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1

Buffalo Flat Service 115-KV Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.  

SciTech Connect

The US Air Force has sited a radar transmitter at Buffalo Flat, near Christmas Valley, Oregon. This report discusses the environmental impacts of providing the electrical service for the installation. A 115 kV power transmission line will be built between LaPine and Buffalo Flat. Route alternatives as well as design alternatives are discussed. (ACR)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1987-07-01

2

Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

NONE

1996-05-01

3

Proposed Management of St. Louis Peak Roadless Area and Proposed Henderson East to Portal Substation 115 K.V. Transmission Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement considers land use management direction of the St. Louis Peak Roadless Area in the Arapaho National Forest, State of Colorado, Grand County; and construction of a 115 KV power transmission line partially within the area, in both Clear Creek ...

1973-01-01

4

Transmission assembly  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a transmission assembly. It comprises a first automatic transmission having a forward end adapted to be coupled to an internal combustion engine and a rearward end, the first automatic transmission including a drive shaft; a second automatic transmission having a forward end and a rearward end, and including a stator plate having a forward portion and a rearward portion. The stator plate located adjacent the forward end of the second automatic transmission, the drive shaft connecting the first automatic transmission in driving relation with the second automatic transmission; a coupling plate for connecting the rearward end of the first automatic transmission with the forward end of the second automatic transmission. The coupling plate rotatably supporting the drive shaft; and means for providing communication of pressurized transmission fluid between the first and second automatic transmissions.

Klazura, K.

1990-08-28

5

Shingles Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Transmission Español: Transmisión Shingles cannot be passed from one ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Images and logos on this ...

6

AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

7

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

1988-02-02

8

Manual transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This new text provides the coverage of standard transmissions available. Domestic and imported cars are discussed, and a separate chapter is devoted to import vehicle drive trains. Overdrive systems are also covered in detail. Necessary tools for manual transmission servicing are listed and discussed, and safety information is highlighted throughout. Each chapter contains objectives, ''Facts to Remember'' (lists within the

1987-01-01

9

HIV Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... of transmission from scratching because there is no transfer of body fluids between people. Can I get ... infected blood or semen, exposure to the air, heat from cooking, and stomach acid would destroy the ...

10

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

Yale, O.S.

1989-12-12

11

Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transmission Lines, is the fourteenth chapter in Volume II â Alternating Current. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Circuits and the speed of light; Finite-length transmission lines; and Waveguides. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

12

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

Miki, N.

1988-10-11

13

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

Aoki, H.

1989-03-21

14

Planetary transmission  

SciTech Connect

A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

1987-04-21

15

Automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

1986-08-26

16

Power transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

1991-04-23

17

Directional Gear Ratio Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun ge...

A. E. Lefever

1982-01-01

18

Transmission Cycles of Plague  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image contains the transmission sylvatic and urban cycles of plague (Yersinia pestis)in the United States. It also shows some of the differences in transmission between bubonic and pneumonic plague.

American Society For Microbiology;

2004-08-27

19

Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Español: Transmisión "Chickenpox Parties"—Don't Take the ... For more information about how shingles spreads, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

20

HIV Transmission Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks HIV Transmission Risk The risk of getting HIV varies widely ... blood transfusion, carry a much higher risk of transmission than other exposures, such as oral sex. For ...

21

Automated manual transmission controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Bernier, David R. (Rochester Hills, MI)

1999-12-28

22

RF Transmission Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. After completing this module, learners will be able to describe the type of transmission lines needed in RF systems and how transmission lines work together with other RF system components to deliver maximum power while maintaining reflected power. They also learn how to interpret transmission line specifications, select a transmission line for a given application, calculate transmission line power losses, and measure standing wave ratio. Finally, this module will use visual examples and present industry best practices for identifying type of connectors used with transmission lines and procedures for transmission line testing and troubleshooting.

2012-12-07

23

Pellicle transmission uniformity requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling critical dimensions of devices is a constant battle for the photolithography engineer. Current DUV lithographic process exposure latitude is typically 12 to 15% of the total dose. A third of this exposure latitude budget may be used up by a variable related to masking that has not previously received much attention. The emphasis on pellicle transmission has been focused on increasing the average transmission. Much less, attention has been paid to transmission uniformity. This paper explores the total demand on the photospeed latitude budget, the causes of pellicle transmission nonuniformity and examines reasonable expectations for pellicle performance. Modeling is used to examine how the two primary errors in pellicle manufacturing contribute to nonuniformity in transmission. World-class pellicle transmission uniformity standards are discussed and a comparison made between specifications of other components in the photolithographic process. Specifications for other materials or parameters are used as benchmarks to develop a proposed industry standard for pellicle transmission uniformity.

Brown, Thomas L.; Ito, Kunihiro

1998-12-01

24

Series Transmission Line Transformer  

DOEpatents

A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

2004-06-29

25

E. coli Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > E. coli > Understanding E. coli Understanding Overview Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

26

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

ScienceCinema

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28

27

Priority Encoding Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called Priority Encoding Transmission,for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. Whena message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value foreach part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodesthe message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possiblymultiple) receivers. The priority value of each part of the messagedetermines the

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1994-01-01

28

Priority encoding transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method, called priority encoding transmission, for sending messages over lossy packet-based networks. When a message is to be transmitted, the user specifies a priority value for each part of the message. Based on the priorities, the system encodes the message into packets for transmission and sends them to (possibly multiple) receivers. The priority value of each

Andres Albanese; Johannes Blömer; Jeff Edmonds; Michael Luby; Madhu Sudan

1996-01-01

29

Pilot Assisted Wireless Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of pilot assisted wireless transmissions is considered from signal processing and information theoretical perspectives. A general pilot placement model is presented and related figures of merit discussed. A survey of recent pilot assisted transmission theory and techniques is provided.

Lang Tong; Brian M. Sadler; Min Dong

30

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2011-01-01

31

Manual transmission synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transmission synchronizer is described which consists of: a synchro hub formed with an aperture; a coupling sleeve formed with first splines on an internal surface thereof, the splines having chamfers at each end; a baulk ring operatively associated with a transmission gear, the baulk ring being formed with second splines which are engageable with the first splines; and a

K. Hiraiwa; A. Kawaguchi

1986-01-01

32

Automatic transmission control method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

1989-07-04

33

Superconducting microwave transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting microwave transmission lines can be designed to have lower loss, lower dispersion, and lower phase velocity than conventional metal lines. These properties make superconducting transmission lines attractive for use in many devices and systems such as filters and analog to digital converters. The problem with designing microwave circuits which utilizes these lines is that accurate circuit models do not exist. This paper present models for the microwave transmission line parameters (phase velocity, attenuation, and characteristic impedance) of superconducting lines as a function of temperature and geometry. An experiment to verify these models is also presented.

McClay, C.P.; Soares, S.; Weitzman, P.S.

1991-10-01

34

Downhole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT) [Provo, UT; Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT) [Spanish Fork, UT

2008-01-15

35

Thyristors for HVDC transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make HVDC transmission competitive, the number of components - of which thyristors are of paramount importance - must be reduced. This article looks at the fabrication of thyristors with high blocking voltages.

Mitlehner, H.; Schulze, H.-J.

1988-09-01

36

Down hole transmission system  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

2007-07-24

37

Lyme Disease Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Officials Veterinarians Tool kit Lyme disease quiz Lyme disease transmission The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi , is ... blacklegged ticks Are there other ways to get Lyme disease? There is no evidence that Lyme disease is ...

38

Transmission of Flu (Influenza)  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Flu (Influenza) Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ...

39

Maximum ratio transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the concept, principles, and analysis of maximum ratio transmission for wireless communications, where multiple antennas are used for both transmission and reception. The principles and analysis are applicable to general cases, including maximum-ratio combining. Simulation results agree with the analysis. The analysis shows that the average overall signal-to-mise ratio (SNR) is proportional to the cross correlation between

Titus K. Y. Lo

1999-01-01

40

2006 Final Transmission Proposal.  

SciTech Connect

This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration BPABPA with respect to the adoption of transmission and ancillary services rates for the two-year rate period beginning October 1, 2005, and ending September 30, 2007 (fiscal years (FY) 2006-2007)(2006 Final Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Proposal). These decisions are based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding. The transmission and ancillary services rates adopted in this ROD are the rates proposed as a result of a comprehensive settlement agreement between BPA's Transmission Business Line (BPA-TBL) and a diverse group of transmission customers, including BPA's Power Business Line (BPA-PBL), regional investor-owned utilities, partial and full requirements customers of the BPA-PBL, Direct Services Industrial (DSI) customers, and merchant generators. The decisions in this ROD to adopt the rates and charges proposed by the settlement agreement are not intended to create or imply any factual , legal, procedural or substantive precedent, or to create agreement to any underlying principle or methodology.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-06-01

41

Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 ± 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 × 10-5 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 ± 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 × 10-4 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported spectrogram of a fundamental mode launch that does not include excitation to asymmetric modes; in stark contrast to a pull in which our cleaning protocol is not followed. These results depend critically on the pre-pull cleanliness and when properly following our pulling protocols are in excellent agreement with simulations.

Hoffman, J. E.; Ravets, S.; Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Kordell, P. R.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

2014-06-01

42

Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

43

Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1981-01-01

44

Advanced rotorcraft transmission program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

45

Viewing transmission issues in perspective  

SciTech Connect

This article examines electric power transmission from the perspective of the power producers. The article discusses the impact to transmission line routing policy of the health effects of, and public opinion about, electromagnetic fields. The author examines past pricing policy for transmission access and encourages the power producers and owners of transmission lines to become more involved in the regulatory process.

Casazza, J.A.

1993-10-01

46

Technologies of Wireless Power Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three types of the wireless power transmission ; inductive coupling, radio wave, and resonance coupling. These are the same technologies based on Maxwell equations, however, method of the power transmission is different and characteristics are different. In this paper, we show the wireless power transmission technologies, mainly wireless power transmission via microwave.

Shinohara, Naoki

47

Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional round trip while the lost data are retransmitted; even multiple retransmission cycles may be necessary. LTP's possible multiplicity of sessions per association makes it necessary for each segment of application data to include an additional demultiplexing token: a session ID that uniquely identifies the session in which the segment was issued and, implicitly, the block of data being conveyed by this session. This software comprises a prototype implementation developed by Johns Hopkins University APL in cooperation with JPL, together with adaptations that improve the robustness, correctness, and operability of that implementation.

Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

2011-01-01

48

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Goodhew, Peter; Matter.org

49

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

1991-01-01

50

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOEpatents

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27

51

Transmission ratio control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine having a throttle valve to driving wheels of a motor vehicle through a clutch. The improvement in the system consists of: means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and for producing a corresponding first signal; means responsive to the first signal for determining a desired transmission ratio; means responsive to the desired transmission ratio for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve so as to provide an actual transmission ratio of the transmission corresponding to the desired transmission ratio; means for detecting actual rapid deceleration of the vehicle above a predetermined value of rapid deceleration and producing a rapid deceleration signal when the actual rapid deceleration is above the predetermined value; and means responsive to the rapid deceleration signal for increasing the desired transmission ratio so as via the second means to increase the actual transmission ratio.

Ohkuma, H.

1989-02-14

52

Optical transmission techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical transmission system is a method of transferring information in the shape of bits or symbols for the case of digital systems, and of analogue waves for the case of analogue systems, between fixed points located on a fiber optics cable. Today and in the near future there are numerous such transmission techniques available. The increase of demands for data transfer from phone subscribers can be met only by means of digital techniques applied in the local network, in addition to the use of digital telephone exchange and of the digital transmission systems in the trees network. In order to increase the quantity of information transferred through one fiber, optical multiplexing techniques have been conceived and tested. The optical multiplexing is additional to the electrical signal multiplexing. The requests for the access network will become more and more complex, a larger flexibility and a wider band being needed. For the purpose of complying with these requests, the coherent simultaneous or alternative transmission towards the optical amplifiers represents a factor of technical progress. The multiplexing with wave length division allows for more channels to be transported through the same fiber with different wave lengths, in one or both directions.

Vasile, Irina B.; Filip, Luminita E.; Vasile, Alexandru

2005-08-01

53

Automobile Transmission Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automobile transmission oil is described in the Russian patent and is characterized by the fact that its composition includes 3-5% dibutyl trithiocarbonate, 1-3% esters of phosphorous acids, and up to 100% mineral oil, or 0.2-0.4% alkylamine salt of 0....

A. N. Pereferkovich E. S. Shepeleva I. E. Vinogradoua M. G. Voronkov N. N. Bulon

1973-01-01

54

Transmission planning in China  

SciTech Connect

Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

2009-07-15

55

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1993-03-23

56

Borehole data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

1993-01-01

57

Categories and Music Transmission  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

Gatien, Greg

2009-01-01

58

EC Transmission Line Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material p...

T. Bigelow

2012-01-01

59

Autonomous data transmission apparatus  

DOEpatents

A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

Kotlyar, O.M.

