE/PC/7005-9, Sept 1987, documented the development, testing, and evaluation of sealed pressure transmission systems for high-temperature, high-pressure applications such as coal liquefaction. This supplemental report documents the analysis of the pressure system components following the field tests. 12 figs., 1 tab.

Berthold, J.W.; Ghering, W.L.; McCue, T.R.

1988-07-01

107

EC Transmission Line Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-05-01

108

Semiclassical transmission across transition states  

E-print Network

It is shown that the probability of quantum-mechanical transmission across a phase space bottleneck can be compactly approximated using an operator derived from a complex Poincar\\'e return map. This result uniformly incorporates tunnelling effects with classically-allowed transmission and generalises a result previously derived for a classically small region of phase space.

Stephen C. Creagh

2005-06-01

109

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01

110

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

Microsoft Academic Search

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below:

Terry Allison; Steve Wiese

2000-01-01

111

A transmission line phase stabilizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To meet the phase stability requirements of certain experiments performed with the Deep Space Network, transmission lines carrying reference signals must be stabilized to reduce changes in their electrical length due to mechanical movement or changes in ambient temperature. A transmission line phase stabilizer being developed at JPL to perform this function is described.

Lutes, G. F.

1979-01-01

112

Amphibian ranavirus transmission and persistence  

E-print Network

Amphibian ranavirus transmission and persistence Jesse Brunner With an emphasis on ecological & Owens 2002 " ATV Brunner et al. 2005 " FV3 Pearman et al. 2004, Hoverman et al. 2010, Warne et al or Cophixalus ornatus adults (Cullen & Owen 2002) #12;Routes of transmission: direct contact Brunner et al

Gray, Matthew

113

Energy Transmission and Infrastructure  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers in developing transportation policies; energy audits and efficiency studies for Oberlin-area businesses and Oberlin College; identification of barriers to residential energy efficiency and development of programming to remove these barriers; mapping of the solar-photovoltaic and wind-energy supply chains in northwest Ohio; and opportunities for vehicle sharing and collaboration among the ten organizations in Lorain County from the private, government, non-profit, and educational sectors. With non-grant funds, organizations have begun or completed projects that drew on the findings of the studies, including: creation of a residential energy-efficiency program for the Oberlin community; installation of energy-efficient lighting in Oberlin College facilities; and development by the City of Oberlin and Oberlin College of a 2.27 megawatt solar photovoltaic facility that is expected to produce 3,000 megawatt-hours of renewable energy annually, 12% of the College’s yearly power needs. Implementation of these and other projects is evidence of the economic feasibility and technical effectiveness of grant-supported studies, and additional projects are expected to advance to implementation in the coming years. The public has benefited through improved energydelivery systems and reduced energy use for street lighting in Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; new opportunities for assistance and incentives for residential energy efficiency in the Oberlin community; new opportunities for financial and energy savings through vehicle collaboration within Lorain County; and decreased reliance on fossil fuels and expanded production of renewable energy in the region. The dissemination conference and the summary report developed for the conference also benefited the public, but making the findings and recommendations of the regional studies broadly available to elected officials, city managers, educators, representatives of the private sector, and the general public.

Mathison, Jane

2012-12-31

114

NWCC Transmission Case Study III  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 Transmission System Improvements for Wind Energy Development in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains: Opportunities and Obstacles. This case study set out to ascertain the validity of three assumptions from the perspectives of stakeholders involved in wind energy and transmission issues in the Upper Midwest and Great Plains. The assumptions, and the stakeholders' reactions to each, are summarized below: Assumption 1--Transmission system improvements would provide significant benefits to the electricity network and its customers. Respondents acknowledge the potential for overall system benefits in the form of reduced line losses, improved grid stability and reliability, and enhanced ability to conduct spot market transactions. They also agree that these benefits relate to specific regional needs. However, there is disagreement over the extent of other benefits such as efficiency gains and cost savings from reduced line losses. Further, environmental and community interest groups point out that none of these benefits are realized without significant financial, environmental and social costs. Assumption 2--The benefits of transmission improvements would be helpful, but not confined, to wind power. All respondents agree that wind energy could benefit from transmission system improvements. But they also acknowledge, reluctantly, in the case of environmental stakeholders, that the benefits of an improved transmission system cannot be limited to environmentally preferable forms of generation. Some environmental and community advocate respondents also feel that transmission system improvement projects can be avoided altogether through energy conservation and efficiency measures, and by substituting wind energy for fossil generation. Assumption 3--Transmission alliances among stakeholders within and external to the wind community can provide benefits in the public interest. The fractured, multi-jurisdictional governance of the regional transmission system, and the distrust and diversity of perspectives among affected stakeholders, may make the formation of multi-stakeholder alliances necessary to accomplishing transmission goals. If the wind industry and utilities want to partner with environmental and community advocate groups in supporting a transmission project, they may have to convince these groups that the project would result in a net environmental benefit. The project proponents would have to make the case that the benefits of the additional wind energy will at least offset the emissions of any additional fossil generation made possible by the transmission project, as well as offset the environmental impact of the transmission project itself.

Terry Allison, Steve Wiese

2000-03-01

115

78 FR 59666 - Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and Request...hereby announces updates to its Transmission Infrastructure Program (``the...

2013-09-27

116

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

E-print Network

Detailing the Electrical Transmission System Expansion Planconnected electrical network. The transmission element thatelectrical system modeling. Summary All of the studies in our sample address transmission

Mills, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

117

Two-particle quantum transmission  

E-print Network

Two-photon interference is a fundamental phenomenon in quantum mechanics and stands at the base of numerous experimental observations. Here another manifestation of this phenomenon is described, taking place at a Y junction. Specifically it is shown how the r^2+t^2 term which is behind previous observations of two-photon interference, may give rise to different states at a beam-splitter and different two-particle transmission coefficients at a Y junction. Different from previous descriptions of quantum transmission based on one-particle physics, the enhanced transmission described here is due to two-particle physics.

Ron Folman

2012-01-15

118

Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2004-12-14

119

Load Distribution in Transmissions "Split"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transmission system of a helicopter must meet particularly critical requirements. It must transmit engine power to the rotor, at the same time ensuring a typical speed reduction of 60 to 1. It must also be safe, reliable, light, and reach a high level of performance while, at the same time, it must produce few vibrations and little noise. Helicopter transmissions have achieved high-level performances thanks to the combination of analyses, experiments, and the application of practical field experience. However, the new generation of helicopters will require transmission systems that are even safer, lighter, less noisy, and more reliable.

Krantz, Timothy L.; Delgado, Irebert R.

1998-01-01

120

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustin; Contigiani, Marta S.

2013-01-01

121

Video transmission over wireless networks  

E-print Network

Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks are addressed in this work. We first consider error control and power allocation for transmitting wireless video over CDMA networks in conjunction with multiuser detection. We map a...

Zhao, Shengjie

2005-08-29

122

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

1983-10-01

123

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

1983-01-01

124

Free-Space Power Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

1989-01-01

125

Hidden hazards of HCV transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem that has important epidemiological and clinical consequences. It has\\u000a been well established that exposure to infected blood is the main risk factor for HCV transmission. However, in 20% of cases\\u000a the agent transmission occurs by unknown route or in the presence of an unidentified source of infection. Understanding of\\u000a the epidemiology

Robério Amorim de Almeida Pondé

2011-01-01

126

32 CFR 2001.46 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmission. 2001.46 Section 2001.46...INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.46 Transmission. (a) General. Classified...its delivery is completed. (c) Transmission methods within and between the...

2012-07-01

127

21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section...Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The electronic...pharmacy] on [date/time] and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic...

2011-04-01

128

32 CFR 2001.46 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmission. 2001.46 Section 2001.46...INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.46 Transmission. (a) General. Classified...its delivery is completed. (c) Transmission methods within and between the...

2010-07-01

129

78 FR 30804 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM13-9-000] Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY...1\\ Proposed Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standard...also propose to approve the retirement of the currently-effective...consolidated transmission planning standard,...

2013-05-23

130

21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section...Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The electronic...pharmacy] on [date/time] and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic...

2010-04-01

131

32 CFR 2001.46 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmission. 2001.46 Section 2001.46...INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.46 Transmission. (a) General. Classified...its delivery is completed. (c) Transmission methods within and between the...

2011-07-01

132

21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section...Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The electronic...pharmacy] on [date/time] and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic...

2012-04-01

133

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight reduction of 25 percent, an internal noise reduction of 10 dB plus a mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) of 5000 hours compared to a state-of-the-art baseline transmission. The split-torque transmission developed using face gears achieved a 40 percent weight reduction, a 9.6 dB noise reduction and a 5270 hour MTBR in meeting or exceeding the above goals. Aircraft mission performance and cost improvements resulting from installation of the ART would include a 17 to 22 percent improvement in loss-exchange ratio during combat, a 22 percent improvement in mean-time-between-failure, a transmission acquisition cost savings of 23 percent of $165K, per unit, and an average transmission direct operating cost savings of 33 percent, or $24K per flight hour. Face gear tests performed successfully at NASA Lewis are summarized. Also, program results of advanced material tooth scoring tests, single tooth bending tests, Charpy impact energy tests, compact tension fracture toughness tests and tensile strength tests are summarized.

Heath, Gregory F.; Bossler, Robert B., Jr.

1993-01-01

134

Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

Shang, Wenzhuo

135

Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion  

E-print Network

Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion Initial target: preheated & magnetized Subsequent for the FRC. Abstract Block Diagram theta coil transmission line Bias cap. bank maincapacitor inductor PI cap

136

Continuously variable vehicular transmission for reducing transmission torque applied to belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for a vehicle, comprising: a torque converter driven by an engine; an input shaft connected to an output of the torque converter; a transmission output shaft; a transmission mechanism of variable ratio including a planetary gear mechanism and a controller for controlling rotational states of elements of the planetary gear mechanism. The transmission

M. Sumiyoshi; F. Matsunari

1987-01-01

137

Wave transmission through structural inserts.  

PubMed

The transmission of waves through two discontinuities in a one-dimensional waveguide system is considered. Attention is focused on transmission through a structural insert, which is defined here to be a waveguide segment which is inserted into an otherwise continuous structural member with different properties. A general expression for the net transmission through the insert is found. It has bandpass/stop characteristics and its frequency average is somewhat greater than that normally assumed due to the coherent interaction of the waves in the insert. The particular case is then considered where the insert comprises a three-layer composite beam inserted in a thin beam which vibrates in bending. The composite beam comprises two elastic faceplates and a core filled with a tunable electro- or magneto-rheological fluid. The net transmission and the stop bands depend on the properties of the insert. Since these properties are tunable by adjusting the field to which the tunable fluid is exposed, then so too are the transmission characteristics of the insert. PMID:11325113

Mace, B R; Jones, R W; Harland, N R

2001-04-01

138

Transmission lines emulating moving media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines, which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a ‘moving’ transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of a composite right-/left- handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

Vehmas, J.; Hrabar, S.; Tretyakov, S.

2014-09-01

139

Electrical Transmission on the Lunar Surface. Part 1; DC Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a portion of the results from a grant at Auburn University to study the electrical and thermal energy management for lunar facilities. Over the past year (June 1989 to May 1990) the following topics have been investigated: June 1989 to November 1989 - Literature survey, assessment of lunar power needs, and overview study of the requirements of a lunar power system; November 1989 to April 1990 - Develop models for the study of dc electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface; March 1990 to May 1990 - Develop models for the study of ac electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface. Because of the large amount of information in the model development and application to a wide parameter space this report is being bound separately. This report specifically contains the model development and parameter study for dc electrical power transmission lines. The end of the funding year (May 1990) will conclude with an annual report including the literature survey, the overview of the requirements of a lunar power system, and summaries of the dc and ac models of electrical transmission lines.

Gordon, Lloyd B.

2001-01-01

140

Electricity transmission pricing: an international comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses six criteria for electricity transmission prices, concerned with economic efficiency and political implementation. Prices should signal the costs of using the transmission system, but this may conflict with the need to produce a clear message that users can understand, given the complexity of transmission costs. Changes to transmission prices are also likely to produce winners and losers,

Richard Green

1997-01-01

141

Generalized model for fixed transmission rights auction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the open access deregulated power market, fixed transmission rights (FTR) are proposed to facilitate the way to deal with transmission congestion issues. When these rights are utilized with locational marginal prices, they lead to an efficient use of the transmission system and assign prices to transmission system users based on the way energy is actually delivered. These rights are

M. I. Alomoush; S. M. Shahidehpour

2000-01-01

142

Lightning Protection for Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the need for lightning protection on low-voltage transmission lines at moderate cost, and particularly for wood-pole lines, a design is presented in this paper that has high insulation strength and uses, in place of a ground wire, a shielding phase conductor with a lightning protector tube. Lightning currents are drained to ground with a minimum number of tubes

A. W. Gothberg; A. S. Brookes

1937-01-01

143

Statistical power transmission network design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical planning method is developed for expanding electric power transmission networks when the bus load forecast and operating conditions are uncertain. This method seeks the minimum cost network expansion plan which guarantees a specified level of probability of supplying the uncertain substation load-demands without overloading any circuits while dispatching the generators economically under normal operating conditions and minimizes the

ROBERT FISCHL; ALBERT GUVENIS; THOMAS F. HALPIN

1982-01-01

144

Modeling Household Transmission of American  

E-print Network

within an individual house- hold. The model represents three vertebrate populations (humans, dogs-arid hardwood thorny forest habitat. In 65 houses of Amama´ and Trinidad, the median household in 1993 had five). In Argentina, transmission of T. cruzi to humans is minimal in fa

Cohen, Joel E.

145

Steam transmission line system engineering  

SciTech Connect

There are many reasons that create the need to convey steam a long distance from its point of generation to the point of use. The steam transmission line conveys the entire capacity of the steam generator and it is the largest diameter line in the district energy system. It is assumed here that the steam transmission line also conveys the steam a long distance. This analysis is facilitated by considering a {open_quotes}Transport Factor{open_quotes} which equals the product of the steam mass flow rate and the length of the steam transmission line. This sets the problem up as a transportation problem, typical in elementary operations research. Included here in one concurrent analysis is the simulated thermophysical performance, which supports the development of an economic marginal production function. Also construction and operating costs are estimated which supports the development of a economic marginal cost function. Marginal analysis methods give the best selection of steam transmission line diameter which has the best utility.

Carr, C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States)

1996-11-01

146

Power superconducting power transmission cable  

DOEpatents

The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

2003-01-01

147

Digital Transmission over Submarine Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of transoceanic transmission of large volumes of information have been raised increasingly over the past few years. Lately, the need for transoceanic digital communications has been of interest. This paper discusses the significance of these trends and examines the technical prospects for handling large volumes of digital traffic using submarine cables. Concentrating on transatlantic traffic, an argument is

W. Litchman

1965-01-01

148

Analog fiber optic transmission link  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog fiber optic transmission link (FOTL) has been designed for relaying signals from equipment held at high voltage potentials to equipment at ground potential. The need for a fiber link arises from the requirements of low energy, light ion experiments conducted at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. In these experiments, ions are accelerated and transported to a high voltage

Collin J. McKinney; Hugon J. Karwowski

2001-01-01

149

Timing recovery for OFDM transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is an effective modulation technique for high-rate and high-speed transmission over frequency selective fading channels. However, OFDM systems can be extremely sensitive and vulnerable to synchronization errors. In this paper, we present a scheme for performing timing recovery that includes symbol synchronization and sampling clock synchronization in OFDM systems. The scheme is based on pilot

Baoguo Yang; Khaled Ben Letaief; Roger S. Cheng; Zhigang Cao

2000-01-01

150

ExtraTerrestrial Radio Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE are witness again to a surge of interest in, and speculation about, extra-terrestrial radio transmissions which had an earlier flare in the late twenties1. The favourable change in climate for the expression of such ideas since the turn of the century has been of particular interest to me. In 1899, Nikola Tesla established an experimental station at Colorado Springs,

Leland I. Anderson

1961-01-01

151

Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, (a) genital; (b) peripheral blood; (2) in the newborn, (a) oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the placenta. The

Renato L Rombaldi; Eduardo P Serafini; Jovana Mandelli; Edineia Zimmermann; Kamille P Losquiavo

2008-01-01

152

Geographical transmission of economic events  

SciTech Connect

A two-region monetary economy is modeled as a five-equation system. Exogenous events in either region (changes in union wages, labor productivity, and banking policy) or at the national level (money supply changes) cause changes in price levels, wages, employment, and money stocks in both regions. The model structure permits explicit examination of transmission processes. 8 references, 1 figure, 18 tables.

