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1

Buffalo Flat Service 115-KV Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

The US Air Force has sited a radar transmitter at Buffalo Flat, near Christmas Valley, Oregon. This report discusses the environmental impacts of providing the electrical service for the installation. A 115 kV power transmission line will be built between LaPine and Buffalo Flat. Route alternatives as well as design alternatives are discussed. (ACR)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1987-07-01

2

Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

NONE

1996-05-01

3

Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes  

SciTech Connect

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

Not Available

1989-10-01

4

Transmission Communication  

E-print Network

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital Communication System . Purpose: communicate: rate, quality # spectral bandwidth requirement . Major components: CODEC, MODEM and channel modulation input output CODEC MODEM Medium 1 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Digital

Chen, Sheng

5

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

6

Transmission zerocrossings  

E-print Network

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 2 . Pulse shaping Tx/Rx filter­o# factor, and required baseband transmission bandwidth B = fs 2 (1+ #) MODEM components pulse shaping Tx: modulator/demodulator 27 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen QAM Modulator / Demodulator

Chen, Sheng

7

Television Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments in the transmission of television signals over wire lines have been made from time to time as the television art has developed. The present paper discusses experiments made during the summer of 1940 with 441-line, 30-frame interlaced signals transmitted over coaxial cable and other telephone facilities. Some of the general problems of wire transmission have been included. In particular,

M. E. Strieby; C. L. Weis

1941-01-01

8

Rotorcraft transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

Coy, John J.

1990-01-01

9

Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations  

SciTech Connect

The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

2011-02-01

10

Seismic fragility analysis of equipment and structures in a Memphis Electric substation. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a seismic fragility analysis of equipment and structures in an electric substation in Memphis, Tennessee. These include the pothead structure, 115 kv switch structure, 97 kv lightning arresters, control house, capacitor banks, 115/12 kv transformers, 12 kv regulators, 115 kv oil circuit breakers, and 12 kv oil circuit breakers. The results from this fragility analysis provide the expected performance of equipment and structures in a substation. They can also be used to evaluate the seismic performance of the entire electric substation and to perform a system reliability analysis of the electric transmission system.

Huo, J.R.; Hwang, H.H.M.

1995-08-10

11

Automated manual transmission controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1999-12-28

12

Transmission Modulator/demodulator --  

E-print Network

ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Revision of Lecture 3 . Modulator -- Carrier recovery and timing recovery This lecture: bits map # symbols MODEM components pulse shaping Tx several bits into a symbol? 40 #12; ELEC3028 Digital Transmission -- MODEM S Chen Bits to Symbols

Chen, Sheng

13

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

ScienceCinema

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

14

Radio Transmission Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper divides naturally into three sections. The first section briefly analyses the radio transmission circuit into (a) the sending or radiating portion, (b) the transmitting portion consisting of the ether path thru which the radiated waves travel, and (c) the receiving portion. The relation of these from the standpoint of the radio transmission engineer is discussed, pointing out the

R. Bown; C. R. Englund; H. T. Friis

1923-01-01

15

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2011-01-01

16

Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

17

Transmission ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting power of an internal combustion engine, the transmission having a drive pulley including a hydraulically shiftable first disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc, a driven pulley including a hydraulically shiftable second disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the second disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys, the control system comprising a hydraulic circuit including a pump for supplying oil to both the hydraulic cylinders, a transmission ratio control valve including a shiftable spool for controlling the oil supplied to the cylinder of the drive pulley to change transmission ratio of the transmission to a desired transmission ratio, shifting means for shifting the spool, sensing means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and the transmission and for producing condition signals dependent on the conditions, actual transmission ratio signal producing means responsive to the condition signals for producing an actual transmission ratio signal corresponding to the actual transmission ratio of the transmission, desired transmision ratio signal producing means responsive to the condition signals for producing a desired transmission ratio signal corresponding to a desired transmission ratio, transmission ratio changing speed signal producing means responsive to the actual transmission ratio signal and to the desired transmission ratio signal for producing a transmission ratio changing rate signal corresponding to a transmission ratio changing rate, and control signal producing means responsive to the transmission ratio changing rate signal for producing a control signal for operating the shifting means to shift the spool dependent on the transmission ratio changing rate for changing the actual transmission ratio of the transmission to the desired transmission ratio.

Tanaka, H.

1989-05-30

18

Transmission of Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

19

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

20

E. coli Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. E. coli Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) occurs when people consume contaminated foods ...

21

Dodder transmission of phytoplasmas.  

PubMed

Transmission of phytoplasmas from naturally infected plant host species using the parasitic plant Cuscuta spp. (dodder) to Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) is an effective way to maintain a wide range of phytoplasmas for further research. Here, we describe transmission via dodder from an infected medicinal plant Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurea and from a symptomatic redcurrant plant (Ribes spp.) to C. roseus indicator plants using a "stable bridges" method. In both cases, typical symptoms of phytoplasma disease on periwinkle plants were obtained: virescent flowers with an increased number of axillary shoots and smaller leaves after transmission from R. glutinosa, and greening petals (virescence) after transmission from Ribes spp. Phytoplasmas could be detected in donor and recipient plants by electron microscopy and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal phytoplasma primer pairs. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of PCR fragments can also be used to confirm the identity of the phytoplasmas from donor and recipient plants. PMID:22987404

P?ibylová, Jaroslava; Spak, Josef

2013-01-01

22

Designing electricity transmission auctions  

E-print Network

The UK has ambitious plans for exploiting offshore wind for electricity production in order to meet its challenging target under the EU Renewable Energy Directive. This could involve investing up to 20bn in transmission assets to bring electricity...

Greve, Thomas; Pollitt, Michael G.

2012-10-26

23

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...

24

Performance Incentives for Transmission  

E-print Network

) establishes a framework for markets based on locational marginal pricing (LMP). The NOPR envisions a critical incentives. G iven the shortcomings of the NOPR's treatment of transmission, we think that FERC should

Oren, Shmuel S.

25

Mechanism for supporting transmission shafts of automatic transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an automatic transmission for use in a vehicle, the transmission comprising: a transmission case; an extension housing connected to the transmission case; an input shaft; an output shaft disposed coaxially with and in series to the input shaft; a clutch mechanism for connecting the input shaft and the output shaft; and a parking gear mechanism provided in

S. Moroto; K. Sumiya; Y. Kobayashi; T. Kano; A. Hoshino; Y. Ano; K. Watanabe; Y. Taga

1989-01-01

26

2006 Final Transmission Proposal.  

SciTech Connect

This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-06-01

27

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1981-01-01

28

Viewing transmission issues in perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article examines electric power transmission from the perspective of the power producers. The article discusses the impact to transmission line routing policy of the health effects of, and public opinion about, electromagnetic fields. The author examines past pricing policy for transmission access and encourages the power producers and owners of transmission lines to become more involved in the regulatory process.

Casazza, J.A.

1993-10-01

29

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27

30

Advanced rotorcraft transmission program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

31

Transmissivity variations in mudstones.  

PubMed

Many people in sub-Saharan Africa have to rely on meager water resources within mudstones for their only water supply. Although mudstones have been extensively researched for their low permeability behavior, little research has been undertaken to examine their ability to provide sustainable water supplies. To investigate the factors controlling the occurrence of usable ground water in mudstone environments, an area of Cretaceous mudstones in southeastern Nigeria was studied over a 3 yr period. Transmissivity (T) variations in a range of mudstone environments were studied. The investigations demonstrate that within the top 40 m of mudstones, transmissivity can be sufficient to develop village water supplies (T > 1 m2/d). Transmissivity is controlled by two factors: low-grade metamorphism and the presence of other, subordinate, lithologies within the mudstones. Largely unaltered mudstones (early diagenetic zone), comprising mainly smectite clays, are mostly unfractured and have a low T of < 0.1 m2/d. Mudstones that have undergone limited metamorphism (late diagenetic zone) comprise mixed layered illite/smectite clays, and ground water is found in widely spaced fracture zones (T > 1 m2/d in large fracture zones; T < 0.1 m2/d away from fracture zones). Mudstones that have been further altered and approach the anchizone comprise illite clays, are pervasively fractured, and have the highest transmissivity values (T > 4 m2/d). Dolerite intrusions in unaltered, smectitic mudstones are highly fractured with transmissivity in the range of 1 < T < 60 m2/d. Thin limestone and sandstone layers can also enhance transmissivity sufficiently to provide community water supplies. PMID:15819947

MacDonald, Alan M; Kemp, Simon J; Davies, Jeff

2005-01-01

32

Production and Transmission Measurement  

E-print Network

;Bioluminescence in squid · Created by symbiotic Vibrio bacteria · Used for counter- illumination to downwelling, interference, scattering, bioluminescence · Transmission through the environment · Optimal hue, contrast of color: bioluminescence Bioluminescence is common among marine organisms, especially deep-sea fishes. #12

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

33

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

34

Transmission Losses Chris Rogers,  

E-print Network

to cooling Flipping magnetic lattice Stopping power of absorbers greater for protons, electrons #12;Beam power in front end Assume 30 % muon (pion) transmission through front end => 10 kW peak muon (pion) beam power in front end What about secondaries? Look at MARS file (courtesy of Harold) Track through

McDonald, Kirk

35

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

36

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

1997-01-01

37

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

38

Continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for transmitting a torque from an engine to a final reduction gear, comprising: an input shaft connected with the engine at one end thereof; a continuously variable transmission means having a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member, the movable member being actuated by an hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening between the fixed member and movable member, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. The other movable member is similarly actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening between the other fixed member and the other movable member, and a belt member spanning the pulleys provides for a continuously variable transmission ratio; a planetary gear unit including a sun gear, a plurality of pinion gears which mesh with the sun gear and are connected with the driven pulley and a ring gear which meshes with the plurality of pinion gears; and a rotation transmitting means for transmitting rotation of the input shaft to the planetary gear unit. The rotation transmitting means is provided between the input shaft and the planetary gear unit and includes a shaft connected with the sun gear of the planetary gear unit and a first gear connected with the input shaft. The first gear is located between the engine and the continuously variable transmission means.

Itoh, H.; Okada, M.

1986-11-25

39

65 FR 810 - Regional Transmission Organizations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Stresses on the Transmission Grid 2. Successes, Failures and...the Nation's transmission grid is being used more heavily and...interconnected transmission grid encompassing more than 100 transmission...increasing difficulties in accurately computing Total Transmission...

2000-01-06

40

Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

41

Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

42

Intercultural Transmission of Values: The Role of Transmission Belts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the effect of "transmission belts" (conditions favorable to cultural transmission within particular socioeconomic and cultural contexts) on the similarity of values between Turkish fathers and their sons. Data from father-son dyads in Germany indicated that transmission of values related to the collective value categories of humanism,…

Schonpflug, Ute

2001-01-01

43

Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having

H. Ito; T. Akashi

1986-01-01

44

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

45

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

46

Drill string transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28

47

Continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A continuously variable transmission means is described for motor vehicles including a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member. The movable member is actuated by a hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. Another movable member is actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening, and a flexible endless member spans the driving and driven pulleys. The continuously variable transmission means comprises such items as: a first output shaft; a first gear; a second gear; a reverse gear; a second output shaft; a third gear; a jaw clutch mounted; a first one-way clutch; a fourth gear; a hydraulic clutch means; and a second one-way clutch.

Tatara, Y.; Okawa, S.; Matsui, H.; Nakawaki, Y.

1987-04-28

48

Hybrid transmission corridor study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding an HVDC transmission line to an existing right-of-way with an HVAC line can increase power transfer for a given right-of-way width. However, interaction between the two line types can change some electrical effects unless a critical distance is exceeded. Researchers conducted full-scale, two-phase tests using an HVAC test span paralleled by a two-pole HVDC test span to simulate sharing

Clairmont

1991-01-01

49

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

50

Heterosexual HIV transmission.  

PubMed

Most of the people now living with HIV acquired the infection through heterosexual intercourse. HIV transmission has been facilitated by (a) concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (b) the presence of social conditions that create core groups who have frequent and numerous partners, (c) sexual practices associated with bleeding (i.e., trauma, sex during menses) as well as noncircumcision, (d) cervical ectopy, and (e) anal sex. HIV may be found both cell-free and as intracellular virus in genital tract secretion, and may be sexually transmitted through either mechanism. HIV titers in genital tract secretions vary by several logs between people and within individuals over time, being greatest just after seroconversion and with advanced immunosuppression, concomitant genital tract inflammation (including STDs), and decreasing (but not to zero) with antiretroviral therapy. The per-contact transmission efficiency rate is highly variable, ranging from > 3% to < 1 per thousand contacts, with male-to-female HIV transmission generally being more efficient than vice versa. Control of the heterosexual HIV epidemic will necessitate a multidisciplinary approach, utilizing direct biological approaches (e.g., culturally specific and behavioral interventions, as well as more fundamental community changes that decrease societal norms that augment unsafe practices. PMID:8665090

Mayer, K H; Anderson, D J

1995-12-01

51

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY BEAMSWITCH: DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT WIRELESS COMMUNICATION Directional Transmission for Energy-Efficient Wireless Communication on Mobile Sys- tems Hasan Huseyin Dumanli Directional communication has the potential to improve both the energy efficiency of wireless communication

Zhong, Lin

52

Transmission ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting power of an internal combustion engine controlled by an accelerator pedal, the transmission comprising a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable first disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable second disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the second disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys, the control system including a first hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil to both of the hydraulic cylinders, a transmission ratio control valve having a spool for controlling the oil supplied to the first hydraulic cylinder of the drive pulley, shifting means for shifting the spool, sensing means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and the transmission, actual transmission ratio producing means responsive to the sensed operating conditions for producing means responsive to the sensed signal representing the actual transmission ratio of the transmission.

Miyawaki, M

1989-05-23

53

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

54

Planetary Transmission Diagnostics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the prediction error. The constrained adaptive lifting diagnostic algorithm is validated using data collected from the University of Maryland Transmission Test Rig and the results are discussed.

Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

2004-01-01

55

Automated manual transmission clutch controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (9375 Kearney Rd., Whitmore Lake, MI 48189); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (3003 Bembridge, Royal Oak, MI 48073); Rausen, David J. (519 S. Gaylord St., Denver, CO 80209)

1999-11-30

56

Noise transmission into enclosures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes analytical and experimental studies of noise transmission into rectangular and cylindrical enclosures. The solutions of the governing acoustic-structural equations are developed by modal decomposition of structural vibrations and the interior acoustic field. Particular attention is directed toward the low frequencies, that is, frequencies up through the first few structural and cavity resonant modes. The structural vibrations are driven by the external acoustic and/or mechanical point loads which are taken to be Gaussian stationary random processes. The structural models include rectangular panels and cylindrical shells.

Vaicaitis, R.; Bofilios, D. A.

1986-01-01

57

Conventional transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

2014-01-01

58

Heat transmission in Relativity  

E-print Network

The simultaneous study of deformation and heat transmission in a bar was ignored for about 150 years. The traditional Fourier equation just allows to study the evolution of temperature in a undeformable bar. The search for its relativistic variant is a task which must fail because in Relativity there are no undeformable bars. Rigid bodies, in the sense as rigid as possible, are deformables. In this work we show how to write in Relativity the system of equations necessary to study simultaneously deformation and temperature evolution along a rigid bar.

A. Brotas; J. C. Fernandes

2003-07-16

59

Lightning proof transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

60

Studies on polydnavirus transmission.  

PubMed

Polydnaviruses are thought to replicate only in the ovaries of certain hymenopteran species. Nevertheless, in the present study, polydnaviral DNA was found to exist in males of the braconid parasitoid species Cotesia melanoscela and in both male and female non-ovarian tissue of an ichneumonid, Hyposoter fugitivus; preliminary results suggest that viral DNA may be present in an unintegrated form, but whether or not it is encapsidated is unknown. Using interstrain genetic crosses, we demonstrated that C. melanoscela males can apparently transmit at least some viral DNA to female progeny. We suggest that polydnavirus DNAs may be present in most if not all tissues of certain parasitoid species, and are probably maintained within parasitoid populations by vertical transmission through the germ line. In parallel experiments, manually injected eggs of the ichneumonid parasitoid (H. fugitivus) survived and hatched in Malacosoma americanum larvae in the apparent absence of exogenous polydnavirus; female parasitoids reared in this manner nevertheless carried virus in their ovaries. Experiments utilizing different strains of C. melanoscela also suggest that per os transmission of polydnaviruses (to parasitoid larvae) does not occur, despite the fact that inoculum viral DNA can be shown to persist for several days in the tissues of parasitized host larvae. PMID:3776098

Stoltz, D B; Guzo, D; Cook, D

1986-11-01

61

Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid  

SciTech Connect

Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

Zehner, Richard E.

2012-02-01

62

Automotive infinite transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automotive infinite transmission is described having an input pulley, an output pulley, and belt means entrained around the input and output pulleys for transmitting a rotational torque from the input pulley to the output pulley. An effective diameter of each of the input and output pulleys is variable for changing continuously a transmission ratio. Each of the input and output pulleys comprises: a fixed pulley member fixedly mounted on a rotary shaft and having a tapered pulley surface; a movable pulley member mounted on the rotary shaft for movement axially of the rotary shaft and having a tapered pulley surface; actuator means for axially moving the movable member toward and away from the fixed pulley member; generally radially extending slits formed in each of the pulley surface of the fixed pulley member and the pulley surface of the movable pulley member; drive blocks disposed circumferentially along the annular groove between the pulley surface of the fixed pulley member and the pulley surface of the movable pulley member; means for reducing a frictional force between the drive blocks and the pulley surface of the fixed pulley member and a frictional force between the drive blocks and the pulley surface of the movable pulley member; means for biasing the drive blocks radially inwardly against a centrifugal force applied to the drive blocks when the fixed and movable pulley members are rotated; and the drive blocks each having a radially outward surface with which the belt means is in frictional contact.

Hattori, Y.; Nomura, K.; Goshima, T.; Tanaka, H.

1987-11-10

63

Mechanism for supporting transmission shafts of automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission for use in a vehicle, the transmission comprising: a transmission case; an extension housing connected to the transmission case; an input shaft; an output shaft disposed coaxially with and in series to the input shaft; a clutch mechanism for connecting the input shaft and the output shaft; and a parking gear mechanism provided in the vicinity of an intermediate portion of the output shaft, having a parking gear for retaining the output shaft, the parking gear having a flange with a sleeve-like boss portion splined to the output shaft; an improved transmission shaft supporting mechanism comprising: means supported by the transmission case for supporting the output shaft at the input-side end portion thereof, the output-side end portion thereof being supported by the extension housing.

Moroto, S.; Sumiya, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kano, T.; Hoshino, A.; Ano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Taga, Y.

1989-02-28

64

Transmission for an automobile  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission for an automobile. The method comprises having a main shaft aligned axially with and arranged to be driven by a main drive shaft which is in turn arranged to be driven by an automobile engine. A counter shaft is arranged in parallel with the main shaft. The improvement comprises: the main shaft having one end rotatably journalled in a hollow end of the main drive shaft, the hollow end in turn being rotatably supported by a first bearing. The main shaft is additionally rotatably journalled in a second bearing spaced axially from the first bearing. Speed change gears rotatably are mounted on the main shaft between the bearings. The speed change gears when viewed from the first bearing towards the second bearing are arranged in a progressively descending order on progressively increased diameter portions of the main shaft.

Kawamoto, T.

1987-06-02

65

Television Transmission Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

1996-01-01

66

Technology of optical azimuth transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

2012-11-01

67

Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

Hagen, Wilfred R.

2013-01-01

68

Laptop image transmission equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

Mocenter, Michael M.

1991-12-01

69

Transmission control method providing overlapped engagement of power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for controlling a transmission mechanism for a vehicle wherein: the transmission mechanism comprises an input shaft; and output shaft; a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller

T. Akashi; H. Ito; S. Yamada

1986-01-01

70

A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

1969-01-01

71

Reducing electric power transmission losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of transmission-related power losses in electric grids has become increasingly important in every phase of power systems concerned with conservation of fuel and power resources. The most effective approaches to the matter of electric power loss reduction in power transmission lines are discussed. These methods include reactive power compensation, both on loads and system substations, optimization of grid

A. I. Kulchitskii; S. P. Elagina

1982-01-01

72

Automatic transmission for a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic transmission is described for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power, each

S. Moroto; S. Sakakibara

1986-01-01

73

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

1997-04-01

74

Leadership transmission: a muddled metaphor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine critically the concept of “leadership transmission”, considering what theoretical and practical value this metaphor brings to the healthcare modernization agenda. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper develops understanding of the transmission metaphor, whilst theoretical perspectives on leadership are reviewed, including debates, which shed light on the concept by focusing on the phenomenon

David Buchanan; Raymond Caldwell; Julienne Meyer; John Storey; Charles Wainwright

2007-01-01

75

EC Transmission Line Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-05-01

76

Variable speed transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a variable speed transmission for transmitting rotational forces between a first shaft and a second shaft wherein a sprocket is mounted on the first shaft and a variable effective diameter pulley, having opposed inclined chain-belt engaging surfaces, is mounted on the second shaft, an endless chain-belt assembly for transmitting rotational forces. The assembly has side edges thereon, comprising: a first portion defining the edges of the chain-belt assembly and having a plurality of links defining a surface corresponding to the opposed inclined chain-belt engaging surfaces on the pulley; and a second portion intermediate of the first portion having a plurality of links for engaging the teeth on the sprocket, the links being joined by a plurality of pins extending transverse to the links; and a flexible shield mounted over the links and retained relative thereto by the pins wherein the flexible shield surrounds the links of the second portion of the chain-belt assembly and retains lubrication for the second portion and to prevent same for communicating to the first portion of the chain-belt assembly.

Wiens, W.S.

1987-08-11

77

Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

The Keystone Center

2005-06-15

78

Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

Kevin Bryan

2001-05-01

79

Load Distribution in Transmissions "Split"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transmission system of a helicopter must meet particularly critical requirements. It must transmit engine power to the rotor, at the same time ensuring a typical speed reduction of 60 to 1. It must also be safe, reliable, light, and reach a high level of performance while, at the same time, it must produce few vibrations and little noise. Helicopter transmissions have achieved high-level performances thanks to the combination of analyses, experiments, and the application of practical field experience. However, the new generation of helicopters will require transmission systems that are even safer, lighter, less noisy, and more reliable.

Krantz, Timothy L.; Delgado, Irebert R.

1998-01-01

80

77 FR 64890 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Order No. 1000-B] Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning...1000-A, amending the transmission planning and cost allocation requirements established...affirms the Order No. 1000 transmission planning reforms that: Require that each...

2012-10-24

81

75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. RM10-23-000] Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning...proposing to amend the transmission planning and cost allocation requirements established...preferential. With respect to transmission planning, the proposed rule would provide...

2010-10-07

82

77 FR 26714 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. RM12-1-000] Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal...the approval of modified Transmission Planning Reliability Standard, TPL-001-2 (Transmission System Planning Performance Requirements), which...

2012-05-07

83

77 FR 26686 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RM11-18-000; Order No. 762] Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal...Commission remands proposed Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standard TPL-002-0b...Commission remands proposed Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standard TPL-...

2012-05-07

84

Digital Transmission System Signaling Protocol  

E-print Network

IF Digital Transmission System (DTS) uses a format similar to the ALMA project, [1]. The IF DTS samples two Division Multiplexed (DWDM) on to a single fiber. 2 #12;The serial protocol requirements for the DTS were

Groppi, Christopher

85

Diversified transmission multichannel detection system  

SciTech Connect

A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

1984-07-03

86

High-throughput WDM transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of high-throughput WDM terrestrial transmission systems. Management of dispersion, nonlinearity, and amplification is reviewed and illustrated through high spectral efficiency transmission of channels at 10 and 40 Gbit\\/s. Dense-wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a powerful technique to increase the capacity of advanced optical networks, to cope with the data traffic explosion. The full use of the

J.-P. Hamaide; A. Bertaina; S. Bigo; Y. Frignac

2000-01-01

87

Free-Space Power Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

1989-01-01

88

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight reduction of 25 percent, an internal noise reduction of 10 dB plus a mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) of 5000 hours compared to a state-of-the-art baseline transmission. The split-torque transmission developed using face gears achieved a 40 percent weight reduction, a 9.6 dB noise reduction and a 5270 hour MTBR in meeting or exceeding the above goals. Aircraft mission performance and cost improvements resulting from installation of the ART would include a 17 to 22 percent improvement in loss-exchange ratio during combat, a 22 percent improvement in mean-time-between-failure, a transmission acquisition cost savings of 23 percent of $165K, per unit, and an average transmission direct operating cost savings of 33 percent, or $24K per flight hour. Face gear tests performed successfully at NASA Lewis are summarized. Also, program results of advanced material tooth scoring tests, single tooth bending tests, Charpy impact energy tests, compact tension fracture toughness tests and tensile strength tests are summarized.

Heath, Gregory F.; Bossler, Robert B., Jr.

1993-01-01

89

Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

Shang, Wenzhuo

90

Casablanca Carlos American Electric Power Transmission Owner  

E-print Network

(Facilitator) Chantal PJM Interconnection Not Applicable Horstmann John Dayton Power & Light Company (The) Transmission Owner Issermoyer John PPL Electric Utilities Corp. dba PPL Utilities Transmission Owner

Pjm Interconnection Llc; Teleconference Webex Participants; Firstenergy Solutions; Corp Transmission Owner; Boltz Jeff; Firstenergy Solutions; Corp Transmission Owner; Fecho Thomas; Indiana Michigan; Power Company; Transmission Owner; Patten Kevin; Company Transmission Owner

2012-01-01

91

Belt type continuously variable transmission system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a belt type continuously variable transmission system comprising: a belt type continuously variable transmission device wherein a transmission belt is racked across an input pulley and an output pulley and rotation is continuously variably transmitted from the input pulley to the output pulley; and an auxiliary transmission device disposed on the output side of the belt type continuously variable transmission device and having at least a forward-reverse shift mechanism, wherein the belt type continuously variable transmission device and the auxiliary transmission device are respectively housed in a belt type continuously variable transmission device housing and an auxiliary transmission device housing, both of which are formed by case members and separated by a radial partition member of the case members into independent sealed housings, respectively, and wherein the auxiliary transmission device is detacheble from the continuously variable transmission device housing as an independent unit.

Okada, M.; Morisawa, K.; Kakamu, M.; Kato, N.