1997-03-25

60

hvdc transmission assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the rebirth of hvdc transmission in Europe in 1954, for long distance underwater application, there are more than 20 hvdc systems totalling about 15,000 MW capacity in either commercial operation or construction throughout the world. Performance of hvdc systems, in terms of availability and utilization, has been improving rapidly with the advent of solid-state valves. Applications of hvdc systems

K. R. Shah; W. F. Griffard; F. A. Denbrock

1977-01-01

61

Transmission line capacitance measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacitance of coplanar lines is measured with two new techniques, one utilizing the resistance of the line and the other that of a resistor embedded in the line. The results of both measurements agree closely with calculations. A technique for directly comparing the capacitances of two similar transmission lines is also demonstrated. The relevance of these measurements to the

Dylan F. Williams; Roger B. Marks

1991-01-01

62

Infinitely Variable Ratio Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses an infinitely variable ration transmission comprising an input sun gear, a plurality of orbiting planet gears, and an output sun gear. One of the planet gears is engaged with a nominally stationary sun gear. A disc brake ...

E. F'Geppert

1987-01-01

63

Small Passenger Car Transmission Test: Chevrolet Luv Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more ...

M. P. Bujold

1980-01-01

64

Small Passenger Car Transmission Test; Chevrolet LUV Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the ...

M. P. Bujold

1980-01-01

65

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

Bill, Robert C.

1990-01-01

66

Transmissible encephalopathy agents  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused by infectious agents with stable virulence characteristics that are not encoded by the host. Agent-specific features of virulence include disease latency and tissue pathology in a given host, as well as the ability to spread to many species. Such cross-species infections contradict predictions based on the prion hypothesis. Recent transmissions of several human agents to normal mice, and to monotypic neural cells in culture, underscore the existence of unique agent clades that are prevalent in particular geographic regions. Examples include the epidemic UK bovine agent (BSE) and the New Guinea kuru agent. The virus-like biology of unique TSE agents, including epidemic spread, mutation and superinfection, can be used to systematically define features of virulence that distinguish common endemic from newly emerging strains.

2010-01-01

67

Drill string transmission line  

DOEpatents

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28

68

Advanced transmission studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

1988-01-01

69

Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

70

Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

71

[Mumps vaccine virus transmission].  

PubMed

In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis. PMID:24772647

Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

2013-01-01

72

Transmission Genetics Online Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmission Genetics, a new resource from Baylor College of MedicineâÂÂs comprehensive website, BioEd Online, is one module of a three-part, interactive Web-based course called Genes, Health and Society. [The course, which explores the rapidly evolving world of genetics and genomics, can be taken free of charge for professional or personal development. Each module stands alone. Educators can work through the modules in sequence or move freely among them.

Nancy Moreno (Baylor College of Medicine;)

2010-05-27

73

Hydrostatic continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

A hydrostatic continuously variable transmission is described, comprising: a swashplate type hydraulic pump having a pump swashplate and annularly arranged pump plungers whose suction and discharge strokes are provided by the pump swashplate; a swashplate type hydraulic motor having a motor swashplate and annularly arranged motor plungers whose expansion and shrinkage strokes are provided by the motor swashplate; and a hydraulic closed circuit formed between the hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor. The transmission has at least one of a relationship that a middle point of a discharge region of the hydraulic pump is angularly delayed at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic pump relative to a tilting axis of the pump swashplate and a relationship that a middle point of an expansion region of the hydraulic motor is angularly advanced at a given angle in a direction of rotation of the hydraulic motor relative to a tilting axis of the motor swashplate, wherein the transmission has at least one of a relationship that a suction region of the hydraulic pump is set at an angle larger than that of the discharge region thereof and a relationship that a shrinkage region of the hydraulic motor is set at an angle larger than that of the expansion region of the motor.

Hayashi, T.; Saito, M.; Matsuto, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Sakakibara, K.; Yakigaya, N.; Nakamura, K.

1989-05-09

74

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission.  

PubMed

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts' biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-05-20

75

Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest.

Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

2014-01-01

76

Remanent transmission neutron polarizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our goal is to develop magnetically remanent neutron supermirrors using the material combinations Fe/Si and FeCo/Si. With these we plan to build compact neutron transmission polarizers and neutron polarizers which can be operated with their magnetization oriented antiparallel to the guide field. In the latter case no spin flipper is necessary to switch to the other spin state. The supermirrors are produced by magnetron sputtering. The preparation conditions were optimized by producing series of multilayers where the sputtering parameters gas pressures, plasma power and the speed of substrate translation were varied. Neutron reflectivity and transmission were measured with the polarized neutron diffractometer TOPSI at SINQ. Stress and magnetic behavior were determined using a profilometer and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The existence of an easy axis of magnetization is caused by anisotropic tensile stress in the Fe layers. Since the stress in Si is compressive it is possible to reduce the total stress while keeping the remanence by adding the reactive gases O2 and N2 to Si. In this way it was possible to produce Fe/Si supermirrors which show polarizing efficiencies of 96% to 99%. These supermirrors having 299 layers in total, reflect spin up neutrons up to q = 0.55/nm (m=2.5) which allows for their use as transmission polarizers in Ni coated beam guides.

Stahn, Jochen; Clemens, Daniel

2002-11-01

77

Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Information Page Synonym(s): Prion Diseases Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What ...

78

Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Causes and Transmission Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium ... certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease. Transmission Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread through the exchange ...

79

PRICING ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION IN MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a combined merchant-regulatory framework for incentives to expand the large interregional transmission links of the Mexican transmission network. We make an initial implementation of a pricing two-part tariff model within the context of the \\

Juan Rosellón

80

Dispatchable transmission in RTO markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider transmission owners that bid capacity, under appropriate Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) market rules, at a positive price into forward and spot (dispatch) auctions to derive congestion revenues. This can encompass daily, monthly, or multimonthly auctions, allowing for commitment of transmission to reflect market needs in different time periods, e.g., seasons. We provide two and three node examples and

Richard P. O'Neill; Ross Baldick; Udi Helman; Michael H. Rothkopf; William Stewart

2005-01-01

81

Power transmission with power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most power electronics applications have, until now, been aimed at enabling a more efficient utilisation of electricity at the point of use, for example in motor drives. However, power electronics is now playing an increasingly important role in the transmission of power. There are two main uses for power electronics in power transmission: in HVDC transmission, and to enhance AC

Colin C Davidson

2011-01-01

82

Lightning proof transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Lightning is prone to strike electrical transmission and distribution lines. Design of protection is difficult. Failure to design for the worst case conditions cost U.S.A. utilities 20 million annually. These costs can be prevented. During the past 16 years, LEC, Inc. has developed and proven a system that prevents strikes as well as insulator flashover from nearby strikes. LEC's Dual Dissipator System, presented in this paper, replaces the need for the static line for lightning considerations, eliminating the need for lightning arrestors. The insulation requirements transformers and switchgear can be reduced which reduce original costs.

Carpenter, R.B. Jr.; Drabkin, M. (Lightning Elimination Associates, Santa Fe Springs, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

83

Offset Waveguide Transmission Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes measurements to determine transmission losses in S-band (2.60-3.95 GHz) waveguide sections due to misalignment of the sections relative to each other. The experiments were performed in support of the Hydrostar program to determine the feasibility of using deployable waveguide sections in a large space radiometer. The waveguide sections would possibly be hinged and folded for launch, then deployed in space to form long sections of waveguide. Since very low losses are required for radiometer applications, the effects of potential misalignment after deployment of the waveguide sections may be significant. These measurements were performed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory in the Electromagnetics Research Branch.

Cravey, Robin

1997-01-01

84

Conventional transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B.; O'Toole, Eileen T.; Giddings, Thomas H.

2014-01-01

85

Photorefractive adaptive transmission system.  

PubMed

A photorefractive system based on the combined operation of a strontium barium niobate input amplifier and a self-pumped barium titanate phase-conjugator crystal is presented and analyzed. Amplified real-time phase-conjugate wave-front generation in this system is demonstrated. The system's ability to all-optically, temporally modulate a weak probe signal and to transmit it back to its source by means of amplified dynamic phase conjugation demonstrates its potential in adaptive optical transmission schemes. PMID:20861947

Mailis, S; Vainos, N A

1993-12-10

86

Polarimetry of transmission gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the polarizing properties of gold wire gratings in the resonance domain. The partial polarizing properties of 1- mu m period gratings in the near IR are then used to orient the wire structure of transmission grating facets parallel to each other by means of an alignment polarimeter technique. The absolute alignment accuracy for these gratings is limited by the influence of the support structure on the orientation of the polarization ellipse. If the polarizing properties of this perturbative component are known, the accuracy can be enhanced by treating the polarization by means of the Mueller calculus.

Lochbihler, Hans; Polnau, Ernst; Predehl, Peter

1995-09-01

87

Frictionless continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an infinitely variable speed transmission. It comprises: an input shaft; a drive plate having a plurality of radial slots therein, the drive plate fixed to the input shaft; an output shaft parallel to the input shaft; a bevel gear fixed to the output shaft; a plurality if independently rotatable sprocketed pinions freely rotatable about and meshing with the bevel gear. The pinions also engaging the drive plate by projections from the pinions slidably mounted in the radial slots in the drive plate; and clutching means for selectively locking and unlocking the pinions in sequence to effect driving of the bevel gear.

Korban, J.F.; Korban, N.F.

1989-07-25

88

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

89

Simplified power shift transmission  

SciTech Connect

A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

Michael, R.A.

1987-04-21

90

Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

Bujold, M. P.

1980-01-01

91

Supermodes for optical transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the concept of supermode is introduced for long-distance optical transmission systems. The supermodes exploit coupling between the cores of a multi-core fiber, in which the core-to-core distance is much shorter than that in conventional multi-core fiber. The use of supermodes leads to a larger mode effective area and higher mode density than the conventional multi-core fiber. Through simulations, we show that the proposed coupled multi-core fiber allows lower modal dependent loss, mode coupling and differential modal group delay than few-mode fibers. These properties suggest that the coupled multi-core fiber could be a good candidate for both spatial division multiplexing and single-mode operation.

Xia, Cen; Bai, Neng; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Guifang

2011-08-01

92

Television Transmission Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

1996-01-01

93

The automated command transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for automated command transmission (ACT) to GEO-stationed satellites is presented. The system is intended for easing the command center workload. The ACT system determines the relation of the commands to on-board units, connects the telemetry with on-board units, defines the control path on the spacecraft, identifies the correspondence of back-up units to primary units, and ascertains sunlight or eclipse conditions. The system also has the address of satellite and command decoders, the ID and content for the mission command sequence, group and inhibit codes, a listing of all available commands, and restricts the data to a command sequence. Telemetry supplies data for automated problem correction. All other missions operations are terminated during system recovery data processing after a crash. The ACT system is intended for use with the GMS spacecraft.

Inoue, Y.; Satoh, S.

94

Technology of optical azimuth transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

2012-11-01

95

Transmission measurements of human lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission properties of the human lens were studied in donor lenses from the age of 17 to 76 years. The transmission of white light was measured using a fiber coupled tungsten halogen lamp. The light transmitted by the lens was collected using an integrating sphere that was coupled to a spectrometer by an optical fiber. As expected, the transmission of blue and green light decreased in older lenses. The transmission of the near infrared part of the spectrum was above 90% even in old donor lenses.

Lundeman, Jesper H.; Herbst, Kristine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line

2009-07-01

96

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Luv transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific roadload performance

Bujold

1980-01-01

97

Eccentric swing gear transmission  

SciTech Connect

A transmission is described which comprises eccentric swing gears composed of a speed change internal gear and a speed change external gear. Each has a pressure angle of a tooth form within 30/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/ and an addendum h satisfying the relation of m/2>h>o (m=module). The speed change external gear engages with the speed change internal gear, and coupling gears composed of a coupling internal gear having a trapezoidal or a substantially trapezoidal tooth form. A coupling external gear similarly has a trapezoidal or a substantially trapezoidal tooth form and has the same number of teeth as the coupling internal gear. The tooth forms of the coupling internal and external gears are molded so that the following relation may be satisfied between theta/sub 1/ and theta/sub 2/: theta/sub 2/ = (360/sup 0//Z x 1/2) + theta/sub 1/ Z represents the teeth number of the coupling internal gear and the coupling external gear. theta/sub 1/ and theta/sub 2/ represent pressure angles of the coupling external gear and the coupling internal gear, respectively. The eccentric swing gears connect to the coupling gears.

Goto, Y.; Adachi, M.

1987-07-14

98

Automatic transmission system  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

Ha, J.S.

1989-04-25

99

Multiratio power transmission  

SciTech Connect

A plural step multiratio transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft disposed parallel to and noncoaxial with the input shaft; a countershaft disposed parallel to and noncoaxial with both the input shaft and the output shaft; intermeshing head set gear means including gear means drivingly connected to the input shaft and countershaft respectively. An output cluster gear means drive connects with the output shaft. Three ratio gear means rotate on the input shaft and mesh with the output cluster gear means. Three ratio gear means rotate on the countershaft and operatively connect through meshing relation with respective ones of the ratio gear means on the input shaft. Engageable clutch means on the input shaft and the countershaft selectively connect the gear ratio means to the respective shafts for rotation for providing distinct gear ratios between the input shaft and the output shaft. The ratio gear means on the input shaft idler gear means is for the respective gear means on the countershaft.

Nagy, L.

1987-07-14

100

Transmission of digital data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

Showen, Charles R.

