Sample records for weld-windsor 115-kv transmission

  1. Transmission Communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate: rate, quality # spectral bandwidth requirement . Major components: CODEC, MODEM and channel modulation input output CODEC MODEM Medium 1 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital

  2. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  3. Transmission zerocrossings

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 2 . Pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter­o# factor, and required baseband transmission bandwidth B = fs 2 (1+ #) MODEM components pulse shaping Tx: modulator/demodulator 27 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen QAM Modulator / Demodulator

  4. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  5. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  6. Transmission communication

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 1 . Major blocks of digital communication system . MODEM functions . Channel has finite bandwidth and introduces noise: two main factors recovering of transmitted data symbols MODEM components pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair modulator

  7. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VZV Laboratory Surveillance Resources & References Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus NIH SeniorHealth AgePage on Shingles Immunization Action ... Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH SeniorHealth AgePage on Shingles Immunization Action ...

  8. Bonneville upgrades lines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    A stretch of Bonneville Power Administration transmission line between Spokane and the Grand Coulee Dam is an 82-mile bottleneck as it is the last 115-kv section of [open quotes]road[close quotes] along a 500-kv transmission [open quotes]highway[close quotes]. Soon the administration will change all that. A number of independent and utility powerplants have been proposed in Idaho, Montana and the Spokane, Wash., area during the 1990s. As the operators will need to move their power, Bonneville is planning to build a $144-million, 500-kv line to upgrade the 115-kv section. The agency is planning to use its existing right-of-way.

  9. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  10. STRATEGIC TRANSMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN

    E-print Network

    ...................................................................... 6 Next Steps The New CA ISO Transmission Planning Process........................................ 21 A State-Led Transmission Corridor Planning Process...................................... 21 Coordinati

  11. Quantifying Transmission Reliability Margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianfeng Zhang; Ian Dobson; Fernando L. Alvarado

    2002-01-01

    In bulk electric power transfer capability com- putations, the transmission reliability margin accounts for uncertainties related to the transmission system conditions, contingencies, and parameter values. We propose a formula which quantifies transmission reliability margin based on transfer capability sensitivities and a probabilistic character- ization of the various uncertainties. The formula is verified by comparison with results from two systems small

  12. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  13. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  14. Patterns of transmission investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a number of issues associated with alternative analytical approaches for evaluating investments in electricity transmission infrastructure and alternative institutional arrangements to govern network ...

  15. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  16. Transmission Modulator/demodulator --

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 3 . Modulator -- Carrier recovery and timing recovery This lecture: bits map # symbols MODEM components pulse shaping Tx several bits into a symbol? 40 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Bits to Symbols

  17. Transmission line: design manual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farr

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to outline the various requirements for, and the procedures to be followed in the design of power transmission lines by the Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior. Numerous design studies, which have been made on specific aspects of transmission line design, are included with explanations of their applications. Information is presented concerning

  18. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    E-print Network

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  19. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  20. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  1. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  2. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

  3. Designing electricity transmission auctions

    E-print Network

    Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2012-10-26

    The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

  4. Dodder transmission of phytoplasmas.

    PubMed

    P?ibylová, Jaroslava; Spak, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Transmission of phytoplasmas from naturally infected plant host species using the parasitic plant Cuscuta spp. (dodder) to Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an effective way to maintain a wide range of phytoplasmas for further research. Here, we describe transmission via dodder from an infected medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and from a symptomatic redcurrant plant (Ribes spp.) to C. roseus indicator plants using a "stable bridges" method. In both cases, typical symptoms of phytoplasma disease on periwinkle plants were obtained: virescent flowers with an increased number of axillary shoots and smaller leaves after transmission from R. glutinosa, and greening petals (virescence) after transmission from Ribes spp. Phytoplasmas could be detected in donor and recipient plants by electron microscopy and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal phytoplasma primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of PCR fragments can also be used to confirm the identity of the phytoplasmas from donor and recipient plants. PMID:22987404

  5. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Manual Manual Appendices References & Resources Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español ( ... Related Pages Chickenpox Signs and Symptoms Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  6. Diffuse Source Transmissibility Upscaling

    E-print Network

    Nunna, Krishna Chaitanya

    2014-10-03

    applicable. Historically, our upscaling algorithms have relied upon steady state concepts of flow, which are no longer applicable to unconventional reservoirs. In the current study, a novel diffuse source transmissibility upscaling approach is described...

  7. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Resources MMWR Articles Outbreak Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español ( ... Put Your Hands Together (3:48) Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  8. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  9. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  10. Insect vector transmission assays.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Domenico; Tedeschi, Rosemarie

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are transmitted in a persistent propagative manner by phloem-feeding vectors belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera. Following acquisition from the infected source plant, there is a latent period before the vector can transmit, so transmission assays consist of three basic steps: acquisition, latency, and inoculation. More than 90 vector species (plant-, leafhoppers, and psyllids) have been discovered so far but many others are still undiscovered, and their role in spreading economically important crop diseases is neglected. Therefore, screening for vectors is an essential step in developing rational control strategies targeted against the actual vectors for phytoplasma-associated diseases. The mere detection of a phytoplasma in an insect does not imply that the insect is a vector; a transmission assay is required to provide conclusive evidence. Transmission experiments can be carried out using insects from phytoplasma-free laboratory colonies or field-collections. Moreover, transmission assays can be performed by feeding vectors on an artificial diet through Parafilm(®), after which phytoplasmas can be detected in the sucrose feeding medium by PCR. Transmission trials involve the use of different techniques according to the biology of the different vector species; planthoppers, leafhoppers, and psyllids. PMID:22987407

  11. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  12. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  13. Transmissivity variations in mudstones.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

  14. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  15. [Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies].

    PubMed

    Vujosevi?, M

    1997-01-01

    The great interest for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, transmissible neurodegenerative diseases has been rapidly grown in the last 10 years, especially after their epidemic appearance in domestic and wild animals in Great Britain and the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ("mad cow diseases") in England has provoked the increased interest in veterinary and medical researches. The opinion that prions are due to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies was accepted by Prusiner and al. 1982. Prions are defined as "Little infective pathogens, which contain protein and which are resistant to procedures which modify and hydrolyze nucleic acid". These diseases in animals and humans have a long incubation period and a long clinical course, and are always fatal. Neuropathological features consist of neuronal vacuolization, neuronal death and gliosis with hyperastrocytosis. Transmissible neurodegenerative diseases are transmissible, infectious and inherited diseases. The inflammatory syndrome, immunological reactions or interferon cannot be detected in the central nervous system. The precise diagnosis of transmissible neurodegenerative diseases can be established only by the examination of the central nervous system after biopsy or autopsy. During the last two years a new variation of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease was detected in England which is different from the classical Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases. The clinical course and the absence of EEG features are typical for Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, and neuropathological changes show extensive curu plaques in the cerebrum and the cerebellum. According to the latest researches it has been established that the abnormal PrP, PrPsc are the same or similar strains which cause the bovine spongiform encephalopathy and a new variation of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, what is of great medical and epidemiological significance. PMID:9304238

  16. Freewheel flywheel transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, A.F.

    1986-08-19

    A freewheel flywheel transmission system is described comprising: a frame; shafts rotatively supported by the frame; flywheels mounted on each shaft; a power means mounted on the frame for providing rotational movement; transmission means for transmitting rotational movement when the power means is activated in succession from the power means to a first through a last shaft of the plurality of shafts and thereby to flywheels mounted on each shaft of the shafts; and a means for converting the rotational movement of shafts and the flywheels mounted on each of the shafts to electrical power.

  17. Quantum Anonymous Transmissions

    E-print Network

    Matthias Christandl; Stephanie Wehner

    2005-08-15

    We consider the problem of hiding sender and receiver of classical and quantum bits (qubits), even if all physical transmissions can be monitored. We present a quantum protocol for sending and receiving classical bits anonymously, which is completely traceless: it successfully prevents later reconstruction of the sender. We show that this is not possible classically. It appears that entangled quantum states are uniquely suited for traceless anonymous transmissions. We then extend this protocol to send and receive qubits anonymously. In the process we introduce a new primitive called anonymous entanglement, which may be useful in other contexts as well.

  18. Transmission Modulator/demodulator

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 4 . We have discussed all basic components of MODEM -- Pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair -- Modulator/demodulator -- Bits map # symbols be compensated MODEM components pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter pair modulator/demodulator bits map # symbols

  19. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  20. Ultradense bidirectional optical transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stojan Radic

    2001-01-01

    Present efforts towards construction of large capacity long-haul links are focused on either increase of channel data rate or a very dense channel plans. The latter is of particular interest since it enables spectrally efficient WDM links simply by multiplying the channel count of existing transmission lines. Unfortunately, very dense channel spacing necessarily leads to increased four-wave (FWM) mixing penalty.

  1. Transmission of gaseous hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Leeth

    1977-01-01

    For any hydrogen energy system, pipeline transport of gaseous hydrogen is clearly a major element. A summary is provided of the present status of hydrogen pipeline knowledge. Gas pipelines are considered along with aspects of gas pipeline dynamics, gas pipeline costs, hydrogen pipeline analyses, hydrogen pipeline safety, and hydrogen pipeline operating experience. It is found that the transmission of hydrogen

  2. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  3. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  4. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  5. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  6. Drive transmission means

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, M. R.

    1985-01-15

    This invention provides apparatus for use in a drive transmission system comprising a pump adapted to perform work on a medium and means repetitively and automatically to unload the pump. When connected with a flywheel driven by a prime mover an embodiment alternately performs work and then is unloaded to permit acceleration of the flywheel. In use in a driven transmission system there is provided a flywheel driven by an engine, a pump driven by the flywheel, powered by the pump, and means repetitively to unload the pump permitting the engine to accelerate the flywheel and compensation means to power the hydraulic motor while the pump is unloaded. The pump is preferably a rotary positive displacement pump having relief galleries eliminating the seal between pumping elements driving each cycle.

  7. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  8. Patterns of Transmission Investment

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul

    2006-03-14

    at different network locations to achieve economic and reliability goals and supports the development of demand response options for wholesale and retail market participants. Electricity sector liberalization has not changed the physical constraints... for “economic” transmission investments. Reliability investments can have significant effects on current and forecast locational marginal prices (LMPs) for energy and operating reserves, can have significant effects on intra- TSO congestion and losses...

  9. Remanent transmission neutron polarizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Stahn; Daniel Clemens

    2002-01-01

    Our goal is to develop magnetically remanent neutron supermirrors using the material combinations Fe\\/Si and FeCo\\/Si. With these we plan to build compact neutron transmission polarizers and neutron polarizers which can be operated with their magnetization oriented antiparallel to the guide field. In the latter case no spin flipper is necessary to switch to the other spin state. The supermirrors

  10. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  11. Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-05-09

    A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

  12. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  13. Optimal dispatch under transmission contracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Fang; A. K. David

    1999-01-01

    Open transmission access is now the most topical issue in power system deregulation. Power system operation poses the greatest challenge to a competitive environment incorporating open transmission access and there are some fundamental operational problems that are still unresolved. This paper seeks to provide an approach to the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission

  14. Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    (t) - Transmission Line (Zo, T) #12;5 Cf/Cr 1000 Vf Capacitance Voltage Cf Cr Model for Nonlinear CapacitorChaos in a Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser Marshal Miller With... Prof. Edward Ott Prof times become shorter, circuit connections behave more and more like transmission lines. Theoretical

  15. Dispatchable transmission in RTO markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. O'Neill; Ross Baldick; Udi Helman; Michael H. Rothkopf; William Stewart

    2005-01-01

    We consider transmission owners that bid capacity, under appropriate Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) market rules, at a positive price into forward and spot (dispatch) auctions to derive congestion revenues. This can encompass daily, monthly, or multimonthly auctions, allowing for commitment of transmission to reflect market needs in different time periods, e.g., seasons. We provide two and three node examples and

  16. Raj JainThe Ohio State University Data TransmissionData TransmissionData Transmission

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    Raj JainThe Ohio State University 2-1 Data TransmissionData TransmissionData Transmission Raj Jain Professor of CIS The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 Jain@ACM.Org http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~jain/ Raj JainThe Ohio State University 2-2 Time Domain and Frequency Domain Bit, Hertz Decibels Data vs

  17. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  18. Transmission scanning II

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, J.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Bradley-Moore, P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1973-01-01

    From nuclear science symposium; San Francisco, California, USA (14 Nov 1973). Work has been continued on the development of techniques for imaging spatial elemental distributions by means of differential absorption about the K- absorption edge of the particular element Z. A method to correct for spurious effects due to differential absorption in overlying absorber is described. Initial clinical studies of thyroid iodine images on patierts are presented. Application of absorption edge transmission scanning to measurements of Ca cortent in thin in-vitro samples of rat bone is also discussed. An x-ray source with a broad energy spectrum was used. (CH)

  19. Conventional transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

  20. Lightning proof transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

  1. Ultradense bidirectional optical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, Stojan

    2001-07-01

    Present efforts towards construction of large capacity long-haul links are focused on either increase of channel data rate or a very dense channel plans. The latter is of particular interest since it enables spectrally efficient WDM links simply by multiplying the channel count of existing transmission lines. Unfortunately, very dense channel spacing necessarily leads to increased four-wave (FWM) mixing penalty. FWM penalty can be decreased in straightforward manner by lowering signal launch power. Indeed, high spectral efficiency optical link operating with 25GHz spaced signals has been recently demonstrated using hybrid Raman/EDFA amplification architecture: FWM process is minimized by operating in quasilinear transmission regime1. A different approach that does not require deployment of Raman amplifiers relays on combining two closely spaced counterpropagating interleaved channel grids.2 We will describe fundamental design issues encountered in such dense bidirectional optical links. While bidirectional link potentially doubles deployed capacity over single strand of fiber, its realization is made more difficult by host of qualitatively new problems, commonly not seen in conventional unidirectional lines. We describe latest efforts in constructing very dense bidirectional long-haul links over standard and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber.

  2. Modulated powershift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Goodbar, E.; Testerman, M.D.

    1986-09-01

    The design and development of a four speed transmission, with special emphasis on the electronic control of clutch pressure during engagement involves many engineering interactions. The case at hand had, as a primary objective, creation of a unit which would perform to specific functional requirements while maintaining costs competitive in present and future marketing environments. Specific functional design requirements included the four forward and reverse ratios (from 4.2 to 0.6), and a baseline design point to be turbine torque and speed of 805 lb-ft (1091 N . m) and 500 rpm. A transmission in-service B-10 life of 9000-10,000 h as applied to a 3.5-4.5 yd/sup 3/ (2.7-3.5 m/sup 3/) rubber-tired wheel loader duty cycle was needed. Limitations were placed on maximum shaft slopes at bearing locations, and spline and shaft capacities for a 350 lb-ft (473 N . m) power take-off. Directional clutch thermal capacities had to survive the vehicle's duty cycle. Adjustable and accurate control of clutch supply pressure during engagements was needed, as were four-wheel drive disconnects, ground driven pump, midship, engine, and remote mount, and converter lock-up. Cost effectiveness considerations were: material and processing, commonality of components, serviceability, and operational reliability.

  3. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  4. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  5. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  6. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  7. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  8. Failsafe system in automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, K.; Shindo, Y.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a failsafe system in an automatic transmission for a vehicle, comprising: means for detecting an output shaft rotary speed of the automatic transmission; means for detecting engine rotary speed; means for detecting engine load; means for detecting whether a lockup clutch of the automatic transmission is engaged; means for detecting whether a prescribed period of time has elapsed from either a shift judgment or a shift command of the automatic transmission; means for determining a correlation between the output shaft rotary speed and the engine rotary speed when the engine load is higher than a predetermined value, the lockup clutch is engaged, and the prescribed period of time has elapsed form either of the shift judgment or shift command of the automatic transmission; means for judging whether the correlation is abnormal; and means for increasing oil pressure in a hydraulic control device of the automatic transmission when the correlation is judged to be abnormal.

  9. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  10. Fiber optic data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  11. Transmission for a tractor

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, M.; Watashi, M.

    1986-09-09

    A transmission for a tractor having front and rear wheels is described which consists of: an input shaft operatively connected to an engine; running-travel shaft means operatively connected between the input shaft and a rear wheel drive shaft for driving the rear wheels of the tractor, the running-travel shaft means including a main change speed means; PTO shaft means operatively connected to the input shaft and including a PTO counter shaft; a first gear rotatably mounted on the PTO counter shaft and operatively connected to the rear wheel drive shaft; front wheel drive shaft means disposed below the PTO counter shaft and including a second gear rotatably mounted thereon, the front wheel drive shaft means being adapted to be operatively connectable to the rear wheel drive shaft through the first gear; a mid-PTO shaft disposed below the front wheel drive shaft means and operatively connected to the PTO counter shaft through the second gear.

  12. Laptop image transmission equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1991-12-01

    Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

  13. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  14. Optional dispatch under transmission contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, R.S.; David, A.K. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering] [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1999-05-01

    Open transmission access is now the most topical issue in power system deregulation. Power system operation poses the greatest challenge to a competitive environment incorporating open transmission access and there are some fundamental operational problems that are still unresolved. This paper seeks to provide an approach to the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts. A framework for price-based operation under these conditions is developed and a methodology for optimal transmission dispatch is proposed. The case study results illustrate that the proposed market arrangement and operating mechanisms are compatible with this new business environment.

  15. Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bujold

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

  16. Cell Planning for Cooperative Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Dexter Garcia; Kei Sakaguchi; Kiyomichi Araki

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative transmission (CT) (i.e. base station cooperation, multicell transmission) techniques have been shown to theoretically increase the average and cell-edge spectral efficiencies of cellular networks. These techniques aim to suppress or even take advantage of intercell signals. However, to realize the benefits of CT in actual cellular networks, cell planning parameters must be adjusted accordingly. This paper builds a framework

  17. Semiclassical transmission across transition states

    E-print Network

    Stephen C. Creagh

    2005-06-01

    It is shown that the probability of quantum-mechanical transmission across a phase space bottleneck can be compactly approximated using an operator derived from a complex Poincar\\'e return map. This result uniformly incorporates tunnelling effects with classically-allowed transmission and generalises a result previously derived for a classically small region of phase space.

  18. Transmission offset adaptation in UTRAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mats Sågfors; Janne Peisa; S. Malomsoky

    2004-01-01

    We propose an adaptive frame transmission offset method for systems supporting soft handover. With the suggested method, the transmission offset is continuously adapted to the momentary network delay. The solution is targeted for interactive class packet data traffic, for which the end-to-end delay has a crucial effect on the performance. The application studied is a UMTS terrestrial radio access network

  19. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  20. TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media

    E-print Network

    Scarano, Vittorio

    4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio for information com- munications include broadcast radio, terrestrial microwave, and satellite. Infrared microphones Microwave Radar Microwave antennas Magnetrons Infrared Lasers Guided missiles Rangefinders Radio

  1. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  2. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  3. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  4. Electrically Isolating Transmission-Line Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed optoelectronic coupling circuit used to insert signal in transmission line and to isolate transmission line from ground of circuit in which signal originates. Made from commercially available components, reduces susceptibility to interference along transmission path.

  5. RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION guidance and support throughout my research and study at Rice. This work would not be possible without his

  6. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  7. Modeling the Transmission of Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)

  8. Video transmission over wireless networks 

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Shengjie

    2005-08-29

    Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks are addressed in this work. We first consider error control and power allocation for transmitting wireless video over CDMA networks in conjunction with multiuser detection. We map a...

  9. Video transmission over wireless networks

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Shengjie

    2005-08-29

    Compressed video bitstream transmissions over wireless networks are addressed in this work. We first consider error control and power allocation for transmitting wireless video over CDMA networks in conjunction with multiuser detection. We map a...

  10. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Heath; Robert B. Bossler Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army\\/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight

  11. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  12. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  13. Infection transmission science and models.

    PubMed

    Koopman, James S

    2005-12-01

    Infection transmission systems circulate infection through complex contact patterns related to both contact patterns and patterns of factors that affect the risk of transmission given contact. The nonlinear dynamics of infection transmission cause these patterns to make big differences in population infection levels. A science of infection transmission system analysis is needed to focus on those details that affect the control of infection transmission. This science must have a strong theoretical base because there is little chance that a dominantly data based approach not using mechanistic models of transmission will have any predictive value. The theoretical base should be built on linked transmission system models that are focused on making needed inferences for both building the theoretical base and making infection control decisions. The linking of different models is needed for a strategy of inference robustness assessment that is designed to find the model that is simple enough to effectively analyze the transmission system but not so simple that realistic violation of simplifying assumptions will change an inference. Types of models that should be used in such linked analyses include deterministic and stochastic compartmental models, discrete individual models with individual event histories but structured mass action mixing, network models that provide more detail as to who has contact with whom, and intermediate model forms such as correlation models that address some aspects of contact details while preserving the flexibility of deterministic compartmental models to structure mixing and analyze the system. While transmission system science is currently weak in regards both to its data base and its theory base, many things are now coming together that could make this science flourish. On the data side these include greater ability to detect infectious agent sequences in the environment and greater ability to sequence and genetically relate agents identified at different sites in the transmission system. On the theory sides, new model construction and model analysis methods are providing new potential to use the new sources of data. Also new parameter estimation methods provide new potential to combine models and data in effective analytic strategies. PMID:16377860

  14. Omega time transmissions and receiving requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, A. R.; Fletcher, L. A.; Casselman, C. J.