Jones, D.W.

1984-04-01

153

Transmission laser welding of plastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of lasers for welding plastics was demonstrated in the early 1970s. However, it was not until late in the 1990s that production applications started to be considered widely. This followed the broad realization that by selection of a suitable combination of radiation wavelength and plastics additives, to control light transmission and absorption, heat could be generated at the

Paul A. Hilton; I. A. Jones; Y. Kennish

2003-01-01

154

The role of transmission investment in the coordination between generation and transmission  

E-print Network

1 The role of transmission investment in the coordination between generation and transmission Abstract This paper examines how transmission coordinates with generation to the long term in a liberalized generation and transmission of electricity into distinct modules. The governance structure of transmission

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Dual Mode Transmission Designs for Motorcycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents two types of the dual mode transmission for use in a motorcycle. A motorcycle transmission typically using the discrete speed ratio transmission that works by alternating the gear drive, and the continuously variable transmission (CVT) that transmits power by using the rubber V-belt. The dual mode transmission described in this paper, utilizing a V-belt drive, a fixed ratio mechanism, and a planetary gear train, can provide two operation regimes over the full speed ratio range by means engaged clutches. One is the fixed gear ratio and differential transmission system; the other is the differential and continuously variable transmission system. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency of each transmission system are analyzed. An example is employed to illustrate the design procedure. Furthermore, several available design concepts of the dual mode transmissions for motorcycle applications are proposed.

Sheu, Kuen-Bao; Yan, Hong-Sen

156

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section... § 571.102 Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence,...

2010-10-01

157

77 FR 64890 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM10-23-002; Order No. 1000-B] Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities...Nos. 1000 and 1000-A, amending the transmission planning and cost allocation...

2012-10-24

158

75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-23-000] Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities...75 FR 37884) proposing to amend the transmission planning and cost allocation...

2010-10-07

159

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section... § 571.102 Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence,...

2012-10-01

160

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section... § 571.102 Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence,...

2011-10-01

161

75 FR 63826 - Transmission Infrastructure Program-TransWest Express Transmission Project Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Transmission Infrastructure Program--TransWest Express Transmission Project Capacity AGENCY: Western Area...entities that are interested in purchasing transmission service. Western is currently...

2010-10-18

162

Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography  

E-print Network

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

163

Exploiting a transmission grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2004-10-01

164

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Ronald E. Bell

2004-12-08

165

Neutron larmor precession transmission experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polarised thermal neutron beam passes through a precession coil. The intensity after an analyser is measured as a function of the magnetic induction in the coil. Fourier transformation of the recorded intensity yields the spectrum of the neutron beam emerging from the analyser. This method is used in a quantitative way in two examples. First, we measure the transmission of a-SiO 2 to determine its scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. In the second example, the transmission of a polarising mirror system consisting of coated curved silicon wafers is determined. Because the neutron beam emerging from the analyser is polarised, we are able to determine the polarising power of the mirror system as a function of wavelength by comparing the transmitted polarised and depolarised spectra.

Kraan, W. H.; Van Tricht, J. B.; Rekveldt, M. Th.

1989-04-01

166

Cultural transmission of social essentialism  

PubMed Central

Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

2012-01-01

167

Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask  

DOEpatents

A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

2000-01-01

168

Cultural transmission of social essentialism.  

PubMed

Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M

2012-08-21

169

Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities  

SciTech Connect

We develop some new analytic bounds on transmission probabilities (and the related reflection probabilities and Bogoliubov coefficients) for generic one-dimensional scattering problems. To do so we rewrite the Schroedinger equation for some complicated potential whose properties we are trying to investigate in terms of some simpler potential whose properties are assumed known, plus a (possibly large) 'shift' in the potential. Doing so permits us to extract considerable useful information without having to exactly solve the full scattering problem.

Boonserm, Petarpa, E-mail: petarpa.boonserm@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Pathumwan Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Visser, Matt, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.n [School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2010-07-15

170

Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is two-fold: First; to present the theory of traveling waves on multi-conductor systems, and second, to compile a brief compendium on the general subject of traveling waves on transmission systems. While the application of the multi-conductor theory is more laborious than that of the single-wire theory, yet it does not involve much greater complication, and

L. V. Bewley

1931-01-01

171

Performance Study of OFDM Transmissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to explore the important features of OFDM under different channel conditions and to analyze the outcomes. In order to procure this goal, multiple simulations are performed using GNU Octave. The simulations of OFDM transmissions are carried out under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and/or Rayleigh fading. Besides, PACE is employed to mitigate the effects of Rayleigh fading.

Goyzueta, Rodolfo Ledesma

2010-10-01

172

Reliability Differentiation of Electricity Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many jurisdictions, electric utility restructuring has included the creation of an independent system operator (ISO) to dispatch generation, establish the market-clearing price, and allocate limited transmission capacity among users. This paper differentiates reliability through rate unbundling. We propose a capacity reservation tariff (CRT) to induce the users to self-select their preferred levels of reliability. Based on these self-selected reliability

Chi-Keung Woo; Ira Horowitz; Jennifer Martin

1998-01-01

173

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is reviewed. The discussion includes a general configuration and face gear description, weight analysis, stress analysis, reliability analysis, acoustic analysis, face gear testing, and planned torque split testing. Design descriptions include the face gear webs sized for equal stiffness, a positive engagement clutch, the lubrication system, and a high contact ratio planetary. Test results for five gear materials and three housing materials are presented.

Bossler, Robert B., Jr.; Heath, Gregory F.

1992-07-01

174

Monitoring Atmospheric Transmission with FLAME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of ground-based observations in the optical and near-infrared requires precise and accurate understanding of atmospheric transmission, at least as precise and accurate as that required for the spectral energy distributions of science targets. Traditionally this has used the Langley extrapolation method, observing targets and calibrators over a range of airmass and extrapolating to zero airmass by assuming a plane-parallel homogeneous atmosphere. The technique we present uses direct measurements of the atmosphere to derive the transmission along the line of sight to science targets at a few well-chosen wavelengths. The Facility Lidar Atmospheric Monitor of Extinction (FLAME) is a 0.5m diameter three Nd:YAG wavelength (355nm, 532nm & 1064nm) elastic backscatter lidar system. Laser pulses are transmitted into the atmosphere in the direction of the science target. Photons scattered back toward the receiver by molecules, aerosols and clouds are collected and time-gated so that the backscatter intensity is measured as a function of range to the scattering volume. The system is housed in a mobile calibration lab, which also contains auxiliary instrumentation to provide a NIST traceable calibration of the transmitted laser power and receiver efficiency. FLAME was designed to create a million photons per minute signal from the middle stratosphere, where the atmosphere is relatively calm and dominated by molecules of the well-mixed atmosphere (O2 & N2). Routine radiosonde measurements of the density at these altitudes constrain the scattering efficiency in this region and, combined with calibration of the transmitter and receiver, the only remaining unknown quantity is the two-way transmission to the stratosphere. These measurements can inform atmospheric transmission models to better understand the complex and ever-changing observatory radiative transfer environment. FLAME is currently under active development and we present some of our ongoing measurements.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Zirzow, D. C.; Koppa, M.; Buttler-Pena, K.

2014-01-01

175

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

1983-01-01

176

High current pulse transmission cable  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

Parsons, W.M.

1990-09-28

177

Planar MESFET transmission wave amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a quasioptical power combining transmission amplifier for increasing the power level available from solid-state circuits. Receiving and transmitting arrays of patch antennas, input\\/output isolation, MESFETs, bias and matching circuitry are contained on a single substrate, making monolithic millimeter-wave integration possible. The flexibility of selecting input polarization with respect to the output while maintaining amplifier stability is demonstrated.

T. Mader; J. Schoenberg; L. Harmon; Z. B. Popovic

1993-01-01

178

Automatic radio-transmission monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System continuously monitors radio transmissions stored in memory. If spectrum deviates beyond present limits, alarm is tripped and spectrum is transferred to long-term storage for later analysis. Monitor can be useful in ensuring proper power level and spectral quality and in finding cause of failure. It might also be used to monitor radio-frequency interference or power levels of citizen's-band transmitters.

Bernstein, A. J.

1978-01-01

179

Transmission scanning in emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Attenuation correction in single-photon (SPET) and positron emission (PET) tomography is now accepted as a vital component\\u000a for the production of artefact-free, quantitative data. The most accurate attenuation correction methods are based on measured\\u000a transmission scans acquired before, during, or after the emission scan. Alternative methods use segmented images, assumed\\u000a attenuation coefficients or consistency criteria to compensate for photon

Dale L. Bailey

1998-01-01

180

Electrochromic variable transmission optical combiner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementary coloring conducting polymer based electrochromic devices have been designed, fabricated and tested for possible application as a variable attenuation combiner element for a see-through head mounted display or a variable trasnsmissive sand wind dust goggle lens. Electrochromic cells fabricated on both glass and polycarbonate substrates have been demonstrated to meet closely the desired goals of low power consumption, wide transmission range, fast switching speeds and long lifetime. Photopic transmissions of 34% in colored state and 67% in bleached state were achieved in a reproducible manner. The measured switching times are 0.6 sec (colored to bleached state) and 1.9 sec (bleached to colored state). The life cycle testing showed stability up to 92,000 switches. The measured power consumption of the fabricated devices was < 1 mW/cm . The electrochromic technology design effort has identified processes for obtaining the optimum layer thickness and selecting polymers and gel electrolytes necessary to obtain the widest transmission range, fastest switching speed and longest lifetime. Early environmental testing has been performed by subjecting prototype electrochromic cells to temperatures varying from -30°C to + 40°C with the results reported herein. Follow on work includes further optimization of electronic drive schemes as well as field testing of electrochromic lens equipped sand, wind dust goggles.

Draper, Russell S.; Wood, Michael V.; Radmard, Bijan; Mahmud, Ken; Schuler, Peter; Sotzing, Gregory A.; Seshadri, Venkataraman; Mino, Warren; Padilla, Javier; Otero, Tobibio F.

2005-05-01

181

Coiled transmission line pulse generators  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

2010-11-09

182

Split torque transmission load sharing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

1992-10-01

183

Gas transmission through microporous membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes upon passage of the gas through active and non-active membranes by which way the effect of active elements on gas transmission rates could be examined. Probabilistic and mathematical models were proposed to predict gas transmission rates of such membranes and gas permeation experiments were simulated utilizing the proposed models. Modeling results were compared to experimental data and to macrolevel gas transmission models available in literature. The results were found to be in acceptable correlation with experiments for membranes with a well-known morphology. The pressure of the system, porosity and adsorption capacity of the materials, as well as size of the gas molecules and their interaction energies between the surfaces were found to be important parameters which affect permeability.

Turel, Tacibaht

184

Pneumococcal Disease Risk Factors and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Risk Factors & Transmission Share Compartir On this Page Children at Risk ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

185

Nonlinear effects in phase shift keyed transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase-shift-keyed modulation formats have recently shown superior performance in some nonlinear transmissions. This paper will review the understanding of their tolerance to various fiber nonlinearities in different transmission regimes in terms of data rate and spectral efficiency.

X. Liu

2004-01-01

186

76 FR 66229 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. RM11-18-000] Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standards are intended...contingencies and allowable system impacts in the planning process. The table includes a...

2011-10-26

187

47 CFR 27.1220 - Transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Transmission standards. 27... MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES... § 27.1220 Transmission standards...and the aggregate power does not exceed the authorized power for the...

2011-10-01

188

Twisted shield-pair transmission line  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight cable forms balanced transmission line and replaces costlier coaxial cables for multiplex-signal transmission. Cable is fabricated with carefully-controlled electrical characteristics and functions without tuning networks at frequencies up to 10 MHz.

Lind, W. N.; Waddy, G. H.

1977-01-01

189

Average transmission probability of a random stack  

E-print Network

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower bounds. The upper bound, when used as an approximation for the transmission probability, is unreasonably good and we conjecture that it is asymptotically exact.

Yin Lu; Christian Miniatura; Berthold-Georg Englert

2009-07-31

190

Chopper Modulation Improves OTA Information Transmission  

E-print Network

Chopper Modulation Improves OTA Information Transmission Nicole M Nelson and Pamela A Abshire 20742 Email: {nmnelson,pabshire}@umd.edu Abstract-- We have investigated information transmission- ing the channel capacity for transmission of analog signals through an OTA using an information

Maryland at College Park, University of

191

Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory  

E-print Network

Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory Fioralba Cakoni cakoni@math.udel.edu www associated with inhomogeneous media known as transmission eigenvalues MSRI, Berkeley, November 12, 2010 ­ p. 2/3 #12;Motivation Two important issues: Transmission eigenvalues can be determined from

Cakoni, Fioralba

192

18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 ...Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated...Commission announced its determination that transmission lines which are not primary...

2010-04-01

193

40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86.128-79...Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

2010-07-01

194

40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86.1228-85...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

2010-07-01

195

40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86.128-79...Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

2011-07-01

196

40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.528-78 Section 86.528-78...Test Procedures § 86.528-78 Transmissions. (a) Vehicles equipped with...tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in “Drive” (highest gear)....

2012-07-01

197

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

198

40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86.1228-85...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

2011-07-01

199

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.89 Unauthorized transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage...This provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency,...

2012-10-01

200

TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick  

E-print Network

TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick Escuela de Ingenier'a Pontificia Universidad Cat--lica de Chile Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile I INTRODUCTION Transmission open access is receiving being able to reach consumers through the transmission network, which can be achieved through open

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

201

18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 ...Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated...Commission announced its determination that transmission lines which are not primary...

2011-04-01

202

40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86.1228-85...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

2012-07-01

203

40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.528-78 Section 86.528-78...Test Procedures § 86.528-78 Transmissions. (a) Vehicles equipped with...tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in “Drive” (highest gear)....

2011-07-01

204

Policy Issues for Retail Beamed Power Transmission  

E-print Network

Policy Issues for Retail Beamed Power Transmission Girish Chowdhary, Rajeev Gadre, Narayanan electric power on Earth is transmitted using wired power transmission systems. In this system, electrical. Large infrastructure is required for transfer of power using conventional wired grid transmission. 2

205

40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86.128-79...Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

2012-07-01

206

Transmission Eigenvalues and Inverse Scattering Theory  

E-print Network

Transmission Eigenvalues and Inverse Scattering Theory Fioralba Cakoni colton April 13 - 2010 ­ p. 3/2 #12;Transmission Eigenvalue Problem Question: Is there an incident wave ui) If there exists a nontrivial solution to the homogeneous interior transmission problem w + k2n(x)w = 0 in D v + k2

Cakoni, Fioralba

207

Control of quantum transmission is trap free  

E-print Network

We consider manipulation of the transmission coefficient for a quantum particle moving in one dimension where the shape of the potential is taken as the control. We show that the control landscape---the transmission as a functional of the potential---has no traps, i.e., any maxima correspond to full transmission.