1988-11-15

92

Electrical Transmission on the Lunar Surface. Part 1; DC Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes a portion of the results from a grant at Auburn University to study the electrical and thermal energy management for lunar facilities. Over the past year (June 1989 to May 1990) the following topics have been investigated: June 1989 to November 1989 - Literature survey, assessment of lunar power needs, and overview study of the requirements of a lunar power system; November 1989 to April 1990 - Develop models for the study of dc electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface; March 1990 to May 1990 - Develop models for the study of ac electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface. Because of the large amount of information in the model development and application to a wide parameter space this report is being bound separately. This report specifically contains the model development and parameter study for dc electrical power transmission lines. The end of the funding year (May 1990) will conclude with an annual report including the literature survey, the overview of the requirements of a lunar power system, and summaries of the dc and ac models of electrical transmission lines.

Gordon, Lloyd B.

2001-01-01

93

Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

Nauck, Bernhard

2001-01-01

94

TRANSMISSION MEDIA 4.1 Guided Transmission Media  

E-print Network

4.2 Wireless Transmission Antennas Terrestrial Microwave Satellite Microwave Broadcast Radio Infrared 4.3 Wireless Propagation Ground Wave Propagation Sky Wave Propagation Line-of-Sight Propagation 4 the signals are propagated; these include twisted pair, coaxial cable, and optical fiber. Unguided media

Scarano, Vittorio

95

Transmission ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine to driving wheels of a motor vehicle through a clutch, having a drive pulley including a hydraulically shiftable disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc. A driven pulley includes a hydraulically shiftable disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the driven pulley. A belt is engaged with both pulleys. A transmission ratio control valve has ports and a spool and a line pressure control valve has ports and a spool. A first hydraulic circuit has a pump for supplying oil to the first and second cylinders through the line pressure control valve which controls line pressure and the transmission ratio control valve. The system comprises: detecting means for detecting load on the engine and for producing a load signal; first means responsive to the load signal for producing a desired line pressure signal; second means responsive to the desired line pressure signal for shifting the spool of the line pressure control valve so as to provide control the line pressure; detecting means for detecting a stop of the vehicle and producing a stop signal; third means responsive to the stop signal for increasing the line pressure so as to operate the second hydraulic cylinder to increase the transmission ratio.

Morimoto, Y.; Tezuka, K.

1987-11-24

96

Equalization of data transmission cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

Zobrist, G. W.

1975-01-01

97

Digital Transmission over Submarine Cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of transoceanic transmission of large volumes of information have been raised increasingly over the past few years. Lately, the need for transoceanic digital communications has been of interest. This paper discusses the significance of these trends and examines the technical prospects for handling large volumes of digital traffic using submarine cables. Concentrating on transatlantic traffic, an argument is

W. Litchman

1965-01-01

98

The Centre for Power Transmission  

E-print Network

The Centre for Power Transmission and Motion Control Centre for PTMC Department of Mechanical of the control system regulating the supply of fuel to the engine. The dynamic behaviour of such valves can influence the response of the aircraft. It is important for a relief valve to have performance appropriate

Burton, Geoffrey R.

99

Developments in Electric Power Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account of some significant events in the history of electric power transmission related by a past-president of the Institute whose name is closely linked with many of those events and who for many years has been actively engaged in the study of high voltage phenomena.

Harris J. Ryan

1934-01-01

100

The transmission sense of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologists rely heavily on the language of information, coding, and transmission that is commonplace in the field of information theory as developed by Claude Shannon, but there is open debate about whether such language is anything more than facile metaphor. Philosophers of biology have argued that when biologists talk about information in genes and in evolution, they are not talking

Carl T. Bergstrom; Martin Rosvall

2009-01-01

101

Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.  

PubMed

Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

2015-01-01

102

Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours  

PubMed Central

Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

2015-01-01

103

Progressive transmission and compression images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

Kiely, A. B.

1996-01-01

104

Tornadoes and transmission reliability planning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to introduce an analytical approach for predicting overhead transmission line outages that are caused by tornadoes. The method is presently being used to determine the effects of tornadoes on various right-of-way configurations associated with a generating station project or the supply to a major substation. 2 refs.

Teles, J.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Landgren, G.L.

1980-01-01

105

Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, (a) genital; (b) peripheral blood; (2) in the newborn, (a) oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the placenta. The

Renato L Rombaldi; Eduardo P Serafini; Jovana Mandelli; Edineia Zimmermann; Kamille P Losquiavo

2008-01-01

106

Lightning Protection for Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the need for lightning protection on low-voltage transmission lines at moderate cost, and particularly for wood-pole lines, a design is presented in this paper that has high insulation strength and uses, in place of a ground wire, a shielding phase conductor with a lightning protector tube. Lightning currents are drained to ground with a minimum number of tubes

A. W. Gothberg; A. S. Brookes

1937-01-01

107

Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, (a) genital; (b) peripheral blood; (2) in the newborn, (a) oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human ?-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49) had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49) there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011). In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed. PMID:18817577

Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

2008-01-01

108

EXPERIMENTAL TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME) TO CATTLE BY INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To compare clinicopathological findings of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) with other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE, prion diseases) that have been shown to be experimentally transmissible to cattle (sheep scrapie, and chronic wasting disease, CWD), 2 groups of calves (n = 4...

109

75 FR 37883 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to create and enter into a multilateral interregional transmission...providers to explore possible multilateral interregional transmission...initiatives. We note that multilateral interregional transmission...located in both regions, as well as interregional...

2010-06-30

110

Transmission  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an engagement mechanism. It comprises: a hollow shaft; an engagement outer rotatably mounted about the shaft and including an outer race; an engagement inner about the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative thereto. The engagement inner including an inner race having central depressions with two inclined surfaces extending upwardly and outwardly in opposite directions from each the central depression; wedging elements between the inner race and the outer race; a cage between the inner race and the outer race, the cage retaining the wedging elements and being angularly movable relative to the inclined surfaces to selectively couple the engagement outer and the engagement inner through the wedging elements with either of the two inclined surfaces, the cage having a firs actuator portion; an actuator mounted in the hollow shaft and angularly fixed relative to the engagement inner. The actuator including a second actuator portion selectively engaging the first actuator portion to angularly displace the cage relative to the inclined surfaces for alignment of the wedging elements with the central depressions and selectively disengaging the first actuator portion to allow movement of the cage for movement of the wedging elements along the inclined surfaces to engage the outer race.

Weismann, P.H.

1991-01-29

111

Stream Control Transmission Protocol Steganography  

E-print Network

Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a new transport layer protocol that is due to replace TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) protocols in future IP networks. Currently, it is implemented in such operating systems like BSD, Linux, HP-UX or Sun Solaris. It is also supported in Cisco network devices operating system (Cisco IOS) and may be used in Windows. This paper describes potential steganographic methods that may be applied to SCTP and may pose a threat to network security. Proposed methods utilize new, characteristic SCTP features like multi-homing and multistreaming. Identified new threats and suggested countermeasures may be used as a supplement to RFC 5062, which describes security attacks in SCTP protocol and can induce further standard modifications.

Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

112

Exploiting a transmission grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2004-10-01

113

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Ronald E. Bell

2004-12-08

114

Development of large rotorcraft transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH) represents a large rotorcraft which was developed by an American aerospace company. In the early 1970's with the HLH Advanced Technology Components (ATC) program, the development of large rotorcraft transmission and drive systems was started. Failures in the spiral bevel gearing were experienced in tests because the employed method of analysis had not considered the effect of rim bending. Consequently, new gears with strengthened rims were designed and fabricated. For a more accurate prediction of the load capacity of the gears, an extensive Finite Element Method (FEM) system was developed. The U.S. Army's XCH-62 HLH aft rotor transmission was finally successfully tested at full design torque and speed. A description of the test program is provided, and the analytical program is discussed. The analytical phase includes the development of a preprocessing program which aids in the review of calculated FEM stresses.

Samanich, N. E.; Drago, R. J.; Mack, J. C.

1984-01-01

115

Wave transmission over submerged breakwaters  

SciTech Connect

Monochromatic wave reflection and transmission over a submerged impermeable breakwater is predicted numerically by slightly modifying the numerical model developed previously for predicting wave reflection and run-up on rough or smooth impermeable slopes. The slight modification is related to the landward boundary condition required for the transmitted wave propagating landward. In addition to the conservation equations of mass and momentum used to compute the flow field, an equation of energy is derived to estimate the rate of energy dissipation due to wave breaking. The computed reflection and transmission coefficients are shown to be in agreement with available small-scale test data. The numerical model also predicts the spatial variation of the energy dissipation, the mean water level difference, and the time-averaged volume flux per unit width, although available measurements are not sufficient for evaluating the capabilities and limitations of the numerical model for predicting these quantities.

Kobayashi, N.; Wurjanto, A. (Dept. of Div. Eng., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (US))

1989-09-01

116

Automatic transmission for a vehicle  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described for a vehicle, comprising: a coupling means having an input shaft and an output shaft; a belt type continuously-variable speed transmission system having an input pulley mounted coaxially on a first shaft, an output pulley mounted coaxially on a second shaft and a belt extending between the first and second pulleys to transfer power, each of the first and second pulleys having a fixed sheave and a movable sheave. The first shaft is disposed coaxially with and rotatably coupled with the output shaft of the coupling means, the second shaft being disposed side by side and in parallel with the first shaft; a planetary gear mechanism; a forward-reverse changeover mechanism and a low-high speed changeover mechanism.

Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

1986-12-09

117

Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

Kevin Bryan

2002-12-05

118

High efficiency ground data transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is demonstrated that state-of-the-art communications technology can be implemented and reliably operated on a global basis to increase the transmission rates and efficiencies on circuits with bandwidths greater than the typical speech channel. Optimization is affected by optimum clock recovery procedures, multilevel pulse amplitude modulation, single sideband amplitude modulation, transversal filter equalizers, data scrambling, and active compensation for phase instability.

Dickinson, W. B.

1973-01-01

119

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

1983-01-01

120

Monitoring Atmospheric Transmission with FLAME  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibration of ground-based observations in the optical and near-infrared requires precise and accurate understanding of atmospheric transmission, at least as precise and accurate as that required for the spectral energy distributions of science targets. Traditionally this has used the Langley extrapolation method, observing targets and calibrators over a range of airmass and extrapolating to zero airmass by assuming a plane-parallel homogeneous atmosphere. The technique we present uses direct measurements of the atmosphere to derive the transmission along the line of sight to science targets at a few well-chosen wavelengths. The Facility Lidar Atmospheric Monitor of Extinction (FLAME) is a 0.5m diameter three Nd:YAG wavelength (355nm, 532nm & 1064nm) elastic backscatter lidar system. Laser pulses are transmitted into the atmosphere in the direction of the science target. Photons scattered back toward the receiver by molecules, aerosols and clouds are collected and time-gated so that the backscatter intensity is measured as a function of range to the scattering volume. The system is housed in a mobile calibration lab, which also contains auxiliary instrumentation to provide a NIST traceable calibration of the transmitted laser power and receiver efficiency. FLAME was designed to create a million photons per minute signal from the middle stratosphere, where the atmosphere is relatively calm and dominated by molecules of the well-mixed atmosphere (O2 & N2). Routine radiosonde measurements of the density at these altitudes constrain the scattering efficiency in this region and, combined with calibration of the transmitter and receiver, the only remaining unknown quantity is the two-way transmission to the stratosphere. These measurements can inform atmospheric transmission models to better understand the complex and ever-changing observatory radiative transfer environment. FLAME is currently under active development and we present some of our ongoing measurements.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Zirzow, D. C.; Koppa, M.; Buttler-Pena, K.

2014-01-01

121

Adrenergic Transmission in Small Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRANSMISSION of excitation from nerve to vascular smooth muscle is poorly understood. Bevan and his co-workers1,2 were unable to detect any change in membrane potential in pulmonary arterial muscle after sympathetic nerve stimulation, although contraction occurred. Steedman3 found that sympathetic nerve stimulation increased the firing of action potentials in rat mesenterie arterial muscle, as did nerve stimulation of rabbit portal

R. N. Speden

1967-01-01

122

Split torque transmission load sharing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

123

Split torque transmission load sharing  

SciTech Connect

Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

Krantz, T.L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J.G.

1992-10-01

124

Video transmission on ATM networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

Chen, Yun-Chung

1993-12-01

125

Transmission worth of photovoltaic generation  

SciTech Connect

Long distance, high-voltage electric power transmission to transfer electricity produced by solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has received little, if any, attention within the U.S. utility solar power community. In fact, current thinking among utility solar power researchers and planners has shifted from visions of centralized power stations to one of distributed, smaller generation systems. This shift of interest from centralized to distributed photovoltaic power generation, however, appears to be based in part on an unstated premise of limited land area for PV power plants within a utility's service area. Hydroelectric power planners have clearly taken a different approach. Given the limited number of good sites for large scale hydropower generation and the adverse land-use relationship between densely populated, electric power demand centers and the construction of hydroelectric facilities, long high-voltage transmission lines are typically required. In this paper an order of magnitude analysis is made of the economic feasibility of using transmission lines to transport solar photovoltaic power from sunny to cloudy regions.

Kern, E.C. Jr. (Ascension Technology, Inc. (US))

1992-06-01

126

SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN  

E-print Network

SUGGESTED ANALYTIC APPROACH TO TRANSMISSION RELIABILITY MARGIN DRAFT REPORT JUNE 22 1999 Jianfeng Zhang Ian Dobson Fernando L. Alvarado POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Electrical & Computer Engineering Dept. University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract Transmission Reliability Margin (TRM

127

Efficient Spectral Methods for Transmission Eigenvalues and ...  

E-print Network

Mar 20, 2014 ... sampling method [12], and the transmission eigenvalues can be identified from the far ..... robust numerical method for computing the smallest real transmission ...... [11] M. Gu, E. Meng, M. L. Overton, J. Xia, and J. Zhu.

2014-03-24

128

76 FR 66229 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. RM11-18-000] Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal...SUMMARY: Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability Standards are intended...contingencies and allowable system impacts in the planning process. The table includes a...

2011-10-26

129

Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

Chaiko, Lev

1990-01-01

130

Light transmission measurements and phototherapy eyepatches.  

PubMed Central

The transmission characteristics of phototherapy eyeshields have been measured under conditions that mimic the clinical situation. Peak transmission (less than 10%) was detected at 700 nm for the poorest patch tested and less than 2% for either of the other patches examined. The optics of measurement systems are considered with reference both to this and previous studies of light transmission through eyepatches. The simplicity and effectiveness with which eyepatches can be secured may be as important as their transmission characteristics. PMID:1996895

Robinson, J; Moseley, M J; Fielder, A R; Bayliss, S C

1991-01-01

131

Cooling system for a belt type transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cooler for a belt type transmission in a power unit for vehicles having an engine body, a transmission casing provided on one side of the engine body, and a belt type transmission composed of a drive pulley connected with the crankshaft of the engine body, a driven pulley connected with an output shaft and an endless transmitting belt engaged between the pulleys contained in a transmitting chamber in the transmission casing.

Tanaka, K.; Ochiai, H.; Ikenoya, Y.

1987-06-09

132

Gas transmission through microporous membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes upon passage of the gas through active and non-active membranes by which way the effect of active elements on gas transmission rates could be examined. Probabilistic and mathematical models were proposed to predict gas transmission rates of such membranes and gas permeation experiments were simulated utilizing the proposed models. Modeling results were compared to experimental data and to macrolevel gas transmission models available in literature. The results were found to be in acceptable correlation with experiments for membranes with a well-known morphology. The pressure of the system, porosity and adsorption capacity of the materials, as well as size of the gas molecules and their interaction energies between the surfaces were found to be important parameters which affect permeability.

Turel, Tacibaht

2008-10-01

133

Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

2013-01-16

134

FACTS: transmission solutions in a changing world  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses transmission planning in a deregulated market and presents the concept of FACTS (flexible AC transmission systems) and its business impact. Use of modern controllable devices in an electrical network to achieve efficient, reliable, flexible and environmentally sound transmission systems are shown with examples

H.-A. Jonsson

2000-01-01

135

FERC transmission inquiry produces torrent of advice  

SciTech Connect

FERC`s notice of inquiry into electricity transmission pricing generated flurry of responses as utilities, independent power producers, state regulators, customers and others outlined what they believe are the appropriate ways to price transmission to ensure a competitive bulk power market. The responses cover both the legal and technical aspects of transmission pricing, and this article brings to light several of these responses.

O`Driscoll, M.

1993-11-09

136

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight

Zachary S. Henry

1995-01-01

137

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART

T. L. Krantz; J. G. Kish

1992-01-01

138

Underground transmission test facility to be built  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an overall research and development program in underground transmission being sponsored by the Electric Research Council, Westinghouse Electric Corp. will build and operate an underground transmission test facility. It will be located near the western Pennsylvania community of Waltz Mill. An 1100-kV substation will be built to conduct accelerated life tests on underground transmission systems. Flexibility, combined

T. D. Reimers; F. S. Young

1967-01-01

139

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

140

Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Rausen, David J. (Denver, CO)

2000-02-01

141

Automated manual transmission mode selection controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

1999-11-09

142

Control system for an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine mounted on a vehicle. The transmission comprises: a primary pulley operatively connected to a crankshaft of the engine having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc; a secondary pulley operatively connected to an output shaft and having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the secondary pulley; a belt engaged with both pulleys; a first hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil; a transmission ratio control valve responsive to engine speed for controlling the oil so as to shift the disc of the primary pulley to change the transmission ratio; and a pressure regulator valve responsive to the transmission ratio for increasing line pressure of the hydraulic circuit with an increase of the transmission ratio. The improvement is described comprising: means comprising a piston axially slidably mounted in the first hydraulic cylinder of the primary pulley defining a piston chamber in the first hydraulic cylinder. The means is included for restricting shifting of the disc of the primary pulley to a maximum transmission ratio of the transmission so as to limit movement of the disc of the primary pulley at a restricted position where the transmission ratio is lower than the maximum transmission ratio of the transmission; and a second hydraulic circuit provided between the pump and the piston chamber.

Miyawaki, M.

1987-04-14

143

Enhancement of asymmetric acoustic transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report both experimentally and theoretically that enhanced one-way acoustic transmission is realized by coupling a periodical grating with metal plates. This exotic acoustic phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of the leaky Lamb modes which arise from the coupling of the diffracted waves with the resonant surface states localized at the interface of the grating and the metal plate. More importantly, we further optimize the structure by introducing two inclined plates, which can convert the reflected energy into the transmitted energy. Our finding has great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi

2013-03-01

144

Atmospheric transmission computer program CP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

1974-01-01

145

Light transmission through polyethylene samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral calibration Hg(Ar) lamp and a pulsed Nd:YAG laser were employed to study the UV, VIS and IR light transmission through polyethylene samples, as pure and doped with Fe 2O 3 and carbon nanotubes. Optical measurements were performed in the spectral range between 200 nm and 800 nm. Measurements with 0.1% and 1% in weight of filler concentrations were investigated. The polymers' optical absorption coefficients, calculated from the experimental transmitted component, were tabulated at different wavelengths as a function of the analyzed samples. The radiation depth penetration was also evaluated.

Caridi, F.; Torrisi, L.; Visco, A. M.

2012-03-01

146

Sexual transmission of viral hepatitis.  

PubMed

Identification and vaccination of adults at risk for hepatitis B virus acquisition through sexual contact is a key strategy to reduce new hepatitis B virus infections among at-risk adults. Hepatitis C has emerged as a sexually transmitted infection among men with male sex partners (MSM). Several biological and behavioral factors have been linked to hepatitis C virus transmission among MSM, including human immunodeficiency virus coinfection; participation in sexual practices that result in mucosal damage or result in exposure to blood; presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), particularly ulcerative STIs; multiple/casual sex partners; and unprotected anal intercourse. PMID:24275272

Gorgos, Linda

2013-12-01

147

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, R.B.

1985-08-15

148

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

149

Control for steplessly variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a belt type steplessly variable transmission comprising belt-pulley means of variable speed ratio, fluid pressure operated actuator means for changing the speed ratio of the belt-pulley means, fluid control means for controlling a supply of fluid pressure to the actuator means to thereby determine the speed ratio of the belt-pulley means, the fluid control means including control valve means comprising a movable valve member having one end applied with a control signal pressure which changes in accordance with input speed of the belt-pulley means.

Koshio, T.

1987-06-09

150

Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies  

SciTech Connect

In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

Porter, K.

1996-09-01

151

Money and transmission of bacteria  

PubMed Central

Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people’s behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider. PMID:23985137

2013-01-01

152

Wildlife and electric power transmission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G., Jr.; Hunt, J.R.

1978-01-01

153

APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint.

Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

2013-12-01

154

Improving Regional Groundwater Models with Transmissivity Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic-conductivity estimates in groundwater-flow models typically are constrained by a range for each hydrogeologic unit. These often-times wide ranges are derived from interpretations of many aquifer tests binned by hydrogeologic unit. Uncertainty is added to these ranges where hydraulic-conductivity estimates derived from aquifer tests use contributing thicknesses that differ from simulated thicknesses in a numerical model. Transmissivity observations from individual aquifer tests constrain model calibration better than hydraulic-conductivity ranges assigned to hydrogeologic units because simulated transmissivity and aquifer-test results are compared directly. Transmissivity comparisons require that simulated thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities for the volume investigated by the aquifer test be extracted from a model and integrated into a simulated transmissivity. Transmissivity observations have been ignored primarily because sampling simulated transmissivities is mechanically painful from complex models. A suite of programs called T-COMP has been developed to sample simulated transmissivities easily from regional MODFLOW models. Transmissivities of model cells are sampled where drawdown exceeds a user-defined threshold. Sampled transmissivities of model cells are averaged within a layer and summed between layers. This computationally intensive process occurs in separate programs that are executed prior to model calibration. Simulated transmissivities can be sampled quickly during calibration because nodes and their fractional contributions have been defined.

Halford, K. J.

2013-12-01

155

2006 Final Transmission Proposal: Revenue Requirements Study.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Revenue Requirement Study (Study) is to establish the level of revenues needed from rates for Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) transmission and ancillary services to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, costs associated with the transmission of electric power over the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). The FCRTS is part of the larger Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) which also includes the hydroelectric, multipurpose facilities constructed and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation in the Pacific Northwest. The FCRPS costs that are not included in the FCRTS costs are funded and repaid through BPA power rates. The transmission revenue requirements herein include: recovery of the Federal investment in transmission and transmission-related assets; the operations and maintenance (O&M) and other annual expenses associated with the provision of transmission and ancillary services; the cost of generation inputs for ancillary services and other between business-line services necessary for the transmission of power; and all other transmission-related costs incurred by the Administrator. The cost evaluation period for this rate proposal includes Fiscal Years (FYs) 2005-2007, the period extending from the last year for which historical information is available through the proposed rate test period. The Study includes the transmission revenue requirements for the rate test period, FYs 2006-2007 (Rate Period) and the results of transmission repayment studies. This Study outlines the policies, forecasts, assumptions, and calculations used to determine BPA's transmission revenue requirements. Legal requirements are summarized in Chapter 5 of this Study. The Revenue Requirement Study Documentation (Documentation), TR-06-FS-BPA-01A, contains key technical assumptions and calculations, the results of the transmission repayment studies, and a further explanation of the repayment inputs and its outputs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-06-01

156

Continuously variable vehicular transmission for reducing transmission torque applied to belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for a vehicle, comprising: a torque converter driven by an engine; an input shaft connected to an output of the torque converter; a transmission output shaft; a transmission mechanism of variable ratio including a planetary gear mechanism and a controller for controlling rotational states of elements of the planetary gear mechanism. The transmission mechanism has at least reverse and forward low speed ranges of large reduction ratios and a forward high speed range of small reduction ratio. The transmission mechanism of variable ratio is in torque transmitting engagement with the input shaft and the transmission output shaft, the input shaft constituting a first input to the transmission mechanism of variable ratio; a belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism including an input pulley in torque transmitting engagement with the input shaft and an output pulley provided on a sleeve, each pulley having a stationary flange and a movable flange axially movable with respect to the stationary flange, and torque transmitting means of an endless belt type running on the two pulleys. The output pulley is coupled to the transmission output shaft via the planetary gear mechanism in the forward high speed range.

Sumiyoshi, M.; Matsunari, F.

1987-02-24

157

Modal Analysis of a Truck Transmission Based on ANSYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration and noises are important reasons for transmission failure and are two important technical indexes of transmissions. The modal analysis of transmission is conducted by ANSYS software according to studying a certain truck transmission. The CAD three-dimensional model of the transmission is built by PRO\\/E. The natural frequency and vibration mode of the transmission are obtained and its vibration characteristics

Qin-man Fan

2011-01-01

158

The transmission interface constraint problem  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission systems exhibit a number of complex constraints on their operation and usage. When a network is subject to a constraint that limits the amount of power that can be moved from one region to another, there is said to be an interface limit. The power systems literature gives no general treatment of the engineering-economics of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Particular aspects of interface limits are typically discussed in sophisticated technical detail, but the general engineering-economic trade-offs involved in relieving interface constraints have not been systematically addressed. We approach this problem in the spirit of a heuristic model. Such models are quite valuable under current industry conditions because they delineate technical opportunities and choices in situations where there may be conflicting views among competing parties and regulatory authorities. We organize and enumerate the choices, clarify the practical conditions that dictate the optimum in particular cases, and help to motivate the final choices made by planners.

Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.

1993-10-01

159

Shock transmissibility of threaded joints  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with threaded joints that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration; drilling pipe strings that must survive rock-cutting, shock environments; and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact shock. This paper summarizes an analytical study and an experimental evaluation of compressive, one-dimensional, shock transmission through a threaded joint in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Thread geometries were scaled to simulate large diameter threaded joints with loadings parallel to the axis of the threads. Both strain and acceleration were evaluated with experimental measurements and analysis. Analytical results confirm the experimental conclusions that in this split Hopkinson bar configuration, the change in the one-dimensional shock wave by the threaded joint is localized to a length equal to a few diameters` length beyond the threaded joint.

Hansen, N.R.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

1996-12-31

160

Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

1984-01-01

161

Control system for an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A system for controlling an infinitely variable transmission is described for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine having a throttle. A clutch operatively connects the engine to the transmission. The transmission comprises a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable first disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the first disc. A driven pulley has a hydraulically shiftable second disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the second disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The system comprises a pressure oil circuit having a pump for supplying oil for the cylinders, a line pressure control valve having a first spool for controlling line pressure of pressurized oil from the pump, and a transmission ratio control valve having a second spool for controlling the pressurized oil to move the first disc of the drive pulley. This changes the transmission ratio of the transmission.

Morimoto, Y.