    1971-01-01

    A short history is given of the development of dual VLF time transmission techniques. The theory of time recovery from the relative phase of the dual frequency transmission is presented. The transmission and receiving requirements for cycle identification and cycle ambiguity resolution are described. Finally, an experiment to test the capability of time transmission of the OMEGA system is proposed

  15. Transmission lines emulating moving media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehmas, J.; Hrabar, S.; Tretyakov, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines, which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a ‘moving’ transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of a composite right-/left- handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

  16. Midwest Transmission Workshop III Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2003-03-12

    OAK-B135 On March 12-13, 2002, the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), in cooperation with regional stakeholders, held a two-day workshop: Planning for Electrical Transmission Needs in the Upper Midwest. The workshop was the outgrowth of an effort to develop a forum and process for consideration of transmission options that strives for equitable allocation of benefits and impacts among all affected parties. The goal of this workshop was to provide a catalyst for an enhanced, inclusive process for transmission planning with participation of and acceptance by all affected stakeholders. Participants in the meeting included representatives of state and regional regulatory agencies, utilities and power generators, the wind industry, environmental and landowner interests, and other interested parties (see Attachment A for a list of meeting participants).

  17. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    PubMed

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders. PMID:25872683

  18. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  19. Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

  20. Nonlinear transmission line CPW MMIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dragoman; B. Szentpali; A. Muller; K. Somogyi; F. Craciunoiu; F. Riesz; S. Iordanescu; S. Varga; S. Simion

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the design, modelling and manufacturing of a new type of MMIC a nonlinear transmission line which consists of 45 Schottky diodes monolithically integrated in a CPW based on GaAs. A four mask technological process was developed, using a special hyperabrupt n -n+ profile on a semiinsulating GaAs substrate

  1. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  2. Condensation in gas transmission pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Schouten; R. Janssen-van Rosmalen; J. P. J. Michels

    2005-01-01

    Several pressure and temperature reductions occur along gas transmission lines. Since the pressure and temperature conditions of the natural gas in the pipeline are often close to the dew point curve, liquid dropout can occur. Injection of hydrogen into the natural gas will change the phase envelope and thus the liquid dropout. This condensation of the heavy hydrocarbons requires continuous

  3. Digital Transmission over Submarine Cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Litchman

    1965-01-01

    The problems of transoceanic transmission of large volumes of information have been raised increasingly over the past few years. Lately, the need for transoceanic digital communications has been of interest. This paper discusses the significance of these trends and examines the technical prospects for handling large volumes of digital traffic using submarine cables. Concentrating on transatlantic traffic, an argument is

  4. Geographical transmission of economic events

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    A two-region monetary economy is modeled as a five-equation system. Exogenous events in either region (changes in union wages, labor productivity, and banking policy) or at the national level (money supply changes) cause changes in price levels, wages, employment, and money stocks in both regions. The model structure permits explicit examination of transmission processes. 8 references, 1 figure, 18 tables.

  5. Transmissible Encephalopathies: Speculations and Realities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Manuelidis

    2003-01-01

    Virtually all transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs), such as scrapie, CJD, and BSE, are caused by a type of infectious particle that remains enigmatic. The language of prion theory super- sedes the reality of what is, and what is not known. This review questions the predictive value, consistency and accuracy of this now dominant assumption. Many people believe the normal cellular prion

  6. Well bore data transmission system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an improved data transmission system for use in a well bore, comprising: a tubular member with threaded ends adapted for connection in a drill string having one end adapted for transmitting data signals and the other end adapted for receiving data signals; an electromagnetic field generating means carried by the transmitting end of the tubular member; a

  7. GAS TRANSMISSION IN IRRADIATED POLYETHYLENE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harris J. Bixler; Alan S. Michaels; Morris Salame

    1963-01-01

    The transmission of helium, nitrogen, methane, and propane was studied ; in samples of a high pressure, branched polyethylene (46% crystalline) irradiated ; to a dose in air of 10⁸ roentgens from a Co⁶° source. By using a ; time-lag apparatus the permeability, diffusion, and solubility constants were ; measured in the temperature range 0 to 55 nif- C. These

  8. Can hydrogen transmission replace electricity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Hampson; A. B. Hart; B. Jones; D. T. Swift-Hook; J. J. Syrett; J. K. Wright

    1975-01-01

    A careful consideration of the nationwide use of hydrogen created with nuclear power is given, and it is concluded that such use does not appear competitive with the use of nuclear electricity at this time. Savings would only accrue in the area of transmission and distribution costs, and even then only if the system were used over very large distances.

  9. Lightning Protection for Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Gothberg; A. S. Brookes

    1937-01-01

    To meet the need for lightning protection on low-voltage transmission lines at moderate cost, and particularly for wood-pole lines, a design is presented in this paper that has high insulation strength and uses, in place of a ground wire, a shielding phase conductor with a lightning protector tube. Lightning currents are drained to ground with a minimum number of tubes

  10. 78 FR 59666 - Transmission Infrastructure Program; Proposed Transmission Infrastructure Program Updates and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...projects, improve communications with project...from Western's power marketing functions...transmission system was developed...transmission system, including requests...transmission system, under its OATT...of the Hoover Power Plant Act of...3) improved communications with...

  11. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Weismann, P.H.

    1991-01-29

    This paper describes an engagement mechanism. It comprises: a hollow shaft; an engagement outer rotatably mounted about the shaft and including an outer race; an engagement inner about the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative thereto. The engagement inner including an inner race having central depressions with two inclined surfaces extending upwardly and outwardly in opposite directions from each the central depression; wedging elements between the inner race and the outer race; a cage between the inner race and the outer race, the cage retaining the wedging elements and being angularly movable relative to the inclined surfaces to selectively couple the engagement outer and the engagement inner through the wedging elements with either of the two inclined surfaces, the cage having a firs actuator portion; an actuator mounted in the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative to the engagement inner. The actuator including a second actuator portion selectively engaging the first actuator portion to angularly displace the cage relative to the inclined surfaces for alignment of the wedging elements with the central depressions and selectively disengaging the first actuator portion to allow movement of the cage for movement of the wedging elements along the inclined surfaces to engage the outer race.

  12. Electronic transmission pressure modulation valve

    SciTech Connect

    Van Elslander, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    Automatic transmissions require that the transition or shift quality between the various gears be smooth and uniform. Driveability is improved by optimizing the shift time of certain gear changes. An added benefit of improved shift quality is reduced clutch wear. During the investigation of an electronic transmission control system for agriculatural, off highway and, heavy duty on highway vehicles, it became apparent that a key element in hydraulic system was the need to accurately regulate oil pressure to the various clutches in the gear train. The valve described herein accurately regulates oil pressure at low levels and progressively increases pressure, with respect to time, by means of an electronically programmable pressure vs time control to any level up to supply pressure.

  13. Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography

    E-print Network

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

  14. Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2002-12-05

    OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

  15. High current pulse transmission cable

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1990-09-28

    This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

  16. Pedigree tests of transmission disequilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonçalo R Abecasis; William OC Cookson; Lon R Cardon

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution mapping is essential for the positional cloning of complex disease genes. In outbred populations, linkage disequilibrium is expected to extend for short distances and could provide a powerful fine-mapping tool. Current family-based association tests use nuclear family members to define allelic transmission and controls, but ignore other types of relatives. Here we construct a general approach for scoring allelic

  17. Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets

    E-print Network

    Grimm Veronika

    2015-03-04

    Mar 4, 2015 ... Transmission and Generation Investment in Electricity Markets: The Effects ... impact of the regulatory environment on transmission line expansion by the ... Nonlinear Optimization, Multilevel Programming, Electricity Markets, ...

  18. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    . Introduction The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is an invaluable tool atom. The STEM works on the same principle as the normal scanning electron microscope (SEM), by forming152 6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure Characterization S. J. Pennycook

  19. Wireless power transmission for medical applications

    E-print Network

    Payne, Joshua E.

    We studied the wireless power transmission capabilities of microwave through human skin-tissue. Microwave transmission through simulated human skins was tested with rectenna array as a power receiver located under the ...

  20. Coding for Single-Line Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madison, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital transmission code combines data and clock signals into single waveform. MADCODE needs four standard integrated circuits in generator and converter plus five small discrete components. MADCODE allows simple coding and decoding for transmission of digital signals over single line.

  1. SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN

    E-print Network

    SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN DRAFT REPORT JUNE 22 1999 Jianfeng Zhang Ian Dobson Fernando L. Alvarado POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept. University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM

  2. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  3. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  4. Blood infectivity in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Dickmeiss, Ebbe; Gerstoft, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Blood infectivity in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) is reviewed with special emphasis on transmission by blood transfusion in human beings. It is concluded that transmission by transfusion seems biologically plausible as regards variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (vCJD), albeit present knowledge suggests that it is extremely uncommon. Precautionary measures against the putative risk of vCJD transmission by blood transfusion are discussed. PMID:12064261

  5. Reference transmission network: a game theory approa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ernst; D. Dicorato; M. Trovato; M. Ilic

    The transmission network plays a key role in an oligopolistic electricity market. In fact transmission network determines the degree to which the generators in different locat and could also greatly influence the strategic behaviors of market participants. In such framework, different agents may have distinct and sometimes opposite interests in urg transmission expansions. Therefore, the regulatory authority, starting from the

  6. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  7. Plasmodium vivax transmission: chances for control?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Takafumi Tsuboi; Gabriela E. Zollner; Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop; Liwang Cui

    2004-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is a growing public health problem in many regions of the world as a result of re-emergence and increased transmission. This article reviews the unique biology related to P. vivax transmission and addresses potential problems associated with the control of this parasite, which depends on an in-depth knowledge of malaria transmission. The success of comprehensive control measures will

  8. FERC transmission inquiry produces torrent of advice

    SciTech Connect

    O`Driscoll, M.

    1993-11-09

    FERC`s notice of inquiry into electricity transmission pricing generated flurry of responses as utilities, independent power producers, state regulators, customers and others outlined what they believe are the appropriate ways to price transmission to ensure a competitive bulk power market. The responses cover both the legal and technical aspects of transmission pricing, and this article brings to light several of these responses.

  9. Frequency of transmission line outages in Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. O. Koval

    1994-01-01

    Frequent transient and sustained forced outages of transmission equipment can significantly affect the performance of industrial and commercial power systems and the processes they control. A knowledge of the primary causes (e.g., adverse weather, defective equipment, etc.) of transmission line sustained and transient forced outages and which physical components of a transmission line (e.g., line conductors, structure, hardware, etc.) are

  10. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  11. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Rausen, David J. (Denver, CO)

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  12. Automated manual transmission mode selection controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

    1999-11-09

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  13. Vibration measurements on a car transmission housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfram; Plieske, Marco; Brauchle, Gerhard

    1994-09-01

    In view of stricter future statutory requirements concerning noise emissions by motor vehicles, the acoustic optimization of noise emitting components will become increasingly important. Customers complain about transmission noise when for example gears excite individual resonances (eigenfrequencies) of the transmission housing. Normally the eigenfrequencies and also the excitation frequencies are not moveable out of narrow limits. Therefore, in addition to optimizing gear geometry, the transmission housing must be designed so that dynamic forces acting through the gears onto the shaft bearing points lead to minimum level of radiated sound power from the transmission housing. For this reason, the resonance vibration shapes induced on a car transmission under operating conditions were measured using the laser-transmission test rig. Additionally, a comparison was made between the inspection of an empty transmission housing (using finite element calculation and experimental modal analysis).

  14. Atmospheric transmission computer program CP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

  15. Fractional Transmission Line with Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Aguilar, José Francisco; Dumitru, Baleanu

    2014-11-01

    In this manuscript, the fractional transmission line with losses is presented. The order of the Caputo derivative is considered as 0 < ? ? 1 and 0 < ? ? 1 for the fractional equation in space and time domain, respectively. Two cases are solved, with fractional spatial and fractional temporal derivatives, and also numerical simulations were carried out, where there are taken both derivatives in simultaneous form. Two parameters ?x and ?t are introduced and a physical relation between these parameters is reported. Solutions in space and time are given in terms of the Mittag-Leffler functions. The classic cases are recovered when ? and ? are equal to 1.

  16. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  17. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  18. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R. B.

    1985-08-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  19. History of wireless power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)] [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Transmission line design for the lunar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaustad, Krista L.; Gordon, Lloyd B.

    1990-01-01

    How the mass, operating temperature, and efficiency of a transmission line operating on the moon are affected by its operating parameters, the lunar environment, and the choice of materials is examined. The key transmission line parameters which have an effect on mass, operating temperature, and efficiency are voltage, power loss, and waveform. The choice of waveform for transmission will be influenced by the waveform of the source and load, and therefore an analysis of both DC and AC transmission is necessary for a complete understanding of lunar power transmission. The data presented are for the DC case only; however, the discussion of the environmental effects and of material selection is pertinent to both AC and DC transmission. The operating voltage is shown to be a key parameter in transmission line design. The role efficiency plays in transmission line design is also examined. The analyses include above- and below-the-surface operation for both a vacuum-insulated, two-wire, transmission line, and a solid-dielectric-insulated, coaxial, transmission line.

  1. Modal Analysis of a Truck Transmission Based on ANSYS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qin-man Fan

    2011-01-01

    Vibration and noises are important reasons for transmission failure and are two important technical indexes of transmissions. The modal analysis of transmission is conducted by ANSYS software according to studying a certain truck transmission. The CAD three-dimensional model of the transmission is built by PRO\\/E. The natural frequency and vibration mode of the transmission are obtained and its vibration characteristics

  2. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  3. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  4. Wireless transmission of ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Güler, Nihal Fatma; Fidan, U?ur

    2006-06-01

    In this study, the ECG signal were measured as noiseless with Ag/AgCl electrodes, then converted digital data using pulse code modulation (PCM) technique. The digital data were then sent to receiver where it is in 433 MHz FM/FSK transmitter, which has 10 mW output power and 9.6 Kps transmission speed. At the receiver, the digital data were reconverted to analog signal to monitor and record on the PC with Sonic Foundry Sound Forge 6.0 program. The power spectrum of measured ECG signal was formed using Matlab program. As a result, the medical supporting system is realized for monitoring the ECG signal on PC of human with chronic heart disease in their living surroundings. PMID:16848136

  5. Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

    2014-01-01

    The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

  6. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  7. Transmissible plasmids from Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D E; De Grandis, S A; Karmali, M A; Fleming, P C

    1981-05-01

    Tetracycline resistance in clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was shown to be plasmid mediated. Intra- and interspecies transfers to C. fetus subsp. fetus were demonstrated. The frequency of transfer was increased by approximately 100-fold on a solid surface by using a plate- or filter-mating procedure, as compared with a liquid-mating method. Results of experiments in which cell-free filtrates were used to replace the donor strain in mating experiments tend to rule out bacteriophage-mediated transduction in the transfer of tetracycline resistance. The plasmid-transfer frequency was not affected when deoxyribonuclease was added to the agar used in the mating experiments, indicating that transformation was not involved. Four transmissible plasmids from different tetracycline-resistant strains of C. jejuni each had a molecular weight of 38 x 10(6). Transfer of these plasmids to Escherichia coli was not demonstrated. PMID:7294767

  8. GOPEX laser transmission and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, G.; Masters, K.

    1993-01-01

    The laser transmission and monitoring system for the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX) at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California is described. The transmission system configuration and the data measurement techniques are described. The calibration procedure and the data analysis algorithm are also discussed. The mean and standard deviation of the laser energy transmitted each day of GOPEX show that the laser transmission system performed well and within the limit established in conjunction with the Galileo Project for experiment concurrence.

  9. High-Speed Transmission in Multimode Fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Freund; Christian-A. Bunge; Nikolay N. Ledentsov; D. Molin; Ch. Caspar

    2010-01-01

    High-speed transmission in multimode fibers (MMF) is becoming attractive for the realization of high-capacity transmission systems at low cost. This paper discusses the theoretical background of MMF transmission and gives an overview on system characterization and existing standards. The authors review latest achievements in component development for highest-speed MMF systems and discuss the challenges on reach, speed, and capacity-extension techniques

  10. Transmission line design optimization: TLOP manuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Grant; R. E. Clayton; G. E. Scott

    1984-01-01

    The transmission line optimization project has the goal of developing innovative optimization techniques for 115 to 500 kV transmission lines to optimize the interdependent electrical, environmental, and structural design parameters with respect to such factors as initial or lifetime cost, electric field strength, and right-of-way requirements. Version 1.2 of the Transmission Line Optimization Program (TLOP) is an initial product from

  11. Variable Block Length and Transmission Efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kirlin

    1969-01-01

    This work is concerned with the effect of grouping data into blocks for transmission in an error detect-retransmit system. A formula is presented giving transmission efficiencyEin data bits per binit.Eis a function of the time per bit, block length, nondata bits per block, data bits per word, and average timebar{T}per block transmission.bar{T}takes into consideration block length, block starting bit times,

  12. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  13. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  14. Optical data transmission systems in radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, Branko

    1989-05-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optical data transmission includes a wide variety of particle accelerator, detector and nuclear power facility applications in which transmission systems are required to withstand exposure to the radiation background. Fiber optic links provide several major advantages over conventional electronic data transmission systems. These include immunity to electromagnetic interference and low transmission losses for very high data rates. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in radiation environment is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides, photodiodes and associated electronics components and subassemblies.

  15. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  16. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  17. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...providing emergency communications; (4) Transmissions...necessary to providing communications in RACES; and ...participating United States military station during an Armed Forces Day Communications Test. (b)...

  18. Final Report Navajo Transmission Project (NTP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennie Hoisington; Steven Begay

    2006-09-14

    The Diné Power Authority is developing the Navajo Transmission Project (NTP) to relieve the constraints on the transmission of electricity west of the Four Corners area and to improve the operation flexibility and reliability of the extra-high-voltage transmission system in the region. The NTP creates the wholesale transmission capacity for more economical power transfers, sales, and purchases in the region. It will facilitate the development of Navajo energy resources, improve economic conditions on the Navajo Nation as well as allow DPA to participate in the western electrical utility industry.

  19. Transmission of viruses through corneal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Pierre-Yves R; Adenis, Jean-Paul; Denis, François; Ranger-Rogez, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Transmission of viruses through transplantation has become a major concern for surgeons and tissue banks. Keratoplasty has been the first transplantation procedure in which transmission of a virus from the donor to the recipient has been proven, and recently, herpes has been suggested as a transmittable disease via corneal transplantation. In this article we review the history of viral transmission through transplantation, especially focusing on keratoplasty, and develop the recent updates on transmission of HSV through corneal grafting, its implications for surgeons and eye banks, and further insights into viral security in eye banks. PMID:16122153

  20. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  1. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  2. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  3. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  4. 75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities September 29, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...transmission planning process. Further, both should share similar benefits and obligations commensurate with that participation,...

  5. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  6. 77 FR 64890 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...operators (ISOs) and regional transmission organizations (RTOs) are required to follow regarding the availability of long-term...Transmission Access Policy Study Group also recognizes, not all RTOs make section 205 filings for the application of an existing...

  7. Acoustic Transmission and Image Contrast of Tilted Plate Specimens in Transmission Acoustic Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUNG K. WANG; CHEN S. TSAI

    1985-01-01

    Abstmct-The results of a study on acoustic transmission and image contrast of a tilted plate specimen in transmission scanning acoustic microscopy (SAhI) are presented. Both the transmission angular spectra and the angular contrasts, as a function of the axial location and the tilt angle of the specimen, are analyzed using the Fourier decomposition technique. The angle-dependent transmission coefficient of a

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

  9. Reliability centered maintenance for transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Beehler, M.E. [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)] [Burns and McDonnell Engineering Co., Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory and market forces that are challenging the electric utility industry require more proactive methods of utility asset management. An important component of asset management for electric utilities is the maintenance of existing transmission lines. Therefore, some utilities are working to implement a condition-based, predictive transmission line maintenance program using the concepts of Reliability Centered Maintenance.

  10. Horizontal versus Familial Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Schwarz; Giovanna Morelli; Barica Kusecek; Andrea Manica; Francois Balloux; Robert J. Owen; David Y. Graham; Schalk van der Merwe; Mark Achtman; Sebastian Suerbaum

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of

  11. Reference transmission network: a game theory approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Minoia; Damien Ernst; Maria Dicorato; Michele Trovato; Marija Ilic

    2006-01-01

    The transmission network plays a key role in an oligopolistic electricity market. In fact, the capacity of a transmission network determines the degree to which the generators in different locations compete with others and could also greatly influence the strategic behaviors of market participants. In such an oligopolistic framework, different agents may have distinct and sometimes opposite interests in urging

  12. Input Pulse Response in Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M. Rittersdorf; David M. French; Michael Johnson; Y. Y. Lau; Ronald M. Gilgenbach; Donald Shiffler; Brad Hoff; John Luginsland

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear transmission lines have been demonstrated to be an effective technique for generating high power ultrawideband or mesoband radiation without the need for a vacuum system, electron beam, or magnet. Experiments have been performed at UM on a discrete element nonlinear transmission line that uses ferrite inductors as the nonlinear element. Pulse sharpening of multi-kA input pulses has been observed

  13. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

  14. A market mechanism for electric power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

    1996-01-01

    As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

  15. Study on integrated transmission line ?? modulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Zahabi; Maurits Ortmanns

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility and design guidelines for implementing integrated transmission-line based Sigma Delta modulators (ITLSDMs) have been studied. By a systematic design methodology for wireless frequency standards, the practical issues of realizing ITLSDMs such as different semiconductor technologies, performance, area and power consumption have been addressed. Having compared the different technologies and types of transmission lines (TLs), a typical 4th order

  16. Equations for Automotive-Transmission Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, S.; Aston, M. B.; Chapman, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Curve-fitting procedure ensures high confidence levels. Threedimensional plot represents performance of small automatic transmission coasting in second gear. In equation for plot, PL power loss, S speed and T torque. Equations applicable to manual and automatic transmissions over wide range of speed, torque, and efficiency.