Alexander N. Pechen; David J. Tannor

2014-03-22

208

Transmission Rights and Market Power James Bushnell  

E-print Network

PWP-062 Transmission Rights and Market Power James Bushnell April, 1999 This paper is part, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;Transmission Rights and Market Power James Bushnell of the transmission grid can advantage some competitors at the expense of others. In electricity markets around

California at Berkeley. University of

209

18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 ...Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated...Commission announced its determination that transmission lines which are not primary...

2012-04-01

210

40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.528-78 Section 86.528-78...Test Procedures § 86.528-78 Transmissions. (a) Vehicles equipped with...tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in “Drive” (highest gear)....

2010-07-01

211

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART

T. L. Krantz; J. G. Kish

1992-01-01

212

HIV transmission within marriage : findings from Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis focuses on the influence of marriage on HIV transmission and factors associated with HIV transmission among married people in Tanzania, and to suggest possible and feasible solutions. The study questions are: 1) What are the reasons for HIV transmission among married people in Tanzania, 2) How Marriage influences the spread of HIV?, 3) What are the perceptions of

H. A. Diggos

2007-01-01

213

Data transmission over polymer optical fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer optical fiber (POF) is a promising transmission medium for providing broadband telecommunication services within the customer's premises. POF offers several attractive features for data transmission such as broad bandwidth and low cost for in-house, access, and LAN applications. This article presents a review on optical transmission systems using POF and their enabling technologies. A summary is given of experimental

I. Tafur Monroy; Boom van den HPA; A. M. J. Koonen; G. D. Khoe; Y. Watanabe; Y. Koike; T. Ishigure

2003-01-01

214

[Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection  

PubMed

The AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly in Africa among the urban impoverished where multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases are common. Over 80% of the 9 million Africans who will develop AIDS before the year 2000 will have been contaminated sexually. Poverty, multiple sexual partners in the framework of prostitution, and drug addiction are responsible for rapid spread of HIV infection in Southeast Asia, the West India, and Brazil. Drug addiction has played a major role in diffusion of HIV into the general population of Europe and the US. Prevalence rates are much higher in sexually transmitted disease centers in France and the US than among blood donors or pregnant women. Sexually transmitted diseases and heterosexual transmission have been studied in Africas since diagnostic tests became available. Several studies, the majority conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi or Kinshasa and their clients, allow establishment of a list of sexually transmitted diseases associated with increased risk of seroconversion. Genital ulcers within the past 6 months presented a relative risk of 2-4 depending on the series. Urethral or cervical gonorrhea has a lower relative risk of 1.2 in most studies. Absence of circumcision was also a risk factor. Studies were subsequently conducted in Europe on factors favoring sexual transmission. 513 heterosexual couples together for a minimum duration of 18 months and an average of 38 months were included in the Multicenter European Study conducted in 10 centers in 9 countries. The "index" subject was male in 400 cases and female in 113. At entry into the study, 73 of 400 males (18.2%) and 10 of 113 females (8.8%) had already infected their partners. Duration of union, frequency of intercourse, mode of transmission of the index subject, and oral contraceptive use had no effect on risk of transmission. Factors increasing risk of infection included the severity of immunosuppression of the index subject, whether judged by clinical classification of stage 4 vs. earlier stages, or by a level of CD4 lymphocytes of under 200 vs. over 200. The overall relative risk is 2.4 if there is a history of sexually transmitted disease in the past 5 years. Women are particularly vulnerable to the risk of sodomy, with a relative risk of 5.1 and an increase in there risk of transmission from 11.3 to 40%. Age over 45 is associated with an increase from 17 to 44% and a relative risk of 3.4 in women, probably because of greater fragility of the mucus in the postmenopausal period. For men, the relative risk of intercourse during menstruation is 9.6 and the rate increases from 3% to 20%. The greater risk of male to female transmission confirms impressions of earlier studies but should not be regarded as definitive. Condom use was shown to be effective in follow- up of discordant couples. 9 seroconversions occurred in an average follow-up of 12 months among 89 couples not using condoms, compared to 0 in 80 couples regularly using them. PMID:12318013

Coulaud, J P

1993-02-01

215

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, R.B.

1985-08-15

216

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

217

47 CFR 2.201 - Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics. 2.201 Section...201 Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics. The following...designating emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics shall be...

2011-10-01

218

78 FR 24101 - Generator Requirements at the Transmission Interface  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Generator Requirements at the Transmission Interface AGENCY: Federal Energy...Requirements), FAC-003-3 (Transmission Vegetation Management), PRC-004...Analysis and Mitigation of Transmission and Generation Protection...

2013-04-24

219

47 CFR 2.201 - Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics. 2.201 Section...201 Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics. The following...designating emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics shall be...

2010-10-01

220

47 CFR 2.201 - Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics. 2.201 Section...201 Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics. The following...designating emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics shall be...

2012-10-01

221

Transmission through a noisy network  

E-print Network

Quantum graphs with leads to infinity serve as convenient models for studying various aspects of systems which are usually attributed to chaotic scattering. They are also studied in several experimental systems and practical applications. In the present manuscript we investigate the effect of a time dependent random noise on the transmission of such graphs, and in particular on the resonances which dominate the scattering observable such as e.g., the transmission and reflection intensities. We model the noise by a potential $\\alpha \\delta (x-(x_0 +\\gamma(t)))$ localized at an arbitrary point $x_0$ on any of the graph bonds, that fluctuates in time as a Brownian particle bounded in a harmonic potential described by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck statistics. This statistics, which binds the Brownian motion within a finite interval, enables the use of a second order time-dependent perturbation theory, which can be applied whenever the strength parameter $\\alpha$ is sufficiently small. The theoretical frame-work will be explained in full generality, and will be explicitly solved for a simple, yet nontrivial example.

Daniel Waltner; Uzy Smilansky

2014-04-10

222

Wildlife and electric power transmission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G., Jr.; Hunt, J.R.

1978-01-01

223

History of wireless power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)] [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

224

Improving Regional Groundwater Models with Transmissivity Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic-conductivity estimates in groundwater-flow models typically are constrained by a range for each hydrogeologic unit. These often-times wide ranges are derived from interpretations of many aquifer tests binned by hydrogeologic unit. Uncertainty is added to these ranges where hydraulic-conductivity estimates derived from aquifer tests use contributing thicknesses that differ from simulated thicknesses in a numerical model. Transmissivity observations from individual aquifer tests constrain model calibration better than hydraulic-conductivity ranges assigned to hydrogeologic units because simulated transmissivity and aquifer-test results are compared directly. Transmissivity comparisons require that simulated thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities for the volume investigated by the aquifer test be extracted from a model and integrated into a simulated transmissivity. Transmissivity observations have been ignored primarily because sampling simulated transmissivities is mechanically painful from complex models. A suite of programs called T-COMP has been developed to sample simulated transmissivities easily from regional MODFLOW models. Transmissivities of model cells are sampled where drawdown exceeds a user-defined threshold. Sampled transmissivities of model cells are averaged within a layer and summed between layers. This computationally intensive process occurs in separate programs that are executed prior to model calibration. Simulated transmissivities can be sampled quickly during calibration because nodes and their fractional contributions have been defined.

Halford, K. J.

2013-12-01

225

2006 Final Transmission Proposal: Revenue Requirements Study.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Revenue Requirement Study (Study) is to establish the level of revenues needed from rates for Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) transmission and ancillary services to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, costs associated with the transmission of electric power over the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). The FCRTS is part of the larger Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) which also includes the hydroelectric, multipurpose facilities constructed and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation in the Pacific Northwest. The FCRPS costs that are not included in the FCRTS costs are funded and repaid through BPA power rates. The transmission revenue requirements herein include: recovery of the Federal investment in transmission and transmission-related assets; the operations and maintenance (O&M) and other annual expenses associated with the provision of transmission and ancillary services; the cost of generation inputs for ancillary services and other between business-line services necessary for the transmission of power; and all other transmission-related costs incurred by the Administrator. The cost evaluation period for this rate proposal includes Fiscal Years (FYs) 2005-2007, the period extending from the last year for which historical information is available through the proposed rate test period. The Study includes the transmission revenue requirements for the rate test period, FYs 2006-2007 (Rate Period) and the results of transmission repayment studies. This Study outlines the policies, forecasts, assumptions, and calculations used to determine BPA's transmission revenue requirements. Legal requirements are summarized in Chapter 5 of this Study. The Revenue Requirement Study Documentation (Documentation), TR-06-FS-BPA-01A, contains key technical assumptions and calculations, the results of the transmission repayment studies, and a further explanation of the repayment inputs and its outputs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-06-01

226

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

227

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28

228

Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes.  

PubMed

The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

2014-10-19

229

Transmission of information at criticality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of information transmission in complex cooperative systems to prove that adaptivity rather than diffusion is the main source of information transport at criticality. We adopt two different cooperative models, the two-dimensional Decision Making Model (DMM), and the one-dimensional Flock Model (FM) inspired by the cooperation between birds. The criticality-induced consensus is intermittently broken by the occurrence of moments of high susceptibility, which we call free-will states. We construct a network A based on the DMM and FM that is perturbed by a similar network B. Some units of A, called lookout birds, follow the directions of the mean field generated by B, while the rest are blind to B. When both networks are at criticality a small percentage of lookout birds establish the synchronization between B and A as a result of the nonergodic nature of the free-will state dynamics.

Lukovi?, Mirko; Vanni, Fabio; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo

2014-12-01

230

Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes  

PubMed Central

The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

2014-01-01

231

Changes in transmission and distribution  

SciTech Connect

There is a double movement taking place: from monopoly to competitive market, and from a local perspective to a global economy. This article focuses on the T and D aspect of change in the industry, the change from monopoly to competitive markets, and from local to global. In the debate on these changes, there has been a lot of discussion about the introduction of competition at the generation level and about disintegration at the generation level. These changes at the generation level are occurring now, both in the US and abroad. When, the industry changes generation, the industry also must change the rest of the business. The industry must change the T and D sector. This discussion is about the impact of these changes on transmission and on distribution in the US.

Berry, W. (Virginia Power, Richmond, VA (United States))

1994-09-01

232

New transmission lines: The challenge  

SciTech Connect

Increasing competition in the electric power industry is likely to entail a little-recognized major complication---difficulty in siting of transmission lines. The stakes will often be greater, the competition could be stronger, and both put a premium on finding a process that can win public acceptance cost-effectively. There are at least three major reasons why siting new lines will become more difficult: (1) More communities in the paths of the new lines will not be served by them and will see no benefit to offset the nuisance, (2) In addition to the perceived health threats of electric and magnetic fields, opposition will arise based on claims about siting of lines in low-income or minority neighborhoods, and (3) Electric power companies that stand to lose market share if the lines are completed may align themselves with the opposition. This article is a review of the challenges that utilities may face in their efforts.

Pierobon, J.R. [Potomac Communications, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Potomac Communications, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-03-15

233

[Isolation precautions--transmission-based precautions].  

PubMed

There are two tiers of precautions to prevent transmission of infectious agents, standard precautions and transmission-based precautions. Standard precautions are intended to be applied to the care of all patients in all healthcare settings, regardless of the suspected or confirmed presence of an infectious agent. Transmission-based precautions are for patients who are known or suspected to be infected or colonized with infectious agents, which require additional control measures to effectively prevent transmission. Transmission-based precautions are used empirically, according to the likely etiologic agents at the time, and then modified when the pathogen is identified or a transmissible infectious etiology is ruled out. Implementation of preventive measures should be based on infection control risk assessment. PMID:22413534

Morisawa, Yuji

2012-02-01

234

47 CFR 74.796 - Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation. 74.796...Stations § 74.796 Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems...

2010-10-01

235

47 CFR 74.796 - Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation. 74.796...Stations § 74.796 Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems...

2011-10-01

236

47 CFR 74.796 - Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems for digital operation. 74.796...Stations § 74.796 Modification of digital transmission systems and analog transmission systems...

2012-10-01

237

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) - Component test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preliminary design of the ART and some of the component test results are presented. The goals for the future rotorcraft transmissions include a 25-percent weight reduction in comparison with current state-of-the-art transmissions, a 10-dB reduction in the transmitted noise level, and a system reliability of 5,000 hr mean-time-between-removal for the transmission. The ART tests completed to date support the attainment of the three major goals of the program.

Henry, Z. S.

1992-07-01

238

A Merchant Mechanism for Electricity Transmission Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a merchant mechanism to expand electricity transmission based on long-term financial transmission rights (FTRs).\\u000a Due to network loop flows, a change in network capacity might imply negative externalities on existing transmission property\\u000a rights. The system operator thus needs a protocol for awarding incremental FTRs that maximize investors’ preferences, and\\u000a preserves certain currently unallocated FTRs (or proxy awards) so

Tarjei Kristiansen; Juan Rosellón

2006-01-01

239

Electricity transmission pricing: Contracts must reflect costs  

SciTech Connect

Pricing of transmission services in the open-access networks required for competition must take into account the three main costs of providing transmission services: costs of building capacity (including sunk costs); costs of marginal losses; and costs of congestion. This article sets out the main design elements of contracts for use of a transmission system and the basic methods of transmission pricing. It considers two methods of pricing transmission: `top-down` and `bottom-up`. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently established the principle that the terms and prices offered for transmission access must be comparable with those enjoyed by owners of the transmission system. Any comparison of terms must go beyond a simple consideration of the costs of building and maintaining lines. Furthermore, each method requires close links between prices for transmission and costs of generation. Attempts to set transmission prices without reflecting the appropriate costs of generation will destroy incentives for efficient use and development of the transmission system. Regulatory authorities around the world - national governments in Europe and Latin America, the European Commission, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and state public utility commissions in the U.S. - have not yet settled on a single view of transmission access. Several questions remain unanswered: should transmission access be provided on a purely voluntary basis, or must it be mandatory; are the terms of access a matter of law, or of individual concessions, or of negotiation between those involved; can the company which owns the network continue to own generation and/or trade in electricity?

Shuttleworth, G.

1994-12-01

240

Active control of helicopter transmission noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of an effort to reduce helicopter transmission noise by 10 dB, using active methods, as part of the NASA-Lewis/U.S. Army Propulsion Directorate Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission technology integration and demonstration program. The transmission used as a test stand is that of the CH-47C forward rotor. Attention is presently given to the active control system's actuators, sensors, and control algorithms.

Spencer, R. H.; Burke, M. J.; Tye, G. W.

1991-01-01

241

Transmission eigenvalues for operators with constant coefficients  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the interior transmission problem and transmission eigenvalues for multiplicative perturbations of linear partial differential operator of order $\\ge 2$ with constant real coefficients. Under suitable growth conditions on the symbol of the operator and the perturbation, we show the discreteness of the set of transmission eigenvalues and derive sufficient conditions on the existence of transmission eigenvalues. We apply these techniques to the case of the biharmonic operator and the Dirac system. In the hypoelliptic case we present a connection to scattering theory.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-04-28

242

Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

John Svoboda

2011-04-01

243

Final Report Navajo Transmission Project (NTP)  

SciTech Connect

The Diné Power Authority is developing the Navajo Transmission Project (NTP) to relieve the constraints on the transmission of electricity west of the Four Corners area and to improve the operation flexibility and reliability of the extra-high-voltage transmission system in the region. The NTP creates the wholesale transmission capacity for more economical power transfers, sales, and purchases in the region. It will facilitate the development of Navajo energy resources, improve economic conditions on the Navajo Nation as well as allow DPA to participate in the western electrical utility industry.

Bennie Hoisington; Steven Begay

2006-09-14

244

Intelligent fault diagnosis of power transmission line; -.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation presents the application of recent intelligent newlinetechniques for fault diagnosis in electrical power transmission line Fault newlinesection identification classification and location are the… (more)

Malathi, V

2014-01-01

245

Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks. PMID:24916411

Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

2014-01-01

246

RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

Ponchak, George E.