1971-01-01

101

Transmissive Microshutter Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report further progress on the development of a two-dimensional array of microshutters, which can be used as a high efficiency, high contrast field selection device for a multi-object spectrometer for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The device is a close packed array of shutters, with a typical size of 100 microns square and an area filling factor of up to 80%. Each shutter, made of single crystal silicon or silicon nitride with an appropriate optical coating, pivots on a torsion flexure along one edge. Each of the shutters is individually selectable. Although these devices can be used as reflection devices, their primary mode of operation is in transmission, which provides the minimum possible level of scattered light. An original double-shutter mechanism is employed for actuation. Small shutter arrays have been built using a Focus Ion Beam milling machine is a 3 x 3 double shutter actuation with a micro-manipulator under electron microscope observation has been demonstrated. An important aspect of this study has been to demonstrate the reliability of the structures over its expected lifetime. We analyzed stiffness, strength and fatigue issues of two good candidate materials, single crystal silicon and silicon nitride. Both appear to be suitable from the mechanical point of view. This project is supported by NASA grants.

Kutyrev, A. S.; Moseley, H. S.; Fettig, R. K.; Kuhn, J. L.; Woodgate, B. E.; Kimble, R. A.; Orloff, J. H.

1999-12-01

102

EC Transmission Line Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-05-01

103

Reducing electric power transmission losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of transmission-related power losses in electric grids has become increasingly important in every phase of power systems concerned with conservation of fuel and power resources. The most effective approaches to the matter of electric power loss reduction in power transmission lines are discussed. These methods include reactive power compensation, both on loads and system substations, optimization of grid

A. I. Kulchitskii; S. P. Elagina

1982-01-01

104

Information Transmission in Viable Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the process of information transmission in adaptive, viable organizational systems. Beer's viable system model is used to explain a system's information requirement at each time of the adaptation process, the source of this information, and the effect of information transmission on a system's cohesion. Four hypotheses are stated and…

de Raadt, J. D. R.

1990-01-01

105

Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsporidia are an ancient and diverse group of protists which have many unusual characteristics. These include prokaryotic-like 70s ribosomes, enclosed nuclear division, a lack of mitochondria and complex life cycles which frequently involve vertical transmission. This use of vertical transmission is unparalleled by other protists and is seen only among bacterial endosymbionts and sex ratio distorters and in host

Alison M. Dunn; Rebecca S. Terry; Judith E. Smith

2001-01-01

106

Tribology of automatic transmission fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various properties are required in the latest ATFs (Automatic Transmission Fluids) because of the progress made in ATs (Automatic\\u000a Transmissions). In this paper, we will introduce the construction of the AT and describe the tribological issues, including\\u000a anti?shudder property, of ATF.

Takanori Kugimiya; Narihiko Yoshimura; Jun’ichi Mitsui

1998-01-01

107

VSC transmission control under faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the VSC (voltage source converter) transmission control for fault conditions. A small-signal VSC transmission controller considers only small deviations around steady state and in case of faults there would be large overvoltages and overcurrents. An additional fault controller is introduced to reduce transient overvoltages and overcurrents which occur in case of faults. Parallel configuration is used in

L. A. Lamont; D. Jovcic; K. Abbott

2004-01-01

108

Deregulated environment transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transmission System Operator (TSO) is responsible for the power system operation. It has to provide the transmission network maintenance and development, having as a goal the safety, reliable and economical operation of the power system. Additionally, it has to fulfil the environment constraints and, most important, to support the development of the interconnections. Considering the nowadays deregulated environment, the

Constantin Barbulescu; Stefan Kilyeni; Gabriela Prostean; Petru Dan Cristian; Florin Solomonesc; Dan Ungureanu

2011-01-01

109

Transmission Through Extreme Model Atmospheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transmission of infrared energy in the 2.5- to 3.1-micron spectral region has been calculated for four model atmospheres representing average and extreme latitudinal and seasonal variations. Transmission values are shown for slant paths outward throug...

L. L. List G. E. Oppel

1964-01-01

110

SEMMSS accelerometer mount transmissibility evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Two candidate accelerometer mount adhesives were tested for vibration transmissibility using the same fixture and procedures described previously. The transmissibility is normalized relative to the base-case threaded stud accelerometer mount, and these two adhesives are ranked with the four previously tested adhesives according to performance.

Andriulli, J.B.

1987-05-01

111

Small passenger car transmission test: Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission  

SciTech Connect

The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1980 Chevrolet Citation 125 automatic transmission. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid to upper 80% range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet Citation 125 transmission. This information will facilitate the vehicle manufacturer in the design of a more energy efficient vehicle.

Bujold, M.P.

1980-10-01

112

Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates National Grid Northeast Utilities PA Office of Consumer Advocates Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission PJM Interconnection The Electricity Consumers Resource Council U.S. Department of Energy US Department of the Interior Van Ness Feldman Western Interstate Energy Board Wind on the Wires Wisconsin Public Service Commission Xcel Energy

The Keystone Center

2005-06-15

113

Transmission gearing arrangement  

SciTech Connect

A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

Klemen, D.

1987-08-04

114

Automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

Hiketa, M.

1987-10-06

115

Sexual transmission of hepatitis C.  

PubMed

It is generally agreed that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be efficiently transmitted parenterally, although data on viral transmission by sexual or non-sexual intrafamilial contact are conflicting. Since data collection began in 1989, the first study dealt with the risk of sexual transmission among multiple sex partners. Other investigations followed, emphasizing that risk increases in specific groups such as patients co-infected with HIV and HBV, sex workers, homosexuals, illicit drug users and patients attended at sexually transmittable disease clinics. The question arises as to what might be the risk for monogamous heterosexuals in the general population, in which one of the partners has HCV? The literature provides overall rates that vary from zero to 27%; however, most studies affirm that the chances of sexual transmission are low or almost null, with rates for this mode fluctuating from zero to 3%. Intrafamilial transmission is strongly considered but inconclusive, since when mentioning transmission between sex partners within the same household, specific situations also should be considered, such as the sharing of personal hygiene items, like razorblades, toothbrushes, nail clippers and manicure pliers, which are important risk factors in HCV transmission. In this review, we discuss the hypotheses of sexual and/or intrafamilial transmission. PMID:18026632

Cavalheiro, Norma de Paula

2007-01-01

116

Bibliography on transmission access issues  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a bibliography on issues related to transmission access in electric power systems. There are 233 citations referenced in this bibliography. This bibliography presents a collection of selected literature on issues related to transmission access. It does not contain all of the material available on this subject or the categories contained herein. Some readers may feel that citations within this bibliography should be strictly limited to transmission system issues and not include energy pricing or reliability issues. However, it was the decision of the Subcommittee of the IEEE Task Force on Transmission Access and Nonutility Generation that selected entries relating to reliability and energy pricing, most relevant to transmission access, should be included. This decision was made because certain issues relating to reliability, transmission and energy pricing are perceived by the industry to be critical in the discussion of transmission access. The bibliography has been divided into the following sections or sub-sections: 2.0 Operational (Engineering) Issues, 3.0 Planning, 4.0 Reliability, 5.1 Economics: Costing, 5.2(a) Economics: Location-Differentiated Pricing, 5.2(b) Economics: Time-Differentiated Pricing, 5.3 Economics: Brokering, Bidding, and Auctioning, 6.0 Regulatory, and 7.0 General. Although the content of many publications spanned two or more of these sections, the desire to limit document length required that all publications be placed in the single most appropriate section. Publications are sorted according to author or publication resource.

Lankford, C.B. [Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)] [Oklahoma Gas and Electric Co., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); McCalley, J.D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Saini, N.K. [Entergy Services Corp., Metairie, LA (United States)] [Entergy Services Corp., Metairie, LA (United States)

1996-02-01

117

OPGW Installation in Energized Transmission Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the installation of OPGW (optical ground wire) in existing transmission line has often been carried out by power transmission companies worldwide, power system operators has been imposing restrictions to the planned outages of the transmission lines. Because of this, the power transmission companies have opted for the OPGW stringing with energized transmission lines. A quite safe and productive methodology

F. Nishimura; L. D. Cicarelli; R. R. Arellano; M. R. Soares

2006-01-01

118

Dual Mode Transmission Designs for Motorcycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two types of the dual mode transmission for use in a motorcycle. A motorcycle transmission typically using the discrete speed ratio transmission that works by alternating the gear drive, and the continuously variable transmission (CVT) that transmits power by using the rubber V-belt. The dual mode transmission described in this paper, utilizing a V-belt drive, a fixed

Kuen-Bao Sheu; Hong-Sen Yan

2002-01-01

119

Load Distribution in Transmissions "Split"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transmission system of a helicopter must meet particularly critical requirements. It must transmit engine power to the rotor, at the same time ensuring a typical speed reduction of 60 to 1. It must also be safe, reliable, light, and reach a high level of performance while, at the same time, it must produce few vibrations and little noise. Helicopter transmissions have achieved high-level performances thanks to the combination of analyses, experiments, and the application of practical field experience. However, the new generation of helicopters will require transmission systems that are even safer, lighter, less noisy, and more reliable.

Krantz, Timothy L.; Delgado, Irebert R.

1998-01-01

120

Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2004-12-14

121

Electrical transmission of molecular bridges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission of electrons through orbitals of molecules is discussed using high-level ab initio methods that allow an orbital interpretation. The transmission is computed for a molecule tethered between gold atoms. Strong coupling to the gold is achieved using a sulfur atom at each end of the molecule. ?-type orbitals can conduct as well as conjugated bridges provided that the orbitals have weights on the sulfur atoms. The current depends exponentially on the voltage applied to the molecule and this voltage can also shift the electronic density and further alter the transmission. The conductivity can also be modified by a gate voltage.

Remacle, F.; Levine, R. D.

2004-01-01

122

Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm  

PubMed Central

Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities.

Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustin; Contigiani, Marta S.

2013-01-01

123

Printed Circuit Transmission Line Transitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three types of printed circuit transmission lines were investigated experimentally: microstrip; stripline; and grounded coplanar waveguide. Formulas for characteristic impedance were verified by measurements of lines on low-dielectric-constant substrates....

F. E. Kozak D. T. McGrath

1985-01-01

124

Modeling the Transmission of Sound.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)

Palmer, David H.

2003-01-01

125

Optical Data Multiplex Transmission System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various typical data multiplex transmission systems employing optical fibers which are useful for the control and monitoring of equipment in factories and power or chemical plants are introduced. These systems are more economic than those employing conven...

K. Sato

1986-01-01

126

Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short foc...

R. E. Bell

2004-01-01

127

Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia.  

PubMed

The microsporidia are an ancient and diverse group of protists which have many unusual characteristics. These include prokaryotic-like 70s ribosomes, enclosed nuclear division, a lack of mitochondria and complex life cycles which frequently involve vertical transmission. This use of vertical transmission is unparalleled by other protists and is seen only among bacterial endosymbionts and sex ratio distorters and in host cell organelles. Transovarially transmitted microsporidia can have unusual and profound effects on host population sex ratios. We here consider the mechanisms of transovarial transmission and its implications for parasite evolution. We review parasite/host relationships and the evolution of virulence under transovarial transmission and consider the implications of these parasites for host ecology and evolution. PMID:11013755

Dunn, A M; Terry, R S; Smith, J E

2001-01-01

128

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

1983-01-01

129

Fragment-Tolerant Transmission Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved transmission line or waveguide that can tolerate damage from ordnance fragments without severe degradation of performance. Ordnance fragment penetration into a waveguide tends to produce jagged inward protrusions or loose metal chips of the ty...

C. L. Temes

1980-01-01

130

Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.  

PubMed

A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course. PMID:3835264

Reswick, J B

1985-07-01

131

Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the nonlinear capacitance and the gaps between provide linear inductive interconnects, this is essentially the same design used by...

B. W. Hoff D. Shiffler D. M. French S. Heidger

2011-01-01

132

Diversified transmission multichannel detection system  

SciTech Connect

A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

1984-07-03

133

Free-Space Power Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

1989-01-01

134

47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111 ...Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may...of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange...

2013-10-01

135

32 CFR 2001.46 - Transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmission. 2001.46 Section 2001.46...INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.46 Transmission. (a) General. Classified...its delivery is completed. (c) Transmission methods within and between the...

2013-07-01

136

Negative differential transmission in graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the Kubo linear response theory with the Keldysh Green function approach, we investigate the mechanism leading to the negative differential transmission in a system with the equilibrium electron density much smaller than the photon-excited one. It is shown that the negative differential transmission can appear at low probe-photon energy (in the order of the scattering rate) or at high energy (much larger than the scattering rate). For the low probe-photon energy case, the negative differential transmission is found to come from the increase of the intraband conductivity due to the large variation of electron distribution after the pumping. As for the high probe-photon energy case, the negative differential transmission is shown to tend to appear with the hot-electron temperature being closer to the equilibrium one and the chemical potential higher than the equilibrium one but considerably smaller than half of the probe-photon energy. We also show that this negative differential transmission can come from both the inter- and the intraband components of the conductivity. Especially, for the interband component, its contribution to the negative differential transmission is shown to come from both the Hartree-Fock self-energy and the scattering. Furthermore, the influence of the Coulomb-hole self-energy is also addressed.

Sun, B. Y.; Wu, M. W.

2013-12-01

137

A transmission owner's perspective on the future roles and responsibilities of transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eastern Interconnection is dividing into Regional Transmission Organizations. These new organizations are naming themselves Independent system operators, independent transmission companies, transmission owners, stakeholders, transmission customers and etc. They take the place of the transmission operations and planning segments of integrated electrical utilities. No longer is generation planning function and transmission planning function moving hand-in-hand within a given integrated utility.