  17. STRUCTURAL FINGERPRINTING IN THE TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Moeck; Ruben Bjoerge; Yves Maniette; Stavros Nicolopoulos

    Two novel strategies for the structurally identification of nanocrystals in a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) are described (1). Either a single High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) image (2) or a single Precession Electron Diffractogram (PED) (3) can be employed. The structural identification information is in both cases collected on an individual nanocrystal. Automation of the method may lead to statistically

  18. Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marm Kilpatrick; Peter Daszak; Matthew J. Jones; Peter P. Marra; Laura D. Kramer

    2006-01-01

    Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in

  19. Noise transmission and attenuation by stiffened panels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Vaicaitis; M. Slazak; M. T. Chang

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of noise transmission into semi-cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures due to turbulent boundary layer pressure and propeller noise (prop-fan) is presented. The structural noise transmission models include a single panel, discretely stiffened elastic panel and stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panel. Response characteristics of the stiffened panels are evaluated using a transfer matrix procedure. The interior noise field is

  20. Transient analysis of lossless transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1967-01-01

    The method of characteristics provides a simple analytic solution for the transient analysis of a uniform, lossless transmission line. The interpretation of this solution in terms of equivalent network of the input and output behavior of the transmission line leads to an efficient algorithm which yields not only the input and output responses but also the incident and reflected waves.

  1. Optimization calculations for hydrogen transmission pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konopka

    1977-01-01

    The optimization was carried out by considering a variety of pipeline diameters, compression section distances, operating pressures, and numbers of parallel pipes. Data were used to compute the lowest overall energy transmission cost for a number of identical compression sections arranged in series. The data were assembled in such a way that trends in transmission cost with each of the

  2. Model Analysis of Fomite Mediated Influenza Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jijun; Eisenberg, Joseph E.; Spicknall, Ian H.; Li, Sheng; Koopman, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Fomites involved in influenza transmission are either hand- or droplet-contaminated. We evaluated the interactions of fomite characteristics and human behaviors affecting these routes using an Environmental Infection Transmission System (EITS) model by comparing the basic reproduction numbers (R0) for different fomite mediated transmission pathways. Fomites classified as large versus small surface sizes (reflecting high versus low droplet contamination levels) and high versus low touching frequency have important differences. For example, 1) the highly touched large surface fomite (public tables) has the highest transmission potential and generally strongest control measure effects; 2) transmission from droplet-contaminated routes exceed those from hand-contaminated routes except for highly touched small surface fomites such as door knob handles; and 3) covering a cough using the upper arm or using tissues effectively removes virus from the system and thus decreases total fomite transmission. Because covering a cough by hands diverts pathogens from the droplet-fomite route to the hand-fomite route, this has the potential to increase total fomite transmission for highly touched small surface fomites. An improved understanding and more refined data related to fomite mediated transmission routes will help inform intervention strategies for influenza and other pathogens that are mediated through the environment. PMID:23300585

  3. Ecological benefits of dc power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, N. B. [JSC 'NIIPT' (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

  4. Contract networks for electric power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Hogan

    1992-01-01

    A contract network extends the concept of a contract path to address the problem of loop flow and congestion in electric power transmission systems. A contract network option provides an internally consistent framework for assigning long-term capacity rights to a complicated electric transmission network. The contract network respects the special conditions induced by Kirchoff's Laws; accommodates thermal, voltage, and contingency

  5. Broadband Resonant-Type Metamaterial Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Gil; Jordi Bonache; Jordi Selga; Joan García-García; Ferran Martín

    2007-01-01

    In this letter, it is shown that, contrary to previous assumptions, the broadband characteristics of metamaterial transmission lines are not exclusive of the so called CL loaded composite right\\/left handed (CRLH) structures. In the balance condition, the typical frequency gap between the left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) transmission bands of these CRLH lines collapses, the characteristic impedance varies

  6. Guest Editorial Twisted Pair Transmission --Ever Increasing

    E-print Network

    Henkel, Werner

    obsolete very soon because of the rapid deployment of fiber-optic cables. They regarded DSL as an "interim" solution for network access. The reality of fiber-optic deployment, however, did not keep up transmission over the local loop an immediate necessity. Today, although fiber-optic transmission is beginning

  7. Probabilistic Reliable Message Transmission Subodh Kumar

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    function, pdf , to the delay in the network. We assume that the delay of each message (only low levelProbabilistic Reliable Message Transmission Subodh Kumar January 17, 1996 Abstract Most communication systems require reliable transmission of a sequence of messages over a physical network which can

  8. Acoustic transmission through a fuselage sidewall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Wilby; T. D. Scharton

    1973-01-01

    A definition is given of an idealized fuselage sidewall structure and a simplified analytical model for determining acoustical transmission from the exterior to the interior of a fuselage was constructed. The representation of the sidewall structure chosen for the analytical model excludes complicating effects such as cabin pressurization, acoustic transmission through windows or door seal leaks, aerodynamic excitation, and structural

  9. Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Buckmaster; C. H. Hansen

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption

  10. Metallurgical applications of scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Easterling

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has followed two main lines of development, the pure STEM based upon a field emission electron source in which the emphasis is given to high resolution, and a combined system in which STEM is an attachment to a conventional transmission microscope (TEM + STEM). When used in combination with an energy

  11. Vibration measurements on a car transmission housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Weber; Marco Plieske; Gerhard Brauchle

    1994-01-01

    In view of stricter future statutory requirements concerning noise emissions by motor vehicles, the acoustic optimization of noise emitting components will become increasingly important. Customers complain about transmission noise when for example gears excite individual resonances (eigenfrequencies) of the transmission housing. Normally the eigenfrequencies and also the excitation frequencies are not moveable out of narrow limits. Therefore, in addition to

  12. Hydraulic control system for vehicular automatic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lentz

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic control system for the automatic transmission of a vehicle wherein the transmission includes a plurality of torque transfer devices which can be engaged and disengaged in response to fluid pressure provided by a pump, the sequence of engagement and disengagement of the torque transfer devices being determined by a pre-programmed, on-board computer so as to

  13. Control system for a infinitely variable transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morimoto

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting power of an internal combustion engine to driving wheels of a motor vehicle, the transmission having a drive pulley including a hydraulically shiftable first disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the first disc, a driven pulley including a hydraulically shiftable second disc and a second

  14. Control system for an infinitely variable transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miyawaki

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine mounted on a vehicle. The transmission comprises: a primary pulley operatively connected to a crankshaft of the engine having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc; a secondary pulley operatively connected to an output

  15. Transmission line model influence on fault diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. D. Brito; W. L. A. Neves; B. A. Souza; K. M. C. Dantas; A. V. Fontes; A. B. Fernandes; S. S. B. Silva

    2004-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been used to develop software applied to fault identification and classification in transmission lines with satisfactory results. The input data to the neural network are the sampled values of voltage and current waveforms. The values proceed from the digital fault recorders, which monitor the transmission lines and make the data available in their analog channels. It

  16. Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

  17. Using rainfall estimates to predict malaria transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    Malaria kills nearly a million people each year, mostly in rural Africa. The disease is spread by mosquitoes, which thrive in wet areas, so malaria transmission is closely linked to rainfall. Rainfall estimates could therefore be used to help predict potential malaria transmission. However, rain gauge networks are sparse in many of the rural areas that are hit hardest by malaria.

  18. Theory of transmission resonance in ferromagnetic metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. J. Liu; R. C. Barker

    1975-01-01

    The dispersion relations for ferromagnetic metal applied to a plate configuration give for the ferromagnetic antiresonance, or transmission resonance, the characterizing frequency or field, the microwave penetration depth, and the transmitted line width. In addition, numerical calculation of the transmission spectrum yields the resonance line shape. The calculation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results reported by Heinrich and

  19. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Robert; Heath, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Reported herein is work done on the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company under Army/NASA contract. The novel concept pursued includes the use of face gears for power transmission and a torque splitting arrangement. The design reduces the size and weight of the corner-turning hardware and the next reduction stage. New methods of analyzing face gears have increased confidence in their usefulness. Test gears have been designed and manufactured for power transmission testing on the NASA-Lewis spiral bevel test rig. Transmission design effort has included finite element modeling of the split torque paths to assure equal deflection under load. A finite element model of the Apache main transmission has been completed to substantiate noise prediction methods. A positive engagement overrunning clutch design is described. Test spur gears have been made by near-net-shape forging from five different materials. Three housing materials have been procured for evaluation testing.

  20. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct. and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

  1. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

  2. Broadband Transmission Loss Due to Reverberant Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barisciano, Lawrence P. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The noise transmission characteristics of candidate curved aircraft sidewall panel constructions is examined analytically using finite element models of the selected panel geometries. The models are validated by experimental modal analyses and transmission loss testing. The structural and acoustic response of the models are then examined when subjected to random or reverberant excitation, the simulation of which is also discussed. For a candidate curved honeycomb panel, the effect of add-on trim panel treatments is examined. Specifically, two different mounting configurations are discussed and their effect on the transmission loss of the panel is presented. This study finds that the add-on acoustical treatments do improve on the primary structures transmission loss characteristics, however, much more research is necessary to draw any valid conclusions about the optimal configuration for the maximum noise transmission loss. This paper describes several directions for the extension of this work.

  3. Shift control mechanism for a manual transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Gugin, D.G.

    1991-08-06

    This patent describes a shift control mechanism for a manual transmission having a transmission gear housing and a manual shift selecting lever. It comprises a shift selecting shaft mounted within the transmission gear housing for rotation and axial translation in response to selective manipulation of the shift selecting lever; a shift sleeve supported from the transmission gear housing; an actuating member secured to the shift selecting shaft for rotation and axial translation with the shift selecting shaft; synchronizer assemblies; the actuating member individually operating the synchronizer assemblies in response to selected manipulation of the shift selecting lever; alignment guide means interactive between the shift selecting shaft and the transmission gear housing to permit axial translation of the shift selecting shaft only when the shift selecting shaft has been rotated to align a locator means with a locating means.

  4. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  5. Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

    2004-01-01

    A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

  6. NASA transmission research and its probable effects on helicopter transmission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Transmissions studied for application to helicopters in addition to the more conventional geared transmissions include hybrid (traction/gear), bearingless planetary, and split torque transmissions. Research is being performed to establish the validity of analysis and computer codes developed to predict the performance, efficiency, life, and reliability of these transmissions. Results of this research should provide the transmission designer with analytical tools to design for minimum weight and noise with maximum life and efficiency. In addition, the advantages and limitations of drive systems as well as the more conventional systems will be defined.

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

  8. Bearing lubrication system for extension housing of vehicular transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tsukamoto; T. Taniguchi; S. Kubo; Y. Taga

    1986-01-01

    A bearing lubrication system is described for bearing means supported with an extension housing of an automatic transmission. The extension housing is connected at one end face flush to an end face of a transmission case. The transmission has a hydraulic control system including a valve casing fastened to the transmission case and a transmission output shaft supported in the

  9. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  10. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  11. New insights in cysticercosis transmission.

    PubMed

    Arriola, Carmen S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-10-01

    Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0-5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83-10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50-3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

  12. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, G.; Gilson, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of almost all cases of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH). HCV is an RNA virus, unrelated to the hepatitis viruses, A, B, D, or E; it was first identified in 1989. Although most infections become chronic, and it may lead to chronic liver disease, most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic. The predominant modes of transmission are by blood, blood products, or other parenteral exposure, particularly injecting drug use. More contentious is the role of sexual transmission, although evidence for this was provided by studies of NANBH. OBJECTIVE: This review considers the evidence for sexual transmission, and the types of studies used to estimate the rate of transmission and the factors that may influence it. METHOD: A Medline search using the keywords hepatitis C, sex, transmission, and prevalence in MeSH and free text. References in papers were searched, and some unpublished data identified. References were further selected to illustrate different methodologies. FINDINGS: Evidence for sexual transmission is provided by several types of study including prevalence studies in groups at risk of other STDs, investigation of cases identified from surveillance reports, and cross sectional and longitudinal partner studies. Many studies are limited by their small size, the sensitivity and specificity of early assays, lack of controls, or the difficulty of excluding other routes of transmission. One prospective cohort study reported an incidence of 12 per 1000 person years in the sexual partners of HCV infected patients. 1-3% of partners of HCV infected patients are found to be infected in cross sectional studies. Co-infection with HIV, duration of the relationship, or chronic liver disease may be independent cofactors increasing the risk of transmission. A meta-analysis of selected studies may be informative, and further larger prospective studies are required. There is a small but definite risk of sexual transmission of hepatitis C. ??? PMID:10195047

  13. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  14. Vertical transmission of Salmonella paratyphi A.

    PubMed

    Raveendran, R; Wattal, C; Sharma, A; Kler, N; Garg, P; Gujral, K; Khera, N

    2007-08-01

    Neonatal enteric fever is a rare but life-threatening illness. Patients may present with varying severity, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi causing more severe illness than Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is considered to cause milder infection with fewer complications. We report a rare case of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with severe complications and high mortality. Even though there are case reports of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, to our knowledge, this is the first case report of vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype ParatyphiA. The role of blood culture in accurate diagnosis and treatment is also discussed. PMID:17785907

  15. Discontinuities in transmission lines and wave guides

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Harold Fletcher

    1952-01-01

    have lm- pogtant losses. The use of matching c1rou1ts w1th bLHh losses might be oomparsd to placLnH a resistance 1n pagallel with an 1nduotion motor in ordeg to 1ncrease the power fac- tor of tbe load. Unfortunately 1t is often very diff Loult og... TRANSMISSION LINE TAPERED SECTION FOR A COAXIAL TRANSMISSION LINE FIG. 11. Tapered sections of transmission lines, (k) R-f transformers, Transformers can 'be bu1lt for radio frequencies, Cores can be either air or hiSh- frequency powdered 1ron. The author...

  16. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  17. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)] [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  18. Investigation of Multi-Frequency Power Transmission and System 

    E-print Network

    Barazarte Conte, Ronald

    2012-10-19

    BACKGROUND .................................................................................. 6 A. High Voltage Direct Current Transmission (HVDC) ................ 6 B. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) ............................ 12... ......................................................................................................................... 80 viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Schematic of a HVDC Transmission Line...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...nonloaded subscriber loop circuits for data modem transmission. (b) Signal-to-C...performance of data transmission because proper modem operation requires low noise relative...transmission facility may be reduced using data modems with equalization or by conditioning...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...nonloaded subscriber loop circuits for data modem transmission. (b) Signal-to-C...performance of data transmission because proper modem operation requires low noise relative...transmission facility may be reduced using data modems with equalization or by conditioning...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...nonloaded subscriber loop circuits for data modem transmission. (b) Signal-to-C...performance of data transmission because proper modem operation requires low noise relative...transmission facility may be reduced using data modems with equalization or by conditioning...

  2. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192...STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  3. 49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192...STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during any...

  4. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 ...Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a...section. Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS)....

  5. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023...Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station...on a common television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR...

  6. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 ...Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a...section. Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS)....

  7. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 ...Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a...section. Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS)....

  8. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 ...Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a...section. Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS)....

  9. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023...Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station...on a common television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR...

  10. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626 ...Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a...section. Such operation is called a distributed transmission system (DTS)....

  11. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023...Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station...on a common television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR...

  12. Airborne transmission of disease in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Eames, I.; Tang, J. W.; Li, Y.; Wilson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is an important public health issue with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality, over the last 5 years. Disease can be transmitted by air (over large distances), by direct/indirect contact or a combination of both routes. While contact transmission of disease forms the majority of HAI cases, transmission through the air is harder to control, but one where the engineering sciences can play an important role in limiting the spread. This forms the focus of this themed volume. In this paper, we describe the current hospital environment and review the contributions from microbiologists, mechanical and civil engineers, and mathematicians to this themed volume on the airborne transmission of infection in hospitals. The review also points out some of the outstanding scientific questions and possible approaches to mitigating transmission. PMID:19828499

  13. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the infant and there are no recommendations against breast feeding. Because CMV infection after birth may cause disease ... these infants should consult their healthcare providers about breastfeeding. CMV Transmission during Pregnancy In the United States, ...

  14. Local SAR in parallel transmission pulse design

    E-print Network

    Lee, Joonsung

    The management of local and global power deposition in human subjects (specific absorption rate, SAR) is a fundamental constraint to the application of parallel transmission (pTx) systems. Even though the pTx and single ...

  15. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

    2015-02-01

    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue. PMID:25498979

  16. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  17. Transmission scheduling with deadline and throughput constraints

    E-print Network

    Kim, Kyu Seob

    2013-01-01

    Today wireless networks are increasingly used to perform applications with Quality of Service constraints (QoS) such as delay, delivery ratio, and channel reliability. Especially, as demand for real-time transmissions ...

  18. Neuromotor Transmissibility of Horizontal Seatpan Vibration

    E-print Network

    Channamallu, Raghu Ram

    2007-12-16

    Exposure to occupational whole body vibration (WBV) is associated with low back pain disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and degeneration of spine. Transmission of vibration to the neuromotor system may play a role in the etiology...

  19. Transmission Issues and Power Exchanges in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Hughes, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    to build. This paper presents a historical background on the development of the transmission system and describes the problems of assessing the impact and properly pricing certain bulk power transactions. In addition, it briefly describes the Electro-Magnetic...

  20. Resource management for advanced transmission antenna satellites

    E-print Network

    Chan, Vincent W. S.

    In satellite communications, narrow spotbeams can provide high power and data rates to the desired location while reducing spatial interference. Advanced transmission antenna technology is critical to generate and switch ...

  1. Hantavirus transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments.

    PubMed

    Gedeon, Tomás; Bodelón, Clara; Kuenzi, Amy

    2010-04-01

    We developed a compartmental model for hantavirus infection in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) with the goal of comparing relative importance of direct and indirect transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments. A direct transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an infected and an uninfected mouse, while an indirect transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an uninfected mouse with, for instance, infected soil. Based on population dynamics data and estimates of hantavirus decay in the two types of environments, our model predicts that direct transmission dominates in the sylvan environment, while both pathways are important in peridomestic environments. The model allows us to compute a basic reproduction number R(0), which indicates whether the virus will be endemic or eradicated from the mouse population, in both an autonomous and a time-periodic model. Our analysis can be used to evaluate various eradication strategies. PMID:19821001

  2. Transmission of optical frequencies with minimal losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townes, C. H.; Chiao, R. Y.; Garmire, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Application of diffractionless dielectrics as transmitting media between laser beam source and receiver is discussed. Optical properties of transmitting media are described and general system diagram is illustrated. Use of system in power transmission, communications, surgery, and machinery is explained.

  3. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  4. Transmission of an explosion through an orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, P.; Liu, Y. K.; Chan, C.; Lee, J. H.; Knystautas, R.; Gurap, C.; Hjertager, B. H.; Fuhre, K.

    1982-09-01

    The problem of transmission of an explosion from one chamber to another through an orifice was studied for methane, propane, hydrogen and acetylene mixtures with air. Quenching diameters are determined for various regimes.

  5. Transmission policy in the United States

    E-print Network

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the U.S. over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization ...

  6. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  7. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  8. Transmission and scarring in graphene quantum dots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Huang; Ying-Cheng Lai; David K. Ferry; Richard Akis; Stephen M. Goodnick

    2009-01-01

    We study electronic transport in quantum-dot structures made of graphene. Focusing on the rectangular dot geometry and utilizing the non-equilibrium Green's function to calculate the transmission in the tight-binding framework, we find significant fluctuations in the transmission as a function of the electron energy. The fluctuations are correlated with the formation of quantum scarring states, or pointer states in the

  9. Price Regulation for Independent Transmission Companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Vogelsang

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers methods of price structure regulation of electricity transmission in the context of an independent transmission company (TRANSCO). The focus is on two-part tariffs where the variable part would reflect congestion charges (and ancillary services) while the fixed part would reflect capacity costs. The two-part tariffs form a price-cap index, and the firm could rebalance prices, as long

  10. Differential transmission of the Cucumis organellar genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Havey; J. D. McCreight; B. Rhodes; G. Taurick

    1998-01-01

    Although plants generally show maternal transmission of the organellar genomes, previous research has demonstrated that the\\u000a mitochondrial (mt) genome of cucumber is paternally transmitted. In this study, we identified RFLPs in the organellar genomes\\u000a of melon, squash, and watermelon to establish organellar DNA transmission. Serial dilutions of DNA demonstrated that our hybridizations\\u000a revealed the presence of a polymorphic cytoplasm when

  11. Electronic Communications Instructor Guide: Transmission Line Measurements

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Communications equipment, systems and test instruments are generally connected to one another by coaxial cable. For that reason, it is essential that students know the characteristics of transmission lines using coax cable and how to make basic measurements on them. This lesson aims to familiarize students with common measurements on coaxial transmission lines. The module may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format; a quick, free login is required to access the materials.

  12. Lecture 4: transmission lines and capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The topic of this lecture is pulse forming networks. The first item of discussion will be transmission lines because they are so prevalent, even if only in the form of coaxial cable. From there the subject will proceed to pulse-forming networks: the practical problems encountered with them, their advantages, and disadvantages. Capacitors will be our final topic, as they are the limiting factor in lumped transmission elements.

  13. Remote video surveillance and transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Senger, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    The need for remote video surveillance is described, and why this capability is essential at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Wespons Plant. Methods of remote surveillance and video buffer zone patrol are examined, as are remote signal transmission techniques and transmission link design considerations. Also discussed are design concepts for a video surveillance viewing center within a security operations area, and the integration of the surveillance video into a computer based alarm system.