1987-06-16

162

Optical fibers for ultralarge capacity DWDM transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to meet ever-increasing demand for large transmission capacity, optical fiber technologies are evolving toward ultimate performance. New generation non- zero dispersion-shifted fibers, whose dispersion characteristics are optimized for ultra-large transmission capacity terrestrial networks, have recently been introduced. In the field of submarine cable networks, dispersion-flattened and dispersion-managed hybrid transmission lines are emerging rapidly.

Nishimura, Masayuki

2001-07-01

163

Transmission losses in left-handed materials.  

PubMed

We numerically analyze the origin of the transmission losses in left-handed structures. Our data confirms that left-handed structures can have very good transmission properties, in spite of the expectable dispersion of their effective permeability and refraction index. The large permittivity of the metallic components improves the transmission. High losses, observed in recent experiments, could be explained by the absorption of the dielectric board. PMID:12443250

Markos, P; Rousochatzakis, I; Soukoulis, C M

2002-10-01

164

Transmission losses in left-handed materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We numerically analyze the origin of the transmission losses in left-handed structures. Our data confirms that left-handed structures can have very good transmission properties, in spite of the expectable dispersion of their effective permeability and refraction index. The large permittivity of the metallic components improves the transmission. High losses, observed in recent experiments, could be explained by the absorption of the dielectric board.

Markoš, P.; Rousochatzakis, I.; Soukoulis, C. M.

2002-10-01

165

A Micro Wireless Video Transmission System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper introduces a micro embedded wireless video transmission system based on WIFI. The system communication is based\\u000a on C\\/S structure. Server takes the TI DaVinci technology to process video and uses H.264 for video compression before transmission.\\u000a Realization of four modules for the server is introduced. All the hardware were designed and made into a micro wireless video\\u000a transmission

Yong-ming Yang; Xue-jun Chen; Wei He; Yu-xing Mao

166

Dopaminergic transmission in the rat retina: evidence for volume transmission.  

PubMed

The study was designed to determine whether dopaminergic neurotransmission in the retina can operate via volume transmission. In double immunolabelling experiments, a mismatch as well as a match was demonstrated in the rat retina between tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine (DA) immunoreactive (ir) terminals and cell bodies and dopamine D2 receptor-like ir cell bodies and processes. The match regions were located in the inner nuclear and plexiform layers (D2 ir cell bodies plus processes). The mismatch regions were located in the ganglion cell layer, the outer plexiform layer, and the outer segment of the photoreceptor layer, where very few TH ir terminals can be found in relation to the D2 like ir processes. In similar experiments analyzing D1 receptor like ir processes versus TH ir nerve terminals, mainly a mismatch in their distribution could be demonstrated, with the D1 like ir processes present in the outer plexiform layer and the outer segment where a mismatch in D2 like receptors also exists. The demonstration of a mismatch between the localization of the TH terminal plexus and the dopamine D2 and D1 receptor subtypes in the outer plexiform layer, the outer segment and the ganglion cell layer (only D2 immunoreactivity (IR)) suggests that dopamine, mainly from the inner plexiform layer, may reach the D2 and D1 mismatch receptors via diffusion in the extracellular space. After injecting dopamine into the corpus vitreum, dopamine diffuses through the retina, and strong catecholamine (CA) fluorescence appears in the entire inner plexiform layer and the entire outer plexiform layer, representing the match and mismatch DA receptor areas, respectively. The DA is probably bound to D1 and D2 receptors in both plexiform layers, since the DA receptor antagonist chlorpromazine fully blocks the appearance of the DA fluorescence, while only a partial blockade is found after haloperidol treatment which mainly blocks D2 receptors. These results indicate that the amacrine and/or interplexiform DA cells, with sparse branches in the outer plexiform layer, can operate via volume transmission in the rat retina to influence the outer plexiform layer and the outer segment, as well as other layers of the rat retina such as the ganglion cell layer. PMID:9001947

Bjelke, B; Goldstein, M; Tinner, B; Andersson, C; Sesack, S R; Steinbusch, H W; Lew, J Y; He, X; Watson, S; Tengroth, B; Fuxe, K

1996-11-01

167

Asymmetric transmission for linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation.  

PubMed

Metamaterials have shown to support the intriguing phenomenon of asymmetric electromagnetic transmission in the opposite propagation directions, for both circular and linear polarizations. In the present article, we propose a criterion on the relationship among the elements of transmission matrix, which allows asymmetrical transmission for linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation only while the reciprocal transmission for circularly one. Asymmetric hybridized metamaterials are shown to satisfy this criterion. The influence from the rotation of the sample around the radiation propagation direction is discussed. A special structure design is proposed, and its characteristics are analyzed by using numerical simulation. PMID:21643086

Kang, Ming; Chen, Jing; Cui, Hai-Xu; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

2011-04-25

168

1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

US Bonneville Power Administration

1993-10-01

169

Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line  

DOEpatents

Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

2014-12-30

170

Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks. PMID:24916411

Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

2014-01-01

171

The hidden value of transmission assets  

SciTech Connect

Numerous utilities have realized that they can do better with their transmission assets than neutering them into ISOs and have proposed the creation of for-profit transmission companies (Transcos). This would turn transmission assets into equity with higher risk but also returns potentially higher than the regulated cost of capital. This article's contribution to the ongoing debate is to show that Transcos constitute a simple and robust solution to transmission congestion problems that would otherwise jeopardize the advent of competitive power markets. Policymakers and regulators should therefore view favorably the emergence of for-profit, regulated transmission companies, and leave them with reasonable room to recover their cost and earn a fully compensatory return on investment. Regulatory benevolence is crucial for Transcos, for electric power transmission is arguably the ultimate regulated activity: significant economies of scale and wide-ranging network externalities (the infamous loop flows) make operation and management of the grid a natural monopoly that must be regulated. A significant share of the value at stake therefore hinges on the regulator's attitude towards the for-profit transmission company: if the regulator is favorable, she will leave enough room to recover the variable and capital costs. If she is unfavorable, the proposition is simply a non-starter. This article first builds a public policy argument in favor of transmission companies, then discusses the key success factors required to create significant value in transmission: regulatory prowess and superior network management.

Nasser, T.O. (McKinsey and Co., Washington, DC (United States))

1999-06-01

172

Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

John Svoboda

2011-04-01

173

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2012-10-01

174

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2011-10-01

175

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2013-10-01

176

Broadband Transmission via Underground Medium-Voltage Power Lines—Part I: Transmission Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission characteristics of underground medium-voltage\\/broadband over power line (MV\\/BPL) channels are examined analytically. By appropriately modifying multiconductor transmission-line theory, the bottom-up approach, already used to treat overhead MV\\/BPL transmission, is extended to analyze BPL transmission in three-phase underground MV lines with common shield and armor. ThIS analysis shows that these cables may support five modes, giving rise to five

Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos; Panayiotis G. Cottis

2010-01-01

177

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

178

PHYSICAL OR FINANCIAL TRANSMISSION RIGHTS? AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION INSTITUTIONS.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ,(FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide ,open access to their transmission networks ,and to separate ,their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and ,in ways ,different from ,in the ,past. This research ,project tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power ,market

Brian T. Kench

179

Biology and transmission of avian influenza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal-oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

180

Analytical transmission electron microscopy in materials science  

SciTech Connect

Microcharacterization of materials on a scale of less than 10 nm has been afforded by recent advances in analytical transmission electron microscopy. The factors limiting accurate analysis at the limit of spatial resolution for the case of a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are examined in this paper.

Fraser, H.L.

1980-01-01

181

Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

2004-01-01

182

Evolution of Mutualistic Symbiosis without Vertical Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic symbioses are considered to evolve from parasitic relationships. Vertical transmission, defined as the direct transfer of infection from a parent organism to its progeny, has been suggested as a key factor causing reduction of symbiont virulence and evolution of mutualism. On the other hand, there are several mutualistic associations without vertical transmission, such as those between plants and mycorrhizal

Motomi Genkai-Kato; Norio Yamamura

1999-01-01

183

Chapter 5. Transmission networks and electricity markets  

E-print Network

busbar not tenable. Transmission constraints and losses can introduce gross distortions in the marketChapter 5. Transmission networks and electricity markets 1 #12;Introduction In most of the regions not determined by the wishes of market participants but by physical laws. Even if it was determined by the wishes

Ernst, Damien

184

Asymmetric volatility transmission in international stock markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission mechanism of price and volatility spillovers across the New York, Tokyo and London stock markets is investigated. The asymmetric impact of good news (market advances) and bad news (market declines) on volatility transmission is described by an extended multivariate Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroskedastic (EGARCH) model. Using daily open-to-close returns, we find strong evidence that volatility spillovers in

G. Geoffrey Booth

1995-01-01

185

Seismic reliability of electrical power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of electric power transmission systems is important for the probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants under a given earthquake loading as it relates to the loss of off site power to the nuclear power plants. Here, a comprehensive model to evaluate the seismic reliability of electric power transmission systems is presented. The model provides probabilistic assessments of

J. A. Pires; A. H.-S. Ang; R. Villaverde

1996-01-01

186

Understanding the transmission access and wheeling problem  

SciTech Connect

Institutional and regulatory changes in the uses of the nation's bulk power transmission systems that fail to recognize the technical complexity of the systems and the planning and operating problems involved can be disruptive of system reliability and of economic incentive needed for new facilities and technology. This article reviews basic technical and economic considerations connected with the transmission access problem. 2 figures.

Casazza, J.A.

1985-10-31

187

Modelling wildlife rabies: Transmission, economics, and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease of mammals; it exacerbates the uncertainty of conserving populations of some threatened mammals (TM). Modelling affords an inexpensive, a priori way of studying key parameters of wildlife rabies transmission, rabies management economics, and TM conservation. Numerous models of rabies transmission have been published. Linear density dependent models predicted that a threshold density (KT?1.0), possibly

Ray T. Sterner; Graham C. Smith

2006-01-01

188

Electric Transmission Line Flashover Prediction System  

E-print Network

Electric Transmission Line Flashover Prediction System Ph.D. Thesis and Final Project Report Power Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Electric Transmission Line Publication 01-16 May 2001 #12;Information about this Report For information about this project contact

189

Research toward optical-fiber transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundementals of optical fiber transmission systems including the fiber transmission medium, sources suitable for use as a carrier, modulation and detection techniques, and some system design considerations are reviewed. The advent of low-loss optical fibers brings new dimensions to optical communication prospects. Fibers may soon be used much as wire pairs of coaxial cable are now used in communication

S. E. Miller; E. A. J. Marcatili; Tingye Li

1973-01-01

190

Analysis of video transmission over lossy channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical analysis of the overall mean squared error (MSE) in hybrid video coding is presented for the case of error prone transmission. Our model covers the complete transmission system including the rate-distortion performance of the video encoder, forward error correction, interleaving, and the effect of error concealment and interframe error propagation at the video decoder. The channel model used

Klaus Stuhlmüller; Niko Färber; Michael Link; Bernd Girod

2000-01-01

191

Transmission of airborne contaminants in airliner cabins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine flu had already affected 13,000 people in 48 countries within a month of its emergence in Mexico. The risk of disease transmission is augmented by the increasing mobility of people across the world. Nearly two billion people travel on commercial airliners each year. Therefore, knowledge about the transmission mechanism of viruses such as swine flu inside commercial airliner cabins

Sagnik Mazumdar

2009-01-01

192

Avian influenza biology and disease transmission  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural host and reservoir for avian influenza is in wild birds where the viral infection is typically asymptomatic. The virus primarily replicates in the enteric tract and transmission is thought to be primarily by fecal oral transmission. Avian influenza can infect a broad host range, but fo...

193

Ecology and transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied ecological factors affecting transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis, the common large roundworm of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) to intermediate hosts. Infective eggs of B. procyonis are present at raccoon latrines, and these sites may be important in the transmission of this parasite to small vertebrates in forested areas. I found that raccoon latrines exhibited characteristics generally associated with

Laura Kristen Page

1998-01-01

194

Compressed television transmission: A market survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

1981-01-01

195

Contract networks for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contract network extends the concept of a contract path to address the problem of loop flow and congestion in electric power transmission systems. A contract network option provides an internally consistent framework for assigning long-term capacity rights to a complicated electric transmission network. The contract network respects the special conditions induced by Kirchoff's Laws; accommodates thermal, voltage, and contingency

William W. Hogan

1992-01-01

196

A market mechanism for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

1996-01-01

197

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

2002-01-01

198

Application considerations for HTSC power transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electric Power transmission infrastructure is described to establish a background to examine the potential for applications of underground transmission cables using HTSC materials. Near-term and farther out scenarios are identified that could become niches for this type of cable system. Two design concepts for AC cables are presented and discussed in relation to historical systems that were proposed with LTSC materials.

Engelhardt, John S.; Von Dollen, Donald; Samm, Ralph

1992-04-01

199

Control system for an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A system is described for controlling an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine through a clutch for driving a motor vehicle. The transmission comprises a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the driven pulley, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The system includes a pressure oil circuit having a pump for supplying pressurized oil, and a transmission ratio control valve having a spool for controlling the pressurized oil so as to move the disc of the drive pulley to change the actual transmission ratio of the transmission. The improvement in the system comprises: first means for moving the spool of the transmission ratio control valve; second means responsive to disengagement of the clutch, when speed of the vehicle is below a predetermined speed, for producing a coasting signal; third means responsive to the coasting signal for producing a drive pulley speed set signal; fourth means responsive to the drive pulley speed set signal for producing a shifting signal representing a quantity of shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in upshifting direction, and fifth means responsive to the shifting signal for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in the upshifting direction via the first means thereby decreasing the drive pulley speed.

Morimoto, Y.

1987-07-21

200

Control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine for driving a motor vehicle. The transmission has a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc, a driven pulley including a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the latter disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The control system includes a first hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil to both the hydraulic cylinders, and a transmission ratio control valve having a shiftable spool for controlling the oil supplied to at least one of the cylinders. The improvement in the control system comprises: means for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve; means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and transmission and for producing a first signal dependent on the conditions; means for producing a control signal to shift the spool to control the transmission ratio of the transmission to the desired transmission ratio value; and a means for detecting a steady state driving condition and for producing a steady state signal.

Tanaka, H.; Morimoto, Y.

1989-01-03

201

Network modeling of BVD transmission  

PubMed Central

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. PMID:22325043

2012-01-01

202

Network modeling of BVD transmission.  

PubMed

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. PMID:22325043

Tinsley, Mark; Lewis, Fraser I; Brülisauer, Franz

2012-01-01

203

Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

2004-01-01

204

Low cost image transmission system  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

Skogmo, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Technology Dept.

1995-12-31

205

Stress Transmission within the Cell  

PubMed Central

An outstanding problem in cell biology is how cells sense mechanical forces and how those forces affect cellular functions. During past decades, it has become evident that the deformable cytoskeleton (CSK), an intracellular network of various filamentous biopolymers, provides a physical basis for transducing mechanical signals into biochemical responses. To understand how mechanical forces regulate cellular functions, it is necessary to first understand how the CSK develops mechanical stresses in response to applied forces, and how those stresses are propagated through the CSK where various signaling molecules are immobilized. New experimental techniques have been developed to quantify cytoskeletal mechanics, which together with new computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models for describing mechanics of living cells. In this article, we discuss current understanding of cell biomechanics by focusing on the biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for the development and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell and their effect on cellular functions. We compare and contrast various theories and models of cytoskeletal mechanics, emphasizing common mechanisms that those theories are built upon, while not ignoring irreconcilable differences. We highlight most recent advances in the understanding of mechanotransduction in the cytoplasm of living cells and the central role of the cytoskeletal prestress in propagating mechanical forces along the cytoskeletal filaments to activate cytoplasmic enzymes. It is anticipated that advances in cell mechanics will help developing novel therapeutics to treat pulmonary diseases like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23737186

Stamenovi?, Dimitrije; Wang, Ning

2014-01-01

206

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

1992-07-01

207

Alternative transmission modes for Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, is typically transmitted through a cycle in which vectors become infected through bloodmeals on infected hosts and then infect other hosts through defecation at the sites of subsequent feedings. The vectors native to the southeastern United States, however, are inefficient at transmitting T. cruzi in this way, which suggests that alternative transmission modes may be responsible for maintaining the established sylvatic infection cycle. Vertical and oral transmission of sylvatic hosts, as well as differential behavior of infected vectors, have been observed anecdotally. This study develops a model which accounts for these alternative modes of transmission, and applies it to transmission between raccoons and the vector Triatoma sanguisuga. Analysis of the system of nonlinear differential equations focuses on endemic prevalence levels and on the infection's basic reproductive number, whose form may account for how a combination of traditionally secondary infection routes can maintain the transmission cycle when the usual primary route becomes ineffective. PMID:20578791

Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M

2010-07-01

208

Method of calibrating clutches in transmissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a microprocessor controlling a shuttle shift transmission programmed to effect a calibration of the final drive clutches in the transmission so that the microprocessor can efficiently effect engagement of each respective clutch by applying the proper hydraulic pressure to cause proper engagement thereof. This method of calibrating the final drive clutches in the transmission includes braking the output shaft of the transmission so that any engagement of the selected final drive clutch being calibrated will cause a load to be applied to the engine. The hydraulic pressure is then incrementally increased until the engine RPM's decrease because of the load being placed on the engine. The value of this engagement hydraulic pressure is stored in the microprocessor for use when effecting engagement of the selected clutch during operation of the transmission. Service indicators are programmed into the microprocessor should the selected clutch not be capable of being calibrated.

Bulgrien, G.H.

1991-02-05

209

Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

Hebert, L. M.

1984-01-01

210

Transmission of Human Papillomavirus in Heterosexual Couples  

PubMed Central

We examined the transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) in 25 heterosexual, monogamous couples (25 men, 25 women), followed up over an average of 7.5 months. A total of 53 heterosexual transmission events were observed among 16 couples (14 male-to-female and 39 female-to-male). Sexual transmission involved 13 different oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types; 8% were vaccine-covered types transmitted between partners. The overall rate of HPV transmission from the penis to the cervix was 4.9/100 person-months, which was substantially lower than that from the cervix to the penis (17.4/100 person-months). Transmission between the hands and genitals, as well as apparent self-inoculation events (primarily in men), were also observed. Couples who transmitted HPV were more sexually active and used condoms less frequently. These results have implications for HPV prevention and control strategies, including the targeting of prophylactic vaccines. PMID:18507898

Wilkens, Lynne R.; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela; McDuffie, Katharine; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Killeen, Jeffrey; Ning, Lily; Goodman, Marc T.

2008-01-01

211

NASA transmission research and its probable effects on helicopter transmission design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmissions studied for application to helicopters in addition to the more conventional geared transmissions include hybrid (traction/gear), bearingless planetary, and split torque transmissions. Research is being performed to establish the validity of analysis and computer codes developed to predict the performance, efficiency, life, and reliability of these transmissions. Results of this research should provide the transmission designer with analytical tools to design for minimum weight and noise with maximum life and efficiency. In addition, the advantages and limitations of drive systems as well as the more conventional systems will be defined.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

1983-01-01

212

New Insights in Cysticercosis Transmission  

PubMed Central

Taenia solium infection causes severe neurological disease in humans. Even though infection and exposure to swine cysticercosis is scattered throughout endemic villages, location of the tapeworm only explains some of the nearby infections and is not related to location of seropositive pigs. Other players might be involved in cysticercosis transmission. In this study we hypothesize that pigs that carry nematodes specific to dung beetles are associated with cysticercosis infection and/or exposure. We carried out a cross-sectional study of six villages in an endemic region in northern Peru. We euthanized all pigs (326) in the villages and performed necropsies to diagnose cysticercosis. For each pig, we counted cysticerci; measured anti-cysticercus antibodies; identified intestinal nematodes; tabulated distance to nearest human tapeworm infection; and recorded age, sex, productive stage, and geographic reference. For the purpose of this paper, we defined cysticercosis infection as the presence of at least one cysticercus in pig muscles, and cysticercosis exposure as seropositivity to anti-cysticercus antibodies with the presence of 0–5 cysticerci. Compared to pigs without nematode infections, those pigs infected with the nematode Ascarops strongylina were significantly associated with the presence of cysticerci (OR: 4.30, 95%CI: 1.83–10.09). Similarly, pigs infected with the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were more likely to have cysticercosis exposure (OR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.50–3.28). In conclusion, our results suggest that there appears to be a strong positive association between the presence of nematodes and both cysticercosis infection and exposure in pigs. The role of dung beetles in cysticercosis dynamics should be further investigated. PMID:25329903

Arriola, Carmen S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.

2014-01-01

213

Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission  

SciTech Connect

For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2011-11-10

214

an electric power transmission system  

E-print Network

“Geomagnetically induced currents ” (GIC) in ground-based technological networks are a manifestation of space weather. GIC are a potential source of problems to the systems and therefore important in practice. GIC in a power system (or in principle in any other discretely-earthed system) can be calculated conveniently by using matrix equations presented earlier. Since temporal variations associated with GIC are slow compared to the 50/60 Hz frequency used in power transmission, a dc treatment is acceptable. An essential quantity in calculations of GIC in a power grid is the earthing impedance matrix, which is the transfer function coupling GIC flowing to (from) the Earth with the voltages between the earthing points, called nodes or (sub)stations, and a remote earth. The diagonal elements of the matrix equal the earthing resistances of the nodes whereas an off-diagonal element expresses how much GIC at one earthing point affects the voltage at another node. In GIC calculations, except for some special treatments of individual sites, the off-diagonal elements are usually neglected by saying simply that the earthing points (are assumed to) lie distantly enough. In this paper, we examine the effects of off-diagonal elements of the earthing impedance matrix, i.e. the effects of interactions between different stations, on GIC calculations in greater detail and more quantitatively than before. We consider a fictitious system that represents a high-voltage power grid and a simple “network ” consisting of two stations with a line connecting them. For both systems, the conclusion can be drawn that the off-diagonal elements do not play a major role

Risto Pirjola

2007-01-01

215

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

216

Using Nonhuman Primates to Model HIV Transmission  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review One of the major obstacles in fully understanding HIV transmission comes from the impracticality of studying transmission in humans. Because of this encumbrance, the early phases of HIV transmission and systemic dissemination are poorly understood. In order to fully comprehend these critical steps in HIV infection, animal models must be devised to accurately reflect HIV’s mode of action. This review seeks to highlight the essential nature of modeling HIV transmission in nonhuman primates. Recent Findings Recently it was discovered that HIV infection is established in newly infected recipients by a single or few transmitted/founder variants. This has reshaped how animal modeling is conducted with researchers currently recapitulating a physiologically relevant, low-titer infection. Pertinent animal models have been established for the most common routes of infection, including rectal, vaginal, and penile transmission; models for intravenous and oral transmission are still in developmental stages. Summary These limited dose models now accurately reflect HIV transmission in humans, and provide a realistic experimental platform for vaccine development and other intervention strategies which can be used to inform vaccine development in humans. Using information obtained in NHP and human trials, it is conceivable to envision effective prevention modalities in the near future. PMID:23666391

Fennessey, Christine M.; Keele, Brandon F.

2014-01-01

217

Control system for a infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting power of an internal combustion engine to driving wheels of a motor vehicle, the transmission having a drive pulley including a hydraulically shiftable first disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the first disc, a driven pulley including a hydraulically shiftable second disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the second disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys, the system including a first hydraulic circuit having an oil pump of the vehicle and for supplying oil to the first and second hydraulic cylinders, and a transmission ratio control valve disposed in the first hydraulic circuit and having a shiftable spool so as to control the oil being supplied to the first hydraulic cylinder of the drive pulley to change the transmission ratio of the transmission, the improvement in the system comprising: a second hydraulic circuit having a pressure regulator valve means communicating with the pump for maintaining pressure of oil supplied by the pump as control oil at a constant value, the second hydraulic circuit for supplying the control oil to the transmission ratio control valve so as to shift the spool; control valve means provided in the second hydraulic circuit for controlling the amount of the control oil supplied to the transmission ratio control valve so as to shift the spool.

Morimoto, Y.

1988-11-15

218

Kickdown system for an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine of a vehicle having an accelerator pedal for operating the engine. The transmission comprises a primary pulley having a first hydraulically shiftable disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc, a secondary pulley having a second hydraulically shiftable disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the second disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The system includes a hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil, a transmission ratio control valve provided in the hydraulic circuit and having a spool shiftable in accordance with the speed of the engine for controlling the oil supplied to the cylinder for shifting the first disc of the primary pulley to change the transmission ratio of the transmission, and a pressure regulator valve provided in the circuit and having a spool shiftable in accordance with the transmission ratio for increasing the pressure of the oil applied to the cylinders with an increase of the transmission ratio. The improvement described here comprises: a kickdown switch means operative to produce a kickdown signal upon full depression of the accelerator pedal of the vehicle; and electronic circuit means responsive to the kickdown signal for producing a downshift signal for a period of duration.

Miyawaki, M.

1987-03-24

219

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of almost all cases of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH). HCV is an RNA virus, unrelated to the hepatitis viruses, A, B, D, or E; it was first identified in 1989. Although most infections become chronic, and it may lead to chronic liver disease, most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic. The predominant modes of transmission are by blood, blood products, or other parenteral exposure, particularly injecting drug use. More contentious is the role of sexual transmission, although evidence for this was provided by studies of NANBH. OBJECTIVE: This review considers the evidence for sexual transmission, and the types of studies used to estimate the rate of transmission and the factors that may influence it. METHOD: A Medline search using the keywords hepatitis C, sex, transmission, and prevalence in MeSH and free text. References in papers were searched, and some unpublished data identified. References were further selected to illustrate different methodologies. FINDINGS: Evidence for sexual transmission is provided by several types of study including prevalence studies in groups at risk of other STDs, investigation of cases identified from surveillance reports, and cross sectional and longitudinal partner studies. Many studies are limited by their small size, the sensitivity and specificity of early assays, lack of controls, or the difficulty of excluding other routes of transmission. One prospective cohort study reported an incidence of 12 per 1000 person years in the sexual partners of HCV infected patients. 1-3% of partners of HCV infected patients are found to be infected in cross sectional studies. Co-infection with HIV, duration of the relationship, or chronic liver disease may be independent cofactors increasing the risk of transmission. A meta-analysis of selected studies may be informative, and further larger prospective studies are required. There is a small but definite risk of sexual transmission of hepatitis C. ??? PMID:10195047

Rooney, G.; Gilson, R. J.