1999-01-01

247

Nuclear Generating Stations and Transmission Grid Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear generating stations have historically been susceptible to transmission system voltage excursions. When nuclear plants trip due to voltage excursions, the resulting loss of real and reactive power support can make grid events worse. New standards are being prepared which may help to improve nuclear plant and transmission system reliability. A brief historical perspective is provided. Another reliability issue is the fact that nuclear plants do not provide automatic generation control in response to frequency decay. As 28 new nuclear plants are being considered for connection to an already highly stressed transmission grid, consideration must be given to nuclear plant design features which will enhance, not degrade, transmission system reliability.

Kueck, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL] [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL] [ORNL

2007-01-01

248

Network modeling of BVD transmission  

PubMed Central

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. PMID:22325043

2012-01-01

249

Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

2004-01-01

250

Low cost Image Transmission System  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

Skogmo, D.

1994-06-01

251

A Generalization of the Transmission\\/Disequilibrium Test for Uncertain-Haplotype Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new transmission\\/disequilibrium-test statistic is pro- posed for situations in which transmission is uncertain. Such situations arise when transmission of a multilocus marker haplotype is considered, since haplotype phase is often unknown in a substantial number of instances. Even for single-locus markers, transmission is uncertain if one or both parents are missing. In both these situa- tions, uncertainty may

David Clayton

1999-01-01

252

Broadband Transmission via Underground Medium-Voltage Power Lines—Part I: Transmission Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission characteristics of underground medium-voltage\\/broadband over power line (MV\\/BPL) channels are examined analytically. By appropriately modifying multiconductor transmission-line theory, the bottom-up approach, already used to treat overhead MV\\/BPL transmission, is extended to analyze BPL transmission in three-phase underground MV lines with common shield and armor. ThIS analysis shows that these cables may support five modes, giving rise to five

Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos; Panayiotis G. Cottis

2010-01-01

253

Analysis of video transmission over lossy channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the overall mean squared error (MSE) in hybrid video coding is presented for the case of error prone transmission. Our model covers the complete transmission system including the rate-distortion performance of the video encoder, forward error correction, interleaving, and the effect of error concealment and interframe error propagation at the video decoder. The channel model used

Klaus Stuhlmüller; Niko Färber; Michael Link; Bernd Girod

2000-01-01

254

Optimizing transmission path utilization in Idaho power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased utilization of transmission critical path by wide area real time dynamic rating using Internet based weather data is presented. Economic analysis shows significant benefit of operating transmission lines at higher ratings by taking advantage of favorable weather conditions during overload conditions. A new line current profile based dynamic line rating system has been implemented at Idaho power by real

O. A. Ciniglio; A. K. Deb

2003-01-01

255

Executive Forum on Solutions to Transmission Investment  

E-print Network

Executive Forum on Solutions to Transmission Investment Summary of Participant Ideas Power Systems;Power Systems Engineering Research Center PSERC Executive Forum on Solutions to Transmission Investment Grid Forum Held on April 21, 2006 Chicago, IL May 2, 2006 #12;Table of Contents I. Overview

256

Ecology and transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied ecological factors affecting transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis, the common large roundworm of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) to intermediate hosts. Infective eggs of B. procyonis are present at raccoon latrines, and these sites may be important in the transmission of this parasite to small vertebrates in forested areas. I found that raccoon latrines exhibited characteristics generally associated with

Laura Kristen Page

1998-01-01

257

Spatial mode properties of plasmon assisted transmission  

E-print Network

Orbital angular momentum of photons is explored to study the spatial mode properties of plasmon assisted transmission process. We found that photons carrying different orbital angular momentums have different transmission efficiencies, while the coherence between these spatial modes can be preserved.

Xi-Feng Ren; Guo-Ping Guo; Yun-Feng Huang; Zhi-Wei Wang; Guang-Can Guo

2006-03-03

258

Binary Data Transmission Techniques for Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linearity and highly stable frequency characteristics of modern single-sideband equipment make possible improvements in the frequency spectrum utilization and performance of binary data transmission systems. Problems associated with fully utilizing the binary data transmission potential of an SSB voice channel are discussed. These problems include consideration of frequency and phase stability of the SSB equipment and the propagation media,

M. L. Doelz; E. T. Heald; D. L. Martin

1957-01-01

259

Aphid Transmission of Tobacco Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphids (Myzus persicae Sulz.) can acquire tobacco mosaic virus from tobacco leaves coated with a virus suspension and inoculate it into healthy leaves. Transmission depends on virus concentration, period of acquisition, previous feeding history of the aphids, and time between acquisition and transmission feedings. Aphids whose stylets are cut do not transmit the virus.

John S. Lojek; Gert B. Orlob

1969-01-01

260

Facsimile Transmission: Progress in Resource Sharing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature on library use of facsimile transmission and describes an experiment conducted by libraries at the four State University of New York campuses that used facsimile transmission and/or electronic mail to access commonly held periodical titles. Copies of the request form and problem report form are appended. (Contains 29…

Smith, Lorre

1993-01-01

261

Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities  

E-print Network

Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities Final Project Report Power Systems since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Coordination of Transmission Line by their owners with little coordination. The objective of this project has been to propose a global framework

262

Broadband Resonant-Type Metamaterial Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, it is shown that, contrary to previous assumptions, the broadband characteristics of metamaterial transmission lines are not exclusive of the so called CL loaded composite right\\/left handed (CRLH) structures. In the balance condition, the typical frequency gap between the left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) transmission bands of these CRLH lines collapses, the characteristic impedance varies

Marta Gil; Jordi Bonache; Jordi Selga; Joan García-García; Ferran Martín

2007-01-01

263

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

2002-01-01

264

How Financial Transmission Rights Curb Market Power  

E-print Network

PWP-049 How Financial Transmission Rights Curb Market Power Steven Stoft June 1997 This paper Berkeley, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;How Financial Transmission Rights Curb Market Power June 27, 1997 Steven Stoft LBNL and UCEI SESTOFT@LBL.GOV Abstract This paper demonstrates

California at Berkeley. University of

265

Evolution of Mutualistic Symbiosis without Vertical Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic symbioses are considered to evolve from parasitic relationships. Vertical transmission, defined as the direct transfer of infection from a parent organism to its progeny, has been suggested as a key factor causing reduction of symbiont virulence and evolution of mutualism. On the other hand, there are several mutualistic associations without vertical transmission, such as those between plants and mycorrhizal

Motomi Genkai-Kato; Norio Yamamura

1999-01-01

266

Ecological benefits of dc power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

Kutuzova, N. B. [JSC 'NIIPT' (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

267

Global dynamic modeling of a transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work performed on global dynamic simulation and noise correlation of gear transmission systems at the University of Akron is outlined. The objective is to develop a comprehensive procedure to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system coupled with the effects of gear box vibrations. The developed numerical model is benchmarked with results from experimental tests at NASA Lewis

F. K. Choy; W. Qian

1993-01-01

268

Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

Posner, E. C.

1984-01-01

269

Guided modes in shielded slot transmission line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guided modes in a shielded slot transmission line were analyzed. This transmission line consists of slotted metal strips inserted in a below cutoff parallel metal plate waveguide. The TEM mode can propagate in the slot area as the lowest dominant mode, while the higher modes may propagate in the metal strip regions from the calculated results based on the transverse

Futoshi KUROKI; Kazuya MIYAMOTO

2006-01-01

270

The Mark III International Transmission Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary and estimates of the Mark III International Transmission Model, a quarterly macroeconometric model of the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Netherlands estimated for 1957 through 1976. The model is formulated to test and measure the empirical importance of alternative channels of international transmission including the effects of capital and

Michael R. Darby; Alan C. Stockman

1980-01-01

271

A Transmission Control Framework Continuous Media  

E-print Network

of Kevin Jeffay) Desktop video conferencing allows people to simulate face-to-face conversationsA Transmission Control Framework for Continuous Media by Terry Michael Talley A dissertation Rights Reserved #12;ABSTRACT A Transmission Control Framework for Continuous Media (Under the direction

Whitton, Mary C.

272

Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking Gazel Youths The intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking  

E-print Network

Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking ­ Gazel Youths 1 The intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking ­ the role of parents' long-term smoking trajectories. Maria Melchior1 , Jean;Intergenerational transmission of tobacco smoking ­ Gazel Youths 2 Abstract Youths whose parents smoke tobacco may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

273

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

274

Broadband Transmission Loss Due to Reverberant Excitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise transmission characteristics of candidate curved aircraft sidewall panel constructions is examined analytically using finite element models of the selected panel geometries. The models are validated by experimental modal analyses and transmission loss testing. The structural and acoustic response of the models are then examined when subjected to random or reverberant excitation, the simulation of which is also discussed. For a candidate curved honeycomb panel, the effect of add-on trim panel treatments is examined. Specifically, two different mounting configurations are discussed and their effect on the transmission loss of the panel is presented. This study finds that the add-on acoustical treatments do improve on the primary structures transmission loss characteristics, however, much more research is necessary to draw any valid conclusions about the optimal configuration for the maximum noise transmission loss. This paper describes several directions for the extension of this work.

Barisciano, Lawrence P. Jr.

1999-01-01

275

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct. and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

276

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

277

New insights in cysticercosis transmission.  

PubMed

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

2014-10-01

278

Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

Apollonov, Victor V.

2011-11-01

279

Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission  

SciTech Connect

For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2011-11-10

280

Quantifying Transmission of Campylobacter spp. among Broilers  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter species are frequently identified as a cause of human gastroenteritis, often from eating or mishandling contaminated poultry products. Quantitative knowledge of transmission of Campylobacter in broiler flocks is necessary, as this may help to determine the moment of introduction of Campylobacter in broiler flocks more precisely. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission rate parameter in broiler flocks. Four experiments were performed, each with four Campylobacter-inoculated chicks housed with 396 contact chicks per group. Colonization was monitored by regularly testing fecal samples for Campylobacter. A mathematical model was used to quantify the transmission rate, which was determined to be 1.04 new cases per colonized chick per day. This would imply that, for example, in a flock of 20,000 broilers, the prevalence of Campylobacter would increase from 5% to 95% within 6 days after Campylobacter introduction. The model and the estimated transmission rate parameter can be used to develop a suitable sampling scheme to determine transmission in commercial broiler flocks, to estimate whether control measures can reduce the transmission rate, or to estimate when Campylobacter was introduced into a colonized broiler flock on the basis of the time course of transmission in the flock. PMID:16204486

Van Gerwe, T. J. W. M.; Bouma, A.; Jacobs-Reitsma, W. F.; van den Broek, J.; Klinkenberg, D.; Stegeman, J. A.; Heesterbeek, J. A. P.

2005-01-01

281

Expert review on poliovirus immunity and transmission.  

PubMed

Successfully managing risks to achieve wild polioviruses (WPVs) eradication and address the complexities of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation to stop all cases of paralytic poliomyelitis depends strongly on our collective understanding of poliovirus immunity and transmission. With increased shifting from OPV to inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), numerous risk management choices motivate the need to understand the tradeoffs and uncertainties and to develop models to help inform decisions. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a meeting of international experts in April 2010 to review the available literature relevant to poliovirus immunity and transmission. This expert review evaluates 66 OPV challenge studies and other evidence to support the development of quantitative models of poliovirus transmission and potential outbreaks. This review focuses on characterization of immunity as a function of exposure history in terms of susceptibility to excretion, duration of excretion, and concentration of excreted virus. We also discuss the evidence of waning of host immunity to poliovirus transmission, the relationship between the concentration of poliovirus excreted and infectiousness, the importance of different transmission routes, and the differences in transmissibility between OPV and WPV. We discuss the limitations of the available evidence for use in polio risk models, and conclude that despite the relatively large number of studies on immunity, very limited data exist to directly support quantification of model inputs related to transmission. Given the limitations in the evidence, we identify the need for expert input to derive quantitative model inputs from the existing data. PMID:22804479

Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Pallansch, Mark A; Chumakov, Konstantin M; Halsey, Neal A; Hovi, Tapani; Minor, Philip D; Modlin, John F; Patriarca, Peter A; Sutter, Roland W; Wright, Peter F; Wassilak, Steven G F; Cochi, Stephen L; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Thompson, Kimberly M

2013-04-01

282

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

283

Sensitivity-enhanced transmission Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Transmission Raman sensitivity for a representative commercial pharmaceutical tablet was increased by a factor of 40 using optics that returned lost laser and Raman photons to the tablet surface. A new achromatic one-way mirror is introduced that uses the spatial coherence of laser light to nondestructively force laser photons through the reflective tablet coating. Transmission Raman mapping and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) mapping were developed and used to better understand the sensitivity-enhancement technology. Fundamental limitations of the sensitivity-enhancement approach are described and used to guide the design of the optics. The sensitivity-enhancement optics are compatible with commercial transmission Raman instruments. PMID:23876721

Pelletier, Michael J

2013-08-01

284

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

285

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)] [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1995-01-01

286

Thermoelectricity and transmission eigenchannels in buckyball junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission through nanoscale junctions consisting of a single Buckminsterfullerene molecule between two Pt or Au electrodes is investigated in the Coulomb blockade regime using the nonequilibrium Green's function approach. The Green's function of the buckyball is calculated in the isolated-resonance approximation, including the degenerate HOMO and LUMO orbitals. Electron-electron interactions were included in a constant-interaction model derived from ?-electron effective field theory. For junctions with Pt electrodes, we find two transmission channels (despite the 5-fold degenerate HOMO and 3-fold degenerate LUMO resonances) and a positive thermopower. For Au electrodes, the thermopower is strongly affected by quantum interference, and we find just one transmission channel.

Stefferson, Michael; Hudson, Jarred; Barr, Joshua; Bergfield, Justin; Stafford, Charles

2012-02-01

287

Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

Jake P Gentle

2012-08-01

288

Transmission Issues and Power Exchanges in Texas  

E-print Network

The electric transmission system in Texas has evolved over the years to its present state, in order to provide reliable service and reduce the amount of reserve capacity any individual utility needs to maintain. Presently there is pressure...

Hughes, H. L.

289

Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations  

SciTech Connect

Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.

Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.

2012-05-20

290

Conic relaxations for transmission system planning  

E-print Network

We apply lift-and-project type relaxations for polynomial optimization problems to AC transmission system planning, and obtain new second-order cone and semidefinite models. The models are compared to linear and nonlinear ...

Taylor, Joshua A.

291

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

292

Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-01-03

293

Politics Across Generations: Family Transmission Reexamined  

E-print Network

that parents are having an influence on their adult childrenparents do not stop being when the child reaches age 18, and may continue to influence the childinfluence family transmission are themselves passed along from parent to child.

Jennings, M. Kent; Stoker, Laura; Bowers, Jake

1999-01-01

294

Optimal structure of gas transmission trunklines  

E-print Network

transmission system. These stations contain one or more compressor units whose ... rate of flow, and thus, maintain the circulation of natural gas along the pipeline. ... states that the compression ratios giving the minimum energy consumption.

2009-01-07

295

Hantavirus transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments.  

PubMed

We developed a compartmental model for hantavirus infection in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) with the goal of comparing relative importance of direct and indirect transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments. A direct transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an infected and an uninfected mouse, while an indirect transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an uninfected mouse with, for instance, infected soil. Based on population dynamics data and estimates of hantavirus decay in the two types of environments, our model predicts that direct transmission dominates in the sylvan environment, while both pathways are important in peridomestic environments. The model allows us to compute a basic reproduction number R(0), which indicates whether the virus will be endemic or eradicated from the mouse population, in both an autonomous and a time-periodic model. Our analysis can be used to evaluate various eradication strategies. PMID:19821001

Gedeon, Tomás; Bodelón, Clara; Kuenzi, Amy

2010-04-01

296

Evidence about HIV transmission in prisons.  