  14. Virus Transmission—Getting Out and In

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Blanc

    Logically, most plant viruses being vector-transmitted, the majority of viral transport mechanisms\\u000a associated to the transmission step have been approached through the study of virus-vector relationships.\\u000a However, in the case of non-vector vertical transmission through the seeds, some viruses have evolved specific\\u000a patterns to colonize either the gametes or the embryo, thereby connecting viral transport within the plant\\u000a to that

  15. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false FM transmission system requirements. 73...317 FM transmission system requirements. (a...broadcast stations employing transmitters authorized after...broadcast stations employing transmitters installed or...

  16. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false FM transmission system requirements. 73...317 FM transmission system requirements. (a...broadcast stations employing transmitters authorized after...broadcast stations employing transmitters installed or...

  17. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be...

  18. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for transmissions relating to yard...

  19. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for transmissions relating to yard...

  20. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be...

  1. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for transmissions relating to yard...

  2. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for transmissions relating to yard...

  3. 49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for transmissions relating to yard...

  4. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be...

  5. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be...

  6. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be...

  7. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  8. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bart?omiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for studies of karstic systems where natural cavities could be used for underground electrodes deployment.

  9. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  10. Thermal influence on precise gear transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Fei, Yetai; Miao, EnMing; Zhang, Xiao-rou

    2013-01-01

    Conjugate meshing of involute gears is required in precise gear transmission. However, in the working process, the heat generated in friction results in deformation of the tooth profile of the gear, radial and axial deformation of the shaft and bearing. Meanwhile, there is thermal deformation with non-similarity in the gear box that the shafts and bearings are installed on, which leads to a change of the bearing clearance, axis deflection of the shaft and the gear meshing state. As a result of all these effects, vibration and noise are generated in the transmission system, and it intensifies the possibility of damaging the parts. In this paper, mathematical physics methods and thermal elastic theory are employed to analyze the influence of tooth profiles, gear parameters (transmission ratio i, overlapping coefficients ?, backlash jn, etc), gear meshing, working clearance of the bearing (it relates with the initial clearance, tolerance matching, rotational speed, temperature changes, etc) and the shape of the gear box (cylindricity error, axis deflection, etc) caused by the temperature change. The result can be employed in selecting gear parameters and designing the shape of the gear tooth, bearing clearance and shell structure, and it is also helpful to the design of gear transmissions and screw transmissions.

  11. TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME) TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) BY INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the transmissibility of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent to raccoons and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of TSEs in raccoons, 4 raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with a br...

  12. ELEC3028 Digital Transmission Overview & Information Theory S Chen ELEC3028 (EL334) Digital Transmission

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission ­ Overview & Information Theory S Chen ELEC3028 (EL334) Digital Transmission Half of the unit: · Information Theory · MODEM (modulator and demodulator) Professor Sheng Chen ­ Overview & Information Theory S Chen What's New (Should be Old) in Communications · Imagine a few scenarios

  13. Progressive compression for lossless transmission of triangle meshes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Alliez; Mathieu Desbrun

    2001-01-01

    Lossless transmission of 3D meshes is a very challenging and timely problem for many applications, ranging from collaborative design to engineering. Additionally, frequent delays in transmissions call for progressive transmission in order for the end user to receive useful successive refinements of the final mesh. In this paper, we present a novel, fully progressive encoding approach for lossless transmission of

  14. Electric utility transmission policy at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Trabandt

    1990-01-01

    Transmission policy from the perspective of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is discussed. A summary is given of the Transmission Task Force's Report to the Commission entitled `Electricity Transmission Realities, Theory and Policy Alternatives'. The background of FERC developments needed to understand the transmission model the Task Force has drawn up is covered

  15. Fixed series compensation protection evaluation using transmission lines faults simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. P. de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The power demands of Brazilian national industries need an economical solution to increase power transmission capacity of existing transmission lines. Due to environmental and economical difficulties for construction of new power transmission lines, the use of fixed series compensation (FSC) has turned into a common practice of power transmission companies in Brazil. The FSC is presented as the best choice,

  16. Measurement of RF Transmission Mode in ITER Relevant EC H&CD Transmission Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2010-08-01

    The preliminary results of mode measurement in the ITER relevant 40 m long transmission test line composed from 63.5 mm diameter corrugated waveguides and miter bends are presented. The field patterns were measured by taking temperature profiles on a paper screen placed in front of the waveguide end using an infrared imaging camera. The complex electric field at the waveguide end was retrieved from the measured temperature profiles. As a result, the transmission power includes 87% of HE11 mode and 6% of LP11 odd (HE21+TE01) mode and small ratios of other modes. The mode content had small dependence on length of the transmission line. This result indicated that the higher order mode content generated at the input of the transmission line is conserved and propagated through the transmission line. This suggests that the initial RF coupling to the waveguide is critical since it affects the launcher efficiency.

  17. Technique and test of packet transmission network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Duan, Wenxiao; Luo, Fan

    2011-11-01

    With the rapid development of telecommunication service, the broadband amalgamation of full service is becoming the main theme in the development of communication industry. The Packet Transmission Network adopts the technique of T-MPLS to meet next generation's demand on high speed, various services and high quality. Firstly, Requirements of PTN (Packet Transmission Network)are analyzed. Then, by deep analysis the key technology of PTN on MAN. At the same time, PTN technologies have been applied in multi-service's adaptation and transmission which are carried out by communication each other of MSTP and PTN, T-MPLS and IP/MPLS, PBT and IP/MPLS. At last, test of PTN are analyzed in detail. Test results of PTN show that PTN can replace core router to provide highly-efficient packet forward service in core network.

  18. Noise transmission through nonlinear sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Hong, H.-K.

    1983-04-01

    An analytical study is presented to predict the noise transmission through nonlinear double wall sandwich panel systems subject to random loading. Viscoelastic and nonlinear spring dash-pot models are chosen to characterize the behavior of the core. The noise transmission through this panel system is determined into an acoustic enclosure of which the interiors are covered with porous absorption materials. The absorbent boundary conditions of the enclosure are accounted for by a two-step transformation of the boundary effect into a wave equation which governs the acoustic pressure field. The nonlinear panel response and interior acoustic pressure are obtained by utilizing modal analyses and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Numerical results include the nonlinear response time histories and noise reduction. It is found that by proper selection of the dynamic parameters and damping characteristics, the noise transmission can be significantly reduced by the double wall sandwich construction.

  19. Life and reliability models for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Knorr, R. J.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Computer models of life and reliability are presented for planetary gear trains with a fixed ring gear, input applied to the sun gear, and output taken from the planet arm. For this transmission the input and output shafts are co-axial and the input and output torques are assumed to be coaxial with these shafts. Thrust and side loading are neglected. The reliability model is based on the Weibull distributions of the individual reliabilities of the in transmission components. The system model is also a Weibull distribution. The load versus life model for the system is a power relationship as the models for the individual components. The load-life exponent and basic dynamic capacity are developed as functions of the components capacities. The models are used to compare three and four planet, 150 kW (200 hp), 5:1 reduction transmissions with 1500 rpm input speed to illustrate their use.

  20. Solar light transmission of polymer optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Tekelioglu, Murat [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Wood, Byard D. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Light transfer (10 m) has been shown in recent experiments that used large-core optical fibers. Theoretical models are not extensive, however, and a further correlation between the theory and experiments has not been given. In this paper, straight and bent fiber subsystem models are introduced with skew and meridional rays to predict the light transmission of POFs (plastic optical fibers). Such fibers have been realized, for example, in HSL (hybrid solar lighting) systems. The purpose of this paper is to combine the straight and bent fiber subsystems to estimate the light transmission of HSL systems. It is shown that meridional rays, for which the optical-loss parameters were estimated, better represent the experimental results compared to skew rays ({+-}5.3% vs {+-}24.7% of %-difference). Model predictions were compared with the results of a commercial software. Sensitivity analysis on the subsystems indicated the most-to-least significant parameters in light transmission. (author)

  1. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOEpatents

    Nambu, Shigeo (Fuchu, JP)

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  2. Experiment of THz transmission through plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinhai; Gallacher, Jordan; Issac, Riju; Huang, Zhixun; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2014-12-01

    Research on terahertz wave transmission through plasma is significant for researches on plasma itself and transmission discipline of terahertz wave through plasma. It is possible for plasma with suitable density to be an available stealth outerwear for plane or missile in THz waveband. In this paper, plasma is gotten by ionizing inert gases such as argon and helium gases with pulsed high alternating voltage. With electro-optic pump-probe measurement, THz transmission phenomena through plasma have been studied. The experiments show that some parts of THz frequency components have been cut off by plasma, and with the density of plasma rising, the starting frequency of THz prohibited by plasma is going higher. Experiments also provide an assistant scheme for plasma diagnose with terahertz technique.

  3. Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Levavasseur, Etienne; Privat, Nicolas; Martin, Juan-Carlos Espinosa; Simoneau, Steve; Baron, Thierry; Flan, Benoit; Torres, Juan-Maria; Haïk, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains. PMID:25279820

  4. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  5. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

    2013-03-01

    A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  6. Method and apparatus for actuating vehicle transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a method of actuating a vehicle parallel-gear transmission having gears and an internal lever for moving shift blocks connected with shift rods and shift forks for changing gear ratios of the transmission, a hydraulically controlled select actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a select direction, a hydraulically controlled shift actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a shift direction substantially normal to the select direction, a hydraulically controlled clutch actuator for connecting and disconnecting a clutch of the transmission, and a common fluid discharge passage connected to fluid discharge ports of the select and shift actuators and a fluid discharge port of the clutch actuator, the select and shift actuators being alternately actuatable to effect a gear changing operation.

  7. Transmission overhaul estimates for partial and full replacement at repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Timely transmission overhauls increase in-flight service reliability greater than the calculated design reliabilities of the individual aircraft transmission components. Although necessary for aircraft safety, transmission overhauls contribute significantly to aircraft expense. Predictions of a transmission's maintenance needs at the design stage should enable the development of more cost effective and reliable transmissions in the future. The frequency is estimated of overhaul along with the number of transmissions or components needed to support the overhaul schedule. Two methods based on the two parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life are used to estimate the time between transmission overhauls. These methods predict transmission lives for maintenance schedules which repair the transmission with a complete system replacement or repair only failed components of the transmission. An example illustrates the methods.

  8. NWCC Transmission Case Study Conclusions Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Wiese, Terry Allison

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 The NWCC Transmission Case Studies Conclusions Summary In the spring of 1999, the Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG), with the cooperation of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a forum on transmission issues associated with the production of energy from wind. As a result of this forum, a number of issues were identified which, if successfully resolved, could help reduce barriers to the future expansion of wind power. The NWCC, being a multi-stakeholder group, was in an ideal position to conduct follow-up activities among a cross-section of the interested parties. The follow-up activities took the form of three case studies in the areas of interest identified by forum participants: (1) Transmission policy and pricing; (2) ''Virtual wheeling'' arrangements; and, (3) Transmission system improvements. The case studies provide an interesting snapshot in time dealing with a range of issues associated with scheduled or planned regulatory and restructuring proceedings related to energy transmission. The NWCC Transmission Subcommittee and the UWIG reviewed early drafts of the case studies in November 1999. The case studies were conducted through a questionnaire and interview process with interested parties. In writing each case study, NWCC staff attempted to identify all stakeholder groups with an interest in each topic and solicit their input. While all parties do not agree on every issue presented, a serious effort has been made to present all views in an unbiased fashion. At the end of each case study, relevant conclusions are drawn and recommendations for next steps are provided where appropriate.

  9. Multicore EDFA for long-distance transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Makoto; Ono, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Shoichiro

    2013-12-01

    A multicore Er3+-doped fiber amplifier (MC-EDFA) can be realized by using an amplification medium such as bundled or multi-element Er3+-doped fiber (EDF) and multicore EDF, and employing a discrete pumping or cladding pumping method. In this paper, we report three recently developed MC-EDFAs, which represent all the amplification forms realizable using the amplification medium and pumping method. We also report the importance of an MC-EDFA for constructing a practical long-haul multicore fiber transmission system based on the facts of the progress made on the transmission experiments, and describe further progress on the MC-EDFA.

  10. Policies and Economics of Digital Multimedia Transmission

    E-print Network

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    There are different Standards of digital multimedia transmission, for example DVB in Europe and ISDB in Japan and DMB in Korea, with different delivery system (example MPEG-2, MPEG-4).This paper describe an overview of Digital Multimedia Transmission (DMT) technologies. The economic aspects of digital content & software solution industry as a strategic key in the future will be discussed. The study then focuses on some important policy and technology issues, such S-DMB, T-DMB, Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld (DVB-H) and concludes DMT policies for convergence of telecommunications and broadcasting.

  11. Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

  12. Impact analysis of electrical transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kellough, W.R.

    1980-12-01

    The impact of electric transmission lines on the well-being and peace of mind of people living and working near or under them is investigated. Considered are: induced charges on wire fences/ shocks from farm machinery/ ill effects on behavior, growth, and reproduction of cattle/ interference with radio and television reception/ interference with the operation of electronic farm equipment and machinery/ storm damage/ and toxic effects of ozone production. Whether justifiable or not, the existence of electric transmission lines affects the marketability of property. (1 graph, 2 tables)

  13. Accelerator power concepts using iolated transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rationale and the advantages of using multiple transmission-line sections isolated by transit time and inductance in accelerating high-current (approx. = 10 kA), short-pulse (less than or equal to 100 ns) particle beams to the multimegavolt level is outlined. The main advantages of this system include reducing the number of output switches required per output pulse by nearly an order of magnitude over conventional systems and increasing the system capability for repetition-rate operation. The isolated transmission-line concept is developed and possible modes of operation outlined. In addition, a point design of a 10-kA short-pulse accelerator is presented.

  14. Transmission properties of periodically patterned triangular prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Yongkai; Cao, Liang; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2014-11-01

    Transmission properties of plasmonic structure arrays are simulated by finite element method. The array unit is composed of two combined triangular prisms. Results reveal that several resonant modes are found in the transmission spectra, which are due to the resonance of the surface plasmon polariton in the metal slit or to the localized surface plasmon resonance of the combined prisms. The resonant wavelengths can be tuned by changing the structural parameters of the combined prisms. In addition, the resonant modes are sensitive to small refractive index changes of the surrounding media, revealing potential detection applications in nanophotonic systems.

  15. Fault-Tolerant Exact State Transmission

    E-print Network

    Zhao-Ming Wang; Lian-Ao Wu; Michele Modugno; Wang Yao; Bin Shao

    2012-05-02

    We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault- tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose the implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices.

  16. Congenital transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Nora; Aguirre, Lino; Jave, Oswaldo; Sanchez, Luis; Kirwan, Daniela E; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-07-01

    This article presents a case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in a Peruvian infant. His mother was diagnosed with disseminated TB, and treatment commenced 11 days postpartum. The infant was diagnosed with TB after 40 days and died at 2 months and 2 days of age. Congenital transmission of TB to the infant was suspected, because direct postpartum transmission was considered unlikely; also, thorough screening of contacts for TB was negative. Spoligotyping confirmed that both mother and baby were infected with identical strains of the Beijing family (SIT1). PMID:24821847

  17. Transient analysis of heat transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phetteplace, G. E.

    1981-12-01

    This report develops a method of analysis for heat transmission systems operating under district heating load conditions. The method accounts for the effects of heat source and load characteristics. The use of thermal energy storage systems is outlined and advantages are given. The transmission model itself considers the following technical aspects: (1) frictional pressure losses in piping system, (2) pump characteristics, (3) pump driver characteristics, and (4) heat losses from the buried piping. The capital costs considered are the piping system and necessary pumps. Operation and maintenance costs include cost of heat loss and cost of pumping energy input. Allowances are also made for system maintenance and repair over the assumed lifetime.

  18. Laser transmission welding of optical transparent thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devrient, M.; Frick, T.; Schmidt, M.

    Laser transmission welding is a well known joining technology for thermoplastics. As undoped thermoplastics have a low absorption for electro-magnetic radiation with wave lengths from 350 nm till 1,400 nm absorbers are used for laser transmission welding. One disadvantage may be the unmeant colouration which occurs when thermoplastics are doped with absorbers. Therefore an approach to weld transparent thermoplastics by the use of common diode lasers but without absorbers is presented. The developed system technology is introduced and results of welding experiments as well as results achieved by process simulation with a finite element model are shown.

  19. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  20. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities. PMID:25411971

  1. Multi-Objective Value-Based Reliability Transmission Planning using Expected interruption COST due to transmission constraint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Eliassi; Hossein Seifi; Mahmoud-Reza Haghifam

    2009-01-01

    Value-based reliability analysis needs to be addressed in transmission expansion planning in a competitive environment. This paper presents a new Value-Based Reliability Transmission Planning (VBRTP) process using a Multi-Objective Transmission Expansion Planning (MOTEP) approach. A so called Expected interruption COST due to transmission constraint (ECOSTTS) is proposed to measure, more accurately, the reliability benefits rendered by line addition to transmission

  2. Planet position errors in planetary transmission: Effect on load sharing and transmission error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana; Sancibrián, Ramón; García, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    In this paper an advanced model of spur gear transmissions developed by the authors is used to study the influence of carrier planet pin hole position errors on the behaviour of the transmission. The model, initially conceived for external gear modeling, has been extended with internal meshing features, and thus increasing its capabilities to include planetary transmission modeling. The new features are presented, along with the summary of the model general approach. The parameters and characteristics of the planetary transmission used in the paper are introduced. The influence of carrier planet pin hole position errors on the planet load sharing is studied, and several static cases are given as examples in order to show the ability of the model. Tangential and radial planet pin hole position errors are considered independently, and the effect of the load level is also taken into account. It is also given attention to the effect on the transmission error of the transmission. Two different configurations for the planetary transmission are used, attending to the fixed or floating condition of the sun, and the differences in terms of load sharing ratio are shown.

  3. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  4. A portable and wireless data transmission potentiostat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yueh Huang; Huan-Yu Lin; Yu-Chien Wang; Wei-Yin Liao; Tse-Chuan Chou

    2004-01-01

    We propose a portable and wireless data transmission potentiostat and further exert the pH sensor to verify its performance. This potentiostat can be used to process the long-distance remote electrochemical signals of the amperometric sensor and the potentiometric sensor. Based on the popular general packet radio service (GPRS) communication systems, a personal digital assistant (PDA) cell phone, instead of personal

  5. Incremental transmission loss allocation under pool dispatch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco D. Galiana; Antonio J. Conejo; Ivana Kockar

    2002-01-01

    Incremental transmission loss analysis has been used for decades, but recent interest in its application to loss allocation calls for new in-depth results. This paper demonstrates that, for incremental methods to be applied correctly in loss allocation, it is first necessary to specify the load distribution and loss supply strategies. Incremental loss allocation among bus power injections is shown to

  6. A Distributed System for Cooperative MIMO Transmissions

    E-print Network

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    a distributed system for facilitating cooperative MIMO transmissions in networks without multiple antenna. At the physical layer, MIMO systems use multiple antennas to achieve spatial diversity. However, MIMO systems require multi-antennas devices, which may not be feasible in some devices due to cost and size limitations

  7. Methods and systems for micro transmissions

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-12-23

    Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

  8. Criminalising HIV transmission: punishment without protection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Widney; Hanefeld, Johanna; Welsh, James

    2009-11-01

    Allegations of the reckless or intentional transmission of HIV raise challenging questions about how states can best address a disease which is transmitted primarily through behaviours that both states and community "police" in different ways. This paper argues that in the rare cases in which someone engages in specific behaviour with the intent to infect another person with HIV, existing laws such as laws against battery are sufficient to allow for the application of the criminal law. It discusses three key points: the potential consequences of new laws criminalising the transmission of HIV, why vague laws criminalising the knowing transmission of HIV fail to meet key requirements of criminal law and are an abuse of the state's policing power, and thirdly, the growing inclusion of such laws within sexual offences legislation. Laws criminalising the transmission of HIV risk bringing within the scope of legal sanction people living with HIV who are acting in ways that do not merit punishment and may as a result of prosecution face adverse human rights consequences. PMID:19962645

  9. Global signaling over lossy transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Flynn; Joshua Jaeyoung Kang

    2005-01-01

    We describe an interconnect scheme based on lossy transmission lines, compare this scheme with traditional bus based links, and present performance data. Unlike some other schemes there is no requirement for up- conversion, equalization, or special metal processing. In preliminary work, we have measured data rates of 14 Gbps (limited by test equipment) over a 7.2 mm interconnection, implemented in

  10. Bistatic scatter from rain. [microwave transmission loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of bistatic scatter from rain was conducted, using a 143-km scatter path at frequencies of 4.5 and 7.7 GHz. The ratio of transmitted to received power (transmission loss) was measured for scattering angles ranging from 6 to 130 deg. Simultaneous weather radar observations were made at a frequency of 1.3 GHz. Transmission loss estimates for the bistatic scatter path were computed, using the weather radar data, the bistatic radar equation, and a model for the scattering cross section per unit volume of rain based upon Rayleigh scattering by an ensemble of water spheres. The measured and estimated transmission loss values were compared to test the use of the scattering model for the estimation of interference. The averaged ratio of measured-to-calculated transmission loss for the 4.5 GHz data is 1.2 plus or minus 0.4 dB. The averaged ratio for the 7.7 GHz data is -1.6 plus or minus 0.5 dB.

  11. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  12. Optimization of a transmission acoustic microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bridoux; B. Nongaillard; J. M. Rouvaen; C. Bruneel; G. Thomin; R. Torguet

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic field focused by a spherical solid-water interface has been computed and the results have been used to optimize the geometry of a transmission acoustic microscope. An experimental study has been performed, which enables the sampling of the focused acoustic field, as may be realized by using the Fourier-transform-operation concept for an ideal lens.