1998-01-01

220

Sensitivity-enhanced transmission Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Transmission Raman sensitivity for a representative commercial pharmaceutical tablet was increased by a factor of 40 using optics that returned lost laser and Raman photons to the tablet surface. A new achromatic one-way mirror is introduced that uses the spatial coherence of laser light to nondestructively force laser photons through the reflective tablet coating. Transmission Raman mapping and spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) mapping were developed and used to better understand the sensitivity-enhancement technology. Fundamental limitations of the sensitivity-enhancement approach are described and used to guide the design of the optics. The sensitivity-enhancement optics are compatible with commercial transmission Raman instruments. PMID:23876721

Pelletier, Michael J

2013-08-01

221

Loss compensation of extraordinary optical transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, metal hole arrays have been studied intensively in the context of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). Recently it was shown that surface plasmons on optically pumped hole arrays can show laser action. So far, however, it is not demonstrated that the optical transmission of these arrays can also be increased using gain. In this Letter, we present a dramatic increase of the EOT via loss compensation of surface plasmons, accompanied by spectral narrowing of the resonance. These experiments allow us to quantify the modal gain experienced by the surface plasmon. Interestingly, the transmission minimum of the Fano-resonance becomes smaller.

Beijnum, Frerik van; van Veldhoven, Peter J.; Jan Geluk, Erik; Hooft, Gert W.'t.; van Exter, Martin P.

2014-02-01

222

Wavelet encoding and variable resolution progressive transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progressive transmission is a method of transmitting and displaying imagery in stages of successively improving quality. The subsampled lowpass image representations generated by a wavelet transformation suit this purpose well, but for best results the order of presentation is critical. Candidate data for transmission are best selected using dynamic prioritization criteria generated from image contents and viewer guidance. We show that wavelets are not only suitable but superior when used to encode data for progressive transmission at non-uniform resolutions. This application does not preclude additional compression using quantization of highpass coefficients, which to the contrary results in superior image approximations at low data rates.

Blanford, Ronald P.

1993-01-01

223

Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

Jake P Gentle

2012-08-01

224

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)] [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1995-01-01

225

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

226

7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nonloaded subscriber loop circuits for data modem transmission. (b) Signal-to-C...performance of data transmission because proper modem operation requires low noise relative...transmission facility may be reduced using data modems with equalization or by conditioning...

2013-01-01

227

7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...nonloaded subscriber loop circuits for data modem transmission. (b) Signal-to-C...performance of data transmission because proper modem operation requires low noise relative...transmission facility may be reduced using data modems with equalization or by conditioning...

2011-01-01

228

7 CFR 1755.405 - Voiceband data transmission measurements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nonloaded subscriber loop circuits for data modem transmission. (b) Signal-to-C...performance of data transmission because proper modem operation requires low noise relative...transmission facility may be reduced using data modems with equalization or by conditioning...

2012-01-01

229

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sufficient transmission system monitoring and control capability so as...controlled by an automatic transmission system (ATS) that...malfunction. An automatic transmission system consists of monitoring devices, control and alarm...

2013-10-01

230

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sufficient transmission system monitoring and control capability so as...controlled by an automatic transmission system (ATS) that...malfunction. An automatic transmission system consists of monitoring devices, control and alarm...

2014-10-01

231

76 FR 58716 - Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...754] Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard AGENCY: Federal...of Commission-approved transmission planning Reliability Standard TPL-002-0...of Commission-approved transmission planning Reliability Standard...

2011-09-22

232

75 FR 14386 - Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RM10-6-000] Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard March 18, 2010...the Commission-approved transmission planning Reliability Standard TPL-002-0 provides that planning authorities and transmission...

2010-03-25

233

64 FR 31390 - Regional Transmission Organizations; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Restructuring and New Stresses on the Transmission Grid 2. Successes, Failures and Haphazard...and Expansion of Regional Transmission Grids 2. Actual and Perceived Discriminatory...Efficiencies in the Management of the Transmission Grid 2. An RTO Would Improve Grid...

1999-06-10

234

47 CFR 2.201 - Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics... Emissions § 2.201 Emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics...following system of designating emission, modulation, and transmission characteristics...

2014-10-01

235

Hantavirus transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments.  

PubMed

We developed a compartmental model for hantavirus infection in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) with the goal of comparing relative importance of direct and indirect transmission in sylvan and peridomestic environments. A direct transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an infected and an uninfected mouse, while an indirect transmission occurs when the infection is mediated by the contact of an uninfected mouse with, for instance, infected soil. Based on population dynamics data and estimates of hantavirus decay in the two types of environments, our model predicts that direct transmission dominates in the sylvan environment, while both pathways are important in peridomestic environments. The model allows us to compute a basic reproduction number R(0), which indicates whether the virus will be endemic or eradicated from the mouse population, in both an autonomous and a time-periodic model. Our analysis can be used to evaluate various eradication strategies. PMID:19821001

Gedeon, Tomás; Bodelón, Clara; Kuenzi, Amy

2010-04-01

236

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards... Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types...exchange messages with other stations in the amateur service, except those in any...

2011-10-01

237

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards... Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types...exchange messages with other stations in the amateur service, except those in any...

2012-10-01

238

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards... Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types...exchange messages with other stations in the amateur service, except those in any...

2013-10-01

239

Local SAR in parallel transmission pulse design  

E-print Network

The management of local and global power deposition in human subjects (specific absorption rate, SAR) is a fundamental constraint to the application of parallel transmission (pTx) systems. Even though the pTx and single ...

Lee, Joonsung

240

Transmission character of general function photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), whose refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), whose structure grows from two mediums A and B, with different constant refractive indexes na and nb. Based on the Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums A and B, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index functions, which are different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bo-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Zhang, Si-Qi; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Jing; Ba, Nuo; Hua, Zhong; Yin, Xin-Guo

2012-08-01

241

High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

Kim, Young il

242

Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

1991-01-01

243

Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations  

SciTech Connect

Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.

Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.

2012-05-20

244

Conic relaxations for transmission system planning  

E-print Network

We apply lift-and-project type relaxations for polynomial optimization problems to AC transmission system planning, and obtain new second-order cone and semidefinite models. The models are compared to linear and nonlinear ...

Taylor, Joshua A.

245

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

246

Transmission policy in the United States  

E-print Network

This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the U.S. over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2004-01-01

247

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the work accomplished to date on the NASA/Army Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. A 23-percent weight reduction has been demonstrated for a high output reduction ratio split path transmission compared to an aggressive program goal of 25-percent. Greater than 10 dB noise reduction in the cabin is achieved by the use of high contact ratio spur and double helical gears. In addition, mean times between transmission removals have been increased by almost four fold. These performance gains have been achieved by application of advanced transmission technology concepts. Technology areas are being explored which offer high gain but at relatively high risk in such areas as composites, split power gear concepts, double helical gears, new gear materials, high speed spring clutches, and ceramic rolling element bearings.

Kish, Jules

1990-01-01

248

40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted,...

2010-07-01

249

1 Introduction Danish transmission system operator  

E-print Network

1 1 Introduction Danish transmission system operator Energinet.dk has designed and constructed on a real-life operating 400 kV power system and initiated by Danish TSO Energinet.dk after having measured

Bak, Claus Leth

250

1 Introduction Danish transmission system operator  

E-print Network

1 Introduction Danish transmission system operator Energinet.dk has designed and constructed a newV power system and initiated by Danish TSO Energinet.dk after having measured the voltage of the cable

Bak, Claus Leth

251

Linear relaxations for transmission system planning  

E-print Network

We apply a linear relaxation procedure for polynomial optimization problems to transmission system planning. The approach recovers and improves upon existing linear models based on the DC approximation. We then consider ...

Taylor, Joshua A.

252

BARRIERS TO THE TRANSMISSION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The multiple barrier concept is applied by public health professionals as they attempt to prevent waterborne transmission of communicable diseases. This chapter discusses two water treatment techniques, filtration and disinfection, that are commonly used to provide barriers to di...

253

Transmission Issues and Power Exchanges in Texas  

E-print Network

to build. This paper presents a historical background on the development of the transmission system and describes the problems of assessing the impact and properly pricing certain bulk power transactions. In addition, it briefly describes the Electro-Magnetic...

Hughes, H. L.

254

Ebola virus transmission in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Ebola virus (EBOV) transmission is currently poorly characterized and thought to occur primarily by direct contact with infectious material; however transmission from swine to nonhuman primates via the respiratory tract has been documented. To establish an EBOV transmission model for performing studies with statistical significance, groups of six guinea pigs (gps) were challenged intranasally (IN) or intraperitoneally (IP) with 10,000 x LD50 of gp-adapted EBOV, and naïve gps were then introduced as cage-mates for contact exposure at 1 day post-infection (dpi). Animals were monitored for survival and clinical signs of disease, and quantitated for virus shedding post-exposure. Changes in contact duration of naïve gps with infected animals were evaluated for impact on transmission efficiency. Transmission was more efficient from IN compared to IP-challenged gps, with 17% versus 83% of naïve gps surviving exposure, respectively. Virus shedding was detected beginning at 3 dpi from both IN- and IP-challenged animals. Contact duration positively correlated with transmission efficiency, and the abrogation of direct contact between infected and naïve animals through the erection of a steel mesh is effective at stopping virus spread, provided that infectious animal bedding was absent in the cages. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings show that IN-infected gps display enhanced lung pathology and EBOV antigen in the trachea, which support increased virus transmission from these animals. The results suggest that IN-challenged gps are more infectious to naïve animals than their systemically-infected counterparts, and that transmission occurs through direct contact with infectious materials, including those transported through air movement over short distances. PMID:25392221

Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo; Richardson, Jason S; Cutts, Todd; Collignon, Brad; Gren, Jason; Aviles, Jenna; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P

2014-11-12

255

The inverse scattering problem for transmission lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of exact and approximate methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for transmission lines are reviewed. In particular, the application to transmission lines of Marcenko's version of the Gelfand-Levitan exact method for the quantum mechanical problem is compared with a more direct approach based on a different version of the Gelfand-Levitan method. In addition, some aspects of the lack of uniqueness of solutions are discussed, and some open questions related to the inverse scattering problem are suggested.

Kay, I.

1972-01-01

256

Transmission of polarized light in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to study polarized light transmission in fresh bovine skeletal muscle of varying thicknesses. Two-dimensional polarization-sensitive transmission images were acquired and analyzed using a numerical parametric fitting algorithm. The total transmittance intensity and degree-of-polarization were calculated for both central ballistic and surrounding scattering regions. Full Mueller matrix images were derived from the raw polarization images and the polar

Ali Shuaib; Xin Li; Gang Yao

2011-01-01

257

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

258

EHV high-phase-order power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into the following topics: benefits of high phase order, EHV high phase order alternatives to UHV 3 phase transmission, mechanical design of high phase order structures, transmission line economics, economics of line terminals, combined economics of lines and stations, single pole switching, neutral shift, rate of rise of recovery voltage on circuit breakers, gradient unbalance due to ground plane, insulation design of HPO systems, line optimization results, and sample line impedances. (DLC)

Douglass, D.A.; Kallaur, E.; Stewart, J.R.

1983-09-01

259

Backward bifurcations in dengue transmission dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of a strain of dengue disease, which allows transmission by exposed humans and mosquitoes, is developed and rigorously analysed. The model, consisting of seven mutually-exclusive compartments representing the human and vector dynamics, has a locally-asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium (DFE) whenever a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number(R0) is less than

S. M. Garba; A. B. Gumel; M. R. Abu Bakar

2008-01-01

260

Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

2011-01-01

261

Transmission for self-propelled working vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmissions for a self-propelled working vehicle including: an engine having a drive pulley operatively connected and a load source adapted to be driven with drive power from the engine; in which the transmission is interposed between the engine and the load source and adapted to transmit the drive power to the load source while shifting same into one of a set of at least two speed modes.

Hatakeyama, S.; Takahashi, H.

1987-08-04

262

Wireless power transmission for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the wireless power transmission capabilities of microwave through human skin-tissue. Microwave transmission through simulated human skins was tested with rectenna array as a power receiver located under the simulated human skin tissue. Most of transplanted medical devices and sensors require power to operate autonomously but currently by imbedded battery. Wireless power transmission alleviates the needs of imbedded power source and hard-wire power network. We used human skin-like materials, such as various polyurethanes and pork skin, under X-band microwave exposure. Transmission rate through various polyurethanes under the threshold limit value (TLV) and dielectric constant was measured in this experiment. It is also critical to measure specific absorption rates (SAR) of polyurethanes and transmission rates through polyurethanes as well as pork skin. This paper presents power transmission rates under varying thickness of polyurethanes, and effectiveness and efficiency of rectennas under the TLV of microwave power. In addition, we will discuss milimeter wave thermograph and hazards the absorption characteristics of human skin under 8-13 GHz using the results of polyurethanes and pork skin.

Payne, Josh; Song, Kyo D.; Yang, Sang Y.; Kim, Jaehwan; Park, Yeonjoon; Choi, Sang H.

2009-03-01

263

Control system for an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for controlling the transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting power of an internal combustion engine. The transmission comprises a primary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc, a secondary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc, and a belt engaged with both of the pulleys. The system comprises a first hydraulic circuit means having a pump for supplying pressurized oil, and a transmission ratio control valve having a spool responsive to speed of the engine for controlling the pressurized oil so as to move the disc of the primary pulley to change the transmission ratio. The improvement described here comprises: a second hydraulic circuit means for applying control oil to one end of the spool of the transmission ratio control valve so as to axially move the spool; an electronic control circuit means responsive to first pulses proportional to the speed of the engine for producing a first output signal dependent on the engine speed; and the electronic control circuit means including range change means, the latter for causing the electronic control circuit means to produce a second output signal dependent on the engine speed.

Miyawaki, M.

1987-04-14

264

Scheduling Planned Maintenance of Electrical Power Transmission Networks Using  

E-print Network

Scheduling Planned Maintenance of Electrical Power Transmission Networks Using Genetic Algorithms Technical Report: CSRP­97­26 10 November 1997 Abstract The maintenance of the electrical power transmission

Fernandez, Thomas

265

An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.  

SciTech Connect

References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

1994-08-01

266

System for controlling the transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for controlling the transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission for an engine mounted on a vehicle, the engine having a throttle valve and an electromagnetic clutch having a coil for transmitting the power of the engine to the transmission. The transmission comprises a primary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc, a secondary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the secondary pulley, and a belt engaged with both pulleys.

Ohgami, M.

1987-07-21

267

Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

Zhou, Qun

2011-12-01

268

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01

269

Multicore fibers for large capacity transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experience Internet traffic growth of 100 times every 10 years. However, the capacity of existing standard single-mode fiber is approaching its fundamental limit regardless of significant realization of transmission technologies which allow for high spectral efficiencies. Space division multiplexing (SDM) based on multicore fibers (MCFs) has emerged as a solution to the problem of saturation of the capacity of optical transmission systems. This article presents the recent progress on the MCFs for future large capacity long-distance transmission systems. In MCFs, there is a tradeoff relationship between low crosstalk and high multiplicity, therefore the maximum number of cores and the core arrangement have to be carefully determined based on the required crosstalk level and core size. The state-of-the-art of fabricated MCFs and the transmission experiments using MCFs are reviewed. The current maximum capacity-distance product in MCF transmission is 368.2 (184.1+184.1) Pb/s/fiber km with the relative spatial efficiency of 4.7 compared with a standard single-mode fiber. In order to increase the spatial efficiency as well as the capacity-distance product further in MCFs, the possibility of heterogeneous MCFs and few-mode MCFs is also presented.

Saitoh, Kunimasa; Matsuo, Shoichiro

2013-12-01

270

Scheduling Multicast Transmissions under SINR Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of scheduling wireless transmissions under signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraints has received increasing attention recently. While previous work has considered the unicast case where each transmission has one sender and one receiver, we consider the setting of multicast requests where each transmission has one sender and a set of receivers. A set of multicast transmissions can be scheduled in the same round if the SINR at all receivers is above a certain threshold. The goal is to minimise the number of rounds. Building on the relationship between SINR scheduling and unit disk graph colouring established by Halldórsson (ESA 2009), we present an O(log ?)-approximation algorithm for multicast scheduling in the SINR model, where ? is the ratio of the longest to the shortest link length, considering only the longest link of each multicast request. The algorithm uses uniform power assignment and can be implemented online. We also compare the model of atomic multicasts (where all receivers of a multicast must receive the transmission in the same round) to the model of splittable multicasts (where a multicast sender can transmit in several rounds, each time serving a subset of its receivers). Furthermore, we consider the throughput maximisation problem and obtain an O(log ?)-competitive randomised online algorithm and show that every deterministic algorithm, even for unicast links and using arbitrary power assignments, has competitive ratio ?(log?).

Erlebach, Thomas; Grant, Tom

271

Transmission/Disequilibrium Tests Incorporating Unaffected Offspring  

PubMed Central

We propose a new method for family-based tests of association and linkage called transmission/disequilibrium tests incorporating unaffected offspring (TDTU). This new approach, constructed based on transmission/disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDT), provides a natural extension of the transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) to utilize transmission information from heterozygous parents to their unaffected offspring as well as the affected offspring from ascertained nuclear families. TDTU can be used in various study designs and can accommodate all types of independent nuclear families with at least one affected offspring. When the study sample contains only case-parent trios, the TDTU is equivalent to TDT. Informative-transmission disequilibrium test (i-TDT) and generalized disequilibrium test(GDT) are another two methods that can use information of both unaffected offspring and affected offspring. In contract to i-TDT and GDT, the test statistic of TDTU is simpler and more explicit, and can be implemented more easily. Through computer simulations, we demonstrate that power of the TDTU is slightly higher compared to i-TDT and GDT. All the three methods are more powerful than method that uses affected offspring only, suggesting that unaffected siblings also provide information about linkage and association. PMID:25535968

Zeng, Zheng; Shu, Chang; Long, Lu; Lu, Jianhua; Huang, Yangxin; Yin, Ping

2014-01-01

272

Cell-to-cell transmission of viruses.  

PubMed

The life cycle of most viruses involves the release of particles into the extracellular space. Consequently, the study of virus egress as well as virus entry has focused almost exclusively on the biology of cell-free virus. However, cell-free virus spread is often very inefficient. Specific barriers, either located in the donor cell or in the target cell, prevent efficient spread by the cell-free mode. In contrast, viral spread by direct cell-cell contact is largely unaffected by most of these barriers resulting in preferential spread by cell-to-cell transmission. Virus cell-to-cell transmission allows an efficient coordination of several steps of the viral life cycle. It often involves complex inter-cellular adhesion, cellular polarity and intra-cellular trafficking. Because virus cell-to-cell transmission can involve transmission through zones of tight cell-cell contact that are resistant to neutralizing antibodies and reach a high local particle concentration, cell-to-cell transmission can contribute to the pathogenesis of viral infections. PMID:23219376

Zhong, Peng; Agosto, Luis M; Munro, James B; Mothes, Walther

2013-02-01

273

Graphene-supported tunable extraordinary transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By depositing a graphene layer on the metallic film with subwavelength hole arrays, the tunable extraordinary transmission property based on the metal-dielectrics-graphene (MDG) structure has been investigated in the terahertz (THz) and near-infrared (NIR) regimes. The influences of operation frequency, composed materials, and the Fermi level of the graphene layer have been taken into account. The results show that by varying the Fermi level of the graphene layer, the transmission of the MDG structure can be tuned in a wide range and the modulation depth of the peak value of the transmission can reach more than 50%. But the tunable mechanisms in the THz and NIR regimes are quite different. In the infrared (THz) regime, the graphene behaves like the dielectric (metallic) layer; its dielectric constant decreases (increases) with the increase of Fermi level, resulting in the transmission increasing (decreasing). Compared with the metallic structure, the transmission of the semiconductor structure can also be modulated by using the doping or varying temperature; its peak position can also be changed in a much broader range. The results are very useful to understand the mechanism of the graphene plasmonic devices and to design novel filters, switchers, modulators, and sensors.

He, Xiaoyong; Lu, Hongxia

2014-08-01

274

An all-silicon optical transmission system for clock and data transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low cost and mass integration potential of CMOS integrated circuits create an attractive opportunity for investigating CMOS as an optical platform. Although silicon, as an indirect band gap material, is known for inefficient electroluminescence, silicon-based optical transmission is still a much sought after capability. This paper shows the potential of an all silicon transmission system for both clock and

Paul Ellinghaus; Petrus J. Venter; Monuko Du Plessis; Pieter Rademeyer; Alfons W. Bogalecki

2010-01-01

275

TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSIBLE MINK ENCEPHALOPATHY (TME) TO RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) BY INTRACEREBRAL INOCULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the transmissibility of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agent to raccoons and to provide information about clinical course, lesions and suitability of currently used diagnostic procedures for detection of TSEs in raccoons, 4 raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with a br...

276

Modeling torque transmissibility for automotive dry clutch engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry clutch is a fundamental component in many automotive drivelines. For instance, the clutch torque transmissibility characteristic severely influences gearshift performance in automated manual transmissions. In this paper a novel model of the torque transmissibility of dry clutches is proposed. The dependence of the transmissibility characteristic on wear, slip speed and friction pads geometry and the influence of the

Francesco Vasca; Luigi Iannelli; Adolfo Senatore; Maurizio Taglialatela Scafati

2008-01-01

277

Wireless Power Transmission: An Obscure History, Possibly a Bright Future.  

E-print Network

power transmission could one day allow us to generate solar power on a satellite and beam it down efficiency of power line transmission, wireless power transmission is only practical under two generalWireless Power Transmission: An Obscure History, Possibly a Bright Future. Andrew Bomber Physics

La Rosa, Andres H.

278

Environmental Assessment of Bonneville Power Administration 1983 Transmission Rate Proposal.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to increase its transmission rates effective November 1, 1983, in order to assure that it complies with the Bonneville Project Act and Federal Columbia River Transmission System (Transmission System) Act. This Environmental Assessment has been prepared by BPA to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the proposed transmission rate increases. 3 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1983-08-01

279

Saving Energy by Adjusting Transmission Power in Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

and adjust their transmission power to reach minimum total transmission power and define the topology in which each node transmits using its maximum transmission power and the topology is built implicitly without considering the power issue. Choosing the right transmission power critically affects the system

Rowe, Neil C.

280

Transmission of slow highly charged ions through rectangular nanocapillaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission of slow highly charged ions through rectangular nanocapillaries in phlogopite mica is studied. The transmission profiles have rhombic pattern at tilt angles within the geometrical opening angle of the capillaries. The time evolution of ion transmission reveals certain features contributing to the tailored transmission profiles.

Akram, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Soroka, I. L.; Trautmann, C.; Schuch, R.

2014-04-01

281

System for controlling the transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for controlling a transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine. The infinitely variable transmission comprises a primary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc, a secondary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc of the secondary pulley. A belt is engaged with both pulleys, and a first hydraulic circuit has a pump for supplying pressurized oil. An axially movable transmission ratio control valve has a spool responsive to engine speed for controlling the pressurized oil so as to move the disc of the primary pulley to change the transmission ratio and a drain passage.

Nakamura, H.; Ohgami, M.

1987-05-12

282

Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors  

DOEpatents

A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

Nambu, Shigeo (Fuchu, JP)

1985-01-01

283

Single transmission line data acquisition system  

DOEpatents

A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01

284

Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

2011-05-24

285

Sample variance and Lyman ? forest transmission statistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the observed probability distribution function (PDF) of the transmission in the H i Lyman ? forest, measured from the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) `Large Programme' sample at redshifts z = [2, 2.5, 3], to results from the gimic cosmological simulations. Our measured values for the mean transmission and its PDF are in good agreement with published results. Errors on statistics measured from high-resolution data are typically estimated using bootstrap or jackknife resampling techniques after splitting the spectra into chunks. We demonstrate that these methods tend to underestimate the sample variance unless the chunk size is much larger than is commonly the case. We therefore estimate the sample variance from the simulations. We conclude that observed and simulated transmission statistics are in good agreement; in particular, we do not require the temperature-density relation to be `inverted'.

Rollinde, E.; Theuns, T.; Schaye, J.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.

2013-01-01

286

Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

2013-03-01

287

Atmospheric laser-transmission tables simply generated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Range calculations for ladar models or optical communication models may utilize look-up tables for atmospheric transmission. To generate these tables using the standard atmospheric transmission model, FASCODE, would normally require an extensive amount of time spent at a computer. A program, LASTRNM2, has been written using macros, an editor, and a collection of FORTRAN programs to run a personal computer (PC) version of FASCODE in batch mode. LASTRNM2 modifies the input files for FASCODE, runs the program, extracts the transmission value from FASCODE's large output file, performs desired calculations on that value, stores it in a table along with the conditions for the run, and repeats for succeeding positions. Both slant paths and horizontal paths through the atmosphere may be utilized. Essentials of the program will be presented.

Mallory, William R.

1991-12-01

288

Molecular Modeling of Prion Transmission to Humans  

PubMed Central

Using different prion strains, such as the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and the atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy agents, and using transgenic mice expressing human or bovine prion protein, we assessed the reliability of protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to model interspecies and genetic barriers to prion transmission. We compared our PMCA results with in vivo transmission data characterized by attack rates, i.e., the percentage of inoculated mice that developed the disease. Using 19 seed/substrate combinations, we observed that a significant PMCA amplification was only obtained when the mouse line used as substrate is susceptible to the corresponding strain. Our results suggest that PMCA provides a useful tool to study genetic barriers to transmission and to study the zoonotic potential of emerging prion strains. PMID:25279820

Levavasseur, Etienne; Privat, Nicolas; Martin, Juan-Carlos Espinosa; Simoneau, Steve; Baron, Thierry; Flan, Benoit; Torres, Juan-Maria; Haïk, Stéphane

2014-01-01

289

Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

1979-01-01

290

Experiment of THz transmission through plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on terahertz wave transmission through plasma is significant for researches on plasma itself and transmission discipline of terahertz wave through plasma. It is possible for plasma with suitable density to be an available stealth outerwear for plane or missile in THz waveband. In this paper, plasma is gotten by ionizing inert gases such as argon and helium gases with pulsed high alternating voltage. With electro-optic pump-probe measurement, THz transmission phenomena through plasma have been studied. The experiments show that some parts of THz frequency components have been cut off by plasma, and with the density of plasma rising, the starting frequency of THz prohibited by plasma is going higher. Experiments also provide an assistant scheme for plasma diagnose with terahertz technique.

Sun, Jinhai; Gallacher, Jordan; Issac, Riju; Huang, Zhixun; Jaroszynski, Dino

2014-12-01

291

Transmission of systemic AA amyloidosis in animals.  