T. E. Wiedman

2002-01-01

138

Transmission ultrasonography. [time delay spectrometry for soft tissue transmission imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the results of the application of an advanced signal-processing technique, called time delay spectrometry, in obtaining soft tissue transmission images by transmission ultrasonography, both in vivo and in vitro. The presented results include amplitude ultrasound pictures and phase ultrasound pictures obtained by this technique. While amplitude ultrasonographs of tissue are closely analogous to X-ray pictures in that differential absorption is imaged, phase ultrasonographs represent an entirely new source of information based on differential time of propagation. Thus, a new source of information is made available for detailed analysis.

Heyser, R. C.; Le Croissette, D. H.

1973-01-01

139

Midwest Transmission Workshop III Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 On March 12-13, 2002, the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), in cooperation with regional stakeholders, held a two-day workshop: Planning for Electrical Transmission Needs in the Upper Midwest. The workshop was the outgrowth of an effort to develop a forum and process for consideration of transmission options that strives for equitable allocation of benefits and impacts among all affected parties. The goal of this workshop was to provide a catalyst for an enhanced, inclusive process for transmission planning with participation of and acceptance by all affected stakeholders. Participants in the meeting included representatives of state and regional regulatory agencies, utilities and power generators, the wind industry, environmental and landowner interests, and other interested parties (see Attachment A for a list of meeting participants).

Kevin Bryan

2003-03-12

140

Principles for interregional transmission expansion  

SciTech Connect

In aiming to facilitate the siting of interregional transmission lines, some basic principles might include an approach where the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission uses a variety of tools to capture the value of new transmission, and thus increase the supply of interregional lines. There also may be opportunities for the Commission to work with localities to reduce resistance to new lines by means of economic incentives. Such a tack has the potential to be more efficient than fighting local opposition in the courts. (author)

Benjamin, Richard

2007-10-15

141

Monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a framework for designing fast and monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography penalized-likelihood image reconstruction. The new algorithms are based on paraboloidal surrogate functions for the log likelihood, Due to the form of the log-likelihood function it is possible to find low curvature surrogate functions that guarantee monotonicity. Unlike previous methods, the proposed surrogate functions lead to monotonic algorithms even

H. Erdogan; Jeffrey A. Fessler

1999-01-01

142

Developments in Electric Power Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account of some significant events in the history of electric power transmission related by a past-president of the Institute whose name is closely linked with many of those events and who for many years has been actively engaged in the study of high voltage phenomena.

Harris J. Ryan

1934-01-01

143

Nonceramic insulators for transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Progress in development of nonceramic transmission lines insulator technology is reviewed. The results of a survey to utilities in the United States are presented to indicate the range of applications, distribution by voltage class, appraisal of performance, and failure modes. Concerns expressed by utility representatives at a recent workshop are described and future research and standardization needs are presented.

Schneider, H.M. (General Electric Co., Lenox, MA (USA). High Voltage Transmission Research Center); Hall, J.F. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Karady, G. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA)); Rendowden, J. (Florida Power and Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (USA))

1989-10-01

144

Geographical transmission of economic events  

SciTech Connect

A two-region monetary economy is modeled as a five-equation system. Exogenous events in either region (changes in union wages, labor productivity, and banking policy) or at the national level (money supply changes) cause changes in price levels, wages, employment, and money stocks in both regions. The model structure permits explicit examination of transmission processes. 8 references, 1 figure, 18 tables.

Jones, D.W.

1984-04-01

145

Feasibility of DC transmission networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current status of technology and discusses technical options for developing DC transmission grids. The fast advances in VSC HVDC, the recent offshore VSC projects, the experience with multiterminal HVDC and recent development of fast DC circuit breakers bring large meshed DC grids closer to reality. The most important and most difficult remaining technical challenge is the

Dragan Jovcic; Dirk van Hertem; Kerstin Linden; Jean-Pierre Taisne; Wolfgang Grieshaber

2011-01-01

146

Lightning Protection for Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the need for lightning protection on low-voltage transmission lines at moderate cost, and particularly for wood-pole lines, a design is presented in this paper that has high insulation strength and uses, in place of a ground wire, a shielding phase conductor with a lightning protector tube. Lightning currents are drained to ground with a minimum number of tubes

A. W. Gothberg; A. S. Brookes

1937-01-01

147

Optical Transmission for Interoffice Trunks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is general agreement among members of the engineering community that the interoffice telephone trunk is a prime candidate for commercial application of fiber optical systems. Field performance, in terms of endurance in a working telephone environment, remains as one of the few questions to be answered. A fiber optic transmission system was installed between two telephone central offices to

E. E. BASCH; R. Beaudette; H. Carnes

1978-01-01

148

High Speed Optical Transmission Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High speed transmitters with DFB-LDs and a broadband APD/FET receiver have been developed in order to realize high-bit-rate long span optical fiber transmission systems. Receiver sensitivities of -37.4 dBm at 2 Gbps, and -32.4 dBm at 4 Gbps have been obta...

K. Minemura I. Takano M. Shikada I. Mito K. Taguchi

1986-01-01

149

TRANSMISSION NETWORKS OR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the planning and d esign philosophies of Power Systems are discussed, analysing the situation over the past 50 years and the c hanges that new technologies which involve Distributed Generation (DG) are producing at present. The influence of these c hanges on the Transmission conception is assessed and the validity of the natural monopoly conception discussed. In

MARIO VIGNOLO; RAUL ZEBALLOS

150

Localized transmission of wave energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exact solutions of the scalar wave and Maxwell's equations that describe localized transmission of wave energy and their representations will be reviewed briefly. These acoustic (ADEPT) and electromagnetic (EDEPT) directed energy pulse train solutions can be optimized so that they are localized near the direction of propagation and their original amplitude is recovered out to extremely large distances from their

Richard W. Ziolkowski

1989-01-01

151

ExtraTerrestrial Radio Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

WE are witness again to a surge of interest in, and speculation about, extra-terrestrial radio transmissions which had an earlier flare in the late twenties1. The favourable change in climate for the expression of such ideas since the turn of the century has been of particular interest to me. In 1899, Nikola Tesla established an experimental station at Colorado Springs,

Leland I. Anderson

1961-01-01

152

The pulse transmission mode laser  

SciTech Connect

The Pulse Transmission Mode (PTM) laser has been examined as a possible laser for the WRELADS (Weapons Research Establishment Laser Depth Sounder) system under development at the Electronic Research Laboratories of DRCS. In particular the PTM laser offers a means of generating the short pulses (5 ns FWHM) required by the system but its output is limited by gain saturation to < 40 millijoule.

See, B.A.

1980-09-01

153

Tornadoes and transmission reliability planning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to introduce an analytical approach for predicting overhead transmission line outages that are caused by tornadoes. The method is presently being used to determine the effects of tornadoes on various right-of-way configurations associated with a generating station project or the supply to a major substation. 2 refs.

Teles, J.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Landgren, G.L.

1980-01-01

154

Dual Mode Transmission Designs for Motorcycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents two types of the dual mode transmission for use in a motorcycle. A motorcycle transmission typically using the discrete speed ratio transmission that works by alternating the gear drive, and the continuously variable transmission (CVT) that transmits power by using the rubber V-belt. The dual mode transmission described in this paper, utilizing a V-belt drive, a fixed ratio mechanism, and a planetary gear train, can provide two operation regimes over the full speed ratio range by means engaged clutches. One is the fixed gear ratio and differential transmission system; the other is the differential and continuously variable transmission system. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency of each transmission system are analyzed. An example is employed to illustrate the design procedure. Furthermore, several available design concepts of the dual mode transmissions for motorcycle applications are proposed.

Sheu, Kuen-Bao; Yan, Hong-Sen

155

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section... § 571.102 Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence,...

2013-10-01

156

75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 35 [Docket No. RM10-23-000] Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities...75 FR 37884) proposing to amend the transmission planning and cost allocation...

2010-10-07

157

Malaria Transmission and Fetal Growth  

PubMed Central

In view of the known relation between infection of the maternal circulation of the placenta with Plasmodium falciparum and impaired fetal growth a study was made of the effect on birth weights of a malaria eradication campaign in the British Solomon Islands. Mean birth weights rose substantially within months of starting antimalarial operations. The increases between 1969 and 1971 averaged 252 g in babies of primigravidae and 165 g in all babies. The proportion of babies with birth weights of less than 2,500 g fell by 8% overall and by 20% among babies of primigravidae. The adverse effect of malaria transmission on fetal growth was apparently reversible if transmission of infection in the community was interrupted up to as late as the third trimester of pregnancy. The beneficial effects of malaria eradication operations on infant survival, child development, and social attitudes in developing countries are discussed.

Macgregor, J. D.; Avery, J. G.

1974-01-01

158

Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask  

DOEpatents

A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

2000-01-01

159

Exploiting a transmission grating spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

Bell, Ronald E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

2004-10-01

160

Development of large rotorcraft transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Army Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH) represents a large rotorcraft which was developed by an American aerospace company. In the early 1970's with the HLH Advanced Technology Components (ATC) program, the development of large rotorcraft transmission and drive systems was started. Failures in the spiral bevel gearing were experienced in tests because the employed method of analysis had not considered the effect of rim bending. Consequently, new gears with strengthened rims were designed and fabricated. For a more accurate prediction of the load capacity of the gears, an extensive Finite Element Method (FEM) system was developed. The U.S. Army's XCH-62 HLH aft rotor transmission was finally successfully tested at full design torque and speed. A description of the test program is provided, and the analytical program is discussed. The analytical phase includes the development of a preprocessing program which aids in the review of calculated FEM stresses.

Samanich, N. E.; Drago, R. J.; Mack, J. C.

1984-01-01

161

Localized transmission of wave energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exact solutions of the scalar wave and Maxwell's equations that describe localized transmission of wave energy and their representations will be reviewed briefly. These acoustic (ADEPT) and electromagnetic (EDEPT) directed energy pulse train solutions can be optimized so that they are localized near the direction of propagation and their original amplitude is recovered out to extremely large distances from their initial location. Pulses with these very desirable localized transmission characteristics have a number of potential applications in the areas of directed energy weapons, secure communications, and remote sensing. The feasibility of launching an ADEPT from an array of acoustic transducers has been tested experimentally. As will be shown, excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental results was obtained.

Ziolkowski, Richard W.

1989-07-01

162

Unpacking the great transmission debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debate about the wisdom of sending interstellar transmissions is well-known to those involved in SETI, and frustrating for many. Its tendency towards intractability is a result of multiple factors, including: different models of the scientist's role as citizen and/or leader; disparate ideas about society's readiness to cope with frontier science; variable political substrates, particularly ideas concerning individual freedom and state control; competing ideologies of globalization; and the perceived relative risks and benefits of contact. (Variations in the latter, i.e. assessments of the risks and benefits of contact, derive partly from different thinking styles, including tolerance for risk, and partly from inferences based upon episodes of biological and cultural contact on Earth.) Unpacking the debate into its components may be of use to those debating policy about SETI transmissions, or at the very least, help keep in focus what, precisely, the perennial arguments are really about.

Denning, Kathryn

2010-12-01

163

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is reviewed. The discussion includes a general configuration and face gear description, weight analysis, stress analysis, reliability analysis, acoustic analysis, face gear testing, and planned torque split testing. Design descriptions include the face gear webs sized for equal stiffness, a positive engagement clutch, the lubrication system, and a high contact ratio planetary. Test results for five gear materials and three housing materials are presented.

Bossler, Robert B., Jr.; Heath, Gregory F.

1992-01-01

164

Light aircraft sound transmission study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

1983-01-01

165

Resistor-Transmission-Line Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for a function to be the driving-point impedance of a physically realizable network consisting (essentially) of lumped resistors and lossless transmission lines. The circuits so developed are thoroughly practical for pure reactances and in many other special cases, but, in general, ideal transformers are sometimes required. A rigorous correspondence between lumped-constant circuits and line-resistor

P. I. Richards

1948-01-01

166

Pedigree tests of transmission disequilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution mapping is essential for the positional cloning of complex disease genes. In outbred populations, linkage disequilibrium is expected to extend for short distances and could provide a powerful fine-mapping tool. Current family-based association tests use nuclear family members to define allelic transmission and controls, but ignore other types of relatives. Here we construct a general approach for scoring allelic

Gonçalo R Abecasis; William OC Cookson; Lon R Cardon

2000-01-01

167

Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

Kevin Bryan

2002-12-05

168

Mosquito age and dengue transmission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online portal features a research project funded by The Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative to develop new strategies to control mosquitoes that transmit human disease. Specifically, the project is focused on a method to reduce dengue transmission using naturally occurring bacterial symbionts that reduce mosquito life span. The site includes a background of this work, participating research programs and researchers, project publications, current progress, news and events, and FAQs.

Initiative, The G.