PubMed

Studies of risk behavior in prisons show that injection drug users account for up to half the total population, with one-third of those continuing to inject drugs while incarcerated. Many inmates also use tattooing equipment, and five to ten percent engage in sex while in prison. The ten studies of HIV transmission in prisons show widely varying results. Results of studies that showed very small HIV transmission rates are attributed to the studies being conducted early in the epidemic. Retrospective and prospective studies found the rates to be relatively low, while mathematical models and outbreak investigations found much higher levels. Retrospective and prospective studies are probably using a biased survey population, generally with longer-term inmates in higher-security prisons. Conclusive evidence of transmission rates will need to be determined before adequate prevention programs can be designed. Efforts to reduce transmission must focus on reducing the prevalence or frequency of injection drug use. PMID:11365292

Dolan, K

297

Low Frequency Transmission Final Project Report  

E-print Network

Low Frequency Transmission Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center Dionysios Aliprantis, Iowa State University Graduate Research Assistants: Yongnam Cho, Dongbo Zhao Distinguished Professor School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta

298

Local SAR in parallel transmission pulse design  

E-print Network

The management of local and global power deposition in human subjects (specific absorption rate, SAR) is a fundamental constraint to the application of parallel transmission (pTx) systems. Even though the pTx and single ...

Lee, Joonsung

299

Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

1991-01-01

300

Atmospheric transmission calculations for optical frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative study of the transmission loss through the entire atmosphere for optical frequencies likely to be used for an earth-space communication link using existing data bases on scattering and absorption characteristics of the atmospheric constituents is presented.

Shaik, Kamran

1989-01-01

301

BARRIERS TO THE TRANSMISSION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The multiple barrier concept is applied by public health professionals as they attempt to prevent waterborne transmission of communicable diseases. This chapter discusses two water treatment techniques, filtration and disinfection, that are commonly used to provide barriers to di...

302

Synthesis of Lumped Transmission-Line Analogs  

E-print Network

Transmission lines and their lumped approximating networks have long been incorporated into radio-frequency power amplifiers to improve efficiency and shape circuit waveforms and are beginning to perform a similar roles ...

Phinney, Joshua W.

303

Optimizing transmission path utilization in Idaho Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new line current profile based dynamic line rating system has been implemented at Idaho Power Company by real-time exchange of data with Energy Management System and real-time weather data from the Internet. Increased utilization of transmission critical path is made possible by wide-area real-time dynamic rating using Internet based weather data. Economic analysis shows significant benefit of operating transmission

Orlando A. Ciniglio; Anjan K. Deb

2004-01-01

304

Electronic Communications Instructor Guide: Transmission Line Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Communications equipment, systems and test instruments are generally connected to one another by coaxial cable. For that reason, it is essential that students know the characteristics of transmission lines using coax cable and how to make basic measurements on them. This lesson aims to familiarize students with common measurements on coaxial transmission lines. The module may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format; a quick, free login is required to access the materials.

2012-12-03

305

Neuromotor Transmissibility of Horizontal Seatpan Vibration  

E-print Network

on off-road vehicles, which include industrial vehicles and earth moving machinery. The response characteristics of occupants exposed to whole body vibration were investigated based on four different modes of transmission. Based on the different... as the ratio of accelerations measured at different levels of spine to the input seat acceleration. Experimental studies have reported consistent trends for occupants exposed to vertical seatpan vibration. Based on the transmission functions, the resonance...

Channamallu, Raghu Ram

2007-12-16

306

Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

Srivastava, Santosh K.

1989-01-01

307

Instantaneous Microwave Transmission Imaging of Aqueous Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on instantaneous microwave transmission imaging experiments using a photonic technique. A high-resolution electro-optic (EO) camera we developed was used as a microwave image sensor under near-field conditions. Microwave transmission images of water capsules could be depicted with 10,000 pixels in less than one second. The images using a combination of the observed microwave intensity and phase showed higher

Atsushi Kanno; Kiyotaka Sasagawa; Masahiro Tsuchiya

2007-01-01

308

Nipah Virus Transmission in a Hamster Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions.

Emmie de Wit; Trenton Bushmaker; Dana Scott; Heinz Feldmann; Vincent J. Munster

2011-01-01

309

Marketing Plan for Transmission Planning Services  

E-print Network

and new clients to grow the company profitably. Based on market analysis and developed plans, it is recommended that Consultation Company invest $14,000 initially in marketing costs to expand the company?s service markets in transmission planning.... EMGT 835 Field Project 4 Fall 2006 Marketing Plan for Transmission Planning Services Chapter 1 Situation Analysis CHAPTER 1 SITUATION ANALYSIS Statement of General Business Purpose Consultation Company was founded in 1984 by two visionary...

Tu, Linh

2006-12-15

310

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

311

Space-to-earth power transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

1976-01-01

312

5 CFR 1312.28 - Transmission of classified material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transmission of classified material. 1312.28...Classified Information § 1312.28 Transmission of classified material. Prior to the transmission of classified material to...

2011-01-01

313

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section...POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a)...

2011-01-01

314

5 CFR 1312.28 - Transmission of classified material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission of classified material. 1312.28...Classified Information § 1312.28 Transmission of classified material. Prior to the transmission of classified material to...

2010-01-01

315

47 CFR 101.207 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 101.207 Section 101.207 Telecommunication...Operational Requirements § 101.207 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2012-10-01

316

18 CFR 2.21 - Regional Transmission Groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Regional Transmission Groups. 2.21 Section 2...Power Act § 2.21 Regional Transmission Groups. (a) General policy...Commission encourages Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs) as a...

2010-04-01

317

47 CFR 73.1695 - Changes in transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Changes in transmission standards. 73.1695 Section 73...Stations § 73.1695 Changes in transmission standards. The FCC will consider...a proposed change or modification of transmission standards adopted for...

2011-10-01

318

42 CFR 412.614 - Transmission of patient assessment data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of patient assessment data. 412...Rehabilitation Units § 412.614 Transmission of patient assessment data. (a...the our patient data system. (c) Transmission dates. The inpatient...

2010-10-01

319

47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312...80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it...

2011-10-01

320

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2012-10-01

321

14 CFR 29.1027 - Transmission and gearboxes: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission and gearboxes: general. 29.1027...Powerplant Oil System § 29.1027 Transmission and gearboxes: general. (a...b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with...

2010-01-01

322

42 CFR 412.614 - Transmission of patient assessment data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission of patient assessment data. 412...Rehabilitation Units § 412.614 Transmission of patient assessment data. (a...the our patient data system. (c) Transmission dates. The inpatient...

2012-10-01

323

Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory Fioralba Cakoni  

E-print Network

Transmission Eigenvalues in Inverse Scattering Theory Fioralba Cakoni Houssem Haddar January 11, 2012 1 Introduction The interior transmission problem arises in inverse scattering theory is the eigenvalue problem associated with this boundary value problem, referred to as the transmission eigenvalue

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents...1.8 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the situations...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2011-07-01

325

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section 73... § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An FM broadcast...the stereophonic pilot frequency in a transmission system meeting the following...

2011-10-01

326

47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.90 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2012-10-01

327

47 CFR 25.273 - Duties regarding space communications transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Duties regarding space communications transmissions. 25.273 Section 25.273 Telecommunication...Duties regarding space communications transmissions. (a) No person shall: (1...Transmit to a satellite unless the specific transmission is first authorized by the...

2011-10-01

328

14 CFR 29.1027 - Transmission and gearboxes: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transmission and gearboxes: general. 29.1027...Powerplant Oil System § 29.1027 Transmission and gearboxes: general. (a...b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with...

2011-01-01

329

29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section... § 1926.307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements...covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following...

2012-07-01

330

47 CFR 5.117 - Suspension of transmission required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Suspension of transmission required. 5.117 Section 5...Requirements § 5.117 Suspension of transmission required. The radiations of...deviation is corrected, except for transmissions concerning the immediate safety...

2010-10-01

331

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2010-10-01

332

47 CFR 73.1695 - Changes in transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Changes in transmission standards. 73.1695 Section 73...Stations § 73.1695 Changes in transmission standards. The FCC will consider...a proposed change or modification of transmission standards adopted for...

2012-10-01

333

5 CFR 1312.28 - Transmission of classified material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transmission of classified material. 1312.28...Classified Information § 1312.28 Transmission of classified material. Prior to the transmission of classified material to...

2012-01-01

334

37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents...1.8 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the situations...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2010-07-01

335

7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209...Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor...system as a condition to the electronic transmission and reception of data by the...

2011-01-01

336

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section...POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a)...

2012-01-01

337

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12 Section 583.12 Transportation... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied...

2010-10-01

338

18 CFR 2.21 - Regional Transmission Groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Regional Transmission Groups. 2.21 Section 2...Power Act § 2.21 Regional Transmission Groups. (a) General policy...Commission encourages Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs) as a...

2011-04-01

339

77 FR 69754 - Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. RM11-26-000] Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform AGENCY...evaluation of applications for electric transmission incentives under section 219 of the...acted on numerous applications for transmission incentives. The Commission has...

2012-11-21

340

29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section... § 1926.307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements...covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following...

2010-07-01

341

7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209...Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor...system as a condition to the electronic transmission and reception of data by the...

2010-01-01

342

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2011-04-01

343

42 CFR 412.614 - Transmission of patient assessment data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission of patient assessment data. 412...Rehabilitation Units § 412.614 Transmission of patient assessment data. (a...the our patient data system. (c) Transmission dates. The inpatient...

2011-10-01

344

40 CFR 123.43 - Transmission of information to EPA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmission of information to EPA. 123.43...Information and Permit Review § 123.43 Transmission of information to EPA. ...for the following: (1) Prompt transmission to the Regional Administrator...

2010-07-01

345

47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312...80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it...

2012-10-01

346

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2010-04-01

347

Transmission of a Screw Dislocation Across a Coherent, Nonslipping Interface  

E-print Network

1 Transmission of a Screw Dislocation Across a Coherent, Nonslipping Interface Yao Shen materials (B), Energy methods (B), Transmission across interfaces Abstract Current research of slip transmission of a screw dislocation across a coherent, non-slipping interface is presented

Anderson, Peter M.

348

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2012-04-01

349

7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section...POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a)...

2010-01-01

350

40 CFR 123.43 - Transmission of information to EPA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmission of information to EPA. 123.43...Information and Permit Review § 123.43 Transmission of information to EPA. ...for the following: (1) Prompt transmission to the Regional Administrator...

2011-07-01

351

37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents...2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2012-07-01

352

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control...The following are typical methods of transmission system operation: (a)...

2010-10-01

353

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section 73... § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An FM broadcast...the stereophonic pilot frequency in a transmission system meeting the following...

2010-10-01

354

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section 73... § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An FM broadcast...the stereophonic pilot frequency in a transmission system meeting the following...

2012-10-01

355

18 CFR 35.34 - Regional Transmission Organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regional Transmission Organizations. 35.34 Section 35...Procedures and Requirements Regarding Regional Transmission Organizations § 35.34 Regional Transmission Organizations. (a) Purpose....

2012-04-01

356

37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents...2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2010-07-01

357

47 CFR 25.273 - Duties regarding space communications transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Duties regarding space communications transmissions. 25.273 Section 25.273 Telecommunication...Duties regarding space communications transmissions. (a) No person shall: (1...Transmit to a satellite unless the specific transmission is first authorized by the...

2010-10-01

358

49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192...STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.706 Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at...

2011-10-01

359

47 CFR 73.644 - Subscription TV transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Subscription TV transmission systems. 73.644 Section 73...Stations § 73.644 Subscription TV transmission systems. (a) Licensees...same program material using normal transmission standards. (4) Modification...

2012-10-01

360

47 CFR 5.117 - Suspension of transmission required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Suspension of transmission required. 5.117 Section 5...Requirements § 5.117 Suspension of transmission required. The radiations of...deviation is corrected, except for transmissions concerning the immediate safety...

2011-10-01

361

29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... § 1910.219 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements...covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following...

2012-07-01

362

47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.90 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2010-10-01

363

47 CFR 101.207 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 101.207 Section 101.207 Telecommunication...Operational Requirements § 101.207 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2010-10-01

364

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Remedial measures: Transmission lines. 192.485 Section 192...192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general...

2010-10-01

365

37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents...2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2011-07-01

366

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control...The following are typical methods of transmission system operation: (a)...

2012-10-01

367

47 CFR 101.207 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 101.207 Section 101.207 Telecommunication...Operational Requirements § 101.207 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2011-10-01

368

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2011-10-01

369

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control...The following are typical methods of transmission system operation: (a)...

2011-10-01

370

29 CFR 1910.219 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1910.219 Section... § 1910.219 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements...covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following...

2011-07-01

371

47 CFR 73.1695 - Changes in transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Changes in transmission standards. 73.1695 Section 73...Stations § 73.1695 Changes in transmission standards. The FCC will consider...a proposed change or modification of transmission standards adopted for...

2010-10-01

372

14 CFR 27.1027 - Transmissions and gearboxes: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmissions and gearboxes: General. 27.1027...Powerplant Oil System § 27.1027 Transmissions and gearboxes: General. ...b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with...

2010-01-01

373

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12 Section 583.12 Transportation... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied...

2011-10-01

374

37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents...1.8 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the situations...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2012-07-01

375

47 CFR 25.273 - Duties regarding space communications transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Duties regarding space communications transmissions. 25.273 Section 25.273 Telecommunication...Duties regarding space communications transmissions. (a) No person shall: (1...Transmit to a satellite unless the specific transmission is first authorized by the...

2012-10-01

376

40 CFR 123.43 - Transmission of information to EPA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmission of information to EPA. 123.43...Information and Permit Review § 123.43 Transmission of information to EPA. ...for the following: (1) Prompt transmission to the Regional Administrator...

2012-07-01

377

49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220.47 Transportation...Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by the word...

2012-10-01

378

14 CFR 27.1027 - Transmissions and gearboxes: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transmissions and gearboxes: General. 27.1027...Powerplant Oil System § 27.1027 Transmissions and gearboxes: General. ...b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with...

2012-01-01

379

14 CFR 29.1027 - Transmission and gearboxes: general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transmission and gearboxes: general. 29.1027...Powerplant Oil System § 29.1027 Transmission and gearboxes: general. (a...b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with...

2012-01-01

380

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Remedial measures: Transmission lines. 192.485 Section 192...192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general...

2012-10-01

381

47 CFR 73.644 - Subscription TV transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Subscription TV transmission systems. 73.644 Section 73...Stations § 73.644 Subscription TV transmission systems. (a) Licensees...same program material using normal transmission standards. (4) Modification...

2011-10-01

382

14 CFR 27.1027 - Transmissions and gearboxes: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transmissions and gearboxes: General. 27.1027...Powerplant Oil System § 27.1027 Transmissions and gearboxes: General. ...b) Pressure lubrication systems for transmissions and gearboxes must comply with...

2011-01-01

383

18 CFR 2.21 - Regional Transmission Groups.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Regional Transmission Groups. 2.21 Section 2...Power Act § 2.21 Regional Transmission Groups. (a) General policy...Commission encourages Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs) as a...

2012-04-01

384

29 CFR 1926.307 - Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. 1926.307 Section... § 1926.307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus. (a) General requirements...covers all types and shapes of power-transmission belts, except the following...

2011-07-01

385

47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312...80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it...

2010-10-01

386

47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.90 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2011-10-01

387

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection (RSV): Transmission and Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Red Book® Online More Transmission and Prevention Share Compartir On this Page Transmission Prevention Transmission People infected with RSV are usually contagious for ...

388

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12 Section 583.12 Transportation... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied...