PubMed

Amyloidoses are a group of protein-misfolding disorders that are characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and/or tissues. In reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, serum AA (SAA) protein forms deposits in mice, domestic and wild animals, and humans that experience chronic inflammation. AA amyloid fibrils are abnormal ?-sheet-rich forms of the serum precursor SAA, with conformational changes that promote fibril formation. Extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils causes disease in affected animals. Recent findings suggest that AA amyloidosis could be transmissible. Similar to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, amyloid fibrils induce a seeding-nucleation process that may lead to development of AA amyloidosis. We review studies of possible transmission in bovine, avian, mouse, and cheetah AA amyloidosis. PMID:24280941

Murakami, T; Ishiguro, N; Higuchi, K

2014-03-01

292

Vertical and horizontal transmission drive bacterial invasion.  

PubMed

A huge variety of Arthropod species is infected with endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that manipulate their host's reproduction to invade populations. In addition to vertical transmission from mother to offspring through the egg cytoplasm, it has been demonstrated through phylogenetic analyses and natural transfer experiments that horizontal transmission of Wolbachia (i.e. contagion) can occur between Arthropod hosts. More recently, factors influencing horizontal transfer have also been explored. While it is clear that horizontal transmission between species plays a major role in the evolutionary history of Wolbachia infections among insects, its role in the spread of a new infection through a host population, notably through within-species transfers, remained unknown. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Kraaijeveld et al. (2011) present the first evidence that horizontal transmission played a key role in the early spread of parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia through the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes. To support their finding, the authors studied genetic variation in three types of markers, including host nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA and Wolbachia DNA. Specifically, they examined potential associations between their diversity patterns. No diversity was detected in Wolbachia genes, indicating that a single Wolbachia strain must have infected and spread through L. clavipes. In addition, a correlation between substantial variation in mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes suggested that horizontal transmission played an important role in the current clonal genetic variation in this wasp. Such horizontal transmission could be facilitated by a specific host ecology (e.g. parasitoid wasps sharing the same host resource) and potentially impact co-evolution between host and symbiont. PMID:21884292

Kremer, Natacha; Huigens, Martinus E

2011-09-01

293

Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the statistical energy analysis model.

Zhou, Ran

294

Multicore EDFA for long-distance transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multicore Er3+-doped fiber amplifier (MC-EDFA) can be realized by using an amplification medium such as bundled or multi-element Er3+-doped fiber (EDF) and multicore EDF, and employing a discrete pumping or cladding pumping method. In this paper, we report three recently developed MC-EDFAs, which represent all the amplification forms realizable using the amplification medium and pumping method. We also report the importance of an MC-EDFA for constructing a practical long-haul multicore fiber transmission system based on the facts of the progress made on the transmission experiments, and describe further progress on the MC-EDFA.

Yamada, Makoto; Ono, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Shoichiro

2013-12-01

295

Transmission properties of periodically patterned triangular prisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission properties of plasmonic structure arrays are simulated by finite element method. The array unit is composed of two combined triangular prisms. Results reveal that several resonant modes are found in the transmission spectra, which are due to the resonance of the surface plasmon polariton in the metal slit or to the localized surface plasmon resonance of the combined prisms. The resonant wavelengths can be tuned by changing the structural parameters of the combined prisms. In addition, the resonant modes are sensitive to small refractive index changes of the surrounding media, revealing potential detection applications in nanophotonic systems.

Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Yongkai; Cao, Liang; Zhang, Zhongyue

2014-11-01

296

Fault-Tolerant Exact State Transmission  

E-print Network

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault- tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose the implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices.

Zhao-Ming Wang; Lian-Ao Wu; Michele Modugno; Wang Yao; Bin Shao

2012-05-02

297

A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts  

PubMed Central

The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

2010-01-01

298

Potential transients, transmission and electrochemical corrosion detection  

SciTech Connect

The transmission of potential along a passive metal/electrolyte interface is important in open circuit corrosion monitoring when the containment system rather than an insulated metal specimen is monitored. Potential variations have been considered for transitory and sustained corrosion processes. The observed signals are modified and delayed by the passive surface. Using a transmission line as the equivalent circuit of a pipe and incorporating the impedance characteristics of the passive-metal/solution interface, enabled a quantitative analysis of the effectiveness of corrosion monitoring methods to be carried out.

Isaacs, H.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Cho, Jeong-Hwan [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

1993-06-01

299

Angle-dependent transmission in graphene heterojunctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental setup for measuring angle-dependent transmission due to Klein tunneling through quasi-ballistic graphene heterojunctions. Our devices consist of straight and angled leads, in which the barrier height is controlled by a shared gate electrode. Using a balancing technique and a differential measurement, we show how to isolate the angle-dependent contribution to the resistance from other angle-insensitive, gate-dependent, and device-dependent effects. We find that our baseline signal is dominated by mesoscopic conductance fluctuations, but that the increase in the fluctuation amplitude is due to angle-dependent transmission.

Rahman, Atikur; Guikema, Janice Wynn; Hassan, Nora M.; Markovi?, Nina

2015-01-01

300

Transmission of polarized light in skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to study polarized light transmission in fresh bovine skeletal muscle of varying thicknesses. Two-dimensional polarization-sensitive transmission images were acquired and analyzed using a numerical parametric fitting algorithm. The total transmittance intensity and degree-of-polarization were calculated for both central ballistic and surrounding scattering regions. Full Mueller matrix images were derived from the raw polarization images and the polar decomposition algorithm was applied to extract polarization parameters. The results suggest that polarized light propagation through skeletal muscle is affected by strong birefringence, diattenuation, multiple scattering induced depolarization and the sarcomere diffraction effect. PMID:21361681

Shuaib, Ali; Li, Xin; Yao, Gang

2011-02-01

301

Transmission of polarized light in skeletal muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted to study polarized light transmission in fresh bovine skeletal muscle of varying thicknesses. Two-dimensional polarization-sensitive transmission images were acquired and analyzed using a numerical parametric fitting algorithm. The total transmittance intensity and degree-of-polarization were calculated for both central ballistic and surrounding scattering regions. Full Mueller matrix images were derived from the raw polarization images and the polar decomposition algorithm was applied to extract polarization parameters. The results suggest that polarized light propagation through skeletal muscle is affected by strong birefringence, diattenuation, multiple scattering induced depolarization and the sarcomere diffraction effect.

Shuaib, Ali; Li, Xin; Yao, Gang

2011-02-01

302

Proceedings: Transmission and distribution automation systems  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI-sponsored seminar on Transmission and Distribution Automation provided the participants with information on the conception, development and design, and implementation of systems employing digital technology and fiber optics for integrated system for protection, control, monitoring, and communication in substations. Eighty engineers from utilities, suppliers, and consultants attended the seminar. Twenty-five papers were presented and discussed at the seminar. Demonstrations of developed equipment were held at the seminar site and at two host utilities where transmission substation automation systems have been installed. Each report will be automated individually.

Not Available

1990-03-01

303

EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-04-01

304

Projected US transmission lines, 1987--1997  

SciTech Connect

An annually published survey of transmission line projects currently planned or under construction in the US. Design, cost, ownership, location and operating information are provided for lines that are scheduled to enter service within the next 10 years. The current edition of this report covers the years 1987--1997 and includes lines 138 kV or larger in size. Nearly 300 transmission projects in 42 states are included. Subscribers to the UDI Utility Data Base receive two complimentary copies of this report.

Not Available

1987-01-01

305

Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces) to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures. Methodology/Principal Findings Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001–2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1) direct exposure within the household and 2) contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001) occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%–22.8%) risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length). The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%–8.0%). The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%–16.6%) and 8.2% (2.1%–27.1%) through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%–6.7%) and 2.0% (0.5%–7.3%) through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered. Conclusions Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of the transmissibility of endemic cholera within prospectively-followed members of households. The role of direct transmission must be considered when planning cholera control activities. PMID:25411971

Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Koepke, Amanda A.; Kenah, Eben E.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Yang, Yang; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Longini, Ira M.

2014-01-01

306

Transient analysis of heat transmission systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report develops a method of analysis for heat transmission systems operating under district heating load conditions. The method accounts for the effects of heat source and load characteristics. The use of thermal energy storage systems is outlined and advantages are given. The transmission model itself considers the following technical aspects: (1) frictional pressure losses in piping system, (2) pump characteristics, (3) pump driver characteristics, and (4) heat losses from the buried piping. The capital costs considered are the piping system and necessary pumps. Operation and maintenance costs include cost of heat loss and cost of pumping energy input. Allowances are also made for system maintenance and repair over the assumed lifetime.

Phetteplace, G. E.

1981-12-01

307

Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

Keller, Lindsay P.

1995-01-01

308

Potential of laser for SPS power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

Bain, C. N.

1978-01-01

309

Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

2006-07-07

310

Fault-tolerant almost exact state transmission  

PubMed Central

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault-tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose an experimental implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. PMID:24185259

Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Lian-Ao; Modugno, Michele; Yao, Wang; Shao, Bin

2013-01-01

311

Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long-haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circulating loop transmission experiment is a useful tool for the research and development of long-haul transmission systems that use erbium-doped fiber-amplifier repeaters. Circulating loop techniques, applied to an amplifier chain of modest length, can provide an experimental platform to study a broad range of transmission phenomena for EDFA-based transmission systems. A loop experiment attempts to simulate the transmission performance

Neal S. Bergano; C. R. Davidson

1995-01-01

312

System for controlling the transmission ratio in an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A control system is described for an infinitely variable transmission for a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, the transmission comprising a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc. The pressure regulator valve has a second spool responsive to the transmission ratio for increasing line pressure of the hydraulic circuit with an increase of the transmission ratio. The improvement comprises: a plunger coaxial with the spool of the transmission ratio control valve and axially movable provided; a spring provided between the first spool and the plunger; first means for shifting the plunger in dependency on depression of an accelerator pedal of the vehicle, thereby via the spring shifting the first spool in opposition to the force dependent on the first signal; the manual selecting means for applying the line pressure to the actuator for releasing the actuator from the plunger; an actuator for shifting the plunger against the force dependent on the first signal; manual selecting means for operating the actuator for shifting the plunger against the force dependent on the first signal; second means responsive to the movement of the disc of the drive pulley from a predetermined transmission ratio in a transmission ratio increasing direction for disabling the actuator; and the manual selecting means for operating the actuator. When the actuator operates, the first spool is shifted at a predetermined engine speed, so that the transmission ratio begins to increase and the load on the spring is reduced after the predetermined transmission ratio by the operation of the second means.

Miyawaki, M.

1987-07-21

313

Low Frequency Transmission Final Project Report  

E-print Network

and by the National Science Foundation's Industry / University Cooperative Research Center program. The authors wish of this project is to evaluate alternative transmission systems from remote wind farms to the main grid using low parameters for alternative configurations of wind projects and typical results of these evaluations

314

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND STEGANOGRAPHY Ingemar J. Cox  

E-print Network

INFORMATION TRANSMISSION AND STEGANOGRAPHY Ingemar J. Cox , Ton Kalker , Georg Pakura and Mathias Scheel ABSTRACT Recently there has been strong interest in developing models of steganography based. INTRODUCTION The history of steganography can be traced back thousands of years, examples of which

Cox, Ingemar J.

315

Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States  

PubMed Central

Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue. PMID:22840424

Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J.; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W.; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Moore, Julie M.; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P.

2012-01-01

316

Wolbachia transmission dynamics in Formica wood ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of Wolbachia endosymbionts in shaping the mitochondrial diversity of their arthropod host depends on the effects they have on host reproduction and on the mode of transmission of the bacteria. We have compared the sequence diversity of wsp (Wolbachia surface protein gene) and the host mtDNA in a group of Formica ant species that have diverged approximately

Lumi Viljakainen; Max Reuter; Pekka Pamilo

2008-01-01

317

Soliton transmission control with semiconductor amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A signal propagating along a dispersive transmission line in which loss is compensated by semiconductor amplifiers suffers from strong memory effects induced by the amplifier saturation. Insertion of filters along a line of anomalous dispersion reduces the detrimental effects of the amplifier saturation.

Mecozzi, Antonio

1995-08-01

318

Transmission and detection of prions in feces.  

PubMed

In chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and in scrapie in sheep, prions appear to be transmitted horizontally. Oral exposure to prion-tainted blood, urine, saliva, and feces has been suggested as the mode of transmission of CWD and scrapie among herbivores susceptible to these prion diseases. To explore the transmission of prions through feces, uninoculated Syrian hamsters (SHas) were cohabitated with or exposed to the bedding of SHas orally infected with Sc237 prions. Incubation times of 140 days and a rate of prion infection of 80%-100% among exposed animals suggested transmission by feces, probably via coprophagy. We measured the disease-causing isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in feces by use of the conformation-dependent immunoassay, and we titrated the irradiated feces intracerebrally in transgenic mice that overexpressed SHa prion protein (SHaPrP). Fecal samples collected from infected SHas in the first 7 days after oral challenge harbored 60 ng/g PrP(Sc) and prion titers of approximately 10(6.6) ID(50)/g. Excretion of infectious prions continued at lower levels throughout the asymptomatic phase of the incubation period, most likely by the shedding of prions from infected Peyer patches. Our findings suggest that horizontal transmission of disease among herbivores may occur through the consumption of feces or foodstuff tainted with prions from feces of CWD-infected cervids and scrapie-infected sheep. PMID:18505383

Safar, Jiri G; Lessard, Pierre; Tamgüney, Gültekin; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Deering, Camille; Letessier, Frederic; Dearmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

2008-07-01

319

The thyristor valve in HVDC transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of thyristor valves rather than mercury-arc valves for ; rectification in high-voltage dc transmission systems has increased. Schemes in ; service include Eel River in New Brunswick, Canada, the Gotland extension in ; Sweden, and the Sakuma extension in Japan. Basic circuits, design, construction, ; and operation methods are discussed for the use of thyristor valves in HVDC

G. Karady; T. Gilsig

1973-01-01

320

AC losses of prototype HTS transmission cables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, 1 m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both

J. W. Lue; J. A. Demko; L. Dresner; R. L. Hughey; U. Sinha; J. C. Tolbert; S. K. Olsen

1999-01-01

321

DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

DISTRIBUTED OPPORTUNISTIC TRANSMISSION FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Qing Zhao and Lang Tong School Strategy We consider the problem of information retrieval in sensor networks with mobile access points on Communica- tion and Networks under Grant DAAD19-01-2-0011. ¢ Fig. 1: Sensor networks with mobile access

Islam, M. Saif

322

Air conditioner response to transmission faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two multi-phase faults events which occurred during periods of high air conditioning use. There was a significant loss of load in these events which is attributed to air conditioner motor protection. The overall response of the transmission system is simulated using induction motor models based on the characteristics of a typical residential air conditioner compressor motor. The

J. W. Shaffer

1997-01-01

323

ADAPTIVE MULTIMEDIA TRANSMISSION OVER THE INTERNET  

E-print Network

Chapter 20 ADAPTIVE MULTIMEDIA TRANSMISSION OVER THE INTERNET CHRISTOS BOURAS and APOSTOLOS GKAMAS Computer Technology Institute, N. Kazantzaki, University of Patras Campus, GR26500, Greece bouras that are available to multimedia applications can be modified very quickly. Multimedia applications must have

Bouras, Christos

324

Hydraulic transients in transmission and distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water hammer can degrade the integrity of a transmission or distribution system in one of two ways: through catastrophic failure or by benign failure. Catastrophic failure occurs during a water hammer event when pipes rupture, joints move, excessive noise occurs, etc. Benign failure may occur over a period of years and may consist of lining failure, pipe wall pitting, and

Allen Davis

2004-01-01

325

78 FR 63036 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...element when applying at a minimum P0 and P1 events to the...reliability such as cascading, voltage instability or uncontrolled...unit or transmission circuit followed by system adjustments...standard to ensure voltage levels, reactive flows...equipment strategy, short circuit studies, an...

2013-10-23

326

Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and

Steven D. Pinkerton; Paul R. Abramson

1997-01-01

327

Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus  

PubMed Central

In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually. PMID:25625872

Roche, Claudine; Robin, Emilie; Nhan, Tuxuan; Teissier, Anita; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

2015-01-01

328

Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

2013-06-01

329

Congestion rents allocation based on transmission usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an allocation method for the congestion rents is presented. The method is based on the use of generalized generation distribution factors (GGDFs) and generalized load distribution factors (GLDFs). These factors are employed to quantify the usage of the transmission system by considering the day-ahead market outcome. Under this allocation scheme, the system conditions are still reflected in

Guillermo Bautista; Victor H. Quintana

2003-01-01

330

MRSA Transmission between Cows and Humans  

PubMed Central

We isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from cows with subclinical mastitis and from a person who worked with these animals. The bovine and human strains were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods and were of a low frequency spa type. To our knowledge, this finding indicates the first documented case of direct transmission of MRSA between cows and humans. PMID:17553285

Juhász-Kaszanyitzky, Éva; Jánosi, Szilárd; Somogyi, Pál; Dán, Ádám; van Bloois, Linda vanderGraaf; van Duijkeren, Engeline; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

2007-01-01

331

Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document  

SciTech Connect

Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

1994-01-01

332

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure  

E-print Network

152 6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure Characterization S. J. Pennycook for the characterization of nanostructures, providing a range of different imaging modes with the ability to provide task, it is often unnecessary for nanostructured materials, with sample preparation requiring nothing

Pennycook, Steve

333

A neutron transmission study of environmental Gd  

E-print Network

A new method for the determination of environmental Gd by neutron transmission (NT) experiments is proposed. The NT method is based on the measurements of neutron spectra passing through a target. From the attenuation neutron spectra new data as concentration, width, resonance energies and cross section have been obtained.

Cristiana Oprea; Ioan Alexandru Oprea; Alexandru Mihul

2014-06-02

334

Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential

J. Jackson; E. Pentecost; J. Muzzarelli

1994-01-01

335

Transmission through a Quantum Dynamical Delta Barrier  

E-print Network

. Exactly solvable models for the interaction of photons or phonons with electrons in quantum dots [1 subsequently been used as a model for scattering in quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires by Bagwell and Lake [3Transmission through a Quantum Dynamical Delta Barrier T. Brandes1 Ã? and J. Robinson Department

Levi, Anthony F. J.

336

Highly efficient contactless electrical energy transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the vehicle and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the vehicle, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is needed between the

H. Ayano; K. Yamamoto; N. Hino; I. Yamato

2002-01-01

337

Highly Efficient Contactless Electrical Energy Transmission System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concept for a contactless electrical energy transmission system for an elevator and an automated guided vehicle. The system has rechargeable batteries on the car and electrical energy is supplied at a specific place. When electric power is supplied to the car, it runs automatically and approaches the battery charger. Therefore, a comparatively large gap is

Hideki Ayano; Hiroshi Nagase; Hiromi Inaba

2004-01-01

338

Well completion for electrical power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is provided a well completion for electrical alternating current power transmission that minimizes power losses and related corrosion problems. Casing is used both as the electrode and conductor. Most of the conductor portion is made of nonmagnetic metal, for example aluminum, and is electrically insulated both exteriorly and interiorly. The insulation extends below the point where the nonmagnetic metal

Perkins

1984-01-01

339

Supervisory control of electric power transmission networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology of discrete event systems (DESs) and supervisory control is applied to a power transmission line restoration problem, aiming to increase the steady-state security level of a power network during restoration. An example using the IEEE 14-bus system serves to demonstrate the potential of the DES formulation in the control of power networks, and to introduce the basic tools

J. Prosser; J. Selinsky; Harry Kwatny; M. Kam

1995-01-01

340

Blackouts in electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analysis of blackouts in electric power transmission systems is implemented and studied in simple networks with a regular structure. The proposed model describes load demand and network improvements evolving on a slow timescale as well as the fast dynamics of cascading overloads and outages. The model dynamics are demonstrated on the simple power system networks.

KARAMITSOS IOANNIS; ORFANIDIS KONSTANTINOS

2006-01-01

341

Regulation of an Electric Power Transmission Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing regulatory contracts for the operators of power transmission networks has become a critical policy issue in the United States. In this paper, a regulatory contract is proposed that induces network operators to optimally expand the grid, which is crucial for the emergence of efficient wholesale power markets, while also satisfying the other traditional regulatory objectives. The proposed mechanism is

Thomas-Olivier Leautier

2000-01-01

342

Visualization of an electric power transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization techniques are applied to an electric power system transmission network to create a graphical picture of network power flows and voltages. A geographic data map is used. Apparent power flow is encoded as the width of an arrow, with direction from real power flow. Flows are superposed on flow limits. Contour plots and color coding failed for representing bus

P. M. Mahadev; R. D. Christie

1994-01-01

343

Isolation of an electrical power transmission well  

Microsoft Academic Search

In processes using electrical power to apply heat to a subsurface formation through a transmission well, power losses are reduced by installing in flowlines leading to the well one or more devices that electrically disrupts the flowline and that creates a tortuous flow path for liquids flowing through the device. The parts of the device contacting liquids are either fabricated

Perkins

1985-01-01

344

Statistical Design of Electric Power Transmission Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents a statistical planning method for expanding electric power transmission networks in the presence of load\\/generation and network uncertainties. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to obtain a set of alternative network expansion plans which have optimum reliability and expansion cost. Present methods optimize the existing network based on a deterministic performance index. Therefore, they are limited

Albert Guvenis

1983-01-01

345

Transmission Policy in the United States  

E-print Network

This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the U.S. over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. It includes a discussion of pre...

Joskow, Paul

2006-03-14

346

Structural Analysis for Electric Power Transmission Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric power transmission industry is facing numerous changes in the ways in which traditional structures are being designed. De-regulation, and subsequent re- regulation, has resulted in increased oversight of the design process. Concurrently, budget reductions have led to staff reductions, often achieved through retirements and promotions. Thus, there is now increased reliance upon computer software for the performance-based design

William F. Cofer

347

Transmission through optically generated inductive grid arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is developed for generating pseudometallic plasma inductive grid arrays within a semiconductor wafer. The induced plasma elements are defined by a surface impedance which is discussed. Results of an investigation into the transmission properties of a variety of array designs between 16 and 40 GHz are presented. Measurements are performed on a silicon wafer illuminated by an external

D. S. Lockyer; J. C. Vardaxoglou; M. J. Kearney

1999-01-01

348

Uruguay declared free of Chagas disease transmission.  

PubMed

According to 1997 entomological and sero-epidemiological data, the transmission of Chagas disease has been interrupted in Uruguay; this has been certified by an independent commission appointed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Transmission of Chagas disease, which is endemic in Uruguay, is via the vector Triatoma infestans or through transfusion with infected blood. In 1983, T. infestans lived in dwellings in 80% of Uruguay; in 1996, in all departments except Tacuarembo, house infestation rates decreased to below 0.1% (a reduction equivalent to 95%). The vector is found around the home, rather than in it, in Tacuarembo; therefore, its presence does not have any significance for transmission. The number of infected blood donors is now negligible, and there is 100% coverage via compulsory blood screening. Uruguay is the first Southern Cone country to have achieved the goals established by the Ministries of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay to eliminate the transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:12321803

1998-06-01

349

Economics Of Optical Fibre Transmission Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical fibre as a telecommunication transmission medium has become one of the most significant developments so far of the digital era. A major contributory factor to the availability of optical fibre transmission systems has been the outstanding progress in the technology of manufacturing high quality glass fibre having relatively low attenuation and broad bandwidths. This and other achievements has enabled manufacturers in the United Kingdom to develop a range of optical fibre cables and transmission equipment for operation over short and long distances at the CCITT recommended digital hierarchical rates of 2, 8, 34 and 140Mbit/s which have been adopted by British Telecom (BT) for modernisation to an all digital transmission network. These optical fibre systems are now becoming increasingly price and performance competitive with conventional technology in many parts of telecommunications networks. In the British Telecom (BT) network the 140Mbit/s optical fibre systems are now economically competitive with equivalent systems on coaxial cable and microwave radio. The economics of 8 and 34Mbit/s systems are not yet sufficiently attractive, compared with 2Mbit/s digital line systems on pair type copper cables, for large scale use in rural and local distribution networks and are presently only justified on cost in and around large cities. As system costs decrease large applications are predicted particularly in support of future high speed data, cable television and visual information services.

Murray, W. J.

1983-08-01

350

Hepatitis C: prevalence, transmission, screening, and prevention.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 185 million individuals worldwide and nearly 4 million Americans. In the United States, it causes more deaths each year than HIV. Mortality rates from HCV are expected to increase as the baby boomer generation ages because these individuals have the highest prevalence of HCV infection. Injection drug use is the most common mode of transmission. Sexual transmission (most common among men who have sex with men), perinatal transmission, occupational exposures among health care workers, and tattooing are less common modes of transmission. In at least 21% of HCV-positive individuals, no risk factors for infection are identified. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, along with the US Preventive Services Task Force, recommends that all individuals born between 1945 and 1965 undergo one-time screening for HCV regardless of risk factors. Individuals at particular risk of acquiring HCV also should be screened. The goal of screening is to identify and, if appropriate, treat HCV-positive individuals before the infection progresses and causes hepatic fibrosis, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, or other complications. Several factors predict progression, including age at infection, sex, ethnicity, genetics, alcohol consumption, and HIV serostatus. PMID:25478645

Metts, Julius; Carmichael, Lesley; Kokor, Winfred; Scharffenberg, Robert

2014-12-01

351

Transmission Cost of P2P Multicasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In peer-to-peer streaming system, multicasting tree is essential to application performance and network transmission resource usage. Currently, available multicasting tree construction strategy optimize for source to client delay, load balance, etc. But network resource occupation of these strategy is not carefully studied. In this paper, network resource usage of application is analyzed. Then, metrics of network resource usage is proposed.