169

HVDC power transmission technology assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac

Ronald L. Hauth; Philip J. Tatro; Bradley D. Railing; Bradley K. Johnson; James Stewart; Jack L. Fink

1997-01-01

170

Transmission worth of photovoltaic generation  

SciTech Connect

Long distance, high-voltage electric power transmission to transfer electricity produced by solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has received little, if any, attention within the U.S. utility solar power community. In fact, current thinking among utility solar power researchers and planners has shifted from visions of centralized power stations to one of distributed, smaller generation systems. This shift of interest from centralized to distributed photovoltaic power generation, however, appears to be based in part on an unstated premise of limited land area for PV power plants within a utility's service area. Hydroelectric power planners have clearly taken a different approach. Given the limited number of good sites for large scale hydropower generation and the adverse land-use relationship between densely populated, electric power demand centers and the construction of hydroelectric facilities, long high-voltage transmission lines are typically required. In this paper an order of magnitude analysis is made of the economic feasibility of using transmission lines to transport solar photovoltaic power from sunny to cloudy regions.

Kern, E.C. Jr. (Ascension Technology, Inc. (US))

1992-06-01

171

Coiled transmission line pulse generators  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

2010-11-09

172

Video transmission on ATM networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broadband integrated services digital network (B-ISDN) is expected to provide high-speed and flexible multimedia applications. Multimedia includes data, graphics, image, voice, and video. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the adopted transport techniques for B-ISDN and has the potential for providing a more efficient and integrated environment for multimedia. It is believed that most broadband applications will make heavy use of visual information. The prospect of wide spread use of image and video communication has led to interest in coding algorithms for reducing bandwidth requirements and improving image quality. The major results of a study on the bridging of network transmission performance and video coding are: Using two representative video sequences, several video source models are developed. The fitness of these models are validated through the use of statistical tests and network queuing performance. A dual leaky bucket algorithm is proposed as an effective network policing function. The concept of the dual leaky bucket algorithm can be applied to a prioritized coding approach to achieve transmission efficiency. A mapping of the performance/control parameters at the network level into equivalent parameters at the video coding level is developed. Based on that, a complete set of principles for the design of video codecs for network transmission is proposed.

Chen, Yun-Chung

1993-12-01

173

Split torque transmission load sharing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

174

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Congenital CMV Infection: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Disclaimer policy. Print page View page in Español (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... 6348 Contact CDC-INFO CMV Homepage Overview Overview-Spanish Transmission Transmission-Spanish Testing and Diagnosis Congenital CMV ...

175

Video Transmission for Quantized Variable Bandwidth Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission of variable bit-rate sources, such as video, over channels with quantized rates is discussed. An optimal scheme for transmission, based on the Viterbi algorithm, is described. A sliding window sub-optimal algorithm is introduced which signifi...

C. C. Yu

1994-01-01

176

Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

2013-01-16

177

Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.  

PubMed Central

A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data.

Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

1993-01-01

178

47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Prohibited transmissions. 97.113 Section 97.113 ...Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall...least 30 days in advance of the actual transmissions; and where the control operator...

2013-10-01

179

40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86.128-79...Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in âDriveâ and the wheels...

2013-07-01

180

40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86.1228-85...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions...length shall be run with automatic transmissions in âDriveâ and the wheels...

2013-07-01

181

47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.89 Unauthorized transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage...This provision does not apply to the transmission of distress, alarm, urgency,...

2013-10-01

182

Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2010-01-01

183

40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.528-78 Section 86.528-78...Test Procedures § 86.528-78 Transmissions. (a) Vehicles equipped with...tests shall be conducted with automatic transmissions in âDriveâ (highest gear)....

2013-07-01

184

Allocation of transmission fixed charges: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of marginal cost in pricing the transmission services has shown not effective mainly due to revenue reconciliation problems. To overcome this, a set of other methods derived from the MW-mile rule has been suggested to allocate transmission fixed costs. This paper compares such methods known as embedded cost methods in a centralized transmission network environment. Although these methods

J. W. Marangon Lima

1996-01-01

185

Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions.^ A

Richard J Klop

2010-01-01

186

The real problem with Merchant transmission  

SciTech Connect

Current regulatory policy distinguishes transmission investments that have primarily economic benefits from those that primarily enhance reliability. But no such dichotomy exists; congestion and reliability are inter-related in complex ways. Thus, solving the transmission investment problem is more complex than ''fixing'' merchant transmission; investment in the grid must be treated as a systems problem. (author)

Blumsack, Seth; Lave, Lester B.; Ilic, Marija

2008-03-15

187

FERC transmission inquiry produces torrent of advice  

SciTech Connect

FERC`s notice of inquiry into electricity transmission pricing generated flurry of responses as utilities, independent power producers, state regulators, customers and others outlined what they believe are the appropriate ways to price transmission to ensure a competitive bulk power market. The responses cover both the legal and technical aspects of transmission pricing, and this article brings to light several of these responses.

O`Driscoll, M.

1993-11-09

188

FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages  

SciTech Connect

A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. (Florida Power Light Co., Juno Beach, FL (United States). Transmission Line Dept.)

1993-10-01

189

Printed circuit transmission line transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of printed circuit transmission lines were investigated experimentally: microstrip; stripline; and grounded coplanar waveguide. Formulas for characteristic impedance were verified by measurements of lines on low-dielectric-constant substrates. Several designs of transitions from coaxial cable to microstripline were tested. The best of these was a uniform microstripline with a flare at the connector end. A transition from coax into coplanar waveguide, and one from stripline into microstrip, had high reflection coefficients. Transitions from coax to stripline, and from coplanar waveguide to microstrip, had low reflection coefficients.

Kozak, F. E.; McGrath, D. T.

1985-12-01

190

Atmospheric transmission computer program CP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

1974-01-01

191

Coding for Efficient Image Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA publication second in series on data-coding techniques for noiseless channels. Techniques used even in noisy channels, provided data further processed with Reed-Solomon or other error-correcting code. Techniques discussed in context of transmission of monochrome imagery from Voyager II spacecraft but applicable to other streams of data. Objective of this type coding to "compress" data; that is, to transmit using as few bits as possible by omitting as much as possible of portion of information repeated in subsequent samples (or picture elements).

Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

1986-01-01

192

Enhancement of asymmetric acoustic transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report both experimentally and theoretically that enhanced one-way acoustic transmission is realized by coupling a periodical grating with metal plates. This exotic acoustic phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of the leaky Lamb modes which arise from the coupling of the diffracted waves with the resonant surface states localized at the interface of the grating and the metal plate. More importantly, we further optimize the structure by introducing two inclined plates, which can convert the reflected energy into the transmitted energy. Our finding has great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

Sun, Hong-xiang; Zhang, Shu-yi

2013-03-01

193

Localized transmission of electromagnetic energy  

SciTech Connect

Novel electromagnetic directed-energy pulse train (EDEPT) solutions of Maxwell's equations have been obtained. One particular solution, the modified-power-spectrum (MPS) pulse, will be described in detail. EDEPT's such as the MPS pulses, can be tailored to give localized energy transmission along a specified direction in space that is significantly improved over conventional diffraction-limited beams. Moreover, they represent fields that recover their initial amplitudes along the direction of propagation at extremely large distances from their initial location. These EDEPT solutions are not physically pathological and can be reconstructed from causal Green's functions. In fact, these fields appear to be launchable from finite-aperture antennas.

Ziolkowski, R.W.

1989-02-15

194

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, R.B.

1985-08-15

195

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01

196

Automated manual transmission mode selection controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI)

1999-11-09

197

Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller  

DOEpatents

A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Reed, Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Rausen, David J. (Denver, CO)

2000-02-01

198

History of wireless power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The history of wireless power transmission at microwave frequencies is reviewed with emphasis upon the time period starting with the post World War II efforts to use the new microwave technology developed during the war. A nationally televised demonstration of a microwave powered helicopter at the Spencer Laboratory of the Raytheon Co., in 1964 was the result of these early efforts and broadly introduced the concept of wireless power transmission to scientific and engineering communities and to the public. Subsequent development efforts centered on improving the efficiency of the interconversion of d.c. and microwave power at the ends of the system to reach a demonstrated overall d.c. to d.c. system efficiency of 54% in 1974. The response to the requirements of applications such as the Solar Power Satellite and high altitude microwave powered aircraft have changed the direction of technology development and greatly expanded the technology base. Recent and current efforts are centered on examining the use of higher frequencies than the baseline 2.45 GHz, and in reducing the system costs at 2.45 GHz. 26 refs., 14 figs.

Brown, W.C. [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)] [Microwave Power Transmission Systems, Weston, MA (United States)

1996-12-31

199

Wildlife and electric power transmission  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G., Jr.; Hunt, J.R.

1978-01-01

200

GABAergic transmission in hepatic encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE)(1) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by chronic or acute liver failure. Nearly thirty years ago a hypothesis was formulated explaining the neuropathology of HE by increased GABAergic tone. Recent progress in the GABAA-receptor (GABAAR) molecular pharmacology and biochemistry as well as the physiology of GABAergic transmission provided better understanding of GABA's role in health and disease. A detailed analysis of neuronal populations and their GABAergic afferents affected in HE is still missing. The slow progress in understanding the pathology of GABAergic transmission in HE is due to the high complexity of brain circuitries controlled by multiple types of GABAergic interneurons and the large variety of GABAAR, which are differently affected by pathological conditions and not yet fully identified. The mechanisms of action of the GABAAR agonist taurine, allosteric positive modulators (inhibitory neurosteroids, anaesthetics, benzodiazepines and histamine) and inhibitors of the GABAAR (excitatory neurosteroids, Ro15-4513) are discussed with respect to HE pathophysiology. Perspectives for GABAergic drugs in the symptomatic treatment of HE are suggested. PMID:23624382

Sergeeva, Olga A

2013-08-15

201

APEnet+ 34 Gbps data transmission system and custom transmission logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

APEnet+ is a point-to-point, low-latency, 3D-torus network controller integrated in a PCIe Gen2 board based on the Altera Stratix IV FPGA. We characterize the transmission system (embedded transceivers driving external QSFP+ modules) analyzing signal integrity, throughput, latency, BER and jitter at different data rates up to 34 Gbps. We estimate the efficiency of a custom logic able to sustain 2.6 GB/s per link with an FPGA on-chip memory footprint of 40 KB, providing deadlock-free routing and systemic awareness of faults. Finally, we show the preliminary results obtained with the embedded transceivers of a next-generation FPGA and outline some ideas to increase the performance with the same FPGA memory footprint.

Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Lo Cicero, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

2013-12-01

202

2006 Final Transmission Proposal: Revenue Requirements Study.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Revenue Requirement Study (Study) is to establish the level of revenues needed from rates for Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) transmission and ancillary services to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, costs associated with the transmission of electric power over the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). The FCRTS is part of the larger Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) which also includes the hydroelectric, multipurpose facilities constructed and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation in the Pacific Northwest. The FCRPS costs that are not included in the FCRTS costs are funded and repaid through BPA power rates. The transmission revenue requirements herein include: recovery of the Federal investment in transmission and transmission-related assets; the operations and maintenance (O&M) and other annual expenses associated with the provision of transmission and ancillary services; the cost of generation inputs for ancillary services and other between business-line services necessary for the transmission of power; and all other transmission-related costs incurred by the Administrator. The cost evaluation period for this rate proposal includes Fiscal Years (FYs) 2005-2007, the period extending from the last year for which historical information is available through the proposed rate test period. The Study includes the transmission revenue requirements for the rate test period, FYs 2006-2007 (Rate Period) and the results of transmission repayment studies. This Study outlines the policies, forecasts, assumptions, and calculations used to determine BPA's transmission revenue requirements. Legal requirements are summarized in Chapter 5 of this Study. The Revenue Requirement Study Documentation (Documentation), TR-06-FS-BPA-01A, contains key technical assumptions and calculations, the results of the transmission repayment studies, and a further explanation of the repayment inputs and its outputs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2005-06-01

203

The transmission interface constraint problem  

SciTech Connect

Electric power transmission systems exhibit a number of complex constraints on their operation and usage. When a network is subject to a constraint that limits the amount of power that can be moved from one region to another, there is said to be an interface limit. The power systems literature gives no general treatment of the engineering-economics of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Particular aspects of interface limits are typically discussed in sophisticated technical detail, but the general engineering-economic trade-offs involved in relieving interface constraints have not been systematically addressed. We approach this problem in the spirit of a heuristic model. Such models are quite valuable under current industry conditions because they delineate technical opportunities and choices in situations where there may be conflicting views among competing parties and regulatory authorities. We organize and enumerate the choices, clarify the practical conditions that dictate the optimum in particular cases, and help to motivate the final choices made by planners.

Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.

1993-10-01

204

Shock transmissibility of threaded joints  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with threaded joints that must survive high shock environments. These mechanical systems include penetrators that must survive soil and rock penetration; drilling pipe strings that must survive rock-cutting, shock environments; and laydown weapons that must survive delivery impact shock. This paper summarizes an analytical study and an experimental evaluation of compressive, one-dimensional, shock transmission through a threaded joint in a split Hopkinson bar configuration. Thread geometries were scaled to simulate large diameter threaded joints with loadings parallel to the axis of the threads. Both strain and acceleration were evaluated with experimental measurements and analysis. Analytical results confirm the experimental conclusions that in this split Hopkinson bar configuration, the change in the one-dimensional shock wave by the threaded joint is localized to a length equal to a few diameters` length beyond the threaded joint.

Hansen, N.R.; Bateman, V.I.; Brown, F.A.

1996-12-31

205

Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

1987-05-19

206

Salmonella persistence and transmission strategies.  