  13. Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingsheng; Estes, Jacob D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Duan, Lijie; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Southern, Peter J.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Brunner, Kevin G.; Nephew, Karla R.; Pambuccian, Stefan; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2009-01-01

    While there has been great progress in treating HIV-1 infection1, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission2–4. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the SIV-rhesus macaque model point to opportunities in the earliest stages of infection where a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry5, 6. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3?, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5+cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruit CD4+T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate, a widely used antimicrobial compound 7 with inhibitory activity against production of MIP-3? and other proinflammatory cytokines8, can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This novel approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission. PMID:19262509

  14. Marketing Plan for Transmission Planning Services

    E-print Network

    Tu, Linh

    2006-12-15

    well because of its people, business market and industry; it is always a good idea to be on the lookout for new markets and clients in other industries and markets. Transmission planning has always been a steady market for the electrical industry...

  15. Economics Of Optical Fibre Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, W. J.

    1983-08-01

    Optical fibre as a telecommunication transmission medium has become one of the most significant developments so far of the digital era. A major contributory factor to the availability of optical fibre transmission systems has been the outstanding progress in the technology of manufacturing high quality glass fibre having relatively low attenuation and broad bandwidths. This and other achievements has enabled manufacturers in the United Kingdom to develop a range of optical fibre cables and transmission equipment for operation over short and long distances at the CCITT recommended digital hierarchical rates of 2, 8, 34 and 140Mbit/s which have been adopted by British Telecom (BT) for modernisation to an all digital transmission network. These optical fibre systems are now becoming increasingly price and performance competitive with conventional technology in many parts of telecommunications networks. In the British Telecom (BT) network the 140Mbit/s optical fibre systems are now economically competitive with equivalent systems on coaxial cable and microwave radio. The economics of 8 and 34Mbit/s systems are not yet sufficiently attractive, compared with 2Mbit/s digital line systems on pair type copper cables, for large scale use in rural and local distribution networks and are presently only justified on cost in and around large cities. As system costs decrease large applications are predicted particularly in support of future high speed data, cable television and visual information services.

  16. TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    conditions in interconnected power systems. One line of thinking has viewed the third party use implemented in Chilean electric power systems, the incorporation of an open access scheme, the application of transmission systems as an isolated transaction among three parties, where two users (generally two generators

  17. How financial transmission rights curb market power

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

  18. Transmission Electron Microscopy in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiko Stegmann; Hans-Jürgen Engelmann; Ehrenfried Zschech

    During the last two decades, the enduring shrinking of microelectron ic products has made transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an indispensable tool for structural characterization and chemical analysis of the smallest and most critical semiconductor structures. Moreover, the introduction of new materials and manufacturing processes raises new challenges for semiconductor device characterization and analysis. Because of its unsurpassed spatial resolution, its

  19. Fair allocation of transmission power losses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gomez Exposito; J. M. Riquelme Santos; T. Gonzalez Garcia; E. A. Ruiz Velasco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the issue of how transmission power losses should be allocated is addressed. First, it is shown that existing methodologies allocate interaction components regardless of the size of the involved partners. Then, several alternatives to split those terms are suggested which somehow take into account the relative contribution of each transaction. Although the ideas are presented by resorting

  20. Limitation of transmission line switching overvoltages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heresh Seyedi; Smko Golabi; Zaher Abam

    2010-01-01

    In this paper switching overvoltages of an actual transmission line are studied. Simulations are executed using Electro Magnetic Transients Program. A comprehensive switching transient study is performed for the Azerbaijan province network in Iran. The purpose of this study is to determine the unnecessary pre-insertion resistors in the UHV network, since the new policy is to use pre-insertion resistors only

  1. Visualization of electromagnetic transients along transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Y. Evrenosoglu; E. Akleman; A. Abur

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool by which the users can watch animated travelling waves created along transmission lines as a result of power system disturbances. It is implemented in such a way that the discrete time samples of voltages and currents which are simulated by the ATP-EMTP program are processed by this software in order to create the animation.

  2. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication research on Planetary Gear Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao Peide; Xie Jun; Yin Xiaoqin; Yang Qizhi; Ma Luzhong

    2011-01-01

    Based on elastohydrodynamic Lubrication theory (EHL),the EHL oil film thicknesses and those distributions for two operation cases on meshing line were calculated: one case is the sun gear as the driving gear and another case is the ring gear as the driving gear in the Planetary Gear Transmission. From the graph, gear lubrication can be reflected by the gear mesh

  3. Transient analysis of a chemical synaptic transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitriy Melkonian

    1993-01-01

    The statistical dynamics of an impulse induced quanta turnover is studied by means of a nonstationary stochastic model — double barrier synapse — resulting from a previously developed mathematical theory of chemical synaptic transmission. An essential aspect of nonstationarities of the model is that the interpool quanta transfers follow binomial distribution at impulse arrival time, while in the absence of

  4. Prevalence and Transmission of Honeybee Viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Chen; J. S. Pettis; A. Collins; M. F. Feldlaufer

    2006-01-01

    Transmission mechanisms of six honeybee viruses, including acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and sacbrood bee virus (SBV), in honey bee colonies were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods. The virus status of individual queens was evaluated by examining the presence of viruses

  5. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ...manual transmission clutches shall be depressed when the speed drops below 15 mph (24.1 km/hr), when engine roughness is evident, or when engine...

  6. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ...manual transmission clutches shall be depressed when the speed drops below 15 mph (24.1 km/h), when engine roughness is evident, or when engine...

  7. The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul R. Hunter; R. C. Andrew Thompson

    2005-01-01

    The molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium has given rise to a more epidemiological meaningful and robust taxonomy. Importantly, molecular tools are now available for ‘typing’ isolates of the parasites directly from clinical and environmental samples. As a consequence, information on zoonotic potential has been obtained although the frequency of zoonotic transmission is still poorly understood. Analysis of outbreaks and

  8. Original article Experimental transmission of Cryptosporidium

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Experimental transmission of Cryptosporidium oocyst isolates from mammals, birds, and that clinical manifestations and virulence of Cryptosporidium in snakes is modulated by the species of the host, and therefore should be avoided. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris Cryptosporidium serpentis / snake cryptosporidiosis

  9. Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Fred S.

    Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

  10. Vibration Signal Transmission in Spider Orb Webs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Mitchell Masters; Hubert Markl

    1981-01-01

    Vibration transmission from the prey-catching region to the hub of the unloaded orb web of Nuctenea sclopetaria was measured by laser vibrometry. Compared to transverse or lateral vibrations, longitudinal vibration shows less attenuation and contains more directional information. It is transmitted well throughout the entire frequency range measured (1 to 10,000 hertz).

  11. Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

  12. Atmospheric transmission and noise measurements in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. dall'Oglio; P. de Bernardis; S. Masi; A. Moleti; B. Melchiorri; W PECORELLA; L PIZZO

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a set of measurements carried out in Antarctica during the second Italian Antarctic Expedition. Atmospheric precipitable water vapour, millimetric transmission and noise were monitored for 2 months during the austral summer. The results suggest that the site is favourable for far infrared astronomy measurements.

  13. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Koju, Vijay [Computation Science Program, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Rowe, Ebony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Robertson, William M., E-mail: William.Robertson@mtsu.edu [Computation Science Program, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  14. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Steinsiek; K.-H. Weber; W.-P. Foth; H. J. Foth; C. Schäfer

    2004-01-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to

  15. Fretting fatigue in electrical transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. R. Zhou; A. Cardou; M. Fiset; S. Goudreau

    1994-01-01

    One of the worst problems in overhead electrical transmission line fatigue is fretting, which can lead to wire failure or even conductor breakage at suspension clamps. However, fretting behavior is extremely complicated owing to its synthetic geometry and loading condition. The tests concern bending fatigue on the overhead electrical conductor DRAKE. The imposed amplitude ranges from 0.60 to 0.80 mm.

  16. Medical Data Transmission Using Cell Phone Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Voos; C Centeno; G Riva; C Zerbini; E Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    A big challenge in telemedicine systems is related to have the technical requirements needed for a successful implementation in remote locations where the available hardware and communication infrastructure is not adequate for a good medical data transmission. Despite of the wide standards availability, methodologies, applications and systems integration facilities in telemedicine, in many cases the implementation requirements are not achievable

  17. Modeling MultiSpecies Parasite Transmission

    E-print Network

    Pugliese, Andrea

    Modeling MultiSpecies Parasite Transmission Andrea Pugliese* Abstract S ome models are presented for the dynamics of a host population with two parasite species. The models differ in two main aspects: whether they include direct competition among parasites and whether the analysis is based on some approximation

  18. Transmission Electron Microscopy: Overview and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Borisevich, Albina Y [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Peng, Yiping [ORNL; Nellist, Peter D. [Nion Company, WA; Duscher, Gerd J M [ORNL; Buczko, R. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

    2003-01-01

    We review recent advances in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy that allow sub-Angstrom beams to be used for imaging and spectroscopy, with enormous improvement in sensitivity for single atom detection and the investigation of interfacial electronic structure. Comparison is made between the electronic and structural width of gate oxides, with interpretation through first-principles theory. Future developments are discussed.

  19. Transmission Expansion Planning Using an AC Model ...

    E-print Network

    Periodicals

    2013-01-02

    COUENNE and BARON are designed for solving both convex and non-convex .... sidering how many lines should be built in a given transmission corridor ...... [15] R. A. Waltz and T. D. Plantenga, Knitro user's manual, version 7.0, Sept. 2010 ...

  20. Water Transmission Pipelines- An Updated Design Guide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Mielke

    This paper will discuss the current design practices for the primary water transmission products in the US: steel pipe, concrete pressure pipe and ductile iron pipe. It details a more efficient approach to the design of pipe materials and the preparation of equal alternate specifications. Today's steel, concrete and ductile iron pipe industries utilize the Pressure Class Design approach. The

  1. The Lineage Transmission of Interpersonal Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filsinger, Erik E.; Lamke, Leanne K.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that interpersonal competence in intimate and general social relationships is transmitted down generational lines. Studied a sample of college students (N=105) and their parents for evidence of lineage effects. The strongest evidence of lineage transmission of characteristics was for interpersonal competence in general social situations.…

  2. Stabilizing Fiber-Optic Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.; Lau, K. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Voltage-controlled optical phase shifter is key. Optical phase shifter stabilizes propagation delay of fiber-optic transmission line by compensating for temperature and pressure effects. Applicable to phased array antenna systems and very-long-baseline interferometer distribution systems.

  3. Structural Modules Would Contain Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavy, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal, originally suggested for Spacecraft, is a set of uniformly sized mass-producible modular structural elements that contain electric, fluid, and other transmission lines. Since lines are encapsulated, they are less likely to be damaged. Module shell could be solid metal, sheet metal, honeycomb, fiberglass, plastic, composites, or wood.

  4. Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities

    E-print Network

    : (509)-335-3818 Email: mani@eecs.wsu.edu Power Systems Engineering Research Center This is a project, is limited by constraints on thermal limits, voltage bounds, and security considerations. As the power system on voltage security and dynamic security. As an example, we focus on maximizing the transmission capacity

  5. Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit

    E-print Network

    Widemann, Thomas

    Earth and Venus transmission spectra during transit 3rd Europlanet workshop ­ 4th PHC/Sakura meeting: Venus as a transiting exoplanet March 5 ­ 7 2012, Paris, France A. García Muñoz (Formerly at) Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Spain Frank P. Mills (Venus work) The Australian National

  6. INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND STEGANOGRAPHY Ingemar J. Cox

    E-print Network

    Cox, Ingemar J.

    INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND STEGANOGRAPHY Ingemar J. Cox , Ton Kalker , Georg Pakura and Mathias Scheel ABSTRACT Recently there has been strong interest in developing models of steganography based. INTRODUCTION The history of steganography can be traced back thousands of years, examples of which

  7. Enhanced acoustic transmission through a slanted grating

    E-print Network

    Norris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    It is known that an acoustic wave incident on an infinite array of aligned rectangular blocks of a different acoustic material exhibits total transmission if certain conditions are met [1] which relate the unique "intromission" angle of incidence with geometric and material properties of the slab. This extraordinary acoustic transmission phenomenon holds for any slab thickness, making it analogous to a Brewster effect in optics, and is independent of frequency as long as the slab microstructure is sub-wavelength in the length-wise direction. Here we show that the enhanced transmission effect is obtained in a slab with grating elements oriented obliquely to the slab normal. The dependence of the intromission angle $\\theta_i$ is given explicitly in terms of the orientation angle. Total transmission is achieved at incidence angles $\\pm \\theta_i$, with a relative phase shift between the transmitted amplitudes of the $+\\theta_i$ and $- \\theta_i$ cases. These effects are shown to follow from explicit formulas for t...

  8. A Correlation Method for Transmission Line Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vitins

    1978-01-01

    A method of transmission line protection based on a distributed parameter model of the line is outlined. It is shown that the fault distance appears as a time delay between two quantities associated with the travelling waves at the measurement site. The time delay can be extracted from the fundamental voltage and current waveforms in the presence of superimposed line

  9. Transmission line analysis of printed monopole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lebbar; M. Himdi; J. P. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a simple method for calculating the input impedance of a printed monopole situated above a reflecting plane. The method is characterized by the combination of the transmission line applied to printed dipole antennas and the Babinet principle. Input impedance and resonance frequencies are calculated with a good accuracy for typical substrates.

  10. ADAPTIVE MULTIMEDIA TRANSMISSION OVER THE INTERNET

    E-print Network

    Bouras, Christos

    Chapter 20 ADAPTIVE MULTIMEDIA TRANSMISSION OVER THE INTERNET CHRISTOS BOURAS and APOSTOLOS GKAMAS that are available to multimedia applications can be modified very quickly. Multimedia applications must have to multimedia applications, we can use techniques both at the network and application layers. Adaptive

  11. Volume Holographic Imaging in Transmission Geometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Sinha; Wenyang Sun; Tina Shih; George Barbastathis

    2004-01-01

    We address the performance of transmission geometry volume holograms as depth-selective imaging elements. We consider two simple implementations using holograms recorded with spherical and plane beams. We derive the point-spread function (PSF) of these systems using volume diffraction theory and use the PSF to estimate depth resolution. Furthermore, we show that appropriately designed objective optics can significantly improve the depth

  12. Hydraulic system design for full hybrid transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Bing; Cai Yixi; Zhang Tong

    2011-01-01

    The design method of hydraulic system of power split full hybrid transmission is studied. Oil volume flow and pressure requirement is confirmed according to the vehicle control strategy. Mechanical gear pump and electric pump are used to supply oil flow for all driving modes. Self-adapted pressure regulation circuit is designed to supply high pressure oil for brake engagement. Dynamic model

  13. A transmission line and radiating system measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Biggerstaff

    1957-01-01

    One of the major problems in mobile system maintenance is adequate evaluation of the transmission line and antenna performance. This paper describes a practical method of technique for making line loss and antenna match measurements to assure proper installatiom and continued satisfactory performance. Certain innovations have been incorporated in the process which are calculated to provide the maximum information with

  14. Sound Transmission Signal degradation in frequency

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    Sound Transmission · Signal degradation in frequency and time domains ­ Attenuation, absorption in winter · SOFAR channel at 1.2 km depth in ocean Ocean Summer Winter #12;Forest Open ocean Pasture Coastal ocean Background noise can mask sounds and change spectral pattern #12;Distortion in the time

  15. Electro-optical transmission line current monitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdravko Balorda; Peter Suhel

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a current level monitor for overhead transmission lines is presented. The current monitor is designed to be robust, low cost and light weight. It is based on an electrooptical transmitter using an LED diode. The line-current is picked up by an iron core transformer clamped over the line. The LED diode is connected to the secondary winding.

  16. Transmissive Photosensors (Photo Interrupters) Mark for indicating

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    ) Parameter Symbol Ratings Unit Input (Light Reverse voltage (DC) VR 3 V emitting diode) Forward current (DC1 Transmissive Photosensors (Photo Interrupters) 2 3 1 4 2 3 1 4 SEC. A-A' Mark for indicating LED (typ.) Small output current variation against change in temperature Absolute Maximum Ratings (Ta = 25°C

  17. Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Pinkerton; Paul R. Abramson

    1997-01-01

    The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and

  18. DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-print Network

    Islam, M. Saif

    , this assumption needs to be reexamined for sensor networks. Channel acquisition requires, at least, each activatedDISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Qing Zhao and Lang Tong School Strategy We consider the problem of information retrieval in sensor networks with mobile access points

  19. Microwave transmission and absorption measurements on supermalloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cochran; B. Heinrich; G. Dewar

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the ferromagnetic resonance and anti-resonance microwave properties, at 24 GHz, of supermalloy at room temperature. The role of the exchange interaction and surface pinning was investigated by analyzing the asymmetry of the ferromagnetic resonance absorption line using intrinsic magnetic damping parameters obtianed from transmission experiments. For the perpendicular configuration the FMR lineshapes are described very well by

  20. Ultradense WDM transmission in L-band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Srivastava; S. Radic; C. Wolf; J. C. Centanni; J. W. Sulhoff; K. Kantor; Y. Sun

    2000-01-01

    We report error-free transmission of 100 wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) 10 Gb\\/s channels with 25 GHz spacing over 400 km of nonzero dispersion shifted fiber. High spectral efficiency of 0.4b\\/s\\/Hz was achieved combining distributed Raman and erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

  1. 40Gb/s Optical Transmission System

    E-print Network

    Kansas, University of

    by the fiber, WDM channel count has been increased from 4 to 160 in a single fiber and the data rate per with various optical fiber types. This experimental capability on 40Gb/s optical transmission systems channel has also been increased from 622 Mb/s to 10 Gb/s in many commercial optical systems. In order

  2. Very high intensity fiber transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Setchell, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    Various applications are currently motivating interest in the transmission of very high laser intensities through optical fibers. As intensities within a fiber are increased, however, laser breakdown or laser-induced fiber damage will eventually occur and interrupt fiber transmission. For a number of years we have been studying these effects during the transmission of Q-switched, Nd/YAG laser pulses through step-index, multimode, fused-silica fiber. We have found that fiber transmission is often limited by a plasma-forming breakdown occurring at the fiber entrance face. This breakdown results in subtle surface modifications that can leave the surface more resistant to further breakdown or damage events. Catastrophic fiber damage can also occur as a result of a number of different mechanisms, with damage appearing at fiber end faces, within the initial ``entry`` segment of the fiber path, and at other internal sites due to effects related to the particular fiber routing. An overview of these past observations is presented, and issues requiring further study are identified.

  3. Image potential in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rivacoba; N. Zabala; J. Aizpurua

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the classical dielectric theory, the role of the image potential in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of fast electrons commonly used in scanning transmission electron microscopy travelling near a surface is studied. Relativistic and dispersive corrections are evaluated to establish the range of validity of this theory. The spatial resolution of the EELS technique is discussed

  4. Data transmission optical link for RF-GUN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowski, Krzysztof; Zielinski, Jerzy; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2005-09-01

    Today, the fast optical data transmission is one of the fundamentals of modern distributed control systems. The fibers are widely use as multi-gigabit data stream medium. For a short range transmission, the multimode fibers are in common use. The data rate for this kind of transmission exceeds 10 Gbps for 10 Gigabit Ethernet and 10G Fibre Channel protocols. The Field Programmable Gate Arrays are one of the opportunities of managing the optical transmission. This article is concerning a synchronous optical transmission system via a multimode fiber. The transmission is controlled by the FPGA of two manufacturers: Xilinx and Altera. This paper contains the newest technology overview and market device parameters. It also describes a board for the optical transmission, technical details of the transmission and optical transmission results.

  5. Unraveling the Transmission Ecology of Polio

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio’s historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio’s seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing “disease of development” hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio’s historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance. PMID:26090784

  6. Climate and Dengue Transmission: Evidence and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Comrie, Andrew C.; Ernst, Kacey

    2013-01-01

    Background: Climate influences dengue ecology by affecting vector dynamics, agent development, and mosquito/human interactions. Although these relationships are known, the impact climate change will have on transmission is unclear. Climate-driven statistical and process-based models are being used to refine our knowledge of these relationships and predict the effects of projected climate change on dengue fever occurrence, but results have been inconsistent. Objective: We sought to identify major climatic influences on dengue virus ecology and to evaluate the ability of climate-based dengue models to describe associations between climate and dengue, simulate outbreaks, and project the impacts of climate change. Methods: We reviewed the evidence for direct and indirect relationships between climate and dengue generated from laboratory studies, field studies, and statistical analyses of associations between vectors, dengue fever incidence, and climate conditions. We assessed the potential contribution of climate-driven, process-based dengue models and provide suggestions to improve their performance. Results and Discussion: Relationships between climate variables and factors that influence dengue transmission are complex. A climate variable may increase dengue transmission potential through one aspect of the system while simultaneously decreasing transmission potential through another. This complexity may at least partly explain inconsistencies in statistical associations between dengue and climate. Process-based models can account for the complex dynamics but often omit important aspects of dengue ecology, notably virus development and host–species interactions. Conclusion: Synthesizing and applying current knowledge of climatic effects on all aspects of dengue virus ecology will help direct future research and enable better projections of climate change effects on dengue incidence. Citation: Morin CW, Comrie AC, Ernst KC. 2013. Climate and dengue transmission: evidence and implications. Environ Health Perspect 121:1264–1272;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306556 PMID:24058050

  7. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  8. 75 FR 37883 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ...similar to, with the sponsor of the most similar project having the right...foregoing rules even if one or more substantially similar projects...transmission project developer must enjoy that same eligibility. More specifically, each public...