Ting Peng; Qinghua Zheng; Weimei Lv; Shan Jiang; Haipeng Du; Chen Chen

2009-01-01

352

A Distributed System for Cooperative MIMO Transmissions  

E-print Network

a distributed system for facilitating cooperative MIMO transmissions in networks without multiple antenna. At the physical layer, MIMO systems use multiple antennas to achieve spatial diversity. However, MIMO systems require multi-antennas devices, which may not be feasible in some devices due to cost and size limitations

Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

353

Chopper Modulation Improves OTA Information Transmission  

E-print Network

Chopper Modulation Improves OTA Information Transmission Nicole M Nelson and Pamela A Abshire in operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA) using chopper modulation. Previous work showed that the optimal the information transfer rates for a folded cascode amplifier and a chopper modulated folded cascode amplifier

Maryland at College Park, University of

354

Can slide positivity rates predict malaria transmission?  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a significant threat to population health in the border areas of Yunnan Province, China. How to accurately measure malaria transmission is an important issue. This study aimed to examine the role of slide positivity rates (SPR) in malaria transmission in Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China. Methods Data on annual malaria cases, SPR and socio-economic factors for the period of 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Bureau of Statistics, Mengla, China. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to evaluate the relationship between socio-ecologic factors and malaria incidence. Results The results show that SPR was significantly positively associated with the malaria incidence rates. The SPR (??=?1.244, p?=?0.000) alone and combination (SPR, ??=?1.326, p?transmission, respectively. Every 1% increase in SPR corresponded to an increase of 1.76/100,000 in malaria incidence rates. Conclusion SPR is a strong predictor of malaria transmission, and can be used to improve the planning and implementation of malaria elimination programmes in Mengla and other similar locations. SPR might also be a useful indicator of malaria early warning systems in China. PMID:22513123

2012-01-01

355

A MIXED INTEGER DISJUNCTIVE MODEL FOR TRANSMISSION ...  

E-print Network

Abstract: The classical non-linear mixed integer formulation of the transmission ... disjunctive model, optimality can be proven for several hard problem instances. ..... manner by repeatedly randomly drawing promising candidates from a restricted ... performance problem which measures the total load shedding required for ...

Laura

2001-10-26

356

Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of ? radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

Koju, Vijay [Computation Science Program, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Rowe, Ebony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Robertson, William M., E-mail: William.Robertson@mtsu.edu [Computation Science Program, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee 37132 (United States)

2014-07-15

357

Secure OCDMA transmission using data pattern scrambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel optical layer solution to increase confidentiality in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) transmission is proposed. We use two or more optical encoders\\/decoders to increase the degrees of freedom in the encoding process, increasing accordingly the decryption complexity. We demonstrate that we can achieve enhanced confidentiality, with respect to standard OCDMA system, evaluating the number of trials requested

Valentina Sacchieri; Pedro Teixeira; Antonio Teixeira; Gabriella Cincotti

2008-01-01

358

Modeling MultiSpecies Parasite Transmission  

E-print Network

Modeling MultiSpecies Parasite Transmission Andrea Pugliese* Abstract S ome models are presented for the dynamics of a host population with two parasite species. The models differ in two main aspects: whether they include direct competition among parasites and whether the analysis is based on some approximation

Pugliese, Andrea

359

Methods and systems for micro transmissions  

DOEpatents

Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

Stalford, Harold L

2014-12-23

360

Cell Culture Models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we describe the generation and use of cell culture models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, also known as prion diseases. These models include chronically prion-infected cell lines, as well as cultures expressing variable amounts of wild-type, mutated, or chimeric prion proteins. These cell lines have been widely used to investigate the biology of both the normal and the

Florence Béranger; Alain Mangé; Jérôme Solassol; Sylvain Lehmann

2001-01-01

361

Vehicular transmission with additional low speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vehicular transmission is described comprising a main speed change mechanism having plural gear trains capable of being established selectively between parallel input and output shafts and a sub speed change mechanism having a reduction gear train for providing a speed lower than the speed of the lowest gear train of the main speed change mechanism. The sub speed change

Okubo

1987-01-01

362

Venereal transmission of canine visceral leishmaniasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmania chagasi, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in the Americas has a tropism to the male genital system, particularly the epididymis, prepuce, and glans penis, resulting in shedding of Leishmania in the semen. The goal of this study was to verify the possibility of venereal transmission of L. chagasi. Twelve Leishmania-free bitches, housed in the absence of the

Fabiana L. Silva; Raquel G. Oliveira; Teane M. A. Silva; Mariana N. Xavier; Ernane F. Nascimento; Renato L. Santos

2009-01-01

363

Ratio control system for continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission which performs a feedback control wherein an integral control gain and a proportional control gain are varied depending upon the level of a line pressure that is used to actuate a pulley unit during shifting operation.

Oshiage, K.

1987-10-27

364

Electric control system for automobile transmission  

SciTech Connect

An electric control system for an automobile transmission includes an endless transmission member running on a pair of V-shaped pulley units, the mutual distances of the conical sheaves of which are hydraulically adjustable to transmit an output torque of an engine to a driven apparatus. The electric control system is arranged to determine an optimum fluid pressure in relation to the actual output torque of the engine and to determine an optimum transmission ratio for low fuel consumption in relation to the actual output power of the engine. The control system produces a first electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum fluid pressure and the actual fluid pressure in one of actuators for the respective pulley units and produces a second electric control signal indicative of the difference between the optimum and actual transmission ratios. The pressure of fluid applied to one of the actuators is controlled in response to the first electric control signal, and the flow quantity of fluid applied to the other actuator is controlled in response to the second electric control signal.

Hattori, Y.; Goshima, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Matsui, K.; Takei, T.

1984-08-21

365

Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

Siebert, Fred S.

366

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

Henry, Zachary S.

1995-06-01

367

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

Henry, Zachary S.

1995-01-01

368

Global dynamic modeling of a transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on global dynamic simulation and noise correlation of gear transmission systems at the University of Akron is outlined. The objective is to develop a comprehensive procedure to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system coupled with the effects of gear box vibrations. The developed numerical model is benchmarked with results from experimental tests at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modal synthesis approach is used to develop the global transient vibration analysis procedure used in the model. Modal dynamic characteristics of the rotor-gear-bearing system are calculated by the matrix transfer method while those of the gear box are evaluated by the finite element method (NASTRAN). A three-dimensional, axial-lateral coupled bearing model is used to couple the rotor vibrations with the gear box motion. The vibrations between the individual rotor systems are coupled through the nonlinear gear mesh interactions. The global equations of motion are solved in modal coordinates and the transient vibration of the system is evaluated by a variable time-stepping integration scheme. The relationship between housing vibration and resulting noise of the gear transmission system is generated by linear transfer functions using experimental data. A nonlinear relationship of the noise components to the fundamental mesh frequency is developed using the hypercoherence function. The numerically simulated vibrations and predicted noise of the gear transmission system are compared with the experimental results from the gear noise test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Results of the comparison indicate that the global dynamic model developed can accurately simulate the dynamics of a gear transmission system.

Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.

1993-01-01

369

Climate and Dengue Transmission: Evidence and Implications  

PubMed Central

Background: Climate influences dengue ecology by affecting vector dynamics, agent development, and mosquito/human interactions. Although these relationships are known, the impact climate change will have on transmission is unclear. Climate-driven statistical and process-based models are being used to refine our knowledge of these relationships and predict the effects of projected climate change on dengue fever occurrence, but results have been inconsistent. Objective: We sought to identify major climatic influences on dengue virus ecology and to evaluate the ability of climate-based dengue models to describe associations between climate and dengue, simulate outbreaks, and project the impacts of climate change. Methods: We reviewed the evidence for direct and indirect relationships between climate and dengue generated from laboratory studies, field studies, and statistical analyses of associations between vectors, dengue fever incidence, and climate conditions. We assessed the potential contribution of climate-driven, process-based dengue models and provide suggestions to improve their performance. Results and Discussion: Relationships between climate variables and factors that influence dengue transmission are complex. A climate variable may increase dengue transmission potential through one aspect of the system while simultaneously decreasing transmission potential through another. This complexity may at least partly explain inconsistencies in statistical associations between dengue and climate. Process-based models can account for the complex dynamics but often omit important aspects of dengue ecology, notably virus development and host–species interactions. Conclusion: Synthesizing and applying current knowledge of climatic effects on all aspects of dengue virus ecology will help direct future research and enable better projections of climate change effects on dengue incidence. Citation: Morin CW, Comrie AC, Ernst KC. 2013. Climate and dengue transmission: evidence and implications. Environ Health Perspect 121:1264–1272;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306556 PMID:24058050

Comrie, Andrew C.; Ernst, Kacey

2013-01-01

370

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

371

75 FR 63826 - Transmission Infrastructure Program-TransWest Express Transmission Project Capacity  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Western owns and operates an integrated 17,000 circuit mile, high-voltage transmission system across 15 western states covering...submitted with respect to this notice should, at a minimum, include the following information: 1. Name...

2010-10-18

372

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

2009-02-02

373

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

374

System for controlling the transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for controlling the transmission ratio of an infinitely variable transmission for a vehicle having a primary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc. A secondary pulley has a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the secondary pulley, a belt engaged with both pulleys, a hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying pressurized oil, a transmission ratio control valve comprising a spool for shifting the disc of the primary pulley in a downshift direction and an upshift direction, respectively, and a pressure regulator valve for regulating the pressure of the oil, the system including shifting means for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve in the upshift direction and in the downshift direction respectively in dependency on throttle position.

Miyawaki, M.

1987-04-21

375

Effect of the One-Child Policy on Influenza Transmission in China: A Stochastic Transmission Model  

PubMed Central

Background China's one-child-per-couple policy, introduced in 1979, led to profound demographic changes for nearly a quarter of the world's population. Several decades later, the consequences include decreased fertility rates, population aging, decreased household sizes, changes in family structure, and imbalanced sex ratios. The epidemiology of communicable diseases may have been affected by these changes since the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases depend on demographic characteristics of the population. Of particular interest is influenza because China and Southeast Asia lie at the center of a global transmission network of influenza. Moreover, changes in household structure may affect influenza transmission. Is it possible that the pronounced demographic changes that have occurred in China have affected influenza transmission? Methods and Findings To address this question, we developed a continuous-time, stochastic, individual-based simulation model for influenza transmission. With this model, we simulated 30 years of influenza transmission and compared influenza transmission rates in populations with and without the one-child policy control. We found that the average annual attack rate is reduced by 6.08% (SD 2.21%) in the presence of the one-child policy compared to a population in which no demographic changes occurred. There was no discernible difference in the secondary attack rate, ?0.15% (SD 1.85%), between the populations with and without a one-child policy. We also forecasted influenza transmission over a ten-year time period in a population with a two-child policy under a hypothesis that a two-child-per-couple policy will be carried out in 2015, and found a negligible difference in the average annual attack rate compared to the population with the one-child policy. Conclusions This study found that the average annual attack rate is slightly lowered in a population with a one-child policy, which may have resulted from a decrease in household size and the proportion of children in the population. PMID:24516519

Liu, Fengchen; Enanoria, Wayne T. A.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Coffee, Megan P.; Gordon, Aubree; Aragón, Tomás J.; Yu, Guowei; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Porco, Travis C.

2014-01-01

376

Rotational swashplate pulse continuously variable transmission based on helical gear axial meshing transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research on pulse continuously variable transmission(CVT) is mainly focused on reducing the pulse degree and making pulse degrees a constant value. Current research mainly confined to find out new design parameters by using the method of optimization, and reduce the pulse degree of pulse CVT and its range of variation. But the fact is that the reduction of the pulse degree is not significant. This article presents a new structure of mechanical pulse CVT—the rotational swashplate pulse CVT with driven by helical gear axial meshing. This transmission is simple and compact in structure and low in pulsatile rate (it adopts 6 guide rods), and the pulsatile degree is irrelevant to the transmission ratio. Theoretically, pulsatile rate could be reduced to zero if appropriate curved surface of the swashplate is used. Compared with the connecting rod pulse CVT, the present structure uses helical gear mechanism as transmission part and it avoids unbalanced inertial force in the former model. This paper analyzes the principle of driving of this transmission, presents its mechanical structure, and discusses its motion characteristics. Experimental prototype of this type of CVT has been manufactured. Tests for the transmission efficiency(when the rotational speed of the output shaft is the maximum) and the angular velocity of the output shaft have been carried out, and data have been analyzed. The experimental results show that the speed of the output shaft for the experimental prototype is slightly lower than the theoretical value, and the transmission efficiency of the experimental prototype is about 70%. The pulse degree of the CVT discussed in this paper is less than the existing pulse CVT of other types, and it is irrelevant to the transmission ratio of the CVT. The research provides the new idea to the CVT study.

Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Wenyu; Lei, Hong; Tian, E.; Liu, Ziping

2012-11-01

377

Neural Network Modeling of Transmission Rate Control Factor for Multimedia Transmission Using the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study proposes a prediction model which functions by estimating the bandwidth of the Internet over the time period used\\u000a for data transmission, that is the RTT (Round Trip Time) and PLR (Packet Loss Rate), which are the most important factors\\u000a to consider for transmission rate control. The prediction model improves the number of valid transmitted packets by predicting\\u000a the

Sung Goo Yoo; Kil To Chong; Soo Yeong Yi

2005-01-01

378

System for detecting the transmission ratio in an infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

An improved system is described for detecting the transmission ratio in an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine. The transmission comprises primary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc and a secondary pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc of the secondary pulley. The transmission has a belt engaged with both pulleys, a hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil, a transmission ratio control valve responsive to engine speed for controlling the oil and for shifting the disc of the primary pulley to change the transmission ratio, and a pressure regulator valve having a spool responsive to the transmission ratio for increasing the line pressure of the hydraulic circuit with an increase of the transmission ratio. A spring is held by a retainer for urging the spool in a direction. The improvement described here comprises: a sensor slidably mounted on a guide tube so as to move in parallel with the axial direction of the primary pulley; the sensor having a sensor head engaged with the disc of the primary pulley and an arm engaged with the retainer so as to shift the spool in dependency on the movement of the disc of the primary pulley to control the line pressure; and a lubricating system comprising passages provided in the guide tube and the sensor so as to communicate a part of the hydraulic circuit with an end opening of the passage of the sensor for lubricating contact surfaces of the head of the sensor and the disc of the primary pulley.

Sakai, Y.

1986-10-28

379

The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review.  

PubMed

This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

Coura, José Rodrigues

2014-12-01

380

When More Transmission Equals Less Disease: Reconciling the Disconnect between Disease Hotspots and Parasite Transmission  

PubMed Central

The assumed straightforward connection between transmission intensity and disease occurrence impacts surveillance and control efforts along with statistical methodology, including parameter inference and niche modeling. Many infectious disease systems have the potential for this connection to be more complicated–although demonstrating this in any given disease system has remained elusive. Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is one of the most important diseases of white-tailed deer and is caused by viruses in the Orbivirus genus. Like many infectious diseases, the probability or severity of disease increases with age (after loss of maternal antibodies) and the probability of disease is lower upon re-infection compared to first infection (based on cross-immunity between virus strains). These broad criteria generate a prediction that disease occurrence is maximized at intermediate levels of transmission intensity. Using published US field data, we first fit a statistical model to predict disease occurrence as a function of seroprevalence (a proxy for transmission intensity), demonstrating that states with intermediate seroprevalence have the highest level of case reporting. We subsequently introduce an independently parameterized mechanistic model supporting the theory that high case reporting should come from areas with intermediate levels of transmission. This is the first rigorous demonstration of this phenomenon and illustrates that variation in transmission rate (e.g. along an ecologically-controlled transmission gradient) can create cryptic refuges for infectious diseases. PMID:23579922

Park, Andrew W.; Magori, Krisztian; White, Brad A.; Stallknecht, David E.

2013-01-01

381

Acoustic Fresnel lenses with extraordinary transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate numerically and experimentally highly efficient acoustic lenses based on the principle of extraordinary acoustic transmission. We study circular, flat lenses composed of perforated air channels. The geometry is similar to binary Fresnel lenses, and the lenses exploit several resonance mechanisms to enhance the transmission, such as Fabry-Perot resonances in the channels and cavity resonances on the lens surface. The proposed lenses are able to transmit up to 83% of the incident energy and generate sharp focusing with very high amplification (up to 16 dB experimentally). Furthermore, the resulting lenses are thinner than other designs providing similar performance, making them ideal candidates for application in acoustic imaging and medical diagnostics.

Molerón, Miguel; Serra-Garcia, Marc; Daraio, Chiara

2014-09-01

382

Sound transmission in pipes with porous walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pipes with porous (permeable) walls have received the attention of several authors as a noise control element in automotive intake systems; however, a closed theory of sound transmission including the effect of the coupling of the internal and external acoustic fields and the presence of mean flow does not appear to be available. The present paper proposes an integro-differential system for the propagation of plane sound waves in pipes with porous walls, and presents its general numerical solution, as well as an approximate analytical solution. The predicted effect of the coupling between the internal and external acoustic fields in a circular pipe made of reinforced woven fabric walls is shown, and the transmission loss predictions are compared with the existing experimental data in the literature.

Dokumaci, E.

2010-12-01

383

Natural and transmission line produced positive ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive ions were studied at three field sites, two of which contained ions produced by high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. Natural ions were also studied at two of the three sites. The observed differences between natural and anthropogenic ion spectra near HVDC lines are attributed primarily to a shortening of ion lifetimes by the strong electric field associated with the HVDC lines. One exception is the production of potassium- and probably sodium-based ions from the decomposition of insects in transmission line coronas. Several ions which have been observed previously at mass 60 and 130 were also identified for the first time, using tandem mass spectrometric techniques, as trimethylamine and quinoline (and isoquinoline), respectively.

Eisele, F. L.

1989-05-01

384

Plasmonic quasicrystals with broadband transmission enhancement  

PubMed Central

Plasmonic quasicrystals (PlQCs), by integrating the properties of quasicrystals (rotational symmetry and long range ordering but lack translational symmetry) and surface plasmon polariton mediated effects, offer several advantages over plasmonic crystals (PlCs). For example, in PlQCs one could have broadband, polarization independent response. However, large area patterning by electron beam lithography requires precise lattice coordinates as well as a practical way to design the structures for specific spectral response. We demonstrate design and fabrication of large area quasicrystal air hole patterns of ?/5 symmetry in metal film in which broadband, polarization and launch angle independent transmission enhancement is observed. We demonstrate bi-grating quasicrystals to show that designable transmission response is possible over visible to near infrared wavelength regions with about 15 times enhancement. These would be useful in many applications like energy harvesting, nonlinear optics and quantum plasmonics. PMID:24918659

Kasture, Sachin; Ravishankar, Ajith P.; Yallapragada, V. J.; Patil, Raj; Valappil, Nikesh V.; Mulay, Gajendra; Achanta, Venu Gopal

2014-01-01

385

Is Network Clustering Detectable in Transmission Trees?  

PubMed Central

Networks are often used to model the contact processes that allow pathogens to spread between hosts but it remains unclear which models best describe these networks. One question is whether clustering in networks, roughly defined as the propensity for triangles to form, affects the dynamics of disease spread. We perform a simulation study to see if there is a signal in epidemic transmission trees of clustering. We simulate susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) epidemics (with no re-infection) over networks with fixed degree sequences but different levels of clustering and compare trees from networks with the same degree sequence and different clustering levels. We find that the variation of such trees simulated on networks with different levels of clustering is barely greater than those simulated on networks with the same level of clustering, suggesting that clustering can not be detected in transmission data when re-infection does not occur. PMID:21731813

Welch, David

2011-01-01

386

Dispersion-free radial transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A dispersion-free radial transmission line ("DFRTL") preferably for linear accelerators, having two plane conductors each with a central hole, and an electromagnetically permeable material ("EPM") between the two conductors and surrounding a channel connecting the two holes. At least one of the material parameters of relative magnetic permeability, relative dielectric permittivity, and axial width of the EPM is varied as a function of radius, so that the characteristic impedance of the DFRTL is held substantially constant, and pulse transmission therethrough is substantially dispersion-free. Preferably, the EPM is divided into concentric radial sections, with the varied material parameters held constant in each respective section but stepwise varied between sections as a step function of the radius. The radial widths of the concentric sections are selected so that pulse traversal time across each section is the same, and the varied material parameters of the concentric sections are selected to minimize traversal error.

Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Nelson, Scott D. (Patterson, CA)

2011-04-12

387

Monkeypox transmission and pathogenesis in prairie dogs.  

PubMed

During May and June 2003, the first cluster of human monkeypox cases in the United States was reported. Most patients with this febrile vesicular rash illness presumably acquired the infection from prairie dogs. Monkeypox virus was demonstrated by using polymerase chain reaction in two prairie dogs in which pathologic studies showed necrotizing bronchopneumonia, conjunctivitis, and tongue ulceration. Immunohistochemical assays for orthopoxviruses demonstrated abundant viral antigens in surface epithelial cells of lesions in conjunctiva and tongue, with less amounts in adjacent macrophages, fibroblasts, and connective tissues. Viral antigens in the lung were abundant in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. Virus isolation and electron microscopy demonstrated active viral replication in lungs and tongue. These findings indicate that both respiratory and direct mucocutaneous exposures are potentially important routes of transmission of monkeypox virus between rodents and to humans. Prairie dogs offer insights into transmission, pathogenesis, and new vaccine and treatment trials because they are susceptible to severe monkeypox infection. PMID:15109408

Guarner, Jeannette; Johnson, Bill J; Paddock, Christopher D; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K; Regnery, Russell L; Zaki, Sherif R

2004-03-01

388

Development of helicopter transmission seals, task 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High speed helicopter transmission seal concepts were designed, fabricated and tested. The concepts were a dual element split ring seal and a circumferential seal. The tests were performed in a rig using an actual input quill assembly. The test conditions were selected to simulate transmission operation and were 230 F oil temperature, and a sliding speed of 9400 ft/min. The split ring seal exhibited gross leakage and was considered unsatisfactory, while the circumferential seal leakage was less than 1 c.c./hour; this leakage is within acceptable limits. The circumferential seal wear was only to .0005 inches during a 100 hour run (40 starts and stops). During a 40 hour contamination test (mesh silica flour) the seal total wear was a maximum of .004 inches. This wear is considered acceptable.

Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

389

Cascading failures in Europe's transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cascading failures constitute an important vulnerability of infrastructure networks, hence understanding the origin and propagation of these failures is of great interest. To this end, we study cascades of overload failures within the framework of the cascade model introduced by Motter and Lai (2002) applied for flows that have a distributed character. We investigate numerically the properties of these failures in the high-voltage European electric power transmission system from 2002 (Zhou and Bialek, 2005). The network consists of 1254 nodes (substations) specified by geographical locations, and 1812 links (transmission lines) that are assumed to be undirected. We find that assigning excess capacities in proportion to initial loads does not significantly mitigate cascading failures. Moreover, increasing the fractional excess capacity does not yield monotonically increasing gains. Using a simple model of spatial network - random geometric graph - we investigate methods beyond the proportional excess capacity allocation in order to improve the gains in mitigating such failures.

Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, G.

2013-03-01

390

Cote d'Ivoire satellite transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) initiated a rural telecommunications study to analyze its national telecommunications network and to make recommendations for future growth and expansion. The study analyzed voice and data communications capabilities and requirements together with distribution and radio programming through the Cote d'Ivoire. Transmission alternatives were then investigated, and the optimum system configuration was defined. Concurrent with the study, a pilot system was installed using SCPC and DAMA transmission techniques; the system consisted of 60 voice channels for use with the public network and 12 executive channels for use with PABX and FX lines. This paper presents the results of the study, the verification of the study recommendations with the pilot system, and the future plans for the expansion of the network through the Cote d'Ivoire.

Geiling, J. I.; Rasmussen, K. E.

391

Expectation maximisation algorithms for terahertz transmission tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) tomography is a recently developed imaging technique allowing 3D inspection of opaque objects. In this paper, we develop an ordered subsets convex algorithm for THz transmission tomography (THz-OSC). Since the reconstruction quality is highly depending on the THz beam energy, we investigate afterwards a multienergy version of the algorithm in order to provide a more accurate reconstruction of the acquired sample. This multi-energy approach is validated by reconstructing data from tomographic acquisitions measured with a 84/287 GHz transmission scanner. Then we discuss how this dual-energy approach could be able to extract physical properties of acquired samples in addition to improving 3D reconstruction.

Recur, B.; Balacey, H.; Mounaix, Patrick

2014-09-01

392

Medical Data Transmission Using Cell Phone Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A big challenge in telemedicine systems is related to have the technical requirements needed for a successful implementation in remote locations where the available hardware and communication infrastructure is not adequate for a good medical data transmission. Despite of the wide standards availability, methodologies, applications and systems integration facilities in telemedicine, in many cases the implementation requirements are not achievable to allow the system execution in remote areas of our country. Therefore, this paper presents an alternative for the messages transmission related to medical studies using the cellular network and the standard HL7 V3 [1] for data modeling. The messages are transmitted to a web server and stored in a centralized database which allows data sharing with other specialists.

Voos, J.; Centeno, C.; Riva, G.; Zerbini, C.; Gonzalez, E.

2011-12-01

393

Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring are presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp ([minus]ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is ([minus]1)[sup 1/2]. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed. 20 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1992-07-07

394

Human to Mosquito Transmission of Dengue Viruses  

PubMed Central

The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that vaccines and therapeutic antivirals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquito’s susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host. PMID:24987394

Carrington, Lauren B.; Simmons, Cameron P.

2014-01-01

395

Transmissive optomechanical platforms with engineered spatial defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear optomechanical photon-phonon couplings in the membrane-in-the-middle setup can be enhanced by taking a multielement approach as it was recently shown [A. Xuereb, C. Genes, and A. Dantan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.223601]. The particular example considered consists of a periodic array of membranes embedded in a high-finesse optical cavity and operating in the transmissive regime, i.e., around resonances of the compound cavity-membrane system. Here we propose further improvements in such a setup by breaking the translational invariance of the array, i.e., by considering quasiperiodic arrays with engineered quadratic spatial defects in the membrane positions. The localization of light modes induced by the defect combined with the access of the aforementioned transmissive regime window can lead to additional enhancement of the strength of both linear and quadratic optomechanical couplings.

Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

2014-11-01

396

Acoustic data transmission through a drillstring  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for acoustically transmitting data along a drillstring is presented. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, acoustic data signals are conditioned to counteract distortions caused by the drillstring. Preferably, this conditioning step comprises multiplying each frequency component of the data signal by exp (-ikL) where L is the transmission length of the drillstring, k is the wave number in the drillstring at the frequency of each component and i is (-1).sup.1/2. In another embodiment of this invention, data signals having a frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring are generated preferably traveling in only one direction (e.g., up the drillstring) while echoes in the drillstring resulting from the data transmission are suppressed.

Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1992-01-01

397

Coaxial tube array space transmission line characterization  

SciTech Connect

The coaxial tube array tether/transmission line used to connect an SP-100 nuclear power system to the space station was characterized over the range of reactor-to-platform separation distances of 1 to 10 km. Characterization was done with respect to array performance, physical dimensions and masses. Using a fixed design procedure, a family of designs was generated for the same power level (300 kWe), power loss (1.5 percent), and meteoroid survival probability (99.5 percent over 10 yr). To differentiate between vacuum insulated and gas insulated lines, two different maximum values of the E field were considered: 20 kV/cm (appropriate to vacuum insulation) and 50 kV/cm (compressed SF6). Core conductor, tube, bumper, standoff, spacer and bumper support dimensions, and masses were also calculated. The results of the characterization show mainly how transmission line size and mass scale with reactor-to-platform separation distance.