PubMed

Host-adapted strains of Salmonella enterica cause systemic infections and have the ability to persist systemically for long periods of time and pose significant public-health problems. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are on the increase, and are often associated with HIV infection. Chronically infected hosts are often asymptomatic and transmit disease to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria, thereby serving as a critical reservoir for disease. Salmonella utilizes multiple strategies to evade and modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses in order to persist in the presence of a robust immune response. In addition, the intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in controlling Salmonella infection, disease, and transmissibility. PMID:22137596

Monack, Denise M

2012-02-01

207

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOEpatents

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28

208

Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

1984-01-01

209

Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator  

DOEpatents

A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

210

Wireless optical energy transmission using optical beamforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose and demonstrate a wireless optical energy transmission using optical beamforming with a spatial light modulator. We demonstrate an optical beamforming technology to focus the light of an optical source on a desired target, which can be used in various applications. Our experiment shows a wireless energy transmission efficiency of 1.3% with a white light-emitting diode light source. Although the transmission efficiency is currently low in our experimental result, we expect that the transmission efficiency can be improved up to 30% with highly efficient devices. We also propose an algorithm based on the optical beamforming to detect the location of the target device automatically. The proposed wireless optical energy transmission has several advantages over the previous wireless energy transmission methods.

Kim, Sung-Man; Kim, Seong-Min

2013-04-01

211

Open optical links in data transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless optical fiber links are the basic means of data transmission between movable objects. Radio links dominate in remote transmission. By means of open optical fiber links, it is possible to transmit data over short distances between objects. Depending on the technology used, it is possible to connect transmitting-receiving systems distant from one another by approximately twenty cm to twenty meters. Basic problems accompanying transmission to open optical links include the need for direct or indirect sensing of optical radiation from the emitter by the detector and the inherent propensity for interference. Among its advantages are: the possibility of obtaining greater data transmission speeds and an ease in changing direction, the difficulty posed to unwanted remote "viewing", and the miniaturization of links. This paper presents basic open configurations of optical links used in data transmission with selected time-varying signals. Using remote transmission of data between a computer and mobile minirobot is shown.

Wiczynski, Grzegorz

2003-09-01

212

A Transmission Line Taper of Improved Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the design of optimal cascaded transformer arrangements can be extended to the design of continuous transmission-line tapers. Convenient relationships have been obtained from which the characteristic impedance contour for an optimal transmission-line taper can be found. The performance of the Dolph-Tchebycheff transmission-line taper treated here is optimum in the sense that it has minim reflection coefficient magnitude

R. W. Klopfenstein

1956-01-01

213

GOPEX laser transmission and monitoring systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser transmission and monitoring system for the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX) at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California is described. The transmission system configuration and the data measurement techniques are described. The calibration procedure and the data analysis algorithm are also discussed. The mean and standard deviation of the laser energy transmitted each day of GOPEX show that the laser transmission system performed well and within the limit established in conjunction with the Galileo Project for experiment concurrence.

Okamoto, G.; Masters, K.

1993-01-01

214

Modal Analysis of a Truck Transmission Based on ANSYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibration and noises are important reasons for transmission failure and are two important technical indexes of transmissions. The modal analysis of transmission is conducted by ANSYS software according to studying a certain truck transmission. The CAD three-dimensional model of the transmission is built by PRO\\/E. The natural frequency and vibration mode of the transmission are obtained and its vibration characteristics

Qin-man Fan

2011-01-01

215

Nuclear Generating Stations and Transmission Grid Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear generating stations have historically been susceptible to transmission system voltage excursions. When nuclear plants trip due to voltage excursions, the resulting loss of real and reactive power support can make grid events worse. New standards are being prepared which may help to improve nuclear plant and transmission system reliability. A brief historical perspective is provided. Another reliability issue is the fact that nuclear plants do not provide automatic generation control in response to frequency decay. As 28 new nuclear plants are being considered for connection to an already highly stressed transmission grid, consideration must be given to nuclear plant design features which will enhance, not degrade, transmission system reliability.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL

2007-01-01

216

The hidden value of transmission assets  

SciTech Connect

Numerous utilities have realized that they can do better with their transmission assets than neutering them into ISOs and have proposed the creation of for-profit transmission companies (Transcos). This would turn transmission assets into equity with higher risk but also returns potentially higher than the regulated cost of capital. This article's contribution to the ongoing debate is to show that Transcos constitute a simple and robust solution to transmission congestion problems that would otherwise jeopardize the advent of competitive power markets. Policymakers and regulators should therefore view favorably the emergence of for-profit, regulated transmission companies, and leave them with reasonable room to recover their cost and earn a fully compensatory return on investment. Regulatory benevolence is crucial for Transcos, for electric power transmission is arguably the ultimate regulated activity: significant economies of scale and wide-ranging network externalities (the infamous loop flows) make operation and management of the grid a natural monopoly that must be regulated. A significant share of the value at stake therefore hinges on the regulator's attitude towards the for-profit transmission company: if the regulator is favorable, she will leave enough room to recover the variable and capital costs. If she is unfavorable, the proposition is simply a non-starter. This article first builds a public policy argument in favor of transmission companies, then discusses the key success factors required to create significant value in transmission: regulatory prowess and superior network management.

Nasser, T.O. (McKinsey and Co., Washington, DC (United States))

1999-06-01

217

RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

Ponchak, George E.

1999-01-01

218

Wireless power transmission via ad hoc network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless power transmission (WPT) has been proposed for many years and is expected to be one of the most promising power transmission style in the near future, especially in space power supply and emergency power recovery. The long distance WPT often enrolls the relay procedures and forms a power transmission network. In this paper, we talk about the wireless power transmission based on Ad Hoc networks. Meanwhile, the adaptive architecture and flexible deployment of WPT Ad Hoc networks have been given a special further discussion. We also bring along a novel multi-trace power routing concept and analyze the major challenges of WPT Ad Hoc networks.

Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Hongqi; Lin, Xiaokang

2002-08-01

219

1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

US Bonneville Power Administration

1993-10-01

220

Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks.

Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

2014-01-01

221

Transgenerational transmission and Child Psychiatry.  

PubMed

Transgenerational transmission is one of the major issues in child and adolescent psychiatry. Not only because, as in other fields of mental health, it fuels the nature nurture theoretical controversies or the body mind scientific debates, but also because it is, with children, at the center of every day medical, psychological or psychiatric practices. It is indeed difficult to deny that, in front of a mental health disorder at this age, one of the main stakes of the professionals is to weight cautiously the part taken by the relational environment in the mechanisms leading to the child's disorder onset. To be sensitive to the specific dependency of the child to his context is indeed one of the corner stone of child psychiatry and associate disciplines; so much as they can be seen as their main specificity in the field of medicine, psychiatry and social sciences. In child psychiatry, this very strong stream is however frequently challenged by another vivid trend: the tendency to see any disorder emerging at an early stage of life as the natural consequence of a dysfunctional development, with the idea that the more precocious it is the more biological it has to be. This other stream is clearly illustrated by the observation that among the many concerns raised by the recent release of DSM-5, very few dealt with the change of labeling for the chapter the most specific to child psychiatry: from the DSM-IV purely descriptive "Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence" to the more etiologically oriented DSM-5 "Neurodevelopmental disorders". In the current scientific context, it is hard to believe that this new label means that DSM-5 assumes that all the other DSM-5 disorders are not neurodevelopmental at all. Such assumption would indeed ignore a large number of works suggesting the contrary. For example in Schizophrenia where genetically induced neurodevelopmental impairments are likely to be involved, and this not only for those who adopt neurodevelopmental perspectives but also for those who advocate one of the vulnerability models. Is it then that DSM-5 considers the non neurodevelopmental determinants infancy childhood or adolescence onset disorders to be less relevant or to have less impact in childhood mental disorders than they have in schizophrenia and other later onset psychiatric disorders? Such assumption may be less scientifically (or even politically) incorrect than the previous one, but it is as neglectful of number of empirical evidences showing the weight of relational (non genetic) transmission and of many environmental factors strongly influential in the development of the child. The best example of the importance of such mechanisms is given by the number of evidence based papers on Attachment Transmission.1 As we all know, attachment is defined as an innate behavioral system that enables the baby to regulate his/her closeness to his/her mother; its relevance in human as it is in animal, was a crucial point of Bowlby' s breaking through theory in 1969.2 Standardized instruments were developed by Bowlby's followers3,4 to assess the quality of attachment; they helped to validate the hypothesis whereby there exists a variety of attachment patterns in mothers as in infants that are underpinned by mental representations Bowlby described as Internal Working Model.2 The same research tools also showed that most of these attachment patterns were transmitted by the mother to the baby.5 Moreover, several studies showed that some attachment pattern are protective factors for various mental health disorder whereas other attachment pattern can be considered as risk factors for these disorders or others, when associated with aversive life events or traumatic experiences1-6 Transmission of attachment became a topic of clinical relevance to contribute to the explanation of complex phenomenon as vulnerability or resilience in mental health.1 Because of the evidences that the mechanism of this transmission was of a non genetic nature7 researchers were facing what they called a

Botbol, M

2014-01-01

222

49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13 Transportation...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

2013-10-01

223

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S3. Requirements. S3.1Automatic transmissions. S3.1.1Location of transmission shift positions on passenger cars. A neutral position...

2010-10-01

224

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S3. Requirements. S3.1Automatic transmissions. S3.1.1Location of transmission shift positions on passenger cars. A neutral position...

2009-10-01

225

Network modeling of BVD transmission.  

PubMed

Endemic diseases of cattle, such as bovine viral diarrhea, have significant impact on production efficiency of food of animal origin with consequences for animal welfare and climate change reduction targets. Many modeling studies focus on the local scale, examining the on-farm dynamics of this infectious disease. However, insight into prevalence and control across a network of farms ultimately requires a network level approach. Here, we implement understanding of infection dynamics, gained through these detailed on-farm modeling studies, to produce a national scale model of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission. The complex disease epidemiology and on-farm dynamics are approximated using SIS dynamics with each farm treated as a single unit. Using a top down approach, we estimate on-farm parameters associated with contraction and subsequent clearance from infection at herd level. We examine possible control strategies associated with animal movements between farms and find measures targeted at a small number of high-movement farms efficient for rapid and sustained prevalence reduction. PMID:22325043

Tinsley, Mark; Lewis, Fraser I; Brülisauer, Franz

2012-01-01

226

Gear assembly for automobile transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gear assembly including a pair of driving and driven gears permanently in meshing engagement with each other to provide a torque transmission therebetween. The driven gear is formed at one side thereof with a boss portion, and an additional gear axially slidable and rotatable on the boss portion of the driven gear and is permanently in meshing engagement with the driving gear to rotate at a gear ratio different from that of the driving and driven gears, additional gear is also resiliently in contact with a synchronizer mechanism assembled adjaecnt to the additional gear and having a spline piece fixed to the boss portion of the driven gear. The improvement wherein a toothed portion of the driven gear is formed at one end thereof with an annual stepped portion for provision of a predetermined annular gap between the additional gear and the one end face of the toothed portion of the driven gear. The resilient means is a waveshaped ring spring arranged in surrounding relationship with the boss portion of the driven gear and is engaged at its one end face with the additional gear and at its other end face with the spline piece of the synchronizer mechanism.

Ikemoto, K.; Tera Kura, Y.; Miyake, T.

1986-03-25

227

Maternal Transmission of Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Some propose maternal Alzheimer disease (1) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity more AD cases’ than controls’ mothers should be demented. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by gender and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. 24 (12%) controls’ fathers, 26 (13%) AD patient fathers, 58 (29%) controls’ mothers and 55 (28%) AD mothers had memory difficulty. More mothers than fathers had memory problems in both groups and the statistical significance persisted after adjusting for parent age at death and APOE for controls (OR=2.40, p=0.004) but not cases (OR=1.63, p=0.14), although results are qualitatively similar. There was no evidence of a real difference between the two groups in interaction analysis (p=0.41). Mothers of both cases and controls were more often affected than fathers, even after adjusting for age. Cases’ mothers were no more often demented than controls’ mothers, which does not support the maternal AD transmission. Rather, the increased number of affected mothers relates, at least in part, to female longevity.

Heggeli, Kristin; Crook, Julia; Thomas, Colleen; Graff-Radford, Neill

2012-01-01

228

Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

2004-01-01

229

Transmission and reflection SHSG holograms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra- fine grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to convert employing SHSG processing methods. Therefore, an optimized processing techniques for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal- materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90 percent can be obtained for both transmission and reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, including also high-quality display holograms of the reflection type, both monochrome and full color.

Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung S.; Choi, Yoon S.; Kim, Sun I.; Kim, Jong-Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

2001-06-01

230

A Generalization of the Transmission\\/Disequilibrium Test for Uncertain-Haplotype Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new transmission\\/disequilibrium-test statistic is pro- posed for situations in which transmission is uncertain. Such situations arise when transmission of a multilocus marker haplotype is considered, since haplotype phase is often unknown in a substantial number of instances. Even for single-locus markers, transmission is uncertain if one or both parents are missing. In both these situa- tions, uncertainty may

David Clayton

1999-01-01

231

Robust image transmission strategies for fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present a robust still-image transmission scheme and show its performance when used on a frequency flat fading channel. By following a Joint Source- Channel Coding approach, it is shown that image transmission with good visual quality is possible even with BER as high as 4%. Furthermore, this scheme only requires 26% redundancy for

Hervé BOEGLEN; Olivier HAEBERLE; C. Chatellier

2008-01-01

232

Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations. PMID:24727504

Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

2014-01-01

233

Ecological benefits of dc power transmission  

SciTech Connect

The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

Kutuzova, N. B. [JSC 'NIIPT' (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15

234

Understanding the transmission access and wheeling problem  

SciTech Connect

Institutional and regulatory changes in the uses of the nation's bulk power transmission systems that fail to recognize the technical complexity of the systems and the planning and operating problems involved can be disruptive of system reliability and of economic incentive needed for new facilities and technology. This article reviews basic technical and economic considerations connected with the transmission access problem. 2 figures.