2012-10-01

389

49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192...STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.706 Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at...

2010-10-01

390

49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down...hazard and, if the transmission line is adjacent to...directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must be...

2013-10-01

391

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2012-10-01

392

47 CFR 74.750 - Transmission system facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Transmission system facilities. 74...Booster Stations § 74.750 Transmission system facilities...signals to be rebroadcast, and transmission lines are not certificated...shall be so designed that the electrical characteristics of...

2013-10-01

393

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2013-10-01

394

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2010-10-01

395

49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down...hazard and, if the transmission line is adjacent to...directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must be...

2012-10-01

396

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2011-10-01

397

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity  

E-print Network

Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: Regulatory mechanisms and plasticity Alberto E of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. In chemical synapses, presynaptic electrical currents

Rash, John E.

398

Estimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion  

E-print Network

with electric transmission. One such component is transmission system conEstimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion Thomas J. Overbye Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801 USA overbye

399

49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down...hazard and, if the transmission line is adjacent to...directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must be...

2010-10-01

400

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 7: Transmission  

E-print Network

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 7: Transmission Summary of Key..................................................................................................................................... 1 Northwest Transmission Planning), there was concern that there had been little progress on addressing the developing transmission issues in the region

401

49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...capacity to allow the transmission line to be blown down...hazard and, if the transmission line is adjacent to...directed away from the electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines must be...

2011-10-01

402

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section...Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An...one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the...

2013-10-01

403

Anamorphic System for Redundancy in Coherent Fiber Optic Bundle Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to an optical transmission system for eliminating picture element information loss during the transmission of image forming light through a fiber optics bundle. This invention comprises a relatively simple image transmission system ...

D. M. Baldwin

1981-01-01

404

Coaxial transmission line for terahertz wave guiding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a coaxial terahertz waveguide with low transmission loss and broad bandwidth. The coaxial transmission line is composed of an aurum line in the center, which ento-ectad covered with Teflon layer, wire-mesh, and the dielectric layer for protection. In this paper, we utilize the finite element method (FEM) to numerically analyze the transmission mode, the attenuation constant, and the bandwidth of the waveguide. The major transmission properties of the coaxial terahertz waveguide are calculated for different diameters of aurum axes and different thicknesses of dielectric layers. We also compare two waveguides with different Teflon thicknesses for getting broader transmission bandwidth. The simulation results indicate that the optimum dimension of coaxial terahertz waveguide is the aurum axes of 700?m diameter, the Teflon of 900?m thickness. With these parameters, the average attenuation constant of the waveguide can be as low as 2.44 x 10-4 dB/m in the frequency range 1.0-2.2THz. As these excellent transmission properties and simple structure of the coaxial waveguide, it can be expected that it will be widely used in terahertz wave communications and the fabrication of terahertz system integration.

Xiong, Wei; Sun, Wen-feng; Wang, Xin-ke; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Yan

2011-08-01

405

47 CFR 101.207 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...101.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.207 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended...

2013-10-01

406

An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.  

SciTech Connect

References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

1994-08-01

407

Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission.  

PubMed

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions can reduce malaria transmission by targeting mosquitoes when they feed upon sleeping humans and/or rest inside houses, livestock shelters or other man-made structures. However, many malaria vector species can maintain robust transmission, despite high coverage of LLINs/IRS containing insecticides to which they are physiologically fully susceptible, because they exhibit one or more behaviours that define the biological limits of achievable impact with these interventions: (1) Natural or insecticide-induced avoidance of contact with treated surfaces within houses and early exit from them, thus minimizing exposure hazard of vectors which feed indoors upon humans; (2) Feeding upon humans when they are active and unprotected outdoors, thereby attenuating personal protection and any consequent community-wide suppression of transmission; (3) Feeding upon animals, thus minimizing contact with insecticides targeted at humans or houses; (4) Resting outdoors, away from insecticide-treated surfaces of nets, walls and roofs. Residual malaria transmission is, therefore, defined as all forms of transmission that can persist after achieving full universal coverage with effective LLINs and/or IRS containing active ingredients to which local vector populations are fully susceptible. Residual transmission is sufficiently intense across most of the tropics to render malaria elimination infeasible without new or improved vector control methods. Many novel or improved vector control strategies to address residual transmission are emerging that either: (1) Enhance control of adult vectors that enter houses to feed and/or rest by killing, repelling or excluding them; (2) Kill or repel adult mosquitoes when they attack people outdoors; (3) Kill adult mosquitoes when they attack livestock; (4) Kill adult mosquitoes when they feed upon sugar or; (5) Kill immature mosquitoes in aquatic habitats. To date, none of these options has sufficient supporting evidence to justify full-scale programmatic implementation. Concerted investment in their rigorous selection, development and evaluation is required over the coming decade to enable control and, ultimately, elimination of residual malaria transmission. In the meantime, national programmes may assess options for addressing residual transmission under programmatic conditions through pilot studies with strong monitoring, evaluation and operational research components, similar to the Onchocerciasis Control Programme. PMID:25149656

Killeen, Gerry F

2014-01-01

408

Multicore fibers for large capacity transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experience Internet traffic growth of 100 times every 10 years. However, the capacity of existing standard single-mode fiber is approaching its fundamental limit regardless of significant realization of transmission technologies which allow for high spectral efficiencies. Space division multiplexing (SDM) based on multicore fibers (MCFs) has emerged as a solution to the problem of saturation of the capacity of optical transmission systems. This article presents the recent progress on the MCFs for future large capacity long-distance transmission systems. In MCFs, there is a tradeoff relationship between low crosstalk and high multiplicity, therefore the maximum number of cores and the core arrangement have to be carefully determined based on the required crosstalk level and core size. The state-of-the-art of fabricated MCFs and the transmission experiments using MCFs are reviewed. The current maximum capacity-distance product in MCF transmission is 368.2 (184.1+184.1) Pb/s/fiber km with the relative spatial efficiency of 4.7 compared with a standard single-mode fiber. In order to increase the spatial efficiency as well as the capacity-distance product further in MCFs, the possibility of heterogeneous MCFs and few-mode MCFs is also presented.

Saitoh, Kunimasa; Matsuo, Shoichiro

2013-12-01

409

Scheduling Multicast Transmissions under SINR Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of scheduling wireless transmissions under signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraints has received increasing attention recently. While previous work has considered the unicast case where each transmission has one sender and one receiver, we consider the setting of multicast requests where each transmission has one sender and a set of receivers. A set of multicast transmissions can be scheduled in the same round if the SINR at all receivers is above a certain threshold. The goal is to minimise the number of rounds. Building on the relationship between SINR scheduling and unit disk graph colouring established by Halldórsson (ESA 2009), we present an O(log ?)-approximation algorithm for multicast scheduling in the SINR model, where ? is the ratio of the longest to the shortest link length, considering only the longest link of each multicast request. The algorithm uses uniform power assignment and can be implemented online. We also compare the model of atomic multicasts (where all receivers of a multicast must receive the transmission in the same round) to the model of splittable multicasts (where a multicast sender can transmit in several rounds, each time serving a subset of its receivers). Furthermore, we consider the throughput maximisation problem and obtain an O(log ?)-competitive randomised online algorithm and show that every deterministic algorithm, even for unicast links and using arbitrary power assignments, has competitive ratio ?(log?).

Erlebach, Thomas; Grant, Tom

410

Graphene-supported tunable extraordinary transmission.  

PubMed

By depositing a graphene layer on the metallic film with subwavelength hole arrays, the tunable extraordinary transmission property based on the metal-dielectrics-graphene (MDG) structure has been investigated in the terahertz (THz) and near-infrared (NIR) regimes. The influences of operation frequency, composed materials, and the Fermi level of the graphene layer have been taken into account. The results show that by varying the Fermi level of the graphene layer, the transmission of the MDG structure can be tuned in a wide range and the modulation depth of the peak value of the transmission can reach more than 50%. But the tunable mechanisms in the THz and NIR regimes are quite different. In the infrared (THz) regime, the graphene behaves like the dielectric (metallic) layer; its dielectric constant decreases (increases) with the increase of Fermi level, resulting in the transmission increasing (decreasing). Compared with the metallic structure, the transmission of the semiconductor structure can also be modulated by using the doping or varying temperature; its peak position can also be changed in a much broader range. The results are very useful to understand the mechanism of the graphene plasmonic devices and to design novel filters, switchers, modulators, and sensors. PMID:25060732

He, Xiaoyong; Lu, Hongxia

2014-08-15

411

Graphene-supported tunable extraordinary transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By depositing a graphene layer on the metallic film with subwavelength hole arrays, the tunable extraordinary transmission property based on the metal-dielectrics-graphene (MDG) structure has been investigated in the terahertz (THz) and near-infrared (NIR) regimes. The influences of operation frequency, composed materials, and the Fermi level of the graphene layer have been taken into account. The results show that by varying the Fermi level of the graphene layer, the transmission of the MDG structure can be tuned in a wide range and the modulation depth of the peak value of the transmission can reach more than 50%. But the tunable mechanisms in the THz and NIR regimes are quite different. In the infrared (THz) regime, the graphene behaves like the dielectric (metallic) layer; its dielectric constant decreases (increases) with the increase of Fermi level, resulting in the transmission increasing (decreasing). Compared with the metallic structure, the transmission of the semiconductor structure can also be modulated by using the doping or varying temperature; its peak position can also be changed in a much broader range. The results are very useful to understand the mechanism of the graphene plasmonic devices and to design novel filters, switchers, modulators, and sensors.

He, Xiaoyong; Lu, Hongxia

2014-08-01

412

Dengue Virus Virulence and Transmission Determinants  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of dengue virus (DENV) pathogenesis are little understood because we have no models of disease; only humans develop symptoms (dengue fever, DF, or dengue hemorrhagic fever, DHF) and research has been limited to studies involving patients. DENV is very diverse: there are four antigenic groups (serotypes) and three to five genetic groups (genotypes) within each sero-type. Thus, it has been difficult to evaluate the relative virulence or transmissibility of each DENV genotype; both of these factors are important determinants of epidemiology and their measurement is complex because the natural cycle of this disease involves human-mosquito-human transmission. Although epidemiological and evolutionary studies have pointed to viral factors in determining disease outcome, only recently developed models could prove the importance of specific viral genotypes in causing severe epidemics and their potential to spread to other continents. These new models involve infection of primary human cell cultures, “humanized” mice and field-collected mosquitoes; also, new mathematical models can estimate the impact of viral replication, human immunity and mosquito transmission on epidemic behavior. DENV evolution does not seem to be rapid and the transmission and dispersal of stable, replication-fit genotypes has been more important in the causation of more severe epidemics. Controversy regarding viral determinants of DENV pathogenesis and epidemiology will continue until virulence and transmissibility can be measured under various conditions. PMID:19802577

Rico-Hesse, R.

2011-01-01

413

Modelling pulsed-power transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Transmission lines in modern pulsed-power machines such as PBFA-II operate at ten or more megavolts with multi-megampere currents. They often have series (voltage) or parallel (current) power addition. In these transmission lines the cathodes emit electrons freely. In addition, perturbations such as plasma opening switches cause additional electrons to be launched into the flow. The large magnetic field due to the transmission line current prevents these electrons from crossing the transmission line to the anode directly, but in most situations electron current flows to the anode after traveling a long distance down the transmission line. Usually these losses occur just before the load or at adder points. Reliable modelling of these lines is important both for design purposes and for use in analyzing data. In this paper we will present models that can be used for these purposes. The model will primarily be based upon known symmetries plus measurable parameters. Comparisons to data, particularly data taken on PBFA-II will be made.

Mendel, C.S. Jr.; Seidel, D.B.; Johnson, W.A.; Rosenthal, S.E.

1991-01-01

414

Modelling pulsed-power transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Transmission lines in modern pulsed-power machines such as PBFA-II operate at ten or more megavolts with multi-megampere currents. They often have series (voltage) or parallel (current) power addition. In these transmission lines the cathodes emit electrons freely. In addition, perturbations such as plasma opening switches cause additional electrons to be launched into the flow. The large magnetic field due to the transmission line current prevents these electrons from crossing the transmission line to the anode directly, but in most situations electron current flows to the anode after traveling a long distance down the transmission line. Usually these losses occur just before the load or at adder points. Reliable modelling of these lines is important both for design purposes and for use in analyzing data. In this paper we will present models that can be used for these purposes. The model will primarily be based upon known symmetries plus measurable parameters. Comparisons to data, particularly data taken on PBFA-II will be made.

Mendel, C.S. Jr.; Seidel, D.B.; Johnson, W.A.; Rosenthal, S.E.

1991-12-31

415

Density-dependence in parasite transmission dynamics.  

PubMed

The transmission of vector-borne parasites is complex, yet to a large extent this complexity can be unravelled through the insights gained from simple mathematical models of the transmission system. The principle is simple because the key question is merely "what is the rate of increase in numbers of hosts affected?" Clearly, if this rate of increase is greater than unity then the infection can spread, while if it is less than unity it will decline. Ronald Ross in 1911 was the first to formulate this idea for malarial(1) and malaria transmission has since attracted most attention from modellers of parasitic diseases(2-4). But although it is implicitly recognized that nothing- not even parasitic transmission - can increase indefinitely, the importance of some degree of density-dependence in regulating the system tends to be neglected (see Box 1). In this article, Klaus Dietz explores some classical ideas of modelling parasitic disease transmission, emphasizing not only the importance of density dependence but also the importance of knowing exactly where such effects operate in the system. PMID:15463054

Dietz, K

1988-04-01

416

Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

Zhou, Qun

417

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission Overview & Information Theory S Chen ELEC3028 (EL334) Digital Transmission  

E-print Network

Transmission Half of the unit: · Information Theory · MODEM (modulator and demodulator) Professor Sheng Chen Some improved 2G, HSCSD: high-speed circuit switched data, GPRS: general packet radio service, EDGE/output are considered digital (analogue sampled/quantised) · CODEC, MODEM, channel (transmission medium) · Your 3G

Chen, Sheng

418

Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

2010-01-01

419

Monitoring frictional strength with acoustic wave transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We monitored acoustic transmissivity of a frictional interface during laboratory experiments where complex slip history was imposed. Frictional strength, which was also tracked continuously, showed complex changes due to various causes such as aging of the interface in quasi-stationary contact and slip weakening that began with miniscule pre-failure slip. Albeit such complexity, acoustic transmissivity was found to be a unique function of frictional strength throughout the experiment. This suggests that acoustic transmissivity reflects the resultant changes in load-supporting contact population that governs the frictional strength of the moment, not the external conditions that have altered contact state. This simple non-destructive acoustic measurement, which can be applied remotely and continuously, is therefore a robust technique to monitor frictional strength.

Nagata, Kohei; Nakatani, Masao; Yoshida, Shingo

2008-03-01

420

Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

2013-03-01

421

Transmission profiles from SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical atmospheric transmission profiles contain information about its composition and make it possible to reconstruct the vertical distribution of its components. The measurement of stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles and its size distribution is the goal of the ROMIC-ROSA project for which transmission profiles are the most important precondition. One established method to obtain such profiles are satellite born occultation measurements. For this project SCIAMACHY (EnviSat) solar occultation measurements are analysed. The data set covers a time period of ten years within a wavelength interval between 240 and 2380 nm. Due to different spatial resolution of the measured solar profiles a direct application of existing analysis tools and algorithms is not possible. First they have to be adjusted to the present data. This contribution explains the present data processing and shows the resulting transmission profiles.

Zalach, Jacob; Von Savigny, Christian

422

Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans  

PubMed Central

Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains. PMID:25279820

Levavasseur, Etienne; Privat, Nicolas; Martin, Juan-Carlos Espinosa; Simoneau, Steve; Baron, Thierry; Flan, Benoit; Torres, Juan-Maria; Haik, Stephane

2014-01-01

423

Molecular modeling of prion transmission to humans.  