Switzer, C.A.; Bents, D.J.

1987-01-01

398

Asymptomatic Clostridium difficile Colonisation and Onward Transmission  

PubMed Central

Introduction Combined genotyping/whole genome sequencing and epidemiological data suggest that in endemic settings only a minority of Clostridium difficile infection, CDI, is acquired from other cases. Asymptomatic patients are a potential source for many unexplained cases. Methods We prospectively screened a cohort of medical inpatients in a UK teaching hospital for asymptomatic C. difficile carriage using stool culture. Electronic and questionnaire data were used to determine risk factors for asymptomatic carriage by logistic regression. Carriage isolates were compared with all hospital/community CDI cases from the same geographic region, from 12 months before the study to 3 months after, using whole genome sequencing and hospital admission data, assessing particularly for evidence of onward transmission from asymptomatic cases. Results Of 227 participants recruited, 132 provided ?1 stool samples for testing. 18 participants were culture-positive for C. difficile, 14/132(11%) on their first sample. Independent risk factors for asymptomatic carriage were patient reported loose/frequent stool (but not meeting CDI criteria of ?3 unformed stools in 24 hours), previous overnight hospital stay within 6 months, and steroid/immunosuppressant medication in the last 6 months (all p?0.02). Surprisingly antibiotic exposure in the last 6 months was independently associated with decreased risk of carriage (p?=?0.005). The same risk factors were identified excluding participants reporting frequent/loose stool. 13/18(72%) asymptomatically colonised patients carried toxigenic strains from common disease-causing lineages found in cases. Several plausible transmission events to asymptomatic carriers were identified, but in this relatively small study no clear evidence of onward transmission from an asymptomatic case was seen. Conclusions Transmission events from any one asymptomatic carrier are likely to be relatively rare, but as asymptomatic carriage is common, it may still be an important source of CDI, which could be quantified in larger studies. Risk factors established for asymptomatic carriage may help identify patients for inclusion in such studies. PMID:24265690

Eyre, David W.; Griffiths, David; Vaughan, Alison; Golubchik, Tanya; Acharya, Milind; O’Connor, Lily; Crook, Derrick W.

2013-01-01

399

New magnesium alloys for transmission parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallurgical aspects of the development of new magnesium alloys for the production of transmission parts and assemblies with\\u000a the use of sand mold casting, chill casting, and high-pressure die casting are considered. The approach suggested has been\\u000a used for creating new alloys with elevated creep resistance. The properties of the alloys are presented and compared with\\u000a the properties of known

B. Bronfin; N. Moscovitch

2006-01-01

400

Phylogenetic insights into regional HIV transmission  

PubMed Central

Objectives Despite prevention efforts new HIV diagnoses continue in the Southern US, where the epidemic is characterized by significant racial/ethnic disparities. We integrated phylogenetic analyses with clinical data to reveal trends in local HIV transmission. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 1671 HIV-infected individuals each with one B-subtype pol sequence obtained during chronic (82%; UNC Center for AIDS Research Clinical Cohort) or acute/recent (18%; Duke/UNC Acute HIV Consortium) infection. Methods Phylogenies were inferred using neighbor joining to select related sequences then confirmed with Bayesian methods. We characterized transmission clusters (clades n?3 sequences supported by posterior probabilities=1) by factors including race/ethnicity and transmission risk. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated for newly diagnosed patients. Results Overall, 72% were male, 59% black and 39% MSM. A total of 557 (33%) sequences grouped in either 108 pairs (n=216) or 67 clusters (n=341). Clusters ranged from 3–36 (median 4) members. Composition was delineated primarily by race, with 28% exclusively black, and to a lesser extent by risk group. Both MSM and heterosexuals formed discrete clusters though substantial mixing was observed. In multivariable analysis, patients with age ?30 years (P=0.009), acute infection (P=0.02), local residence (P=0.002), and transmitted drug resistance (P=0.02) were more likely to be cluster members while Latinos were less likely (P<0.001). Conclusions Integration of molecular, clinical and demographic data offers a unique view into the structure of local transmission networks. Clustering by black race, youth and TDR and inability to identify Latino clusters will inform prevention, testing and linkage to care strategies. PMID:22739398

Dennis, Ann M.; Hué, Stéphane; Hurt, Christopher B.; Napravnik, Sonia; Sebastian, Joseph; Pillay, Deenan; Eron, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

401

Dispersion-managed solitons for terrestrial transmission.  

PubMed

We describe a scheme involving the insertion of segments of dispersion-compensating fiber, pumped to yield Raman gain, at one or more intermediate points within each 80-km-or-greater span between amplifier huts. With dispersion-managed solitons, the scheme is expected to allow for error-free, many-channel wavelength-division multiplexing, with high spectral efficiency, over transmission distances of many thousands of kilometers. PMID:18071481

Mollenauer, L F; Bonney, R; Gordon, J P; Mamyshev, P V

1999-03-01

402

Financial transmission rights in electricity market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, financial transmission rights (FTRs) are introduced. First, the basics of FTRs are presented; second, different markets of FTRs are described, namely: i) one-period, ii) multi-period and iii) multi-round, for both forwards and options. Finally, the interaction of FTRs and strategic bidding of generators is studied. It is shown how FTRs can exacerbate market power. Based on a

Victor Quintana; Guillermo Bautista

2006-01-01

403

Taxation and wealth transmission in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies inter-vivos transfers and bequests in France and their relation to the French inheritance law and taxation using administrative records and a national households survey. Transmission behavior is highly responsive to changes in the fiscal system: inter-vivos gifts increased after a 1992 law made them partly tax-free. Moreover, the probability of giving to children is greater (ceteris paribus)

Luc Arrondel; Anne Laferrère

2001-01-01

404

Improving transmission efficiency in optical communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work addresses the problem of inefficient bandwidth utilization in optical telecommunication systems caused by network impairments such as latency, congestion, packet loss ratio and error ratio. The proposed solution is a software based system that implements User Datagram Protocol (UDP), the Java platform and custom designed transmission control mechanisms. The system offers flexibility in configuration, can be deployed over existing telecommunication infrastructure and does not require modifications to the hardware layer of the network infrastructure.

Radziwilowicz, Robert; Charette, Christian

2012-10-01

405

Developmental programming and transgenerational transmission of obesity.  

PubMed

The global obesity pandemic is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle, namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high-energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, far less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from environmental perturbations during the early-life period. Human and animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early-life environment and increased susceptibility to obesity and related metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and maternal obesity, has been shown to lead to transgenerational transmission of metabolic disorders. This association has been conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby the impact of environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the physiology of the offspring. Further, evidence to date suggests that this developmental programming is a transgenerational phenomenon, with a number of studies showing transmission of programming effects to subsequent generations, even in the absence of continued environmental stressors, thus perpetuating a cycle of obesity and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these transgenerational effects remain poorly understood; evidence to date suggests a number of potential mechanisms underpinning the transgenerational transmission of the developmentally programmed phenotype through both the maternal and paternal lineage. Transgenerational phenotype transmission is often seen as a form of epigenetic inheritance with evidence showing both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications leading to phenotype changes across generations. However, there is also evidence for non-genomic components as well as an interaction between the developing fetus with the in utero environment in the perpetuation of programmed phenotypes. A better understanding of how developmental programming effects are transmitted is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity crisis. PMID:25059803

Vickers, M H

2014-01-01

406

Voltage Induction in Parallel Transmission Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

General formulas are developed with calculation examples for determining the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence voltage induced in transmission circuits paralleled either on the same tower or on adjacent towers. For nontransposed lines the induced voltages are a function of all three sequence currents. The positive-and negative-sequence mutual impedance is less than 10% of the self-impedance of the lines while the

J. L. Blackburn

1962-01-01

407

Design of wireless transmission digital thermometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design a digital thermometer based on 89s52 MCU, which uses DS18B20 as temperature sensor, CC1100D for data transmission and LCD for data displaying. We focus on introducing the communication between MCU and DS18B20 as well as the CC1100D. With simple structure, this system is efficient. With easy installation and stable adaptability, it will have broad application prospects.

Haitao Che; Shijie Zhuang; Jiang Lianbo; Hong Hao; Zhang Hongbing

2011-01-01

408

Low Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low-Resolution Picture Transmission (LRPT) is a proposed standard for direct broadcast transmission of satellite weather images. This standard is a joint effort by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). As a digital transmission scheme, its purpose is to replace the current analog Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) system for use in the Meteorological Operational (METOP) satellites. Goddard Space Flight Center has been tasked to build an LRPT Demonstration System (LDS). It's main objective is to develop or demonstrate the feasibility of a low-cost receiver utilizing a Personal Computer (PC) as the primary processing component and determine the performance of the protocol in the simulated Radio Frequency (RF) environment. The approach would consist of two phases. In the phase 1, a Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) Modulator-Demodulator (MODEM) board that would perform RF demodulation would be purchased allowing the Central Processing Unit (CPU) to perform the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocol processing. Also since the weather images are compressed the PC would perform the decompression. Phase 1 was successfully demonstrated on December 1997. Phase 2 consists of developing a high-fidelity receiver, transmitter and environment simulator. Its goal is to find out how the METOP Specification performs in a simulated noise environment in a cost-effective receiver. The approach would be to produce a receiver using as much software as possible to perform front-end processing to take advantage of the latest high-speed PCs. Thus the COTS MODEM used in Phase 1 is performing RF demodulation along with data acquisition providing data to the receiving software. Also, environment simulator is produced using the noise patterns generated by Institute for Telecommunications Sciences (ITS) from their noise environment study.

Fong, Wai; Yeh, Pen-Shu; Sank, Victor; Nyugen, Xuan; Xia, Wei; Duran, Steve; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

409

Magnetic topological transition in transmission line metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the magnetic topological transition of the isofrequency curves in the wave vector space from a closed ellipsoid to an open hyperboloid in a metamaterial based on artificial transmission lines. In the radio frequency band we directly measure the emission pattern of a point source placed in the center of the lattice and demonstrate the elliptical wave fronts below the topological transition frequency and hyperbolic wave fronts above the topological transition frequency.

Shchelokova, Alena V.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Kapitanova, Polina V.; Belov, Pavel A.

2014-09-01

410

Micromachined microwave transmission lines in CMOS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coplanar waveguides were designed and fabricated through a commercial CMOS process with post-processing micromachining. The transmission-line layouts were designed with commercial computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Integrated circuits (ICs) were fabricated through the MOSIS service, and subsequently suspended by top-side etching. The absence of the lossy silicon substrate after etching results in significantly improved insertion-loss characteristics, dispersion characteristics, and phase velocity.

V. Milanovic; M. Gaitan; E. D. Bowen; M. E. Zaghloul

1997-01-01

411

1996 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) 1996 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules, 1996 Ancillary Products and Services Rate Schedule, 1996 Transmission Rate Schedules, and General Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1996. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), United States Department of Energy, in September 1996 (Docket Nos EF96-2011-000 and EF96f-2021-000). These rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions were approved on a final basis by the FERC July 30, 1997, in Dept. of Energy--Bonneville Power Administration, Docket Nos. EF96-2011-000 and EF96-2021-000. Except as noted elsewhere, these 1996 rate schedules and provisions supersede BPA`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions, and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, effective October 1, 1995. These rate schedules and general rate schedule provisions include all errata.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1996-10-01

412

Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

1992-01-01

413

Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

Bents, David J.

1988-01-01

414

Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

Bents, David J.

1988-01-01

415

Serotonergic transmission after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Changes in descending serotonergic innervation of spinal neural activity have been implicated in symptoms of paralysis, spasticity, sensory disturbances and pain following spinal cord injury (SCI). Serotonergic neurons possess an enhanced ability to regenerate or sprout after many types of injury, including SCI. Current research suggests that serotonine (5-HT) release within the ventral horn of the spinal cord plays a critical role in motor function, and activation of 5-HT receptors mediates locomotor control. 5-HT originating from the brain stem inhibits sensory afferent transmission and associated spinal reflexes; by abolishing 5-HT innervation SCI leads to a disinhibition of sensory transmission. 5-HT denervation supersensitivity is one of the key mechanisms underlying the increased motoneuron excitability that occurs after SCI, and this hyperexcitability has been demonstrated to underlie the pathogenesis of spasticity after SCI. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates serotonergic descending facilitatory pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord in the maintenance of pathologic pain. There are functional relevant connections between the descending serotonergic system from the rostral ventromedial medulla in the brainstem, the 5-HT receptors in the spinal dorsal horn, and the descending pain facilitation after tissue and nerve injury. This narrative review focussed on the most important studies that have investigated the above-mentioned effects of impaired 5-HT-transmission in humans after SCI. We also briefly discussed the promising therapeutical approaches with serotonergic drugs, monoclonal antibodies and intraspinal cell transplantation. PMID:24866695

Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Höller, Peter; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

2015-02-01

416

Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

417

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A weight reduction of 23 percent, noise reduction greater than 10 dB, and almost a fourfold increase in mean time between transmission removals has been demonstrated for a helicopter gearbox having a high output reduction ratio split path gear arrangement. These performance gains have been achieved by application of advanced transmission technology concepts in areas which offer high gain but are outside of normal design practices. New technology is being developed in such areas as split power gear concepts, composites, double helical gears, new gear materials, high speed spring clutches, and ceramic rolling element bearings. The programs, when completed, will provide demonstrated component and drive arrangement technology supported by analytical tools. The work is being accomplished under a CR&D program funded by NASA/Army termed the Advanced Rotorcraft transmission (ART) program. It is expected that the ART technology will be incorporated in future rotorcraft of the 1990s and 2000s. This paper summarizes the work accomplished to date on the program by Sikorsky Aircraft.

Kish, Jules

1991-01-01

418

Large rotorcraft transmission technology development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Testing of a U.S. Army XCH-62 HLH aft rotor transmission under NASA Contract NAS 3-22143 was successfully completed. This test establishes the feasibility of large, high power rotorcraft transmissions as well as demonstrating the resolution of deficiencies identified during the HLH advanced technology programs and reported by USAAMRDLTR-77-38. Over 100 hours of testing was conducted. At the 100% design power rating of 10,620 horsepower, the power transferred through a single spiral bevel gear mesh is more than twice that of current helicopter bevel gearing. In the original design of these gears, industry-wide design methods were employed and failures were experienced which identified problem areas unique to gear size. To remedy this technology shortfall, a program was developed to predict gear stresses using finite element analysis for complete and accurate representation of the gear tooth and supporting structure. To validate the finite element methodology gear strain data from the existing U.S. Army HLH aft transmission was acquired, and existing data from smaller gears were made available.

Mack, J. C.

1983-01-01

419

Backward bifurcations in dengue transmission dynamics.  

PubMed

A deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of a strain of dengue disease, which allows transmission by exposed humans and mosquitoes, is developed and rigorously analysed. The model, consisting of seven mutually-exclusive compartments representing the human and vector dynamics, has a locally-asymptotically stable disease-free equilibrium (DFE) whenever a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number(R(0)) is less than unity. Further, the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation, where the stable DFE coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium. The epidemiological consequence of this phenomenon is that the classical epidemiological requirement of making R(0) less than unity is no longer sufficient, although necessary, for effectively controlling the spread of dengue in a community. The model is extended to incorporate an imperfect vaccine against the strain of dengue. Using the theory of centre manifold, the extended model is also shown to undergo backward bifurcation. In both the original and the extended models, it is shown, using Lyapunov function theory and LaSalle Invariance Principle, that the backward bifurcation phenomenon can be removed by substituting the associated standard incidence function with a mass action incidence. In other words, in addition to establishing the presence of backward bifurcation in models of dengue transmission, this study shows that the use of standard incidence in modelling dengue disease causes the backward bifurcation phenomenon of dengue disease. PMID:18573507

Garba, S M; Gumel, A B; Abu Bakar, M R

2008-09-01

420

Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.  

PubMed

Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum. PMID:19516335

Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

2009-06-11

421

Control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a belt engaged with both the pulleys, an hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers, the hydraulic control circuit being provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement comprises: a first drain passage from the pressure regulator valve; a second drain passage from the transmission ratio control valve; a first check valve provided in the first drain passage and a second check valve provided in the second drain passage for building up supplementary low pressure in both drain passages at upstream of both the check valves; a supplementary oil passage communicating both the first and second drain passages at upstream of the check valves for supplying a part of drain oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley.

Sakai, Y.

1987-11-03

422

47 CFR 73.845 - Transmission system operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission system operation. 73.845 Section 73.845 Telecommunication...Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.845 Transmission system operation. Each LPFM licensee is responsible...

2010-10-01

423

40 CFR 123.43 - Transmission of information to EPA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Transmission of information to EPA. 123.43 Section 123.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...REQUIREMENTS Transfer of Information and Permit Review § 123.43 Transmission of information to EPA....

2011-07-01

424

Noise transmission loss of aircraft panels using acoustic intensity methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-microphone, cross-spectral, acoustic intensity measurement technique was used to determine the acoustic transmission loss of three different aircraft panels. The study was conducted in the transmission loss apparatus in the Langley aircraft noise reduction laboratory.

Mcgary, M. C.

1982-01-01

425

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERIOR TRANSMISSION PROBLEM FOR REGIONS WITH CAVITIES  

E-print Network

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERIOR TRANSMISSION PROBLEM FOR REGIONS WITH CAVITIES ANNE COSSONNI`ERE AND HOUSSEM HADDAR Abstract. We consider the electromagnetic interior transmission problem in the case when address the configuration where the electromagnetic permeability is constant while the electric

Boyer, Edmond

426

SURVIVAL AND TRANSMISSION OF PATHOGENS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To provide and apply scientific knowledge regarding the survival and transmission of pathogens in the clinical setting to their potential survival and transmission in the natural environment. Similar to the hospital environment where pathogens reside in organic debris treated wi...

427

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall...

2013-10-01

428

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall...

2010-10-01

429

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall...

2011-10-01

430

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall...

2012-10-01

431

49 CFR 192.485 - Remedial measures: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.485 Remedial measures: Transmission lines. (a) General corrosion. Each segment of transmission line with general corrosion and with a remaining wall...

2014-10-01

432

Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

2008-02-01

433

3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print no. S-C-01-00478, no date. Photographer unknown. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Transmission Lines, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

434

Occupational HIV Transmission and Prevention among Health Care Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Compartir Occupational HIV Transmission and Prevention Among Health Care Workers Fast Facts Occupational transmission of HIV to ... every hour counts. Building Better Prevention Programs for Health Care Workers Continued diligence in the following areas is ...

435

Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV during Childbirth  

MedlinePLUS

... child transmission of HIV even in women who did not take HIV medicine during pregnancy? Zidovudine is ... child transmission of HIV even in women who did not take HIV medicines during pregnancy. When should ...

436

18 CFR 37.7 - Auditing Transmission Service Information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Auditing Transmission Service Information. 37.7 Section 37... OPEN ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.7 Auditing Transmission Service Information. (a) All OASIS...

2010-04-01

437

49 CFR 220.33 - Receiving a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Receiving a radio transmission. 220.33 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.33 Receiving a radio transmission. (a) Upon receiving...

2010-10-01

438

49 CFR 220.31 - Initiating a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Initiating a radio transmission. 220.31 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.31 Initiating a radio transmission. Before transmitting...

2010-10-01

439

49 CFR 220.35 - Ending a radio transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ending a radio transmission. 220.35 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.35 Ending a radio transmission. (a) Except for...

2010-10-01

440

49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial...

2010-10-01

441

49 CFR 220.61 - Radio transmission of mandatory directives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio transmission of mandatory directives. ...TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.61 Radio transmission of mandatory directives....

2010-10-01

442

77 FR 69754 - Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...useful tools to ease the financial pressures associated with transmission development...utilities. \\17\\ See, e.g., DATC Midwest Holdings, L.L.C., 139 FERC...incentive ROEs likely put more upward pressure on transmission rates than...

2012-11-21

443

76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines...the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines...of gathering lines and underground gas storage facilities. On September 9, 2011, the Interstate Natural Gas Association of...

2011-11-16

444

77 FR 66825 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC. (Columbia...the Natural Gas Act to construct...to increase service reliability...that supplies service to large northeastern...The total cost of the project...Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC,...

2012-11-07

445

Electric Transmission One Year after the Energy Bill  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 embodies numerous provisions that will increase investment in the electric transmission grid. Many actions have occurred in the first year of implementation that should strengthen the transmission system in the United States. (author)

Gray, Ed

2006-08-15

446

Adaptive Spectrum Sensing/Transmission Scheduling for Cognitive Radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we propose an adaptive sensing/transmission scheduling policy in which the secondary user senses the spectrum when its channel condition is poor for transmission. The adaptive sensing/transmission scheduling is modeled as a Markov process and a near-optimal algorithm is proposed to determine the sensing/transmission policy. Simulation results verify our analysis and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Lu, Luxi; Jiang, Wei; Xiang, Haige; Luo, Wu

447

Definition of a Balancing Point for Electricity Transmission Contracts  

E-print Network

. Neuhoff, “Integrating transmission and energy markets mitigates market power”, CMI working paper 17 William W. Hogan, “Contract Networks for Electric Power Transmission”, Journal of Regulatory Economics, 1992, vol. 4, issue 3, 211-242. S. Borenstein, J... ” Resource and Energy Econ, 19(1-2), 1997, 109-137. H. P. Chao and S. Peck, “A Market Mechanism for Electric Power Transmission,” Journal of Regulatory Economics, 10(1), 1996, 25-60. R. Gilbert, K. Neuhoff, D. Newbery, “Allocating Transmission to Mitigate...

Olmos, Luis; Neuhoff, Karsten

2004-06-16

448

Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2) in the newborn, (a) buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b) nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c) cord blood; (3) in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers) and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58). Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49) were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3) there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49) had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49) at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49) became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49) from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49) the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA and the immunodepression of maternal variables (HIV, p = 0.007). Finally, the study suggests that perinatal transmission of HPV-DNA occurred in 24.5% (n = 12/49) of the cases studied. PMID:19545396

Rombaldi, Renato L; Serafini, Eduardo P; Mandelli, Jovana; Zimmermann, Edineia; Losquiavo, Kamille P

2009-01-01

449

Transferring transmission pricing principles from electricity to natural gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the application of several electricity transmission cost allocation methods to compute natural gas transmission tariffs. Cost allocation methods that have been implemented include four of the most relevant transmission cost allocation methods that have been considered in the electricity sector. These are analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. In order to do this, equations modeling the flow of

Clodomiro Unsihuay-Vila; Luis Olmos; Ignacio J. Pérez-Arriaga

2008-01-01

450

Security-Constrained Unit Commitment With Natural Gas Transmission Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of this paper focuses on the development of a security-based methodology for the solution of short-term SCUC when considering the impact of natural gas transmission system. The proposed methodology examines the interdependency of electricity and natural gas in a highly complex transmission system. The natural gas transmission system is modeled as a set of nonlinear equations. The proposed

Cong Liu; Mohammad Shahidehpour; Yong Fu; Zuyi Li

2009-01-01

451

Multistory transmission tower model for lightning surge analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission towers have been modeled for lightning surge analysis based on the measurements on the towers alone. For an actual high voltage transmission tower, however, ground wires are equipped in many cases. This paper proposes a multistory transmission tower model to be used in the multi-conductor analysis by EMTP. The circuit parameters of the model are determined based on the

M. Ishii; T. Kawamura; T. Kouno; E. Ohsaki; K. Shiokawa; K. Murotani; T. Higuchi

1991-01-01

452

Estimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion  

E-print Network

Estimating the Actual Cost of Transmission System Congestion Thomas J. Overbye Department be used by a utility to estimate the actual cost of congestion on its transmission system using limited@ece.uiuc.edu Abstract In its simplest form determination of the cost of transmission system congestion is rather

453

47 CFR 76.607 - Transmission of commercial advertisements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of complaints...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of complaints...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of...

2013-10-01

454

47 CFR 76.607 - Transmission of commercial advertisements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of complaints...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of complaints...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of...

2012-10-01

455

47 CFR 76.607 - Transmission of commercial advertisements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of complaints...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of complaints...its own transmission equipment is not at fault for any pattern or trend of...

2014-10-01

456

A digital transmission system for global maritime satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital transmission system for global maritime satellite communications has been designed, and experimental communications equipment has been developed, taking account of its potential application to the Inmarsat system where analog modulation is currently used for telephone signal transmission. This paper discusses possible digital technologies to realize an efficient digital transmission system, and presents a concept for the designed system.

Y. Hirata; Y. Yasuda; H. Okinaka; K. Kashiki

1984-01-01

457

MARKETS FOR TRANSMISSION RIGHTS: A COMPETITIVE EQUILIBRIUM MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, competitive equilibrium models of markets for Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) are presented. An FTRs market is modelled by using a set of market-equilibrium conditions for every entity that participate in the transmission market. The proposed equilibrium framework is more natural and e xible for modelling markets than the classic cost-minimization auction. Different markets for Financial Transmission Rights

Guillermo Bautista; Victor H. Quintana; Jose A. Aguadoyy

458

Mitigating market power in financial transmission-right allocations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology is proposed for taking into account potential market power in financial transmission-right (FTR) allocations. Hedging position ratios (HPRs) are computed for every FTR bid. These ratios quantify the relationship between the positions of a FTR bidder in the energy market, and in the transmission rights allocation (based on the transmission rights bids). These ratios are used to identify

Guillermo Bautista; Victor H. Quintana

2003-01-01

459

Whole body transmission-emission scanning with whole body camera.  