Casazza, J.A.

1985-10-31

235

Seismic reliability of electrical power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of electric power transmission systems is important for the probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants under a given earthquake loading as it relates to the loss of off site power to the nuclear power plants. Here, a comprehensive model to evaluate the seismic reliability of electric power transmission systems is presented. The model provides probabilistic assessments of

J. A. Pires; A. H.-S. Ang; R. Villaverde

1996-01-01

236

Transmission of prion diseases by blood transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to detect infectivity in the blood of humans and animals affected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) have often been inconclusive because of the limitations of cross-species bioassays and the small volumes of blood that can be injected by the intracerebral route. A model has been developed for the experimental study of TSE transmission by blood transfusion

Nora Hunter; James Foster; Angela Chong; Sandra McCutcheon; David Parnham; Samantha Eaton; Calum MacKenzie; Fiona Houston

2002-01-01

237

Transmission Electron Holography of Polymer Microstructure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report describing a four year effort to develop and apply phase contrast imaging based on transmission electron holography as a means to measure unstained multiphase polymer microstructure. The experiments involve a 200keV transmission e...

M. R. Libera

1998-01-01

238

Transmission Network Estimation Using Linear Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of long-range planning of electric power systems involves the exploration of various designs for the bulk power transmission network. The use of linear programming for network analysis to determine where capacity shortages exist and, most importantly, where to add new circuits to relieve the shortages is presented. The new method of network estimation produces a feasible transmission network

Len Garver

1970-01-01

239

Binary Data Transmission Techniques for Linear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linearity and highly stable frequency characteristics of modern single-sideband equipment make possible improvements in the frequency spectrum utilization and performance of binary data transmission systems. Problems associated with fully utilizing the binary data transmission potential of an SSB voice channel are discussed. These problems include consideration of frequency and phase stability of the SSB equipment and the propagation media,

M. L. Doelz; E. T. Heald; D. L. Martin

1957-01-01

240

Contract networks for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contract network extends the concept of a contract path to address the problem of loop flow and congestion in electric power transmission systems. A contract network option provides an internally consistent framework for assigning long-term capacity rights to a complicated electric transmission network. The contract network respects the special conditions induced by Kirchoff's Laws; accommodates thermal, voltage, and contingency

William W. Hogan

1992-01-01

241

Control system for a continuously variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable transmission for transmitting the power of an internal combustion engine for driving a motor vehicle. The transmission has a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the disc, a driven pulley including a hydraulically shiftable disc and a hydraulic cylinder for operating the latter disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys. The control system includes a first hydraulic circuit having a pump for supplying oil to both the hydraulic cylinders, and a transmission ratio control valve having a shiftable spool for controlling the oil supplied to at least one of the cylinders. The improvement in the control system comprises: means for shifting the spool of the transmission ratio control valve; means for sensing operating conditions of the engine and transmission and for producing a first signal dependent on the conditions; means for producing a control signal to shift the spool to control the transmission ratio of the transmission to the desired transmission ratio value; and a means for detecting a steady state driving condition and for producing a steady state signal.

Tanaka, H.; Morimoto, Y.

1989-01-03

242

Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies of…

McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

2004-01-01

243

Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Made Operational  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system directly measuring the transmission error between the meshing spur or helical gears was installed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and made operational in August 2001. This system employs light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the two gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. The device is capable of resolution better than 0.1 mm (one thousandth the thickness of a human hair). The measured transmission error can be displayed in a "map" that shows how the transmission error varies with the gear rotation or it can be converted to spectra to show the components at the meshing frequencies. Accurate transmission error data will help researchers better understand the mechanisms that cause gear noise and vibration and will lead to The Design Unit at the University of Newcastle in England specifically designed the new system for NASA. It is the only device in the United States that can measure dynamic transmission error at high rotational speeds. The new system will be used to develop new techniques to reduce dynamic transmission error along with the resulting noise and vibration of aeronautical transmissions.

Oswald, Fred B.

2002-01-01

244

Manufacturing techniques - Split torque path helicopter transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the manufacturing techniques, capital equipment, tooling plan, and assembly methods necessary to manufacture the split torque path gearbox is presented. This transmission was designed and built for the advanced rotorcraft transmission program of the U.S. Army and NASA. Consideration is given to the engineering technology advancements along with a description of the integrated product development team process.

Mitchell, George D., Jr.

1991-01-01

245

Transmission Emergency Restoration Systems For Public Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the vast expanse of Public Power's operating territory in the United States and the variety of climatic conditions that their electrical transmission lines are subjected to, these lines occasionally fail due to natural disasters. These natural disasters are a result of mudslides, heavy ice, high winds or floods. In addition to these natural causes, transmission lines have also

Keith E. Lindsey

246

The interior transmission spectrum in one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper seeks conditions on acoustic profiles c(x) and b(x) which imply the existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues. The existence of intervals free of transmission eigenvalues has important implications in the question of unique recovery of the acoustic profile for inverse acoustic scattering theory using the linear sampling method and for the inverse source problem in thermoacoustic tomography. We examine the interior transmission spectrum relative to two acoustic profiles on the unit interval. This research includes the case when the difference of the two acoustic profiles changes sign and is, to the author's knowledge, the only work to date on the interior transmission spectrum allowing this behavior. It is shown that for a large class of acoustic profiles the transmission spectrum is asymptotically sparse. The spectrum exhibits three distinct types of behavior dependent on the relation of the two acoustic profiles. Numerical examples of each type of behavior are given which show how the transmission eigenvalues are distributed depending on the relation between c(x) and b(x). Our method of study is to reduce the interior transmission problem on [0, 1] to a problem of finding roots of a determinant of fundamental solutions to a Sturm-Liouville problem. The asymptotic expansion of solutions of the Sturm-Liouville problem then allows us to analyze properties of the transmission spectrum for large values of the wavenumber.

Hickmann, Kyle S.

2012-11-01

247

Electronic control system for powershift transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an electronic control system for a powershift transmission having a plurality of hydraulically-actuated clutches and a plurality of electrically-operated hydraulic valves for selecting the clutch for engagement, each such valve being provided with electrical coil means for operating the valve. The control system comprising: first electrical switching means; microprocessor means for operating the powershift transmission in accordance

K. L. Brekkestran; J. C. Thomas

1989-01-01

248

Using rainfall estimates to predict malaria transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malaria kills nearly a million people each year, mostly in rural Africa. The disease is spread by mosquitoes, which thrive in wet areas, so malaria transmission is closely linked to rainfall. Rainfall estimates could therefore be used to help predict potential malaria transmission. However, rain gauge networks are sparse in many of the rural areas that are hit hardest by malaria.

Tretkoff, Ernie

2011-05-01

249

Transient analysis of lossless transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of characteristics provides a simple analytic solution for the transient analysis of a uniform, lossless transmission line. The interpretation of this solution in terms of equivalent network of the input and output behavior of the transmission line leads to an efficient algorithm which yields not only the input and output responses but also the incident and reflected waves.

1967-01-01

250

Ecology and transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis  

Microsoft Academic Search

I studied ecological factors affecting transmission dynamics of Baylisascaris procyonis, the common large roundworm of raccoons ( Procyon lotor) to intermediate hosts. Infective eggs of B. procyonis are present at raccoon latrines, and these sites may be important in the transmission of this parasite to small vertebrates in forested areas. I found that raccoon latrines exhibited characteristics generally associated with

Laura Kristen Page

1998-01-01

251

Nylon degradation with automatic transmission fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nylon is used as a material in the design of various components of automatic transmissions, namely pump rotor guides and thrust washers. These nylon components must be compatible with automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Field and laboratory cycling testing of experimental ATFs showed that nylon components in contact with ATF underwent color changes and exhibited loss of tensile strength. A laboratory

Pamela L Lann; Thomas S Derevjanik; James W Snyder; William C Ward

2000-01-01

252

Transmission and scattering by an absorptive potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission and scattering problems involving complex potentials are important in physics, in particular in describing nuclear collisions. We describe many pedagogical features of transmission in one dimension and scattering and absorption cross sections in three dimensions for a rectangular absorptive potential and compare the results with scattering from real barriers and a hard sphere. For a given energy in one

A. Uma Maheswari; S. Mahadevan; P. Prema; C. S. Shastry; S. K. Agarwalla

2007-01-01

253

Control system design for VSC transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a suitable control system for a DC transmission system based on voltage source converters (VSC). Each of the two VSC converters has two control inputs and the four control channels on a VSC transmission system offer potential for a versatile control. However, the main challenge is the dynamic interaction among the control loops. It is proposed in

Dragan Jovcic; Lisa Lamont; Keith Abbott

2007-01-01

254

Broadband Resonant-Type Metamaterial Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, it is shown that, contrary to previous assumptions, the broadband characteristics of metamaterial transmission lines are not exclusive of the so called CL loaded composite right\\/left handed (CRLH) structures. In the balance condition, the typical frequency gap between the left handed (LH) and right handed (RH) transmission bands of these CRLH lines collapses, the characteristic impedance varies

Marta Gil; Jordi Bonache; Jordi Selga; Joan García-García; Ferran Martín

2007-01-01

255

ATM adaption layer for video transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors study some aspects of transmission of video services in an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) environment. The sources of transmission errors in such a network are channel noise, causing bit error, and network saturation, causing cell losses. Noise can also cause cell loss or insertion when it affects the cell header, but this is a second order effect. The

Maria Simon; Miguel Roser; Alfonso Vicente

1992-01-01

256

Theory and Observation in Cultural Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey designed to evaluate the importance of some components of cultural transmission on a variety of traits showed that religion and politics are mostly determined in the family, a mode of transmission which guarantees high evolutionary stability and maintenance of high variation between and within groups. (Author/JN)

Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; And Others

1982-01-01

257

A market mechanism for electric power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

As competition is introduced into the electric power industry, access and pricing policy for transmission will play a pivotal role in shaping future market structure and performance. The externalities associated with the loop flow phenomenon in an electric power network constitute a significant barrier to the formation of efficient markets for electricity and transmission services. In this paper, we present

Hung-Po Chao; Stephen Peck

1996-01-01

258

Transmission line model influence on fault diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks have been used to develop software applied to fault identification and classification in transmission lines with satisfactory results. The input data to the neural network are the sampled values of voltage and current waveforms. The values proceed from the digital fault recorders, which monitor the transmission lines and make the data available in their analog channels. It

N. S. D. Brito; W. L. A. Neves; B. A. Souza; K. M. C. Dantas; A. V. Fontes; A. B. Fernandes; S. S. B. Silva

2004-01-01

259

Millimeter-wave nonlinear transmission line tripler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) provide a nonlinear, dispersive medium for soliton propagation. Taking advantage of the soliton propagation effects, electrical impulse compression and harmonic generation can be achieved in NLTL circuits. In this paper, characteristics of solitons propagating along NLTLs have been investigated and simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. Unique nonlinear interactions among solitons propagating along nonlinear transmission

Xudong Wang; Jishi Ren; R. J. Hwu

1998-01-01

260

Compressed television transmission: A market survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

1981-01-01

261

Far Infrared Transmission through Superconducting Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The far infrared transmission through films of superconducting and normal lead, tin, indium, and mercury has been measured in the wavelength region between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. The transmission data have been analyzed to find the ratio of the complex conductivity in the superconducting state to that in the normal state, as a function of frequency. The width of the

D. M. Ginsberg; M. Tinkham

1960-01-01

262

Millimeter Wave Transmission Systems and Related Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structu...

L. M. Hebert

1984-01-01

263

Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

Posner, E. C.

1984-01-01

264

PHYSICAL OR FINANCIAL TRANSMISSION RIGHTS? AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION INSTITUTIONS.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ,(FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide ,open access to their transmission networks ,and to separate ,their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and ,in ways ,different from ,in the ,past. This research ,project tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power ,market

Brian T. Kench

265

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

266

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

267

Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

Hebert, L. M.

1984-01-01

268

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program status  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reported herein is work done on the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company under Army/NASA contract. The novel concept pursued includes the use of face gears for power transmission and a torque splitting arrangement. The design reduces the size and weight of the corner-turning hardware and the next reduction stage. New methods of analyzing face gears have increased confidence in their usefulness. Test gears have been designed and manufactured for power transmission testing on the NASA-Lewis spiral bevel test rig. Transmission design effort has included finite element modeling of the split torque paths to assure equal deflection under load. A finite element model of the Apache main transmission has been completed to substantiate noise prediction methods. A positive engagement overrunning clutch design is described. Test spur gears have been made by near-net-shape forging from five different materials. Three housing materials have been procured for evaluation testing.