  9. La Transmission de l'information dans une ecole (Information Transmission in a School Situation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versel, Simone

    1973-01-01

    Selected portions of a longer paper entitled "Incidence relationnelle et institutionelle de la transmission de l'information dans une ecole," presented at the Institut Superieur de Pedagogie, 1973. (HW)

  10. 76 FR 53450 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...2011, beginning at 1 p.m. (EDT) and will focus on compliance issues related to Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and Independent System Operators (ISOs). The first informational conference is scheduled to end by 4 p.m. (EDT)....

  11. The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

    2009-02-02

    The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

  12. Effect of the One-Child Policy on Influenza Transmission in China: A Stochastic Transmission Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengchen; Enanoria, Wayne T. A.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Coffee, Megan P.; Gordon, Aubree; Aragón, Tomás J.; Yu, Guowei; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Porco, Travis C.

    2014-01-01

    Background China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? Methods and Findings To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21%) in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, ?0.15% (SD 1.85%), between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. Conclusions This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a decrease in household size and the proportion of children in the population. PMID:24516519

  13. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the EERC, in collaboration with Meridian Environmental Services, developed and demonstrated the efficacy of a wind energy forecasting system for use in scheduling energy output from wind farms for a regional electrical generation and transmission utility. With the increased interest at the time of project award in the production of hydrogen as a critical future energy source, many viewed hydrogen produced from wind-generated electricity as an attractive option. In addition, many of the hydrogen production-related concepts involve utilization of energy resources without the need for additional electrical transmission. For this reason, under Task 4, the EERC provided a summary of end uses for hydrogen in the region and focused on one end product in particular (fertilizer), including several process options and related economic analyses.

  14. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

  15. Radiochromic film dosimetry: Reflection vs transmission scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Kalef-Ezra, J.; Karava, K. [Medical Physics Laboratories of the Ioannina University School and the Ioannina University Hospital, 451.10 Ioannina (Greece)

    2008-06-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the transmission and the reflection scanning reading modes of radiochromic MD-55 films of a document scanner. The use of the red channel of the red-green-blue images results in measurement accuracy that did not differ between the two reading modes. On the other hand, the scanner uniformity and temporal stability, the long-term stability of the film readings and the dynamic range is superior using the reflection mode. The dynamic range of dose measurements can be extended up to least 500 Gy using the alternative color channels by both reading techniques. Similar backscattering dose factors close to high Z inhomogeneities were found using both scanning modes. In conclusion, the use of reflection scanning mode of MD55 films was superior to the traditionally used transmission mode.

  16. Acoustic Fresnel lenses with extraordinary transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molerón, Miguel; Serra-Garcia, Marc; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    We investigate numerically and experimentally highly efficient acoustic lenses based on the principle of extraordinary acoustic transmission. We study circular, flat lenses composed of perforated air channels. The geometry is similar to binary Fresnel lenses, and the lenses exploit several resonance mechanisms to enhance the transmission, such as Fabry-Perot resonances in the channels and cavity resonances on the lens surface. The proposed lenses are able to transmit up to 83% of the incident energy and generate sharp focusing with very high amplification (up to 16 dB experimentally). Furthermore, the resulting lenses are thinner than other designs providing similar performance, making them ideal candidates for application in acoustic imaging and medical diagnostics.

  17. Cote d'Ivoire satellite transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiling, J. I.; Rasmussen, K. E.

    The Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) initiated a rural telecommunications study to analyze its national telecommunications network and to make recommendations for future growth and expansion. The study analyzed voice and data communications capabilities and requirements together with distribution and radio programming through the Cote d'Ivoire. Transmission alternatives were then investigated, and the optimum system configuration was defined. Concurrent with the study, a pilot system was installed using SCPC and DAMA transmission techniques; the system consisted of 60 voice channels for use with the public network and 12 executive channels for use with PABX and FX lines. This paper presents the results of the study, the verification of the study recommendations with the pilot system, and the future plans for the expansion of the network through the Cote d'Ivoire.

  18. Noise transmission and attenuation by stiffened panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.; Chang, M. T.

    1980-06-01

    An analytical study of noise transmission into semi-cylindrical and rectangular acoustic enclosures due to turbulent boundary layer pressure and propeller noise (prop-fan) is presented. The structural noise transmission models include a single panel, discretely stiffened elastic panel and stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panel. Response characteristics of the stiffened panels are evaluated using a transfer matrix procedure. The interior noise field is determined by a Galerkin-like method. The effect on interior noise due to aerodynamic surface flow, cavity back-up pressure, pressurization, mass, stiffness, and damping addition to the structure is investigated. It is shown that stiffened viscoelastic sandwich panels, while providing the same stiffening benefits as an equivalent elastic panel, could significantly reduce vibration levels and subsequently give similar benefits for interior noise control.

  19. Expectation maximisation algorithms for terahertz transmission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recur, B.; Balacey, H.; Mounaix, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) tomography is a recently developed imaging technique allowing 3D inspection of opaque objects. In this paper, we develop an ordered subsets convex algorithm for THz transmission tomography (THz-OSC). Since the reconstruction quality is highly depending on the THz beam energy, we investigate afterwards a multienergy version of the algorithm in order to provide a more accurate reconstruction of the acquired sample. This multi-energy approach is validated by reconstructing data from tomographic acquisitions measured with a 84/287 GHz transmission scanner. Then we discuss how this dual-energy approach could be able to extract physical properties of acquired samples in addition to improving 3D reconstruction.

  20. Targeting Human Transmission Biology for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Buckee, Caroline; Marti, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, despite decades of public health efforts. The recent commitment by many endemic countries to eliminate malaria marks a shift away from programs aimed at controlling disease burden towards one that emphasizes reducing transmission of the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gametocytes, the only developmental stage of malaria parasites able to infect mosquitoes, have remained understudied, as they occur in low numbers, do not cause disease, and are difficult to detect in vivo by conventional methods. Here, we review the transmission biology of P. falciparum gametocytes, featuring important recent discoveries of genes affecting parasite commitment to gametocyte formation, microvesicles enabling parasites to communicate with each other, and the anatomical site where immature gametocytes develop. We propose potential parasite targets for future intervention and highlight remaining knowledge gaps. PMID:26086192

  1. Acoustic cloaking by extraordinary sound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Chen, Zhi Ning; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Isotropic acoustic cloaking is proposed using density-near-zero materials for extraordinary sound transmission. The cloaking cell is made by single-piece homogeneous elastic copper, which can be detached and assembled arbitrarily. We theoretically and numerically demonstrate the cloaking performance by deploying density-near-zero cells in various ways in two-dimensional space as well as in acoustic waveguides. The density-near-zero material can make any inside objects imperceptible along undistorted sound paths. Individually and collectively, the cloaking cell maintains both the planar wavefront and the nearly perfect one-dimensional transmission, in presence of any inserted object. The overall cloaked space can be designed by adding cells without the limit of the total cloaked volume.

  2. Verification of measured transmission system phase angles

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E. [Western Area Power Administration, Montrose, CO (United States)] [Western Area Power Administration, Montrose, CO (United States); Sterlina, P.S. [Macrodyne, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)] [Macrodyne, Inc., Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurement of power system phase angle is being studied for use in protective relaying, critical control circuits, and other applications. This paper compares phase angles measured by a synchronized measuring unit during field testing with classical theory. Power system positive sequence voltage and current phasors were recorded during testing of a new 525 kV compensated transmission system. Steady-state phase angles ({delta}) and magnitudes were measured relative to a satellite-based global time standard on synchronized measurement units at two substations. Phase angles were calculated using recorded supervisory system and sending-end values of total power flow. Field measurements of the phase angle across a transmission system differed from calculations by {minus}0.09{degree} on the average, contributing to verification of the new synchronized measurement technique.

  3. Dispersion-free radial transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

  4. Plasmonic quasicrystals with broadband transmission enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kasture, Sachin; Ravishankar, Ajith P; Yallapragada, V J; Patil, Raj; Valappil, Nikesh V; Mulay, Gajendra; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic quasicrystals (PlQCs), by integrating the properties of quasicrystals (rotational symmetry and long range ordering but lack translational symmetry) and surface plasmon polariton mediated effects, offer several advantages over plasmonic crystals (PlCs). For example, in PlQCs one could have broadband, polarization independent response. However, large area patterning by electron beam lithography requires precise lattice coordinates as well as a practical way to design the structures for specific spectral response. We demonstrate design and fabrication of large area quasicrystal air hole patterns of ?/5 symmetry in metal film in which broadband, polarization and launch angle independent transmission enhancement is observed. We demonstrate bi-grating quasicrystals to show that designable transmission response is possible over visible to near infrared wavelength regions with about 15 times enhancement. These would be useful in many applications like energy harvesting, nonlinear optics and quantum plasmonics. PMID:24918659

  5. Plasmonic quasicrystals with broadband transmission enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasture, Sachin; Ravishankar, Ajith P.; Yallapragada, V. J.; Patil, Raj; Valappil, Nikesh V.; Mulay, Gajendra; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Plasmonic quasicrystals (PlQCs), by integrating the properties of quasicrystals (rotational symmetry and long range ordering but lack translational symmetry) and surface plasmon polariton mediated effects, offer several advantages over plasmonic crystals (PlCs). For example, in PlQCs one could have broadband, polarization independent response. However, large area patterning by electron beam lithography requires precise lattice coordinates as well as a practical way to design the structures for specific spectral response. We demonstrate design and fabrication of large area quasicrystal air hole patterns of ?/5 symmetry in metal film in which broadband, polarization and launch angle independent transmission enhancement is observed. We demonstrate bi-grating quasicrystals to show that designable transmission response is possible over visible to near infrared wavelength regions with about 15 times enhancement. These would be useful in many applications like energy harvesting, nonlinear optics and quantum plasmonics.

  6. Human to Mosquito Transmission of Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Lauren B.; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2014-01-01

    The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that vaccines and therapeutic antivirals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquito’s susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host. PMID:24987394

  7. Brake and speed responsive controlled transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Maezono, M.; Shimizu, T.; Ishikawa, K.

    1987-02-24

    A control apparatus is described for multi-speed, oil pressure operated vehicle transmission having an oil pressure operated clutch for each speed drive train, a lowest and a highest speed drive train, and a one-way clutch in the lowest speed drive train. The apparatus comprises means for detecting a brake actuated condition and a stopped condition of the vehicle including means responsive to the throttle opening and governor of the vehicle engine. It also includes means responsive to the detecting means for supplying oil pressure to the clutch for the highest speed drive train during the continuance of either the brake actuated or stopped vehicle condition for minimizing the torque transmitted through the transmission.

  8. Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Colleen A.; Bents, David J.

    The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

  9. Low-noise cryogenic transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, D.

    1987-01-01

    New low-noise cryogenic input transmission lines have been developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) at 1.668 GHz for cryogenically cooled Field Effect Transistors (FET) and High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifiers. These amplifiers exhibit very low noise temperatures of 5 K to 15 K, making the requirements for a low-noise input transmission line critical. Noise contribution to the total amplifier system from the low-noise line is less than 0.5 K for both the 1.668-GHz and 2.25-GHz FET systems. The 1.668-GHz input line was installed in six FET systems which were implemented in the DSN for the Venus Balloon Experiment. The 2.25-GHz input line has been implemented in three FET systems for the DSN 34-m HEF antennas, and the design is currently being considered for use at higher frequencies.

  10. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Guest Feature Editors

    Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors

    Submission deadline: 15 June 2007
    Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems.

    Scope of Submission

    The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics related to the interworking between core and edge networks. The core network topics suitable for inclusion in this feature issue are:
    • Optically transparent system design issues, transmission experiments, and field trials
    • Optically transparent network architectures and topologies
    • Dispersion management in reconfigurable and mesh systems
    • Optically transparent network device and sub-system performance, design, characterization and control, including: amplifiers, transmitters, receivers, switches, add/drop multiplexers
    • Transient and fault management
    • Physical layer system control
    • Monitoring and compensation to support transparency
    • Wavelength routing and planning as they relate to physical layer transmission>
    • Hardware cost and configuration optimization for optically transparent networks
    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select "TTCN" in the features indicator of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "TTCN." Additional information can be found on the JON website: . Submission Deadline: 15 June 2007

  11. Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1992-07-07

    A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring are presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp ([minus]ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is ([minus]1)[sup 1/2]. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed. 20 figs.

  12. Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, H. A.; Hansen, C. H.

    1985-07-01

    It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens as it drifted eastward interrupting both the ground- and first hop sky-wave paths and that this ash cloud is the source of the conductivity and/or ionization necessary to produce this interruption. Small phase retardations are also reported which could be correlated with other Mount St. Helens volcanic events during May-July 1980.

  13. Targeting Human Transmission Biology for Malaria Elimination.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sandra K; Childs, Lauren M; Buckee, Caroline; Marti, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Malaria remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, despite decades of public health efforts. The recent commitment by many endemic countries to eliminate malaria marks a shift away from programs aimed at controlling disease burden towards one that emphasizes reducing transmission of the most virulent human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Gametocytes, the only developmental stage of malaria parasites able to infect mosquitoes, have remained understudied, as they occur in low numbers, do not cause disease, and are difficult to detect in vivo by conventional methods. Here, we review the transmission biology of P. falciparum gametocytes, featuring important recent discoveries of genes affecting parasite commitment to gametocyte formation, microvesicles enabling parasites to communicate with each other, and the anatomical site where immature gametocytes develop. We propose potential parasite targets for future intervention and highlight remaining knowledge gaps. PMID:26086192

  14. Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring is presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp (-ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is (-1).sup.1/2. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed.

  15. Constraining exoplanet mass from transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Julien; Seager, Sara

    2013-12-20

    Determination of an exoplanet's mass is a key to understanding its basic properties, including its potential for supporting life. To date, mass constraints for exoplanets are predominantly based on radial velocity (RV) measurements, which are not suited for planets with low masses, large semimajor axes, or those orbiting faint or active stars. Here, we present a method to extract an exoplanet's mass solely from its transmission spectrum. We find good agreement between the mass retrieved for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b from transmission spectroscopy with that from RV measurements. Our method will be able to retrieve the masses of Earth-sized and super-Earth planets using data from future space telescopes that were initially designed for atmospheric characterization. PMID:24357312

  16. Hard Tick Factors Implicated in Pathogen Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang Ye; Bonnet, Sarah I.

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are the most common arthropod vector, after mosquitoes, and are capable of transmitting the greatest variety of pathogens. For both humans and animals, the worldwide emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne disease is becoming increasingly problematic. Despite being such an important issue, our knowledge of pathogen transmission by ticks is incomplete. Several recent studies, reviewed here, have reported that the expression of some tick factors can be modulated in response to pathogen infection, and that some of these factors can impact on the pathogenic life cycle. Delineating the specific tick factors required for tick-borne pathogen transmission should lead to new strategies in the disruption of pathogen life cycles to combat emerging tick-borne disease. PMID:24498444

  17. Secure sequential transmission of quantum information

    E-print Network

    Kabgyun Jeong; Jaewan Kim

    2015-01-19

    We propose a quantum communication protocol that can be used to transmit any quantum state, one party to another via several intermediate nodes, securely on quantum communication network. The scheme makes use of the sequentially chained and approximate version of private quantum channels satisfying certain commutation relation of $n$-qubit Pauli operations. In this paper, we study the sequential structure, security analysis, and efficiency of the quantum sequential transmission (QST) protocol in depth.

  18. The Neurobiology of Slow Synaptic Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Greengard

    2001-01-01

    Nerve cells communicate with each other through two mechanisms, referred to as fast and slow synaptic transmission. Fast-acting neurotransmitters, e.g., glutamate (excitatory) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (inhibitory), achieve effects on their target cells within one millisecond by virtue of opening ligand-operated ion channels. In contrast, all of the effects of the biogenic amine and peptide neurotransmitters, as well as many

  19. Millimeter wave generation on nonlinear transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina V. Ryjenkova; Vladimir K. Mezentsev; Sam L. Musher; Sergei K. Turitsyn; Ralf HüLsewede; Dieter JäGER

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, nonlinear transmission lines (nltls) have successfully been used to generate ultrashort electrical pulses\\u000a and transients from a sinusoidal input signal. In the frequency domain, this pulse compression results from the generation\\u000a of a large number of harmonics with suitable phase relationships. In this paper, special examples of nltls are studied which\\u000a are capable to produce millimeter wave

  20. Space efficient CMOS nonlinear transmission lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith G. Lyon; Fan Yu; Edwin C. Kan

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) are used in diverse applications such as edge-sharpening, pulse generation, and frequency conversion, however, length of a useful NLTL can require significant MMIC or RFIC real estate. We present an analytical model for the complex propagation constant of lossy, distributed NLTLs and fabricate several NLTLs in 0.25 mum CMOS for verification. Space-saving layout techniques such as

  1. Modeling Malaria Transmission in Thailand and Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Malaria Modeling and Surveillance is a project in the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Applications Program. The main objectives of this project are: 1) identification of the potential breeding sites for major vector species: 2) implementation of a malaria transmission model to identify they key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementation of a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. Remote sensing and GIs are the essential elements of this project. The NASA Earth science data sets used in this project include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP and SIESIP. Textural-contextual classifications are used to identify small larval habitats. Neural network methods are used to model malaria cases as a function of precipitation, temperatures, humidity and vegetation. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Examples for spatio-temporal modeling of malaria transmissions in Southeast Asia are given. Discrete event simulations were used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results are in good agreement with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired by Coleman et al. over 4.5 years in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in western Thailand. Application of our models is not restricted to Southeast Asia. The model and techniques are equally applicable to other regions of the world, when appropriate epidemiological and vector ecological parameters are used as input.

  2. Voltage Induction in Parallel Transmission Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Blackburn

    1962-01-01

    General formulas are developed with calculation examples for determining the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence voltage induced in transmission circuits paralleled either on the same tower or on adjacent towers. For nontransposed lines the induced voltages are a function of all three sequence currents. The positive-and negative-sequence mutual impedance is less than 10% of the self-impedance of the lines while the

  3. Vertical transmission of Salmonella paratyphi A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Raveendran; C. Wattal; A. Sharma; N. Kler; P. Garg; K. Gujral; N. Khera

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal enteric fever is a rare but life-threatening illness. Patients may present with varying severity, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi causing more severe illness than Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A is considered to cause milder infection with fewer complications. We report a rare case of vertical\\u000a transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A with severe complications

  4. Engine brake control in automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hayasaki, K.; Sugano, K.

    1988-09-13

    This patent describes an engine braking control for a transmission for an automotive vehicle having an engine, the transmission including an input member drivingly coupled to the engine and an output member subject to load from driving wheels of the automotive vehicle, the transmission also including a first rotary member, a second rotary member, a hydraulically operated clutch selectively establishing a drive connection between the first rotary member and the second rotary member, and a one-way clutch arranged in parallel to the hydraulically operated clutch such that when the hydraulically operated clutch is released, the one-way clutch transmits forward torque from the first rotary member to the second rotary member, but interrupts transmission of revers torque to the first rotary member from the second rotary member, the engine braking control comprising: means for providing an engine braking command fluid pressure signal when demanded by a vehicle operator; a valve means for normally discharging hydraulic fluid from the hydraulically operated clutch to deactivate the hydraulically operated clutch, the valve means being fluidly connected to the hydraulically operated clutch, the engine braking command fluid pressure signal providing means and a drain port. The valve means including a valve spool having a first position where the hydraulically operated clutch is allowed to communicate with the drain port to permit discharge of hydraulic fluid therefrom and thus the hydraulically operated clutch is caused to be deactivated and a second position where the hydraulically operated clutch is disconnected from the drain port and allowed to communicate with the engine braking command fluid pressure signal.

  5. Tablet Content Analysis Using Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Spencer; Everett H. Jefferson; Ajaz S. Hussain; David Newnham; Thomas Lo

    2007-01-01

    A group of pressed tablets with acetaminophen content between 60 mg and 120 mg were scanned in the terahertz spectral region\\u000a (2 cm?1–120 cm?1) in transmission mode. Tablet acetaminophen content was determined by a standard HPLC method. Despite the lack of discernible\\u000a spectral features and the tablets being opaque above 45 cm?1, a working partial least squares model could be constructed. The results show the

  6. Impact of transmission delay on ISDN videotelephony

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spiros Dimolitsas; Franklin L. Corcoran; John G. Phipps Jr

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the design and results of an experimental study are presented which was conducted in order to assess subjectively the impact of transmission delay on ISDN videotelephony. This study was undertaken using two 64-kbit\\/s videotelephones which were connected over links incorporating simulated one-way circuit propagation delays of 0 ms, 250 ms, and 500 ms. From the results obtained

  7. Computerized design of overhead transmission power lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Avidar

    1993-01-01

    The conventional design of overhead transmission power lines by manual survey, mapping and design techniques, involve costly and time consuming activities. Massive documentation is accumulated during the preliminary studies of terrain, alternative routes selection, power-line hardware configuration, cost-effectiveness-performance optimization, and more. Additional time consuming and costly paper works are invested, in the detailed design of the selected configuration and the

  8. Transmission-line stabilized monolithic oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kian Sen Ang; Michael J. Underhill; Ian D. Robertson

    2001-01-01

    A novel technique for frequency stabilization and phase-noise reduction of monolithic oscillators is presented in this paper. It employs simple transmission-line resonators, which are many wavelengths long to increase the oscillator quality factor. Monolithic oscillators at 20 and 40 GHz are realized for the application of this technique. Phase noise reduction of more than 20 dB was achieved for both

  9. Tuners For Coplanar-Strip Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, William R.; Lubecke, Victor M.; Rutledge, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Sliding radio-frequency short circuits easily adjusted for optimum impedance. Tuning elements developed for use in planar integrated circuits operating at frequencies from about 10 to more than 1,000 GHz. Purpose of such adjustment to adjust impedance presented to circuit connected to nonshorted end of transmission line and thereby optimizes performance of circuit. Mixers, oscillators, amplifiers, couplers, and phase shifters among circuits improved by incorporating tuners of this type.