PubMed

Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains. PMID:25279820

Levavasseur, Etienne; Privat, Nicolas; Martin, Juan-Carlos Espinosa; Simoneau, Steve; Baron, Thierry; Flan, Benoit; Torres, Juan-Maria; Haïk, Stéphane

2014-10-01

424

Reduction ratio control for continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a reduction ratio control for a continuously variable transmission of a motor vehicle, the continuously variable transmission being connected to an engine of the motor vehicle to be driven thereby, the reduction ratio control comprising: means for carrying out a reduction ratio change of the continuously variable transmission in such a manner as to decrease a difference between an actual value in a predetermined operating variable and a target value in the predetermined operating variable toward zero; means for determining a deceleration which the motor vehicle is subject to; means for changing the target value to a new target value in response to the deceleration after the deceleration which the motor vehicle is subjected to is determined; and the means for carrying out the reduction ratio change causes the actual value to approach the new target value quicker than it controlled the actual value to approach the target value.

Kumura, H.

1989-06-06

425

Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors  

DOEpatents

A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

Nambu, Shigeo (Fuchu, JP)

1985-01-01

426

Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

2011-05-24

427

Single transmission line data acquisition system  

DOEpatents

A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

428

Solar light transmission of polymer optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

Light transfer (10 m) has been shown in recent experiments that used large-core optical fibers. Theoretical models are not extensive, however, and a further correlation between the theory and experiments has not been given. In this paper, straight and bent fiber subsystem models are introduced with skew and meridional rays to predict the light transmission of POFs (plastic optical fibers). Such fibers have been realized, for example, in HSL (hybrid solar lighting) systems. The purpose of this paper is to combine the straight and bent fiber subsystems to estimate the light transmission of HSL systems. It is shown that meridional rays, for which the optical-loss parameters were estimated, better represent the experimental results compared to skew rays ({+-}5.3% vs {+-}24.7% of %-difference). Model predictions were compared with the results of a commercial software. Sensitivity analysis on the subsystems indicated the most-to-least significant parameters in light transmission. (author)

Tekelioglu, Murat [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Wood, Byard D. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

2009-11-15

429

Single conductor transmission cable magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

Generally accepted methods for calculating magnetic fields in the vicinity of overhead transmission lines are currently available. These calculation procedures have received general acceptance because they are well documented and field measurements have verified their accuracy. Similar data and calculation procedures, however, are lacking for underground transmission cables. This report describes a research project which was designed to investigate the magnetic fields produced by single conductor underground transmission cables, specifically self-contained fluid filled and extruded dielectric types. A test bay was designed and constructed at the EPRI Waltz Mill Cable Test Facility to obtain measurements for a range of commonly used installation configurations, sheath grounding practices, load current magnitudes, and cable sheath constructions. The results of these tests showed that the magnetic field varies over a wide range depending on the cable installation configuration, sheath resistance and bonding, and the relationship of cable phases for double circuit installations. Magnetic field measurements were also conducted on an in-service single conductor transmission cable to substantiate and supplement the Waltz Mill test results. An analysis of the measured magnetic field values for both the Waltz Mill tests and the in-service transmission cable showed good agreement with currently existing calculation procedures. The calculation procedure which was used is similar to that for overhead transmission lines except that induced sheath/shield currents for multipoint sheath/shield grounding must be calculated and taken into account. The measurements showed that the earth has little or no effect on the above ground magnetic field. 7 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Cooper, J.H. (Power Technologies, Inc., Wilmerding, PA (United States))

1991-08-01

430

Transmission capacity of CDMA ad hoc networks Steven Weber  

E-print Network

Transmission capacity of CDMA ad hoc networks Steven Weber Dept. of ECE Drexel University and tolerate co-located simultaneous transmissions. We develop analytic results on the transmission capacity of a CDMA ad hoc network. Transmission capacity is defined as the maximum permissible density

de Veciana, Gustavo

431

Transmission Range Control in Multihop Packet Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for analyzing the performance of transmission strategies in a multihop packet radio network where each station has adjustable transmission radius. A larger transmission radius will increase the probability of finding a receiver in the desired direction and contribute bigger progress if the transmission is successful, but it also has a higher probability of collision with

Ting-Chao Hou; Victor Li

1986-01-01

432

Transmission Throughput of Decentralized Overlaid Networks with Outage Constraints  

E-print Network

Transmission Throughput of Decentralized Overlaid Networks with Outage Constraints Chengzhi Li, we examine the overall transmission throughput, which is a variation of the transmission capacity the secondary network can gain in transmission of its own useful data, without harming the regular operation

Dai, Huaiyu

433

Fault-Tolerant Exact State Transmission  

E-print Network

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault- tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose the implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices.

Zhao-Ming Wang; Lian-Ao Wu; Michele Modugno; Wang Yao; Bin Shao

2012-05-02

434

Potential of laser for SPS power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

Bain, C. N.

1978-01-01

435

Transient analysis of heat transmission systems  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a method of analysis for heat transmission systems operating under district heating load conditions. The method accounts for the effects of heat source and load characteristics. The use of thermal energy storage systems is outlined and advantages are given. The transmission model itself considers the following technical aspects: (1) frictional pressure losses in piping system, (2) pump characteristics, (3) pump driver characteristics, and (4) heat losses from the buried piping. The capital costs considered are the piping system and necessary pumps. Operation and maintenance costs include cost of heat loss and cost of pumping energy input. Allowances are also made for system maintenance and repair over the assumed lifetime.

Phetteplace, G.E.

1981-12-01

436

EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-04-01

437

A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts  

PubMed Central

The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

2010-01-01

438

Multicore EDFA for long-distance transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multicore Er3+-doped fiber amplifier (MC-EDFA) can be realized by using an amplification medium such as bundled or multi-element Er3+-doped fiber (EDF) and multicore EDF, and employing a discrete pumping or cladding pumping method. In this paper, we report three recently developed MC-EDFAs, which represent all the amplification forms realizable using the amplification medium and pumping method. We also report the importance of an MC-EDFA for constructing a practical long-haul multicore fiber transmission system based on the facts of the progress made on the transmission experiments, and describe further progress on the MC-EDFA.

Yamada, Makoto; Ono, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Shoichiro

2013-12-01

439

Control of organelle transmission in Chlorophytum.  

PubMed

In a study of pollen ultrastructure in Chlorophytum comosum plastids were found to be present and apparently unaltered in both vegetative and generative cells. These ultrastructural data are consistent with the biparental transmission of plastids in this genus. However, mitochondria appear degenerate when compared to leaf mitochondria, exhibiting small myelin-like figures in addition to an abnormal cristae system. Since the plastids are not degenerate in the pollen of this species it appears that the transmission genetics of the mitochondria are determined separately from that of the plastid in higher plants. PMID:24190055

Vaughn, K C; Kimpel, D L; Wilson, K G

1981-05-01

440

Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities. PMID:25411971

Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

2014-01-01

441

Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

442

Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2006-07-07

443

Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

Keller, Lindsay P.

1995-01-01

444

Impact analysis of electrical transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The impact of electric transmission lines on the well-being and peace of mind of people living and working near or under them is investigated. Considered are: induced charges on wire fences/ shocks from farm machinery/ ill effects on behavior, growth, and reproduction of cattle/ interference with radio and television reception/ interference with the operation of electronic farm equipment and machinery/ storm damage/ and toxic effects of ozone production. Whether justifiable or not, the existence of electric transmission lines affects the marketability of property. (1 graph, 2 tables)

Kellough, W.R.

1980-12-01

445

Transmission overhaul estimates for partial and full replacement at repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Timely transmission overhauls increase in-flight service reliability greater than the calculated design reliabilities of the individual aircraft transmission components. Although necessary for aircraft safety, transmission overhauls contribute significantly to aircraft expense. Predictions of a transmission's maintenance needs at the design stage should enable the development of more cost effective and reliable transmissions in the future. The frequency is estimated of overhaul along with the number of transmissions or components needed to support the overhaul schedule. Two methods based on the two parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life are used to estimate the time between transmission overhauls. These methods predict transmission lives for maintenance schedules which repair the transmission with a complete system replacement or repair only failed components of the transmission. An example illustrates the methods.

Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

1991-01-01

446

MM Transmission Arrangement Requirements for Conventional Automotive Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An automotive vehicle’s transmission arrangement comprises the whole of the components concerned with transmitting ECE or\\u000a ICE power as well as F-M, P-M or E-M motor power to the road wheels, that is, the M-M clutch and manual transmission (MT), termed the ‘gearbox’, semi-automatic transmission (SAT), fully-automatic transmission (FAT) or continuously-variable transmission (CVT), the propeller shaft (driveshaft), and final drive

B. T. Fijalkowski

447

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND STEGANOGRAPHY Ingemar J. Cox  

E-print Network

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND STEGANOGRAPHY Ingemar J. Cox , Ton Kalker , Georg Pakura and Mathias Scheel ABSTRACT Recently there has been strong interest in developing models of steganography based. INTRODUCTION The history of steganography can be traced back thousands of years, examples of which

Cox, Ingemar J.

448

40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vehicle shall be driven with minimum accelerator pedal movement to maintain the desired...transmissions, the operator shall release the accelerator pedal during each shift and accomplish...shall be run in gear using brakes or accelerator pedal as necessary to...

2013-07-01

449

Transmission techniques for digital terrestrial TV broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the potential of OFDM signaling, with its limitations and inherent problems, as well as another potential technique that has so far been overlooked: single-carrier transmission with frequency-domain equalization. The carrier synchronisation issue is dealt with before the authors introduce coded-OFDM (COFDM), which makes use of channel coding and frequency-domain interleaving

Hikmet Sari; Georges Karam; Isabelle Jeanclaude

1995-01-01

450

A neutron transmission study of environmental Gd  

E-print Network

A new method for the determination of environmental Gd by neutron transmission (NT) experiments is proposed. The NT method is based on the measurements of neutron spectra passing through a target. From the attenuation neutron spectra new data as concentration, width, resonance energies and cross section have been obtained.

Cristiana Oprea; Ioan Alexandru Oprea; Alexandru Mihul

2014-06-02

451

Dynamic Regulation of NMDA Receptor Transmission  

PubMed Central

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are critical for establishing, maintaining, and modifying glutamatergic synapses in an activity-dependent manner. The subunit composition, synaptic expression, and some of the properties of NMDARs are regulated by synaptic activity, affecting processes like synaptic plasticity. NMDAR transmission is dynamic, and we were interested in studying the effect of acute low or null synaptic activity on NMDA receptors and its implications for synaptic plasticity. Periods of no stimulation or low-frequency stimulation increased NMDAR transmission. Changes became stable after periods of 20 min of low or no stimulation. These changes in transmission have a postsynaptic origin and are explained by incorporation of GluN2B-containing receptors to synapses. Importantly, periods of low or no stimulation facilitate long-term potentiation induction. Moreover, recovery after a weak preconditioning stimulus that normally blocks subsequent potentiation is facilitated by a nonstimulation period. Thus synaptic activity dynamically regulates the level of NMDAR transmission adapting constantly the threshold for plasticity. PMID:20980539

Gambrill, Abigail C.; Storey, Granville P.

2011-01-01

452

Submarine transmission line: lifeline for Vieques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of an adequate water supply is now a thing of the past for the island of Vieques. On Feb. 10, 1978, a submarine water transmission main from mainland Puerto Rico to Vieques was inaugurated. This facility has dramatically increased the potable water supply for the island, eliminating the need for the operation of twelve low production wells whose waters

Juan J. Mayol; José R. Goitia

1980-01-01

453

Bistatic scatter from rain. [microwave transmission loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of bistatic scatter from rain was conducted, using a 143-km scatter path at frequencies of 4.5 and 7.7 GHz. The ratio of transmitted to received power (transmission loss) was measured for scattering angles ranging from 6 to 130 deg. Simultaneous weather radar observations were made at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. Transmission loss estimates for the bistatic scatter path were computed, using the weather radar data, the bistatic radar equation, and a model for the scattering cross section per unit volume of rain based upon Rayleigh scattering by an ensemble of water spheres. The measured and estimated transmission loss values were compared to test the use of the scattering model for the estimation of interference. The averaged ratio of measured-to-calculated transmission loss for the 4.5 GHz data is 1.2 plus or minus 0.4 dB. The averaged ratio for the 7.7 GHz data is -1.6 plus or minus 0.5 dB.

Crane, R. K.

1974-01-01

454

Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document  

SciTech Connect

Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

1994-01-01

455

AIDS Transmission in Drinking Water: No Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the pathogen that causes AIDS in humans, can he transmitted in five ways: sexual contact with an infected individual; needle sharing by infected, intravenous drug users; transfusions of infected blood; exposure of wounds or cuts to the blood or body fluids of infected persons; and in utero transmission to infants by infected mothers. There is no

John L. Riggs

1989-01-01

456

Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus from infected mothers to their infants. We studied eight babies born to mothers infected with hepatitis E in third trimester. One baby was icteric at birth with elevated transaminases and four babies had anicteric hepatitis. Two babies were born with hypothermia and hypoglycaemia and died within 24 h; one had

M. S. Khuroo; S. Kamali; S. Jameel

1995-01-01

457

Phytophthora ramorum Disease Transmission From Artificially Infested  

E-print Network

291 Phytophthora ramorum Disease Transmission From Artificially Infested Potting Media1 Jennifer L, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331; Corresponding author: Jennifer.Parke@oregonstate.edu #12 weeks. As plants wilted and died, samples of roots, belowground stems, aboveground stems and leaves were

Standiford, Richard B.

458

Symptoms and transmission of intestinal cryptosporidiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium spp are a cause of diarrhoea in toddlers. Symptoms and routes of transmission were investigated in a prospective case-control study in the city and surroundings of Basel, Switzerland. Twenty one (4.6%) out of 455 children with diarrhoea who attended paediatric and general practices from June to September 1988 were positive for cryptosporidium. The mothers of each case, of two

M Egger; D Mäusezahl; P Odermatt; H P Marti; M Tanner

1990-01-01

459

On Estimating the QSO Transmission Power Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lyalpha forest has become an important tool for measuring the mass power spectrum at high redshifts (z=2-4). A crucial intermediate step is the measurement of the transmission power spectrum. We present new methods to minimize the systematic and random errors for such a measurement and discuss their implications for observing strategies. Sources of systematic errors explored include metal line

Lam Hui; Scott Burles; Uros Seljak; Robert E. Rutledge; Eugene Magnier; David Tytler

2001-01-01

460

Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks Guest Feature Editors Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors Submission deadline: 15 June 2007 Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications.

Dan Kilper; Rich Jensen; Klaus Petermann; Miroslav Karasek

2007-01-01

461

Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit  

E-print Network

Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit 3rd Europlanet workshop ­ 4th PHC/Sakura meeting: Venus as a transiting exoplanet March 5 ­ 7 2012, Paris, France A. García Muñoz (Formerly at) Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain Frank P. Mills (Venus work) The Australian National

Widemann, Thomas

462

Electrical characterization of textile transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, electrical characterization and modeling of conductive textiles are presented. A dedicated measurement setup has been developed to allow reliable connection of the textile samples with the equipment cables. Geometrical fabric structures and fabrication tolerances as well as high frequency properties up to 6 GHz for four types of textiles have been determined. Transmission lines with controlled characteristic

Didier Cottet; Janusz Grzyb; Tünde Kirstein; Gerhard Tröster

2003-01-01

463

Mailborne transmission of anthrax: Modeling and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is developed to analyze the transmission of inhalational anthrax through the postal system by cross-contam- ination of mail. The model consists of state vectors describing the numbers of cross-contaminated letters generated, the numbers of anthrax spores on these letters, the numbers of resulting infections in recipients, and matrices of transition probabilities acting on these vectors. The model

Glenn F. Webb; Martin J. Blaser

2002-01-01

464

Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

2014-07-01

465

Computer support of gas transmission pipeline operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas transmission pipelines differ substantially in their operating characteristics from other types of operating plants. Pipeline operations are directly dependent upon actions taken by customers to increase or decrease the quantity of gas consumed without any assurance that they will notify pipeline operations of their intent or even past action. In addition, events such as ambient temperature changes or pipeline

E. Gordon; C. A. Stacklin; P. D. Dean

1986-01-01

466

Prion diseases: transmission from mad cows?  