PubMed

Whole body transmission-emission scanning was carried out using a whole body camera. A disk source 30 cm in diameter filled with 99mTc was used for transmission scanning. Correct interpretation of emission scanning requires accurate anatomical orientation of the images. The value of whole body transmission-emission scanning is emphasized. PMID:813536

Suzuki, Y; Mori, H; Michigishi, T; Hisada, K; Matsudaira, M

1975-12-01

460

Hafnium Resonance Parameter Analysis using Neutron Capture and Transmission Experiments  

E-print Network

Hafnium Resonance Parameter Analysis using Neutron Capture and Transmission Experiments Michael J. Experiments measuring neutron capture and transmission were performed at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute detectors were used for transmission experiments at flight path lengths of 15 and 25 m. Capture experiments

Danon, Yaron

461

Impact of superconductive magnetic energy storage on electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can provide a significant positive impact on electric power transmission. By using SMES, transmission-line loadings during heavy load hours can be reduced if the SMES system is located near the major load. Transmission losses as well as the fuel cost for the losses over a 24 hr period can

K.-S. Tam; P. Kumar

1990-01-01

462

Higher frequency transmission properties of motor car-chassis systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission properties of motor car systems are analytically examined in a broad frequency range (up to 200 Hz), using a multibody system, containing rigid and elastic bodies. Most typical motor car variants used in the automobile industry were qualitatively modeled and their global power transmission behavior was analyzed with regard to various geometric shapes. A detailed transmission investigation was

Tong Zhang

1992-01-01

463

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea)  

E-print Network

An all-cryogenic THz transmission spectrometer P. J. Burkea) and J. P. Eisenstein Condensed Matter This article describes a THz transmission spectrometer for the spectral range of 2­65 cm 1 100 GHz to 2 THz of mK. The measurement of the far-infrared THz transmission through such systems at ultralow

Eisenstein, Jim

464

Renewable energy integration: Mechanism for investment on bulk power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission has established itself as a natural monopoly, and as such, the prices and remaining access and operating conditions of the transmission system have been regulated. In the regulations existing before the electric sector reform there was a single planner that determined the generation and transmission expansion. However, each time more mechanisms have been implemented that have allowed individualizing the

J. D. Molina; H. Rudnick

2010-01-01

465

Multisensory interaction mediates the social transmission of avoidance in rats: dissociation from social transmission of fear.  

PubMed

Social interaction enables animals to transmit various types of sensory information that can modulate learned avoidance behavior and fear responses, which are important to survival. We previously reported that, under a passive avoidance paradigm, avoidance behavior is facilitated when a rat observes another rat (demonstrator) receiving a shock when performing a specific behavior. However, the sensory mechanisms underlying this 'social facilitation of avoidance' are not well understood. The present study examined the role of sensory pathways for social transmission of avoidance, focusing on the olfactory and visual systems. The olfactory ability of observer rats was blocked by an intranasal application of ZnSO4, and their visual ability was blocked by an opaque partition placed between observer and demonstrator rats. We found that blocking either olfactory or visual input drastically diminished the social transmission of avoidance. Interestingly the social transmission of fear responses remained intact even when olfactory or visual information was blocked. These results indicate that the social transmission of avoidance is mediated not by any single sensory modality but by multisensory interaction in rats, suggesting a distinct sensory mechanism from that underlying the social transmission of fear. PMID:23769998

Masuda, Akira; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Someya, Nami; Aou, Shuji

2013-09-01

466

CAN Message Reception as a Function of Transmission Rate Transmission Rate from CANalyzer bus(msg / sec)  

E-print Network

CAN Message Reception as a Function of Transmission Rate 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 16.00 47.00 76 Rate from CANalyzer (msg / sec) CAN Message Reception as a Function of Transmission Rate 1 CAN msg per TCP/IP msg 4 CAN msg per TCP/IP msg Ideal (no transmission overhead) Maximum theoretical PC modeling

Koopman, Philip

467

Sound broadcasting and newspaper page transmissions over satellite communication links  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to the use of satellite systems for newspaper facsimile transmission and sound broadcasting. Advantages of satellite transmission with respect to conventional terrestrial telephonic links for the transmission of centrally edited newspapers to decentralized printing houses are pointed out, and the systems established in the Soviet Union for newspaper transmission through satellite television systems along with television programs and digital sound broadcasting is indicated. The requirements of terrestrial and satellite links for sound program transmission are then compared and advantages of the satellite system with respect to the number of channels required, the possibility of decentralized control, and the independence of cost from distance are pointed out.

Kantor, L. Ia.; Chekhovskii, E. Y.

1981-09-01

468

Prevention of Perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Transmission.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the most common form of chronic hepatitis worldwide, is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 360 million people globally. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is responsible for more than one third of chronic HBV infections worldwide. An estimated 15%-40% of persons chronically infected develop HBV-related complications, such as cirrhosis and hepatic carcinoma, and 25% die from these complications. MTCT can occur during pregnancy or during delivery. Screening pregnant women for HBV infection, providing infant postexposure prophylaxis, and maternal treatment with antiviral medications are strategies for reducing MTCT transmission rates and the global burden of new chronic HBV infections. Administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine within 24 hours of birth, followed by completion of the vaccine series, is 85%-95% efficacious for prevention of MTCT. Despite timely post-exposure prophylaxis, MTCT occurs in 5%-15% of infants. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg) positive mothers with HBV DNA level ?10(6) copies/mL (>200 000 IU/mL) are at greatest risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. Consensus recommendations and evidence-based guidelines for management of chronic HBV infection and screening of pregnant women have been developed. The safety and efficacy of antiviral drug use during pregnancy are areas of ongoing research. Substantial advances have been achieved globally in reducing MTCT, but MTCT remains an ongoing health problem. Attaining a better understanding of the mechanisms of MTCT, implementing existing policies on maternal screening and infant follow-up, and addressing research gaps are critical for further reductions in MTCT transmission. PMID:25232477

Nelson, Noele P; Jamieson, Denise J; Murphy, Trudy V

2014-09-01

469

Preventing HIV transmission in "priority" countries.  

PubMed

A recent $168 million 5-year cooperative agreement funded by the US Agency for International Development combines elements of its earlier AIDSTECH and AIDSCOM projects under the AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). Instead of working to effect broad-scale behavior change toward the prevention of HIV transmission, AIDSCAP strategically targets locations for condom distribution, behavior change messages, and the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In Lagos and the states of Cross River and Jigawa where the AIDS epidemic is firmly established, for example, AIDSCAP is intervening to increase condom demand and accessibility; alter sexual behaviors which carry a high risk for HIV transmission; and reduce the prevalence of STDs which enhance the transmission of HIV. The project began in fall of 1991 and has expanded to include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Brazil, Haiti, Jamaica, India, and Thailand; limited assistance is also provided to 7 other African countries, 4 Latin America countries, and 1 in Asia. 4 more countries are in the final stages of negotiations to be included in the project. The USAID mission in the host country and the government must invite AIDSCAP involvement in order for the country to attain priority status. Countries are selected based on the HIV prevalence rate, population size and distribution, level of commitment to HIV prevention/control, capacity to respond to the AIDSCAP plan of action, level of other donor support, the USAID Mission's development priorities, and the Mission's commitment of substantial funds from its own budget. Once involved, AIDSCAP is mandated to implement interventions through in-country agencies. PMID:12344871

Finger, W R

1993-05-01

470

Trends In U.S. Electric Power Transmission  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the changes that are occurring in the industry to implement the goals of improved reliability and reduced congestion costs. As the electric industry works to become a more efficient market, transmission stands as a key link between the competitive generation and the regulated distribution sectors. In this role as a key link, transmission is a major focus of government efforts to improve reliability and reduce congestion costs. The scope of the report is to analyze the dominant reliability, investment, siting, and competition/open access trends that are occurring in the domestic electric transmission industry. Topics covered include: the impact of the 2003 Northeast blackout on reliability rules; the move from voluntary to mandatory reliability standards; the advent of real-time transmission system monitoring; ISO/RTO efforts to improve system reliability; the drivers of government intervention in transmission investment; the move towards incentive-based rates for transmission investment; legislative and regulatory efforts to spur transmission investment to support renewable energy resources; the emergence of merchant transmission; the need for federal backstop authority on regional transmission projects; the designation of national interest electric transmission corridors; FERC Orders on siting transmission; the need for changes in open access and competition regulations; FERC efforts to increase open access and competition; legislative efforts to increase competition; and, current competitive issues in the industry.

NONE

2007-11-15

471

Noise transmission of double wall composite shells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes analytical studies of noise transmission of double wall laminated composite cylindrical shells of finite extent. The main objective is to estimate structureborne noise generated by the concentrated random forces. The theoretical solutions of the governing acoustic-structural equations are obtained utilizing modal decomposition. Results indicate that from the viewpoint of noise attenuation the composite shell does not seem to offer advantage over an aluminum shell. However, the orientation of the fibers and the material characteristics of the soft viscoelastic core can be tailored to meet the specific needs of noise attenuation.

Vaicaitis, R.; Bofilios, D. A.

1985-01-01

472

Medical tomograph system using ultrasonic transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic energy transmission in rectilinear array scanning patterns of soft tissue provides projection density values of the tissue which are recorded as a function of scanning position and angular relationship, .theta., of the subject with a fixed coordinate system. A plurality of rectilinear scan arrays in the same plane for different angular relationships .theta..sub.1 . . . .theta..sub.n thus recorded are superimposed. The superimposition of intensity values thus yields a tomographic image of an internal section of the tissue in the scanning plane.

Heyser, Richard C. (Inventor); Nathan, Robert (Inventor)

1978-01-01

473

Direct microwave transmission on single ?-hemolysin pores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We integrated an ultra-broadband microwave circuit for direct sampling of single ?-Hemolysin pores in a suspended bilipid membrane. Simultaneous direct current recordings reveal that we can monitor and correlate the radio-frequency transmission signal, with correspondence between open-close states of the direct current and the RF signals. This proves the ability of an RF-readout technique to perform real-time in-vitro recordings of pores. The technique thus holds great promise for research and drug screening applications, since the sampling rate of single channels can be drastically enhanced and the recording bandwidth allows for tracking the passage of single ions.

Ramachandran, Sujatha; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Blick, Robert H.

2011-08-01

474

GPCR Mediated Regulation of Synaptic Transmission  

PubMed Central

Synaptic transmission is a finely regulated mechanism of neuronal communication. The release of neurotransmitter at the synapse is not only the reflection of membrane depolarization events, but rather, is the summation of interactions between ion channels, G protein coupled receptors, second messengers, and the exocytotic machinery itself which exposes the components within a synaptic vesicle to the synaptic cleft. The focus of this review is to explore the role of G protein signaling as it relates to neurotransmission, as well as to discuss the recently determined inhibitory mechanism of G?? dimers acting directly on the exocytotic machinery proteins to inhibit neurotransmitter release. PMID:22307060

Betke, Katherine M.; Wells, Christopher A.; Hamm, Heidi E.

2012-01-01

475

Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes  

DOEpatents

A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

2012-07-10

476

Applicability of glass for transmission LED optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For LED lighting applications, Fresnel lenses or TIR lenses are frequently made of optical plastics. Glass, however, can offer a number of advantages, including higher resistance to heat, to UV light, and to chemicals like solvents. In this work, several glass materials for transmission optics are compared. The transmittances are evaluated, including Fresnel losses and absorption, as well as shifts of the chromaticity coordinates and of the color rendering index. TIR lenses made of Suprax borosilicate glass and polycarbonate are compared concerning their contour accuracies and their resulting photometric properties like luminous intensity distributions, luminous fluxes, and chromaticity distributions.

Hellwig, Ansgar; Geyer, Ulf; Heßling, Thomas; Hübner, Marc C.

2012-10-01

477

The processing and transmission of EEG data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interest in sleep research was stimulated by the discovery of a number of physiological changes that occur during sleep and by the observed effects of sleep on physical and mental performance and status. The use of the relatively new methods of EEG measurement, transmission, and automatic scoring makes sleep analysis and categorization feasible. Sleep research involving the use of the EEG as a fundamental input has the potential of answering many unanswered questions involving physical and mental behavior, drug effects, circadian rhythm, and anesthesia.

Schulze, A. E.

1974-01-01

478

Transmission media effects on precise Doppler tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of the transmission media - the earth's troposphere and ionosphere, and the solar wind - on precise Doppler tracking are discussed. The charged particle effects can be largely removed by dual frequency observations; however there are limitations to these corrections (besides system noise and/or finite integration times) including the effects of magnetic fields, diffraction, and differential refraction, all of which must be carefully evaluated. The earth's troposphere can contribute an error of delta f/f approximately 10 to the minus 14th power.

Callahan, P. S.

1978-01-01

479

Oxygen transmissibility of disposable hydrogel contact lenses.  

PubMed

We measured the central and mid-peripheral thicknesses of three "disposable" hydrogel contact lens designs of varying powers. These measurements allowed calculation of the areal average lens thicknesses (over a central 6 mm chord), which in turn allowed calculation of predicted oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) for the lenses studied (using previously reported values for measured oxygen permeability [Dk] of these materials). Dk/L values for the disposable hydrogel lenses tested were found to range from 9 to 17 x 10(-9) cm mL O2/sec mL mmHg. PMID:2007288

Weissman, B A; Schwartz, S D; Lee, D A

1991-01-01

480

Data penetration transmission in P2P  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper analyzed the type of work principles of the NAT server, and by using UDP Hole Punching and port speculation technology, a program was designed to penetrate the NAT server and direct communication among the intranet users was achieved. This paper also evaluated the communications among users in various types of NAT servers, and it showed a success rate of 95%. By analyzing the principles and setting rules of firewall, together with the application of HTTP tunnel, the designed procedures have penetrated the firewall to visite the user without lowering the security level of the system. The eventual establishment of communication modules facilitated the direct peer-to-peer GIS data transmission.

Zheng, Shiping; Feng, Xuezhi

2007-06-01

481

Transmissive Diffractive Optical Element Solar Concentrators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar-thermal-radiation concentrators in the form of transmissive diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have been proposed as alternatives to mirror-type solar concentrators now in use. In comparison with functionally equivalent mirror-type solar concentrators, the transmissive, diffractive solar concentrators would weigh and cost less, and would be subject to relaxed mechanical tolerances. A DOE concentrator would be made from a thin, flat disk or membrane of a transmissive material having a suitable index of refraction. By virtue of its thinness, the DOE concentrator would have an areal mass density significantly less than that of a functionally equivalent conventional mirror. The DOE concentrator would have a relatively wide aperture--characterized by a focal-length/aperture-diameter ratio ('f number') on the order of 1. A kinoform (a surface-relief phase hologram) of high diffractive order would be microfabricated onto one face of the disk. The kinoform (see figure) would be designed to both diffract and refract incident solar radiation onto a desired focal region, without concern for forming an image of the Sun. The high diffractive order of this kinoform (in contradistinction to the low diffractive orders of some other kinoforms) would be necessary to obtain the desired f number of 1, which, in turn, would be necessary for obtaining a desired concentration ratio of 2,500 or greater. The design process of optimizing the concentration ratio of a proposed DOE solar concentrator includes computing convolutions of the optical bandwidth of the Sun with the optical transmission of the diffractive medium. Because, as in the cases of other non-imaging, light-concentrating optics, image quality is not a design requirement, the process also includes trading image quality against concentration ratio. A baseline design for one example calls for an aperture diameter of 1 m. This baseline design would be scalable to a diameter as large as 10 m, or to a smaller diameter for a laboratory test article. Initial calculations have indicated that the characteristics of the test article would be readily scalable to a full-size unit.

Baron, Richard; Moynihan, Philip; Price, Douglas

2008-01-01

482

Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

Pike, William T.

1996-01-01

483

Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/..delta..lambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects.

Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

1981-08-01

484

Disturbances in a power transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A simple model for a power transmission system is presented. In this model, disturbances of all sizes may occur. They are randomly triggered and have the characteristic behavior of avalanches. A single parameter describes the scaling of the avalanche size. This parameter combines a measure of closeness to the maximum load, size of transferred loads during an overloading event, and connectivity of the system. The probability distribution function of the size of the disturbance has power-scaling range with the exponent close to -1. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Sachtjen, M. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Carreras, B. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lynch, V. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2000-05-01

485

Data compression for full motion video transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clearly transmission of visual information will be a major, if not dominant, factor in determining the requirements for, and assessing the performance of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) communications systems. Projected image/video requirements which are currently anticipated for SEI mission scenarios are presented. Based on this information and projected link performance figures, the image/video data compression requirements which would allow link closure are identified. Finally several approaches which could satisfy some of the compression requirements are presented and possible future approaches which show promise for more substantial compression performance improvement are discussed.

Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.; Sayood, Khalid

1991-01-01

486

Propagation considerations in land mobile satellite transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It appears likely that the Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) will be authorized by the FCC for operation in the 800 to 900 MHz (UHF) and possibly near 1500 MHz (L-band). Propagation problems are clearly an important factor in the effectiveness of this service, but useful measurements are few, and produced contradictory interpretations. A first order overview of existing measurements is presented with particular attention to the first two NASA balloon to mobile vehicle propagation experiments. Some physical insight into the interpretation of propagation effects in LMSS transmissions is provided.

Vogel, W. J.; Smith, E. K.

1985-01-01

487

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program-Boeing helicopters status report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is structured to incorporate key emerging material and component technologies into an advanced rotorcraft transmission with the intention of making significant improvements in the state of the art (SOA). Specific objectives of ART are: (1) Reduce transmission weight by 25 pct.; (2) Reduce transmission noise by 10 dB; and (3) Improve transmission life and reliability, while extending Mean Time Between Removal to 5000 hr. Boeing selected a transmission sized for the Tactical Tilt Rotor (TTR) aircraft which meets the Future Air Attack Vehicle (FAVV) requirements. Component development testing will be conducted to evaluate the high risk concepts prior to finalizing the advanced transmission configuration. The results of tradeoff studies and development test which were completed are summarized.

Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.; Valco, Mark J.

1991-01-01

488

Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2007-11-06

489

A radial transmission line material measurement apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A radial transmission line material measurement sample apparatus (sample holder, offset short standards, measurement software, and instrumentation) is described which has been proposed, analyzed, designed, constructed, and tested. The purpose of the apparatus is to obtain accurate surface impedance measurements of lossy, possibly anisotropic, samples at low and intermediate frequencies (vhf and low uhf). The samples typically take the form of sections of the material coatings on conducting objects. Such measurements thus provide the key input data for predictive numerical scattering codes. Prediction of the sample surface impedance from the coaxial input impedance measurement is carried out by two techniques. The first is an analytical model for the coaxial-to-radial transmission line junction. The second is an empirical determination of the bilinear transformation model of the junction by the measurement of three full standards. The standards take the form of three offset shorts (and an additional lossy Salisbury load), which have also been constructed. The accuracy achievable with the device appears to be near one percent.

Warne, L.K.; Moyer, R.D.; Koontz, T.E.; Morris, M.E.

1993-05-01

490

What is transmitted in "synaptic transmission"?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even students that obtain a high grade in neurophysiology often carry away a serious misconception concerning the final result of the complex set of events that follows the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic terminal. The misconception consists in considering that "at a synapse, information is passed on from one neuron to the next" is equivalent to (and often expressed explicitly as) "the action potential passes from one neuron to the next." More than half of four groups of students who were asked to comment on an excerpt from a recent physiology textbook that openly stated the misconception had no clear objection to the text presented. We propose that the first culprit in generating this misconception is the term "synaptic transmission," which promotes the notion of transferring something or passing something along (implicitly unchanged). To avoid establishing this misconception, the first simple suggestion is to use words like "synaptic integration" rather than "synaptic transmission" right from the start. More generally, it would be important to focus on the function of synaptic events rather than on rote listing of all the numerous steps that are known to occur, which are so complex as to saturate the mind of the student.

Erik Montagna (Institute of Chemistry)

2010-06-01

491

Pneumatic Valve Operated by Multiplex Pneumatic Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pneumatic system has several advantages, which are cheapness, lightweight, and reliability to human and environment. These advantages are adapted to some research areas, such as industrial lines, medical and nursing cares, and rehabilitation tools. However, the pneumatic system needs several devices; compressor, air tube, and control valve. This research aim to downsize pneumatic system. In this paper, a new method of multiplex pneumatic transmission for multi-pneumatic servo system is proposed. The valve for this system consists of two vibrators supported by springs, which was designed with simple and cheap structure. The working principle of the valve is vibrators resonance from multiplex pneumatic transmission and it is possible to work as ON/OFF valves without electric wire. Dynamic simulation was used to confirm the working principle of the resonance driving system. A prototype device confirming the principle was designed and developed based on the simulation. The experiments show that this new control system works very well to control two separated valves through single pneumatic tube.

Nishioka, Yasutaka; Suzumori, Koichi; Kanda, Takefumi; Wakimoto, Shuichi

492

Optical signal processing for wireless transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter-wave bands are attracting attention because of the availability of wideband for high-speed transmission. However, due to the limitation of the performance of electric signal processing, it is rather difficult to modulate and demodulate millimeter-wave signals with high-speed baseband modulation. In this paper, we describe optical signal processing for high-speed modulation of millimeter-wave, based on high-speed and precise lightwave control. In optical fiber communication systems, various types of modulation formats, such as quadrature-amplitude-modulation, are reported to achieve high-speed transmission. Optical two-tone signals can be converted into millimeter-wave signals by using high-speed photodetectors. This technique can be used for distribution of stable reference signals in large-scale antenna arrays for radio astronomy. By using the millimeter-wave signal generation technique and the optical advanced modulation formats, we can achieve high-speed modulation of millimeter-waves, where the carrier frequency and bit rate can be over 90GHz and 40Gb/s, respectively.

Kawanishi, Tetsuya

2012-01-01

493

Observational learning in orangutan cultural transmission chains.  

PubMed

Field reports suggest that orangutans acquire local traditions by observing neighbouring conspecifics. However, there is little direct evidence of social learning to support this conclusion. The present study investigated whether orangutans would learn a novel foraging method through observation of a conspecific in a diffusion-chain paradigm testing for the spread of the behaviour. A foraging box with two possible methods for extracting food was used to investigate the transmission of a foraging tradition among zoo-living subjects. In a socially housed group of five orangutans, the dominant male was trained to use one technique exclusively to retrieve food. He then performed this technique in the presence of another group member, who was then allowed to forage. After several trials, the observer became the model for the next individual. A second experimental group of six individuals was introduced to the alternative method. The model-seeded technique was successfully transmitted along both experimental chains, with significant preferences for the model method. These results are consistent with claims for social transmission of foraging methods in wild orangutans. PMID:20843841

Dindo, Marietta; Stoinski, Tara; Whiten, Andrew

2011-04-23

494

Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program were to achieve a 25 percent weight reduction, a 10 dB noise reduction, and a 5,000 hour mean time between removals (MTBR). A three engine Army Cargo Aircraft (ACA) of 85,000 pounds gross weight was used as the baseline. Preliminary designs were conducted of split path and split torque transmissions to evaluate weight, reliability, and noise. A split path gearbox was determined to be 23 percent lighter, greater than 10 dB quieter, and almost four times more reliable than the baseline two stage planetary design. Detail design studies were conducted of the chosen split path configuration, and drawings were produced of a 1/2 size gearbox consisting of a single engine path of the split path section. Fabrication and testing was then conducted on the 1/2 size gearbox. The 1/2 size gearbox testing proved that the concept of the split path gearbox with high reduction ratio double helical output gear was sound. The improvements were attributed to extensive use of composites, spring clutches, advanced high hot hardness gear steels, the split path configuration itself, high reduction ratio, double helical gearing on the output stage, elastomeric load sharing devices, and elimination of accessory drives.

Kish, Jules G.

1993-01-01

495

Multi-frequency axial transmission bone ultrasonometer.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen a surge in the development of axial transmission QUS (Quantitative UltraSound) technologies for the assessment of long bones using various modes of acoustic waves. The condition of cortical bones and the development of osteoporosis are determined by numerous mechanical, micro-structural, and geometrical or macro-structural bone properties like hardness, porosity and cortical thickness. Such complex manifestations of osteoporosis require the evaluation of multiple parameters with different sensitivities to the various properties of bone that are affected by the disease. This objective may be achieved by using a multi-frequency ultrasonic examination The ratio of the acoustic wavelength to the cortical thickness can be changed by varying the frequency of the ultrasonic pulse propagating through the long bone that results in the change in composition of the induced wave comprised of a set of numerous modes of guided, longitudinal, and surface acoustic waves. The multi-frequency axial transmission QUS method developed at Artann Laboratories (Trenton, NJ) is implemented in the Bone Ultrasonic Scanner (BUSS). In the current version of the BUSS, a train of ultrasonic pulses with 60, 100, 400, 800, and 1200 kHz frequencies is used. The developed technology was tested on a variety of bone phantoms simulating normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic bones. The results of this study confirm the feasibility of the multi-frequency approach for the assessment of the processes leading to osteoporosis. PMID:24206675

Tatarinov, Alexey; Egorov, Vladimir; Sarvazyan, Noune; Sarvazyan, Armen

2014-07-01

496

Diffractive wave transmission in dispersive media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to study the reflection-transmission of diffractive geometrical optic rays described by semi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems such as the Maxwell-Lorentz equations with the anharmonic model of polarization. The framework is that of P. Donnat's thesis [P. Donnat, Quelques contributions mathématiques en optique non linéaire, chapters 1 and 2, thèse, 1996] and V. Lescarret [V. Lescarret, Wave transmission in dispersive media, M3AS 17 (4) (2007) 485-535]: we consider an infinite WKB expansion of the wave over long times/distances O(1/?) and because of the boundary, we decompose each profile into a hyperbolic (purely oscillating) part and elliptic (evanescent) part as in M. William [M. William, Boundary layers and glancing blow-up in nonlinear geometric optics, Ann. Sci. École Norm. Sup. 33 (2000) 132-209]. Then to get the usual sublinear growth on the hyperbolic part of the profiles, for every corrector, we consider E, the space of bounded functions decomposing into a sum of pure transports and a "quasi compactly" supported part. We make a detailed analysis on the nonlinear interactions on E which leads us to make a restriction on the set of resonant phases. We finally give a convergence result which justifies the use of "quasi compactly" supported profiles.

Lescarret, Vincent

497

Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.  

PubMed

Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Miller, Debra L

2014-01-01

498

Elbe Area Service Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

A brief summary of the environmental impacts which would result from the construction and operation of the proposed 115-kV transmission line from Alder Dam to the town of Elbe is presented. Mitigation measures which would be included in the design, construction, and operation of the facility to minimize these impacts are also listed. The impacts identified are not significant because none are high in intensity or extent, and most would be minimized or avoided by the mitigation measures integrated into the proposal. This action would not establish a precedent for future actions with significant effects. No other development activity or transmission project is planned or being developed as a result of, or in relation to this proposal. Unless additional impacts which are significant are identified during public and agency review of this document, or as a consequence of Lewis County PUD's construction of the Elbe Substation, BPA will not consider this project to be a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement will not be required.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1983-10-01

499

Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

Kural, A.; Pullin, R.; Featherston, C.; Paget, C.; Holford, K.

2011-07-01

500

Effectiveness of condoms in preventing HIV transmission.  

PubMed

The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS. PMID:9141163

Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R

1997-05-01