  10. On Entropy Transmission for Quantum Channels

    E-print Network

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev; Farrukh Mukhamedov

    2007-05-31

    In this paper a notion of entropy transmission of quantum channels is introduced as a natural extension of Ohya's entropy. Here by quantum channel is meant unital completely positive mappings (ucp) of $B(H)$ into itself, where $H$ is an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Using a representation theorem of ucp mapping we associate to every ucp map a uniquely determined state, and prove that entropy of ucp map is less then Ohya's entropy of the associated state.

  11. Antidazzling driver's goggles with controllable transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Victor V.; Kovtonyuk, Nikolai F.; Kuznetsov, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main reasons for road accidents is that the upper beam of head lamps of the opposing vehicles dazzles a driver. In this paper an anti-dazzling device, preventing the upper beam of head lamps of opposing vehicles to dazzle a driver, is described. The device consists of 2 electro-optical liquid crystalline shutters, the goggles casing and the electronic control circuit allows variance of the light transmission of the shutters as the illuminance of the photodetector varies.

  12. Selected VHF channel simulator transmission phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Krause

    1975-01-01

    A Tactical Channel Simulator system using a tapped delay line technique was used to record, on magnetic tape, the perturbations that the VHF media imposes on R.F. transmission. The outputs from the simulator's delay line taps were plotted on strip charts to show dispersions recorded by its prober-analyzer sub-system during on-the-air VHF channel tests. Characteristic traces of multipath caused by

  13. Hepatitis C Transmission after Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferhi, Karim; Rouprêt, Morgan; Mozer, Pierre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Haertig, Alain; de La Taille, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Prostate biopsy is a current and well-codified procedure; antibiotic prophylaxis and rectal enema limit the risk of infection. To date, there has been no reported viral transmission between patients due to a contaminated ultrasound probe. In this study, we report the case of a patient who contracted the hepatitis C virus after transrectal prostate biopsy as part of an individual screening for prostate cancer. PMID:23533934

  14. Parameters for Three-Phase Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George L. Kusic; Gregory Reed

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, ideal parameters for 3-phase transmission lines are derived by present-day methods. Errors between the ideal and 'true' parameters are identifiable by normalized differences between measured power flow on the lines and state estimated values. A real-time 'snapshot' of power flow data from a utility is used to demonstrate error detection, correction, and benefits of the corrected parameters

  15. Light transmission through a triangular air gap

    E-print Network

    Silvania A. Carvalho; Stefano De Leo

    2013-05-31

    Due to the recent interest in studying propagation of light through triangular air gaps, we calculate, by using the analogy between optics and quantum mechanics and the multiple step technique, the transmissivity through a triangular air gap surrounded by an homogeneous dielectric medium. The new formula is then compared with the formula used in literature. Starting from the qualitative and quantitative differences between these formulas, we propose optical experiments to test our theoretical results.

  16. ELEC3028 Digital Transmission MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng

    ELEC3028 Digital Transmission ­ MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System · Purpose: communicate: rate, quality spectral bandwidth requirement · Major components: CODEC, MODEM and channel modulation input output CODEC MODEM Medium 1 #12;ELEC3028 Digital Transmission ­ MODEM S Chen Digital

  17. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...regulations thereunder has issued one or more permits for the construction or modification of transmission facilities in a national interest electric transmission corridor designated by the Secretary, such facilities shall be deemed to either ensure...

  18. Synthesis of H?-profiles from filter transmission functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    A method of obtaining spectral information from filtergrams is described. The transmission features of the Halle-type Lyot-filter are investigated and the process of analytical representation of H?-profiles from transmission functions is studied.

  19. Treat Jail Detainees' Drug Abuse to Lower HIV Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To Lower HIV Transmission Study: Treat Jail Detainees’ Drug Abuse To Lower HIV Transmission Email Facebook Twitter ... Narrative of Discovery NIDA @ Work Prevention Treatment Tags Drug Topics Addiction Science Brain College Age and Young ...

  20. Mode conversation losses in overmolded millimeter wave transmission lines

    E-print Network

    Tax, David S. (David Samuel)

    2008-01-01

    Millimeter wave transmission lines are integral components for many important applications like nuclear fusion and NMR spectroscopy. In low loss corrugated transmission lines propagating the HE,1 mode with a high waveguide ...

  1. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section 1726.77...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation... Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract forms. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section 1726.77...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation... Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract forms. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section 1726.77...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation... Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract forms. The...

  4. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section 1726.77...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation... Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract forms. The...

  5. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Substation and transmission line construction. 1726.77 Section 1726.77...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Substation... Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract forms. The...

  6. SURVIVAL AND TRANSMISSION OF PATHOGENS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To provide and apply scientific knowledge regarding the survival and transmission of pathogens in the clinical setting to their potential survival and transmission in the natural environment. Similar to the hospital environment where pathogens reside in organic debris treated wi...

  7. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual

    E-print Network

    Brown, Jay A.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

  8. Residual-based Stiffness Estimation in Robots with Flexible Transmissions

    E-print Network

    De Luca, Alessandro

    joints with flexible transmissions. Based on the definition of dynamic residual signals, we derive/stiffness decoupling control law proposed in [4] for antagonistic VSA-based manipulators involves the transmission

  9. Nonlinearity management in fiber transmission systems with hybrid amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ania-Castañón, J. D.; Nasieva, I. O.; Kurukitkoson, N.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Borsier, C.; Pincemin, E.

    2004-04-01

    Nonlinearity management in transmission lines with periodic dispersion compensation and hybrid Raman-Erbium doped fiber amplification is studied both analytically and numerically. Different transmission/compensating fiber pairs are considered, with particular focus on the SMF/DCF case.

  10. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...transmission line, other than offshore segments, between main line...electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines...shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an emergency. [35 FR...

  11. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...transmission line, other than offshore segments, between main line...electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines...shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an emergency. [35 FR...

  12. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...transmission line, other than offshore segments, between main line...electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines...shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an emergency. [35 FR...

  13. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...transmission line, other than offshore segments, between main line...electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines...shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an emergency. [35 FR...

  14. 49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...transmission line, other than offshore segments, between main line...electrical conductors. (d) Offshore segments of transmission lines...shut off the flow of gas to an offshore platform in an emergency. [35 FR...

  15. Optimal packing for cascaded regenerative transmission based on

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Optimal packing for cascaded regenerative transmission based on phase sensitive amplifiers Mariia performance of advanced modulation formats in nonlinear regenerative channels based on cascaded phase nonlinear regenerative channels for ultra-high capacity transmission. © 2013 Optical Society of America OCIS

  16. Understanding the pneumococcus: transmission and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Donkor, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal bacterial flora of the narsopharynx, but is also associated with several invasive and non-invasive diseases. Recently, there has been a plethora of research information on the pneumococcus, however, there are few comprehensive review papers discussing the research information. This paper provides a review of the pneumococcus in two vital areas related to its biology including transmission and evolution. Transmission of the pneumococcus is a highly efficient process that usually occurs through respiratory droplets from asymptomatic carriers. Following acquisition, the pneumococcus may only establish in the nasopharynx of the new host, or further progress to sites such as the lungs and cause disease. Pneumococcus transmission risk factors, as well as factors involved in its translocation from the nasophyarnx to diseases sites are still not fully understood. Pneumococcal evolution is dominated by recombination. The recombinational events usually involve genetic exchange with streptococci of the mitis group and some pneumococci are thought to exhibit hyper-recombination. PMID:23471303

  17. Host heterogeneity dominates West Nile virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Daszak, Peter; Jones, Matthew J; Marra, Peter P; Kramer, Laura D

    2006-09-22

    Heterogeneity in host populations and communities can have large effects on the transmission and control of a pathogen. In extreme cases, a few individuals give rise to the majority of secondary infections, which have been termed super spreading events. Here, we show that transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is dominated by extreme heterogeneity in the host community, resulting in highly inflated reproductive ratios. A single relatively uncommon avian species, American robin (Turdus migratorius), appeared to be responsible for the majority of WNV-infectious mosquitoes and acted as the species equivalent of a super spreader for this multi-host pathogen. Crows were also highly preferred by mosquitoes at some sites, while house sparrows were significantly avoided. Nonetheless, due to their relative rarity, corvids (crows and jays) were relatively unimportant in WNV amplification. These results challenge current beliefs about the role of certain avian species in WNV amplification and demonstrate the importance of determining contact rates between vectors and host species to understand pathogen transmission dynamics. PMID:16928635

  18. Possible SARS Coronavirus Transmission during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; McDonald, L. Clifford; Martinez, Kenneth F.; Ofner, Mariana; Wong, Tom; Wallington, Tamara; Gold, Wayne L.; Mederski, Barbara; Green, Karen; Low, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control. PMID:15030699

  19. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    PubMed

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum. PMID:19516335

  20. Features of Transmission EBSD and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Seiichi

    2013-09-01

    Features of transmission electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) observation with a standard EBSD ( s-EBSD) detector are surveyed in this study. Heavily deformed Al and 8Cr tempered martensite transmission electron microscope (TEM) specimens were used for this study. It is shown that a specimen tilt angle of ~30°-40° in the opposite direction of the usual 70° and a smaller working distance in the range 4 mm-5 mm are recommended when using a s-EBSD detector. Specimen thickness and accelerating voltage (Acc.V) have a strong affect on the quality of transmission EBSD patterns and orientation maps. Higher Acc.Vs are generally recommended to get good quality orientation maps. In case of very thin specimens, lowering the Acc.Vs will give better results. In the observation of a thin film of an 8Cr tempered martensite steel specimen, it is confirmed that t-EBSD can provide images and detailed quantitative orientation data comparable with that obtained by TEM. It is also shown that small precipitates of Cr23C6 with sizes around 30 nm could be detected and their orientations measured.

  1. Prevention of neonatal hepatitis B virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Lauren M; Swenson, Eugene S

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vertical transmission remains a worldwide issue but is fairly uncommon in the western world due to routine screening and vaccination. Universal screening of pregnant women during the second trimester facilitates interruption of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) by identifying HBV-infected mothers for whom intervention may reduce MTCT risk. HBV DNA level is the single most important predictor of MTCT. Other risk factors include HBeAg, HBe Ab, anti-HB core IgG, and HIV status. Current recommendations for infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers include administration of HBIG within 12 hours of birth and first dose of HBV vaccine within 24 hours of birth. Antiviral therapy is recommended in the third trimester of pregnancy in a subset of patients based on HBeAg and HBV DNA status for prophylaxis of MTCT, although discontinuation of antivirals after delivery is associated with significant increased risk of flares. This article outlines the data for prevention of vertical transmission of HBV. PMID:24667588

  2. Paternal transmission and anticipation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Husted, J; Scutt, L E; Bassett, A S

    1998-03-28

    Recent studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset (AAO) or increased disease severity in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. In other disorders, where the molecular mechanism (repeat expansion) is known, anticipation varies in degree depending on the sex of the transmitting parent. We investigated parental sex effects on anticipation in schizophrenia, using a familial sample of affected two-generation pairs in which anticipation had previously been demonstrated using the median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO. A Wilcoxon rank sum test for independent samples was used to determine whether MID in AAO was significantly different for paternal and maternal transmission. Results suggested that in a sample of 127 parent-offspring pairs, anticipation was greater with paternal than with maternal transmission (MID = 18 and 14 years, respectively, P = 0.05). Paternal effects were strongest in 39 parent-offspring pairs with early-onset offspring (< or = 21 years) (MID = 22 and 17 years, respectively, for paternal and maternal transmission, P = 0.01). However, assessment of the effect of possible selection biases suggests that preferential ascertainment of late-onset fathers may have exerted important effects. While the results support possible paternal effects, further studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about true parent-of-origin effects on anticipation in familial schizophrenia. PMID:9613855

  3. Essays in financial transmission rights pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, Barry

    This work examines issues in the pricing of financial transmission rights in the PJM market region. The US federal government is advocating the creation of large-scale, not-for-profit regional transmission organizations to increase the efficiency of the transmission of electricity. As a non-profit entity, PJM needs to allocate excess revenues collected as congestion rents, and the participants in the transmission markets need to be able to hedge their exposure to congestion rents. For these purposes, PJM has developed an instrument known as the financial transmission right (FTR). This research, utilizing a new data set assembled by the author, looks at two aspects of the FTR market. The first chapter examines the problem of forecasting congestion in a transmission grid. In the PJM FTR system firms bid in a competitive auction for FTRs that cover a period of one month. The auctions take place in the middle of the previous month; therefore firms have to forecast congestion rents for the period two to six weeks after the auction. The common methods of forecasting congestion are either time-series models or full-information engineering studies. In this research, the author develops a forecasting system that is more economically grounded than a simple time-series model, but requires less information than an engineering model. This method is based upon the arbitrage-cost methodology, whereby congesting is calculated as the difference of two non-observable variables: the transmission price difference that would exist in the total absence of transmission capacity between two nodes, and the ability of the existing transmission to reduced that price difference. If the ability to reduce the price difference is greater than the price difference, then the cost of electricity at each node will be the same, and congestion rent will be zero. If transmission capacity limits are binding on the flow of power, then a price difference persists and congestion rents exist. Three transmission paths in the Delmarva Peninsula were examined. The maximum-likelihood two-way Tobit model developed in Chapter One consistently predicts the expected responses to the independent variables that have employed, but the model as defined here does a poor job of predicting prices. This is likely due to the inability to include system outages (i.e., short-term changes in the structure of the transmission grid) as variables in the estimation model. The second chapter addresses the behavior of firms in the monthly auctions for FTRs. FTRs are a claim to congestion rent revenues along a certain path within the PJM grid, and are awarded in a uniform-price divisible-goods auction. Firms typically submit a schedule of bids for different amounts of FTR at different prices, akin to a demand curve. A firm bidding too high a price may cause the clearing price of the FTR to be higher than the realized value of the FTR, creating a loss from ownership of the FTR. A firm bidding too low means that it wins no FTRs, depriving itself of the ability to profit from ownership or to hedge against congestion. Several questions concerning firm behavior are addressed in this study. It is found that firms adjust their bids in response to new information that is obtained from past auctions: they raise or lower bids in accordance with changes in recent FTR prices and payoffs. Firms consistently bid below the value of the FTR (i.e., shade their bids). This adds empirical evidence to the theoretically-posited notion that uniform-price auctions are not truth-telling, unlike the second-price auction for a non-divisible good. Firms employ greater bid-shading in response to increases in the volatility of both FTR clearing prices and realized FTR values. This validates the notion that firms are risk-averse. It is discovered that better-informed "insider" firms employ structurally different bidding strategies, but these differences do not lead to greater profits. However, profits do increase as firms gain more experience in these markets, lending credence to the notion that firms learn o

  4. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  5. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  6. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W S

    2015-07-15

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are an increasingly popular model for neurologic and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans. Transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for a preclinical study of HD. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0) and in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination technique. A total of five offspring were produced from 15 females that were inseminated by intrauterine insemination using semen collected from the three HD founders (5 of 15, 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from the HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD monkeys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2 of 2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys and induced pluripotent stem cells established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here, we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical research studies. PMID:25917881

  7. Transmission of ocular media in labrid fishes.

    PubMed

    Siebeck, U E; Marshall, N J

    2000-09-29

    Wrasses (Labridae) are the second largest family of fishes on the Great Barrier Reef (after the Gobiidae) and, in terms of morphology and lifestyle, one of the most diverse. They occupy all zones of the reef from the very shallow reef flats to deep slopes, feeding on a variety of fauna. Many wrasses also have elaborately patterned bodies and reflect a range of colours from ultraviolet (UV) to far red. As a first step to investigating the visual system of these fishes we measured the transmission properties of the ocular media of 36 species from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and Hawaii, California and the Florida Keys, USA. Transmission measurements were made of whole eyes with a window cut into the back, and also of isolated lenses and corneas. Based on the transmission properties of the corneas the species could be split into two distinct groups within which the exact wavelength of the cut-off was variable. One group had visibly yellow corneas, while the corneas of the other group appeared clear to human observers. Five species had ocular media that transmitted wavelengths below 400 nm, making a perception of UV wavelengths for those species possible. Possible functional roles for the different filter types are discussed. PMID:11079410

  8. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  9. 256-QAM subcarrier transmission for broadband distribution networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyulu OHTSUKA; Osamu KAGAMI; Satoru AIKAWA; Hitoshi TAKANASHI

    1991-01-01

    Broadband distribution networks are presented combining digital microwave radio with optics using subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) transmission. In the first implementation of a high-capacity transmission, the authors present the prospect of fiber-optic transmission of microwave 256 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals at 10-Mb\\/s and 50-Mb\\/s transmission rates. Bit error rate (BER) performance results are shown as a function of received optical

  10. The effects of stress on glutamatergic transmission in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ti-Fei; Hou, Gonglin

    2015-06-01

    Stress leads to detrimental effects on brain functions and results in various diseases. Recent studies highlight the involvement of glutamatergic transmission in pathogenesis of depressive behaviors and fears. Acute stress generates different impacts on the excitatory transmission compared to chronic stress. Different neuromodulators and epigenetic factors also participate in the alteration of synaptic transmission and the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Restoration of the glutamatergic transmission in stress-affected brain areas therefore provides novel directions of therapeutic interventions against stress. PMID:24939697

  11. Interrupting Malaria Transmission: Quantifying the Impact of Interventions in Regions of Low to Moderate Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gatton, Michelle L.; Cheng, Qin

    2010-01-01

    Malaria has been eliminated from over 40 countries with an additional 39 currently planning for, or committed to, elimination. Information on the likely impact of available interventions, and the required time, is urgently needed to help plan resource allocation. Mathematical modelling has been used to investigate the impact of various interventions; the strength of the conclusions is boosted when several models with differing formulation produce similar data. Here we predict by using an individual-based stochastic simulation model of seasonal Plasmodium falciparum transmission that transmission can be interrupted and parasite reintroductions controlled in villages of 1,000 individuals where the entomological inoculation rate is <7 infectious bites per person per year using chemotherapy and bed net strategies. Above this transmission intensity bed nets and symptomatic treatment alone were not sufficient to interrupt transmission and control the importation of malaria for at least 150 days. Our model results suggest that 1) stochastic events impact the likelihood of successfully interrupting transmission with large variability in the times required, 2) the relative reduction in morbidity caused by the interventions were age-group specific, changing over time, and 3) the post-intervention changes in morbidity were larger than the corresponding impact on transmission. These results generally agree with the conclusions from previously published models. However the model also predicted changes in parasite population structure as a result of improved treatment of symptomatic individuals; the survival probability of introduced parasites reduced leading to an increase in the prevalence of sub-patent infections in semi-immune individuals. This novel finding requires further investigation in the field because, if confirmed, such a change would have a negative impact on attempts to eliminate the disease from areas of moderate transmission. PMID:21152042

  12. Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a) buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers) and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58). Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49) were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49) had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49) at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49) from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49) the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA and the immunodepression of maternal variables (HIV, p = 0.007). Finally, the study suggests that perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA occurred in 24.5% (n = 12/49) of the cases studied. PMID:19545396

  13. Optimum transmission range for wireless ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Deng; Yunghsiang S. Han; Po-Ning Chen; Pramod K. Varshney

    2004-01-01

    The transmission range that achieves the most economical use of energy in wireless ad hoc networks is studied under homogeneous node distribution. By assuming the knowledge of node location, we first proposed a transmission strategy to ensure the progress of data packets toward their final destinations. Then the average packet progress for a transmission range universal for all nodes is

  14. Cultural transmission of vocalizations in ravens, Corvus corax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Enggist-Dueblin; Ueli Pfister

    2002-01-01

    As ravens have pronounced learning capabilities, especially in the vocal domain, cultural transmission might be a relevant factor affecting the composition of their vocal repertoires. We investigated how important cultural transmission is in establishing a raven's vocal repertoire and whether there are different pathways of transmission. We studied individually known free-ranging breeding pairs whose vocalizations were recorded during interactions with

  15. Asymmetric parametric amplification in nonlinear left-handed transmission lines

    E-print Network

    Asymmetric parametric amplification in nonlinear left-handed transmission lines David A. Powell amplification in nonlinear left-handed transmission lines, which serve as model systems for nonlinear negative-handed propagation in an asymmetric nonlinear left- handed transmission line due to the existence of multiple dynamic

  16. A nonlinear transmission line model for superconducting stripline resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Oates; Robert T. Shin; Daniel E. Oates; Michael J. Tsuk; Paul P. Nguyen

    1993-01-01

    A nonlinear transmission line model is used to explain the nonlinear frequency response at high input power levels of stripline resonators fabricated with superconducting NbN and YBCO thin films. The resonator is modeled as a transmission line with a nonlinear inductance and resistance. The inductor flux and resistor voltage drop are assumed to be odd polynomial functions of the transmission

  17. Comparison of Transmission Schemes for Framed ALOHA based RFID Protocols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Floerkemeier; Matthias Wille

    2006-01-01

    The performance of RFID anti-collision protocols that are based on framed ALOHA depends on a transmission scheme that controls access to the shared channel. In this paper, we outline the characteristics of the RFID domain that impact the performance of such transmission schemes and compare four different transmission strategies. A novel technique introduced in this paper that recursively esti- mates

  18. "Study of interactions between life and minerals by transmission electron

    E-print Network

    Benzerara, Karim

    · Aberrations · Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM): HAADF Imaging · EDX Spectroscopyp py · EELS minerals and organics at the nm-scale #12;Description of Transmission Electron Microscope Gun X magnetic coils Building of the first transmission electron microscope (1931) Ernst Ruska (Nobel Prize 1986

  19. Green Corridors: Linking Interregional Transmission Expansion and Renewable Energy Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalini Vajjhala; Anthony Paul; Richard Sweeney; Karen Palmer

    2008-01-01

    A variety of recent policy measures have been advanced to promote interregional power transmission investment in the United States; among these are the designation of corridors on federal lands in western states and the identification of national interest electric transmission corridors across the country. Although these corridors have been put forward as critical policy interventions to modernize an aging transmission

  20. On transmission impairments in optical systems: Investigation, suppression and monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guowei Lu

    2005-01-01

    To achieve long transmission distance and high bit-rates, transmission impairments in lightwave systems, such as amplifier noise, chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and fiber nonlinearities, should be carefully handled. It is desirable to predict, control, suppress and monitor these impairments to maintain high transmission performance. Before controlling the impairments, it is necessary to investigate the system impacts they cause to

  1. Nodal Prices and Transmission Rights: a Critical Appraisal

    E-print Network

    Varaiya, Pravin

    pricing on nodal price differences is inappropriate. Moreover, without extensive regulation, transmission1 Nodal Prices and Transmission Rights: a Critical Appraisal by Shmuel S. Oren, Pablo T. Spiller purpose of this paper is to challenge several claims about the role of nodal prices and transmission

  2. Yearly Maintenance Scheduling of Transmission Lines Within a Market Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hrvoje Pandzic; Antonio J. Conejo; Igor Kuzle; Eduardo Caro

    2012-01-01

    Within a yearly horizon, a transmission system operator needs to schedule the maintenance outages of the set of transmission lines due for maintenance. Facing this task, two conflicting objectives arise: on one hand, the transmission system adequacy should be preserved as much as possible, and, on the other hand, market operation should be altered in the least possible manner. To

  3. Viral Hepatitis Transmission in Ambulatory Health Care Settings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. T. Williams; J. F. Perz; B. P. Bell

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, transmission of viral hepatitis from health care-related exposures is uncommon and primarily recognized in the context of outbreaks. Transmission is typically associated with unsafe injection practices, as exemplified by several recent outbreaks that occurred in ambulatory health care settings. To prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, health care workers must adhere to standard precautions and follow fundamental

  4. A digital transmission system for global maritime satellite communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Hirata; Y. Yasuda; H. Okinaka; K. Kashiki

    1984-01-01

    A digital transmission system for global maritime satellite communications has been designed, and experimental communications equipment has been developed, taking account of its potential application to the Inmarsat system where analog modulation is currently used for telephone signal transmission. This paper discusses possible digital technologies to realize an efficient digital transmission system, and presents a concept for the designed system.