PubMed

Prion diseases in humans show considerable clinical and pathological heterogeneity. The identification of a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and its interpretation as evidence of transmission of mad cow disease to man, rely critically on our understanding of the epidemiology of prion diseases. PMID:8939557

Roberts, G W; James, S

1996-10-01

467

Highly efficient contactless electrical energy transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the vehicle and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the vehicle, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the

H. Ayano; K. Yamamoto; N. Hino; I. Yamato

2002-01-01

468

Regulation of an Electric Power Transmission Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing regulatory contracts for the operators of power transmission networks has become a critical policy issue in the United States. In this paper, a regulatory contract is proposed that induces network operators to optimally expand the grid, which is crucial for the emergence of efficient wholesale power markets, while also satisfying the other traditional regulatory objectives. The proposed mechanism is

Thomas-Olivier Leautier

2000-01-01

469

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication research on Planetary Gear Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on elastohydrodynamic Lubrication theory (EHL),the EHL oil film thicknesses and those distributions for two operation cases on meshing line were calculated: one case is the sun gear as the driving gear and another case is the ring gear as the driving gear in the Planetary Gear Transmission. From the graph, gear lubrication can be reflected by the gear mesh

Bao Peide; Xie Jun; Yin Xiaoqin; Yang Qizhi; Ma Luzhong

2011-01-01

470

Multimode laser diodes for WDM transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our recent investigations of erbium doped fibre amplifiers with chosen cheap laser diodes at a wavelength of 1534 nm which behaved, depending on supply conditions, as either a quasi-single-mode, multi-mode, or luminescent diode shows that the idea of multichannel transmission can be realised by specially designing the multimode signal diode laser

Elzbieta M. Pawlik; Krzysztof M. Abramski

1999-01-01

471

Free-space microwave-power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory-scale wireless transmission of microwave power approaches fifty-four percent efficiency. DC is converted to a 2.45-GHz signal and is transmitted through horn antenna array; microwave signal is received at rectenna and is simultaneously collected and rectified back to dc at receiving sites; dc is then processed for wired distribution.

Brown, W. C.

1976-01-01

472

Testimonial Objects: Memory, Gender, and Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on a book of recipes and a miniature artists' book from the Terezín and Vapniarka concentration camps, this essay argues that such material remnants can serve as testimonial objects that carry memory traces from the past and embody the process of its transmission. Inspired by Roland Barthes's notion of the punctum ,w e read such testimonial objects as points

Marianne Hirsch; Leo Spitzer

2006-01-01

473

EDFA amplified MSK optical transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the performance and compatibility of optical signal amplification using a high gain, low noise figure, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) with linear Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) modulation format for the transmission of DWDM signals in optical communication system.

Arya, Subhash C.; Arya, Shalini S.; Priye, Vishnu

2011-08-01

474

Mathematical models of infectious disease transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical analysis and modelling is central to infectious disease epidemiology. Here, we provide an intuitive introduction to the process of disease transmission, how this stochastic process can be represented mathematically and how this mathematical representation can be used to analyse the emergent dynamics of observed epidemics. Progress in mathematical analysis and modelling is of fundamental importance to our growing understanding

Christophe Fraser; Nicholas C. Grassly

2008-01-01

475

Primate Conservation: The Prevention of Disease Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the strategies to prevent disease transmission from human to non-human primates in natural settings. Some field research methods, such as gaining close proximity for observation, provisioning for habituation, or reintroducing for repopulation, may place primate subjects at risk for acquiring human-carried diseases. Additional risks arise through inadequate waste disposal or nonhygienic conditions of humans residing at the study

Janette Wallis; D. Rick Lee

1999-01-01

476

Transmission electron microscopy of actinide materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinide metallurgy, crystallography, physics, and chemistry are of great interest due to the unique behavior of the 5f states that dominate the electronic structure. The 5f states produce a wide range of fascinating behaviors in the actinide materials. from superconductivity to exotic magnetism. Accordingly, they are of great interest, but are difficult to work with. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can

2006-01-01

477

Modeling a Harmonic Drive Gear Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to capture the dynamic behavior of harmonic drives, dynamic models must include accurate representations of transmission friction, compliance, and kinematic error. Experimental observations are used to guide the development of a model to describe harmonic-drive operation. This model is able to replicate many of the features observed in actual harmonic-drive dynamic response. Valuable insights are gained about the

Timothy D. Tuttle; Warren P. Seering

1993-01-01

478

Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses national longitudinal data to explain the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Findings suggest that parental divorce elevates the risk of offspring divorce by increasing the likelihood that offspring exhibit behaviors that interfere with the maintenance of mutually rewarding intimate relationships. Offers four hypotheses for future…

Amato, Paul R.

1996-01-01

479

Uncertain Power Flows and Transmission Planning  

E-print Network

Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Uncertain Power Flows and Transmission Planning University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 1406 W. Green St

480

RESONANT TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION OF PLASMONIC SUBWAVELENGTH  

E-print Network

RESONANT TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION OF PLASMONIC SUBWAVELENGTH HOLE ARRAYS BY ABUL K. AZAD Bachelor ............................................................................... 6 II THEORY OF SURFACE PLASMONS POLARITONS......................................10 2. 1 Surface fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May, 2006 #12;ii RESONANT TERAHERTZ

Oklahoma State University

481

Electronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through  

E-print Network

; (240.6680) Surface plasmons; (250.6715) Switching (260.5740) Resonance; (300.6495) SpectroscopyElectronic control of extraordinary terahertz transmission through subwavelength metal hole arrays 02215, USA chenht@lanl.gov Abstract: We describe the electronic control of extraordinary terahertz

482

Ethnolinguistic Vitality, Prejudice, and Family Language Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of Mexican American parents in East Austin (Texas) and rural southern Arizona found that parents' ethnolinguistic vitality was an important determinant of family transmission of Spanish to children, but parental experience of ethnic and language prejudice was an equally potent negative determinant. Implications for language maintenance,…

Evans, Carol

1996-01-01

483

Transmission and control of rhinovirus colds  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expanding knowledge of rhinovirus transmission and rhinovirus chemistry, the outlook for control of infections with these agents has brightened considerably. Although rhinoviruses are probably the world's leading cause of respiratory illness, they are surprisingly reluctant transmitters, infecting only about 50% of susceptibles in family-like settings. Current research suggests that rhinoviruses are spread chiefly by aerosol, rather than by

L. C. Jennings; E. C. Dick

1987-01-01

484

The history of wireless power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early

William C. Brown

1996-01-01

485

Efficient Spectral Methods for Transmission Eigenvalues and ...  

E-print Network

Mar 20, 2014 ... Recently a new method using transmission eigen- ...... u2 ?dt,. |u|2. 1,? =? 1. ?1. (ut)2 ?dt. (3.28). Denoting w1 = t+1,w2 = 1/(t+1) and w3 = ˜n0(t)(t+1), we define ..... mission eigenvalue for different n are reported in Table 5.

2014-03-24

486

1 Introduction Danish transmission system operator  

E-print Network

a new 400 kV transmission line between the cities Aarhus and Aalborg, app 90 km. This line of a permanently connected three-phase shunt reactor located app. in the middle of the line, see figure 1. Resonant on the generation of switching overvoltages. It is shown that the generation of switching overvoltages is caused

Bak, Claus Leth

487

HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION STUDIES ON ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS  

E-print Network

and see- ded each in a roller flask with 30 ml Eagle's suspension medium containing 20 % fetal calf serum, the reference bovine serum used throug- hout was derived from an experimental bull which was usedHORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION STUDIES ON ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS O.C. STRAUB Federal Research Institute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

488

Hydraulic transients in transmission and distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hammer can degrade the integrity of a transmission or distribution system in one of two ways: through catastrophic failure or by benign failure. Catastrophic failure occurs during a water hammer event when pipes rupture, joints move, excessive noise occurs, etc. Benign failure may occur over a period of years and may consist of lining failure, pipe wall pitting, and

Allen Davis

2004-01-01

489

The transmission development process at Lucas Western  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the technology development efforts undertaken by a helicopter transmission manufacturer in order to produce hardware to more exacting performance requirements than had been previously considered. The first of the illustrative examples considered is a 5,400 hp propeller drive for a high-speed marine hydrofoil employing a supercavitating rotor. Additional examples are drawn from efforts to develop

Robert B. Bossler Jr.

1989-01-01

490

NASA helicopter transmission system technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.

Zaretsky, E. V.

1983-01-01

491

Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is

Hideki Ayano; Hiroshi Nagase; Hiromi Inaba

2004-01-01

492

Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

1990-01-01

493

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

Henry, Zachary S.

1995-06-01

494

Global dynamic modeling of a transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on global dynamic simulation and noise correlation of gear transmission systems at the University of Akron is outlined. The objective is to develop a comprehensive procedure to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system coupled with the effects of gear box vibrations. The developed numerical model is benchmarked with results from experimental tests at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modal synthesis approach is used to develop the global transient vibration analysis procedure used in the model. Modal dynamic characteristics of the rotor-gear-bearing system are calculated by the matrix transfer method while those of the gear box are evaluated by the finite element method (NASTRAN). A three-dimensional, axial-lateral coupled bearing model is used to couple the rotor vibrations with the gear box motion. The vibrations between the individual rotor systems are coupled through the nonlinear gear mesh interactions. The global equations of motion are solved in modal coordinates and the transient vibration of the system is evaluated by a variable time-stepping integration scheme. The relationship between housing vibration and resulting noise of the gear transmission system is generated by linear transfer functions using experimental data. A nonlinear relationship of the noise components to the fundamental mesh frequency is developed using the hypercoherence function. The numerically simulated vibrations and predicted noise of the gear transmission system are compared with the experimental results from the gear noise test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Results of the comparison indicate that the global dynamic model developed can accurately simulate the dynamics of a gear transmission system.

Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.

1993-01-01

495

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

Henry, Zachary S.

1995-01-01

496

Helicobacter pylori: epidemiology and routes of transmission.  

PubMed

H. pylori is a common bacterium, and approximately 50 percent of the world's population has been estimated to be infected (198). Humans are the principal reservoir. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, race, ethnicity, and SES. Rates appear to be higher in developing than in developed countries, with most of the infections occurring during childhood, and they seem to be decreasing with improvements in hygiene practices. H. pylori causes chronic gastritis and has been associated with several serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. Since its "discovery" in 1982 by Warren and Marshall (1), H. pylori has been the topic of extensive research. A number of studies have used questionnaire components to investigate factors possibly related to the etiology of H. pylori infection. The majority of recent studies have not found tobacco use or alcohol consumption to be risk factors for H. pylori infection. Adequate nutritional status, especially frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables and of vitamin C, appears to protect against infection with H. pylori. In contrast, food prepared under less than ideal conditions or exposed to contaminated water or soil may increase the risk. Overall, inadequate sanitation practices, low social class, and crowded or high-density living conditions seem to be related to a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection. This finding suggests that poor hygiene and crowded conditions may facilitate transmission of infection among family members and is consistent with data on intrafamilial and institutional clustering of H. pylori infection. Understanding the route of H. pylori transmission is important if public health measures to prevent its spread are to be implemented. Iatrogenic transmission of H. pylori following endoscopy is the only proven mode. For the general population, the most likely mode of transmission is from person to person, by either the oral-oral route (through vomitus or possibly saliva) or perhaps the fecal-oral route. The person-to-person mode of transmission is supported by the higher incidence of infection among institutionalized children and adults and the clustering of H. pylori infection within families. Also lending support to this concept is the detection of H. pylori DNA in vomitus, saliva, dental plaque, gastric juice, and feces. Waterborne transmission, probably due to fecal contamination, may be an important source of infection, especially in parts of the world in which untreated water is common. Recent studies in the United States have linked clinical H. pylori infection with consumption of H. pylori-contaminated well water. This area of research is worthy of further investigation. Although H. pylori has been isolated in domestic cats, additional research has suggested that H. pylori is probably uncommon in domestic cats and thus is probably not a major concern for cat owners. Several studies have suggested sheep as a possible source of H. pylori transmission, a hypothesis that deserves additional investigation. The most recent reservoir suggested for H. pylori transmission is the housefly. However, evidence is lacking that H. pylori can be transmitted to humans from flies that have been in contact with H. pylori-infected feces. Nevertheless, the hypothesis is appealing since flies are known to carry many other infectious diseases. Knowledge of the epidemiology and mode of transmission of H. pylori is important to prevent its spread and may be useful in identifying high-risk populations, especially in areas that have high rates of gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastric ulcer. PMID:11218379

Brown, L M

2000-01-01

497

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

2009-02-02

498

Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project  

SciTech Connect

In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the EERC, in collaboration with Meridian Environmental Services, developed and demonstrated the efficacy of a wind energy forecasting system for use in scheduling energy output from wind farms for a regional electrical generation and transmission utility. With the increased interest at the time of project award in the production of hydrogen as a critical future energy source, many viewed hydrogen produced from wind-generated electricity as an attractive option. In addition, many of the hydrogen production-related concepts involve utilization of energy resources without the need for additional electrical transmission. For this reason, under Task 4, the EERC provided a summary of end uses for hydrogen in the region and focused on one end product in particular (fertilizer), including several process options and related economic analyses.

Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

2012-06-09

499

Effect of the One-Child Policy on Influenza Transmission in China: A Stochastic Transmission Model  

PubMed Central

Background China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? Methods and Findings To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21%) in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, ?0.15% (SD 1.85%), between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. Conclusions This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a decrease in household size and the proportion of children in the population. PMID:24516519

Liu, Fengchen; Enanoria, Wayne T. A.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Coffee, Megan P.; Gordon, Aubree; Aragon, Tomas J.; Yu, Guowei; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Porco, Travis C.

2014-01-01

500

When More Transmission Equals Less Disease: Reconciling the Disconnect between Disease Hotspots and Parasite Transmission  

PubMed Central

The assumed straightforward connection between transmission intensity and disease occurrence impacts surveillance and control efforts along with statistical methodology, including parameter inference and niche modeling. Many infectious disease systems have the potential for this connection to be more complicated–although demonstrating this in any given disease system has remained elusive. Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is one of the most important diseases of white-tailed deer and is caused by viruses in the Orbivirus genus. Like many infectious diseases, the probability or severity of disease increases with age (after loss of maternal antibodies) and the probability of disease is lower upon re-infection compared to first infection (based on cross-immunity between virus strains). These broad criteria generate a prediction that disease occurrence is maximized at intermediate levels of transmission intensity. Using published US field data, we first fit a statistical model to predict disease occurrence as a function of seroprevalence (a proxy for transmission intensity), demonstrating that states with intermediate seroprevalence have the highest level of case reporting. We subsequently introduce an independently parameterized mechanistic model supporting the theory that high case reporting should come from areas with intermediate levels of transmission. This is the first rigorous demonstration of this phenomenon and illustrates that variation in transmission rate (e.g. along an ecologically-controlled transmission gradient) can create cryptic refuges for infectious diseases. PMID:23579922

Park, Andrew W.; Magori, Krisztian; White, Brad A.; Stallknecht, David E.

2013-01-01