  5. Protection of lightning caused interruptions on transmission line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zar Ni Tun; Mann Cherry Hostel

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes transmission line protection system against lightning and which method used in this protection and also how to prevent lightning effects on the line. Although Transmission lines protection needs for lightning strokes and switching transient, lightning protection is essential on the transmission line. If the fault is present, additional power system will be damaged and minimizing system reliability.

  6. Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis using Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models MIKE WEST Mixture Models in Neurological Transmission Analysis. The author is the recipient of the 1997 Mitchell in this paper. #12; Neurological Transmission Analysis October 8, 1997 1 SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND

  7. Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis using Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models MIKE WEST Mixture Models in Neurological Transmission Analysis. The author is the recipient of the 1997 Mitchell in this paper. #12;Neurological Transmission Analysis October 8, 1997 1 SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND

  8. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P.B.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a powertrain system for controlling the gear ratio changes of a multiple gear ratio automatic transmission having a gearset and a clutch whose pressure magnitude determines the gear ratio at which the transmission is operating, the transmission driveably connecting a power source and the drive wheels of a motor vehicle. A method for controlling the powertrain is described.

  9. System for computer controlled shifting of an automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P.B.

    1989-01-17

    This patent describes a powertrain system for controlling the gear ratio changes of a multiple gear ratio automatic transmission having a gearset and a clutch whose pressure magnitude determines the gear ratio at which the transmission is operating, the transmission driveably connecting a power source and the drive wheels of a motor vehicle.

  10. Higher frequency transmission properties of motor car-chassis systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong Zhang

    1992-01-01

    The transmission properties of motor car systems are analytically examined in a broad frequency range (up to 200 Hz), using a multibody system, containing rigid and elastic bodies. Most typical motor car variants used in the automobile industry were qualitatively modeled and their global power transmission behavior was analyzed with regard to various geometric shapes. A detailed transmission investigation was

  11. A single insulated sodium conductor for HVDC underwater power transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dunlap

    1979-01-01

    The minimum energy transmission cost cable configuration for HVDC underwater power transmission is considered. Cable material costs, energy losses, operating temperatures, bend radii, terminal voltages, currents, and resistances are determined. Electrode design, single vs two conductor transmission, splices, insulation, control of buoyancy, operating hazards, and the cost per unit of energy are analyzed. It is concluded that the use of

  12. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve the transaction by the ISO, take a decision to expand the existing system, or retain the original structure of the system. Also, the thesis investigates the impact of wheeling transactions on congestion management, where we present a generalized mathematical model for the Fixed Transmission Right (FTR) auction. The auction guarantees FTR availability to all participants on a non-discriminatory basis, in which system users are permitted to buy, sell and trade FTRs through an auction. When FTRs are utilized with LMPs, they increase the efficient use of the transmission system and let a transmission customer gain advantageous features such as acquiring a mechanism to offset the extra cost due to congestion charges, providing financial and operational certainty and making system users pay for the actual use of the congested paths. The thesis also highlighted FTR trading in secondary markets to self-arrange access across different paths, create long-term transmission rights and provide more commercial certainty.

  13. The role of regional transmission associations in providing open transmission access and services

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, P.K.

    1996-05-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) expanded its authority under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and issued a Policy Statement on July 30, 1993, for the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). In this Policy Statement, FERC laid out a minimum of seven components of RTG Governing Agreements. The purpose of the policy is for an RTG to become an effective instrument in enhancing competition in generation markets, and providing transmission access to requesting entities. The key components of the RTGs are: Coordinated Transmission Planning, Access Rules, Pricing Principles, Dispute Resolution, and adequate consultation and coordination with state regulatory commissions and other stakeholders. Though it is the responsibility of each regulated utility to obtain approval on transmission projects from its respective state commission and siting authority, the RTGs would create a mechanism to keep all commissions and other stakeholders informed on the development and finalization of new transmission projects. This would be done by providing copies of planning studies performed in the technical and economical evaluation of these projects.

  14. Human Lens Transmission of Blue Light: A Comparison of Autofluorescence-Based and Direct Spectral Transmission Determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam Elias Broendsted; Michael Stormly Hansen; Henrik Lund-Andersen; Birgit Sander; Line Kessel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Direct measurement of the transmission of light through the human lens is not possible in vivo unless invasive techniques are used. In the current study, a reliable in vivo estimate of the transmission of blue light through the lens was assessed by comparing an indirect and noninvasive method based on autofluorescence measurements with a direct method. Methods: Total transmission

  15. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinsiek, F.; Weber, K.-H.; Foth, W.-P.; Foth, H. J.; Schäfer, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to spacecrafts could provide an important space mission-economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for scientific and commercial missions, and increases the mission capabilities for in-space systems. For the future enhancement of ISS capabilities and operational efficiency, the use of WPT technology became part of the technology research planning for the ISS. The WPT may have the potential of providing operational benefits, increase of spacecraft systems efficiency for elements like co-orbiting platforms, transfer vehicles or other ISS related in-orbit spacecrafts, and planetary exploration vehicles. The laser technology provides specific technical, operational and economic benefits compared to microwave applications and provides the actual basis for the envisioned wireless power transmission concepts. An outlook in terms of future wireless power perspectives, both for terrestrial as for space-to-space scenarios is given; these applications are part of a technology demonstration roadmap for wireless power transmission key- and supporting technologies, which is characterized by dedicated technology demonstration milestones on ground and in space. The actual technology development philosophy as conceived at EADS-Space Transportation is described and includes main system demonstration missions, as a laboratory test bed employing a small rover system, a scaled airship model demonstration as planned in 2004 and an experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS. These demonstrations represent milestones in terms of technical capability verification on the way to solar power platforms in space, as an actual Solar Power Platform Design Concept in the 400 kW range for GEO including the receiver side on ground. Special attention is given to the fact, that technological spin-offs out of the Solar Power Platforms development are an essential aspect of the activities. The application of the suitable type of laser systems for future solar power concepts in space will be discussed, based on recent investigations in the frame of the EADS technology development work. The experimental application of a laser system for power transmission to a moveable and steerable target, a small rover, is addressed also and the demonstration philosophy and experimental set-up are detailed. The ground test objectives, the definition, design and performance of a "Wireless Power Transmission" system and the demonstration of the basic principles of power transmission and target acquisition, pointing and tracking are covered. The lessons learned and consequences for a continuation of this type of demonstration are outlined.

  16. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  17. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program-Boeing helicopters status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.; Valco, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is structured to incorporate key emerging material and component technologies into an advanced rotorcraft transmission with the intention of making significant improvements in the state of the art (SOA). Specific objectives of ART are: (1) Reduce transmission weight by 25 pct.; (2) Reduce transmission noise by 10 dB; and (3) Improve transmission life and reliability, while extending Mean Time Between Removal to 5000 hr. Boeing selected a transmission sized for the Tactical Tilt Rotor (TTR) aircraft which meets the Future Air Attack Vehicle (FAVV) requirements. Component development testing will be conducted to evaluate the high risk concepts prior to finalizing the advanced transmission configuration. The results of tradeoff studies and development test which were completed are summarized.

  18. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  19. Medical tomograph system using ultrasonic transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, Richard C. (Inventor); Nathan, Robert (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonic energy transmission in rectilinear array scanning patterns of soft tissue provides projection density values of the tissue which are recorded as a function of scanning position and angular relationship, .theta., of the subject with a fixed coordinate system. A plurality of rectilinear scan arrays in the same plane for different angular relationships .theta..sub.1 . . . .theta..sub.n thus recorded are superimposed. The superimposition of intensity values thus yields a tomographic image of an internal section of the tissue in the scanning plane.

  20. Atmospheric pressure scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    De Jonge, Niels [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Bigelow, Wilbur C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of gold nanoparticles (2.1 nm average diameter) at atmospheric pressure have been recorded through a 0.36 mm thick mixture of CO, O2 and He. This was accomplished using a reaction cell consisting of two electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes mounted on a specially designed specimen rod. Gas flow occurred through plastic tubing from the outside of the microscope to the specimen region and back. Gold nanoparticles of a full width half maximum diameter of 1.0 nm were visible above the background noise and the achieved resolution was 0.5 nm in accordance with calculations of the beam broadening.

  1. Extraordinary transmission in optical Helmholtz resonators.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Sakat, Emilie; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Pardo, Fabrice; Haïdar, Riad

    2015-06-15

    Optical Helmholtz resonators (OHRs) have been adapted from acoustics designs for light absorbing structures, exhibiting extreme light confinement. Here, extraordinary transmission of light is theoretically demonstrated through symmetric OHRs, comprising a cavity with two ?/500 narrow slits on either side. This device has appealing features to act as a spectral bandpass filter in the context of multispectral imaging, in particular its high angular tolerance because of the localized nature of the resonance. Besides, the cavity can be modeled as an inductor and the two slits can be modeled as capacitors, the whole design acting as a LC circuit thus preventing any harmonic features. PMID:26076249

  2. Transmission line including support means with barriers

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an elongated outer sheath, a plurality of inner conductors disposed within and extending along the outer sheath, and an insulating gas which electrically insulates the inner conductors from the outer sheath. A support insulator insulatably supports the inner conductors within the outer sheath, with the support insulator comprising a main body portion including a plurality of legs extending to the outer sheath, and barrier portions which extend between the legs. The barrier portions have openings therein adjacent the main body portion through which the inner conductors extend.

  3. Performance advantages of multigrade manual transmission oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, Y.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain better performance at both low and high temperatures and to improve fuel economy, the performance of an SAE 75W-90 manual transmission gear oil was evaluated in comparison with conventional SAE 90 and SAE 80W gear oils. Good shift characteristics at low temperatures and reduction of gear noise at high temperatures were obtained with the SAE 75W-90 gear oil. Tests with a friction-modified oil indicate that further improvement in fuel economy of the multigrade oil can be obtained by the addition of friction modifiers. 14 refs.

  4. Disturbances in a power transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Sachtjen, M. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Carreras, B. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lynch, V. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    A simple model for a power transmission system is presented. In this model, disturbances of all sizes may occur. They are randomly triggered and have the characteristic behavior of avalanches. A single parameter describes the scaling of the avalanche size. This parameter combines a measure of closeness to the maximum load, size of transferred loads during an overloading event, and connectivity of the system. The probability distribution function of the size of the disturbance has power-scaling range with the exponent close to -1. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

  6. PMD Effects in Fiber Optic Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirrier, J.; Gadonna, M.; Dupont, L.

    Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) remains the most important limiting impairment for high bit rate transmission over optical fibers. In this article, after a brief description of PMD model and the associated statistic, we study the pulse distortion due to PMD using a powerful time-frequency diagram. This approach allows a very simple illustration of the second and high order PMD effects through effective pulse broadening. Finally, the PMD emulation issue and both electronic and optical compensation techniques are presented, that is a current field of cooperation between ENST-Bretagne and France Telecom R&D.

  7. Image potential in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivacoba, A.; Zabala, N.; Aizpurua, J.

    2000-09-01

    In the framework of the classical dielectric theory, the role of the image potential in electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of fast electrons commonly used in scanning transmission electron microscopy travelling near a surface is studied. Relativistic and dispersive corrections are evaluated to establish the range of validity of this theory. The spatial resolution of the EELS technique is discussed for valence and core electron excitations. The effect of the quantal nature of the probe is also discussed. Finally, several problems involving planar surfaces, small particles, cylinders and truncated targets of interest in nanotechnology are studied.

  8. The processing and transmission of EEG data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    Interest in sleep research was stimulated by the discovery of a number of physiological changes that occur during sleep and by the observed effects of sleep on physical and mental performance and status. The use of the relatively new methods of EEG measurement, transmission, and automatic scoring makes sleep analysis and categorization feasible. Sleep research involving the use of the EEG as a fundamental input has the potential of answering many unanswered questions involving physical and mental behavior, drug effects, circadian rhythm, and anesthesia.

  9. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  10. Information transmission by isolated frog muscle spindle.

    PubMed

    Eckhorn, R; Querfurth, H

    1985-01-01

    Transmission of sensory information was calculated for the isolated frog muscle spindle receptor, using Shannon's information measure. Sinusoidal movements, random noise stretches, and sinusoids with superimposed auxiliary noise were applied as stimuli. In addition, the static prestretch level of the intrafusal muscle bundle was adjusted between resting length (L0) and L0 + 600 micron, so that the analysis of the information transmission properties covered the entire dynamic range of the sensory receptor organ. Sinusoidal stretches below 2 Hz evoked smoothly modulated cycle histograms, which were approximately linearly related to the stimulating sinewave. The transinformation rates under these conditions were generally low (5-17 bit X s-1), regardless of the amplitude of the applied movement. Increasing prestretch enhanced the modulation depth of the cycle histograms considerably, but increased the transinformation rates by less than 10 bit X s-1. By contrast, sinusoids above 2 Hz evoked clearly nonlinear cycle histograms, because each action potential was firmly phase-locked to a small segment of the stretch cycle. Under these conditions the transinformation rates grew larger with increasing stimulus frequency and approached 130 bit X s-1 at 60 Hz. Small amplitude sinusoidal stretches, however, evoked considerable transinformation rates in the high frequency region only then, when the spindle receptor was extended to higher prestretch levels. Random stretches evoked transinformation rates between 5 and 30 bit X s-1 depending on both the prestretch level and the intensity of the noise stimulus. The linear response components carried only about 25% of the transinformation rates transmitted by both the linear and nonlinear response components. Auxiliary noise stimuli greatly improved the information transmission of sinusoidal stretches. For example, a pure sinusoid evoked 5 bit X s-1. Adding a noise signal with equal energy to the sinusoidal movement elicited 20 bit X s-1. This facilitation effect of auxiliary noise was restricted to low frequency sinusoidal stimuli. The present results are discussed with respect to the information transmission properties of various sensory systems evaluated by either the same or different information processing procedure as that used in the present study. The functional significance of high transinformation rates sent by the muscle spindle to the central nervous system is discussed with respect to motor control. PMID:2992613

  11. Incoherent optical MIMO transmission over multimode fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, M.

    2012-05-01

    An application concept of the MIMO technique, which is very well known from a radio transmission to increase a total information capacity of multimode fibers was discussed. The focus has been mainly on an incoherent version of this technique. Additionally an experimental setup based on the such approach has been described in a second part of the paper. The system cooperated with an OM2 50 ?m GI silica fiber with 4.4 km of a length. Two digital streams with a 200 Mbit/s rate each had been transmitted simultaneously in the same band of the frequency beyond a baseband of the multimode fiber.

  12. The year in review: Electric transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    This writing and the comments contained herein support the conclusion that mandating a solution to transmission woes is not the proper choice. Even if it were the right choice, it would not be the way to go. FERC exists in a sophisticated energy world and must comprehend that without the help of the energy industry it is doomed to fail. Technology changes, economies change, and even the FERC itself changes, and will again. This is all part of the energy journey. RTOs, pools, ISOs, RTOs, and, yes, Transcos are a part of the evolution of energy regulation and perhaps deregulation to some degree.

  13. Transmission intensity disturbance in a rotating polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. Y.; Li, H. X.; Wu, F. Q.

    2008-01-01

    Random disturbance was observed in transmission intensity in various rotating prism polarizers when they were used in optical systems. As a result, the transmitted intensity exhibited cyclic significant deviation from the Malus cosine-squared law with rotation of prisms. The disturbance spoils the light quality transmitted through the polarizer thus dramatically depresses the accuracies of measurements when the prim polarizers were used in light path. A rigorous model is presented based on the solid basis of multi-beams interference, and theoretical results show good agreement with measured values and also indicate effective method for reducing the disturbance.

  14. Results of NASA/Army transmission research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Coe, Harold H.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1970 the NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command have shared an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components are outlined. The major goals of the program were (and continue to be) to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability, reduce the weight, noise, and vibration, and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. Major historical milestones are reviewed, significant advances in technology for bearings, gears, and transmissions are discussed, and the outlook for the future is presented. The reference list is comprehensive.

  15. Transmission of salmonella in feedlot cattle 

    E-print Network

    Clinton, Nancy Adair

    1977-01-01

    Subject: Veterinary Microbiology TRANSMISSION OI' SALMONELLA IN FEEDLOT CATTLE A Thesis by NANCY ADAIR CLINTON Approved as to style and co?te?c by: (Head of Dep nt) i A- c~(&& (Member) ) / (Member) August 1977 $g')t)(l ~ ABS i"'. P CT Tr...&- nsmissc on o: Salmonel'a Between h'eodlot, Cattle (-suF, ''ss ~ 977) I!ancy:ida ir Cl in i on cx is 11 !' n1 vers ' ty Chairman of Adviso y Comm ~ ttee: Dr. R. '-. Simuson rvey of Salmonella in Texas '- ecdlots Si!:ty percent of. the pens housing cat...

  16. Measuring optical transmission matrices by wavefront shaping.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jonghee; Lee, KyeoReh; Park, Jongchan; Park, YongKeun

    2015-04-20

    We introduce a simple but practical method to measure the optical transmission matrix (TM) of complex media. The optical TM of a complex medium is obtained by modulating the wavefront of a beam impinging on the complex medium and imaging the transmitted full-field speckle intensity patterns. Using the retrieved TM, we demonstrate the generation and linear combination of multiple foci on demand through the complex medium. This method will be used as a versatile tool for coherence control of waves through turbid media. PMID:25969058

  17. Automated Transmission Loss Measurement in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission Facility at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, J.; Brown, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    A technique to measure the radiated acoustic intensity and transmission loss of panels is documented in this paper. This facility has been upgraded to include a test fixture that scans the acoustic intensity radiated from a panel on the anechoic receiving room side of the transmission loss window. The acoustic intensity incident on the panel from the reverberant side of the transmission loss window is estimated from measurements made using six stationary microphones in the reverberant source room. From the measured incident and radiated intensity, the sound power transmission loss is calculated. The setup of the facility and data acquisition system are documented. A transmission loss estimate of a typical panel is shown. The measurement-to-measurement and setup-to-setup repeatability of the transmission loss estimate are assessed. Conclusions are drawn about the ability to measure changes in transmission loss due to changes in panel construction.

  18. AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS Rezaul to allocate transmission loss to respective transactions. An artificial neural network based transmission loss technique. Keywords: Neural network; transmission loss; loss allocation; bilateral contracts. 1

  19. Chagas' Disease: Pregnancy and Congenital Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic infection that kills approximately 12,000 people a year. Mass migration of chronically infected and asymptomatic persons has caused globalization of Chagas disease and has made nonvectorial infection, including vertical and blood-borne transmission, more of a threat to human communities than vectorial infection. To control transmission, it is essential to test all pregnant women living in endemic countries and all pregnant women having migrated from, or having lived in, endemic countries. All children born to seropositive mothers should be tested not only within the first month of life but also at ~6 months and ~12 months of age. The diagnosis is made by identification of the parasite in blood before the age of 6 months and by identification of the parasite in blood and/or positive serology after 10 months of age. Follow up for a year is essential as a significant proportion of cases are initially negative and are only detected at a later stage. If the condition is diagnosed and treated early, the clinical response is excellent and the majority of cases are cured. PMID:24949443

  20. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325