Bossler, Robert; Heath, Gregory

1991-01-01

269

Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct. and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

1992-01-01

270

Broadband Transmission Loss Due to Reverberant Excitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The noise transmission characteristics of candidate curved aircraft sidewall panel constructions is examined analytically using finite element models of the selected panel geometries. The models are validated by experimental modal analyses and transmission loss testing. The structural and acoustic response of the models are then examined when subjected to random or reverberant excitation, the simulation of which is also discussed. For a candidate curved honeycomb panel, the effect of add-on trim panel treatments is examined. Specifically, two different mounting configurations are discussed and their effect on the transmission loss of the panel is presented. This study finds that the add-on acoustical treatments do improve on the primary structures transmission loss characteristics, however, much more research is necessary to draw any valid conclusions about the optimal configuration for the maximum noise transmission loss. This paper describes several directions for the extension of this work.

Barisciano, Lawrence P. Jr.

1999-01-01

271

Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of ``Impulsar'' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The ``Impulsar''--laser jet engine vehicle--propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2--laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

Apollonov, Victor V.

2011-11-01

272

NASA transmission research and its probable effects on helicopter transmission design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmissions studied for application to helicopters in addition to the more conventional geared transmissions include hybrid (traction/gear), bearingless planetary, and split torque transmissions. Research is being performed to establish the validity of analysis and computer codes developed to predict the performance, efficiency, life, and reliability of these transmissions. Results of this research should provide the transmission designer with analytical tools to design for minimum weight and noise with maximum life and efficiency. In addition, the advantages and limitations of drive systems as well as the more conventional systems will be defined.

Zaretsky, E. V.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

1983-01-01

273

HIV transmission. Selection bias at the heterosexual HIV-1 transmission bottleneck.  

PubMed

Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 typically results in one genetic variant establishing systemic infection. We compared, for 137 linked transmission pairs, the amino acid sequences encoded by non-envelope genes of viruses in both partners and demonstrate a selection bias for transmission of residues that are predicted to confer increased in vivo fitness on viruses in the newly infected, immunologically naïve recipient. Although tempered by transmission risk factors, such as donor viral load, genital inflammation, and recipient gender, this selection bias provides an overall transmission advantage for viral quasispecies that are dominated by viruses with high in vivo fitness. Thus, preventative or therapeutic approaches that even marginally reduce viral fitness may lower the overall transmission rates and offer long-term benefits even upon successful transmission. PMID:25013080

Carlson, Jonathan M; Schaefer, Malinda; Monaco, Daniela C; Batorsky, Rebecca; Claiborne, Daniel T; Prince, Jessica; Deymier, Martin J; Ende, Zachary S; Klatt, Nichole R; DeZiel, Charles E; Lin, Tien-Ho; Peng, Jian; Seese, Aaron M; Shapiro, Roger; Frater, John; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Tang, Jianming; Goepfert, Paul; Gilmour, Jill; Price, Matt A; Kilembe, William; Heckerman, David; Goulder, Philip J R; Allen, Todd M; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

2014-07-11

274

Control system for a infinitely variable transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable transmission for transmitting power of an internal combustion engine to driving wheels of a motor vehicle, the transmission having a drive pulley including a hydraulically shiftable first disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the first disc, a driven pulley including a hydraulically shiftable second disc and a second hydraulic cylinder for operating the second disc, and a belt engaged with both pulleys, the system including a first hydraulic circuit having an oil pump of the vehicle and for supplying oil to the first and second hydraulic cylinders, and a transmission ratio control valve disposed in the first hydraulic circuit and having a shiftable spool so as to control the oil being supplied to the first hydraulic cylinder of the drive pulley to change the transmission ratio of the transmission, the improvement in the system comprising: a second hydraulic circuit having a pressure regulator valve means communicating with the pump for maintaining pressure of oil supplied by the pump as control oil at a constant value, the second hydraulic circuit for supplying the control oil to the transmission ratio control valve so as to shift the spool; control valve means provided in the second hydraulic circuit for controlling the amount of the control oil supplied to the transmission ratio control valve so as to shift the spool.

Morimoto, Y.

1988-11-15

275

State of the Art on Transmission Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enabling long-haul and high-speed transmission has been the premier feature of fibre optics that has rendered it an attractive and successfully deployed technology. Although optical fibres are being engaged in several applications, such as signal processing, lasers and sensors, transmission systems remain a core and continuously evolving application leading to demonstrations of several Tbit/s over hundreds of kilometres. To achieve such impressive performances, several techniques have been investigated and applied. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), often combined with polarisation multiplexing, offers the means to exploit the large optical bandwidth. The aggregate transmission bit rate depends on the achievable bit rate per wavelength and the number of deployed wavelengths. The simplest and most straightforward approach based on intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) is giving its place to more advanced techniques based on phase modulation and coherent detection. Combination of optical fibre transmission with digital signal processing (DSP) has opened a new window in transmission systems, facilitating the use of coherent detection and the mitigation of nonlinear effects, as well as allowing the application of advanced transmission techniques such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). This chapter provides an overview of the state of the art of optical fibre transmission techniques.

Tsekrekos, Christos; Forysiak, Wladek; Killey, Robert; Matera, Francesco; Moreolo, Michela Svaluto; Nijhof, Jeroen

276

Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

Klop, Richard J.

277

Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.  

PubMed

Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature. PMID:23875817

Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

2013-09-01

278

Using Nonhuman Primates to Model HIV Transmission  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review One of the major obstacles in fully understanding HIV transmission comes from the impracticality of studying transmission in humans. Because of this encumbrance, the early phases of HIV transmission and systemic dissemination are poorly understood. In order to fully comprehend these critical steps in HIV infection, animal models must be devised to accurately reflect HIV’s mode of action. This review seeks to highlight the essential nature of modeling HIV transmission in nonhuman primates. Recent Findings Recently it was discovered that HIV infection is established in newly infected recipients by a single or few transmitted/founder variants. This has reshaped how animal modeling is conducted with researchers currently recapitulating a physiologically relevant, low-titer infection. Pertinent animal models have been established for the most common routes of infection, including rectal, vaginal, and penile transmission; models for intravenous and oral transmission are still in developmental stages. Summary These limited dose models now accurately reflect HIV transmission in humans, and provide a realistic experimental platform for vaccine development and other intervention strategies which can be used to inform vaccine development in humans. Using information obtained in NHP and human trials, it is conceivable to envision effective prevention modalities in the near future.

Fennessey, Christine M.; Keele, Brandon F.

2014-01-01

279

High Transmission through Sharp Bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate highly efficient transmission of light around sharp corners in photonic band-gap waveguides. Numerical simulations reveal complete transmission at certain frequencies, and very high transmission \\\\(>95%\\\\) over wide frequency ranges. High transmission is observed even for 90° bends with zero radius of curvature, with a maximum transmission of 98% as opposed to 30% for analogous conventional dielectric waveguides. We

Attila Mekis; J. C. Chen; I. Kurland; Shanhui Fan; Pierre R. Villeneuve; J. D. Joannopoulos

1996-01-01

280

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

281

Control system for an automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

A control system is described for an automatic transmission for a motor vehicle driven by an engine, the automatic transmission having a gear hold range, the control system comprising: detector means for detecting a selected gear hold range and for producing a gear hold signal; sensing means for detecting engine speed and for producing an engine speed signal dependent on engine speed; deciding means for producing an excessive engine speed signal when the detected engine speed exceeds a predetermined speed; control means responsive to the gear hold signal and to the excessive engine speed signal for releasing the gear hold range and for upshifting the transmission.

Sakakiyama, R.

1989-05-16

282

Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

Jake P Gentle

2012-08-01

283

Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.

Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.

1988-01-01

284

Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

Ishac, M.F. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); White, H.B. [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)] [White (H. Brian), Hudson, Quebec (Canada)

1995-01-01

285

An all-silicon optical transmission system for clock and data transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low cost and mass integration potential of CMOS integrated circuits create an attractive opportunity for investigating CMOS as an optical platform. Although silicon, as an indirect band gap material, is known for inefficient electroluminescence, silicon-based optical transmission is still a much sought after capability. This paper shows the potential of an all silicon transmission system for both clock and data transmission. By utilizing silicon light emitting diodes operating in avalanche, it is shown that a switching speed of above hundred megahertz is possible. The transmitter consists of an array of light sources, with metal light directors for improved external quantum efficiency. The array is pulsed across an optical fibre and received by an avalanche photodiode and amplifier module. Spectral results of the received signal confirm an optical component in excess of 100 MHz, were the off-chip driver circuitry and the photodiode receiver currently limit the bandwidth of the system. As the requirements for wideband data transmission are more stringent than for a narrow band clock signal, the transmission system was tested as a baseband digital communication system, with transmission speeds of up to 176 kbps. We also present eye diagrams of the received signal to prove the success of the transmission system, where transmission speed is limited to detectable optical levels versus allowable in-band noise. A refinement on these principles might lead to CMOS as a contender in high speed clock transmission as well as an alternative to III-V devices for low cost optical transmission systems.

Ellinghaus, Paul; Venter, Petrus J.; Du Plessis, Monuko; Rademeyer, Pieter; Bogalecki, Alfons W.

2010-02-01

286

WiMP-SCTP: MultiPath Transmission Using Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, WiMP-SCTP, which allows a host to improve its transmission goodput in wireless networks using multi-path transmission of stream control transmission protocol, is proposed. Along with a transmission mode switching scheme, two transmission modes of WiMP-SCTP, i.e., the \\

Chung-ming Huang; Ching-hsien Tsai

2007-01-01

287

Bidirectional video transmission for avionics applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single wavelength bi-directional and full-duplex optical links implemented on a full-duplex video multiplexing transmission is presented hereafter. The system, main performances and limitations are described and compared with avionics requirements and standards.

C. Hartmann; F. Quentel; D. Mousseaux; C. Claudepierre; M. Pez

2008-01-01

288

Fiber Optics with Extended Ultraviolet Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this contract is to conduct research and development leading to the fabrication of fiber optic faceplates for cathode ray tubes with high transmission in the near and middle ultraviolet regions. During this period, compositional studies o...

M. A. Ali A. G. Pincus M. A. Schwartz

1969-01-01

289

Effects of Hycanthone on the Neuromuscular Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of the antischistosomal drug, hycanthone, on the synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction were studied. The mean quantal content increased in the presence of 20 micromoles hycanthone. The amplitude of the miniature end-plate cu...

K. I. Enomoto C. Edwards

1985-01-01

290

Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

Robinson, W. J., Jr.

1968-01-01

291

Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Made Operational.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system directly measuring the transmission error between the meshing spur or helical gears was installed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and made operational in August 2001. This system employs light beams directed by lenses and prisms through grating...

F. B. Oswald

2002-01-01

292

Intelligent Computer-to-Computer Transmission Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intelligent Computer-to-Computer transmission package was designed and implemented using the PROCOMM PLUS communications program to transfer data from one computer to another. The package permits a noncomputer literate person to accomplish communicatio...

M. Hajjar P. Frasca

1990-01-01

293

Development of Superconducting Power Transmission Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superconducting power transmission cables are the latest innovation in a technology which is as old as electric power engineering. The construction of central electricity generating stations by Thomas Edison in the USA and Sebastian Ferranti in England in...

E. B. Forsyth

1985-01-01

294

Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

Dietz, R. H.

1980-01-01

295

Nutating Mechanical Transmission (Maroth Drive Principle).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The final report presents an analysis defining the operational characteristics and potential load capacity of the nutating mechanical transmission (NMT) concept. Since a fully operational NMT capable of any substantial loading has not been constructed, th...

A. J. Lemanski R. J. Drago

1974-01-01

296

BARRIERS TO THE TRANSMISSION OF WATERBORNE DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The multiple barrier concept is applied by public health professionals as they attempt to prevent waterborne transmission of communicable diseases. This chapter discusses two water treatment techniques, filtration and disinfection, that are commonly used to provide barriers to di...

297

Continuously Variable Transmissions: Theory and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The five basic principles that can be used in the design of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for motor vehicles are examined and compared. These include: hydrostatic, traction drive (V-belt and rolling contact), overrunning clutch, electric, and ...

N. H. Beachley A. A. Frank

1979-01-01

298

Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

1991-01-01

299

Digital Transmission Evaluation Project. Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Final Evaluation Report summarizes the information derived from Phase I of the Digital Transmission Evaluation Project over the period of October 1973 to July 1976. The project purpose is to test and evaluate commercially developed equipment in the fi...

J. J. McDonnell J. A. Hamant E. New

1976-01-01

300

Perinatal HIV transmission: developing country considerations.  

PubMed

In many developing countries, because the prevalence of maternal HIV infection is high (more than 30% in some sub-Saharan African countries) and the resources commonly used to prevent transmission in developed countries are generally not available, transmission of HIV from mother to infant is a devastating problem. Countries already experiencing infant mortality rates 10- to 20-fold greater than those in developed countries can expect a doubling of infant and childhood mortality due to HIV. Those infants who escape infection themselves can expect to be orphaned in early childhood. Low-cost antiviral therapy can reduce transmission substantially, but many countries do not have the infrastructure to screen pregnant women for HIV and appropriately treat the mothers and infants. In developing countries, reduction in maternal-child transmission is feasible, but will require substantial additional resources and a well-functioning obstetric care system. PMID:12530611

Goldenberg, R L; Stringer, J S A; Sinkala, M; Vermund, S H

2002-09-01

301

Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations  

SciTech Connect

Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.

Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.

2012-05-20

302

High Temperature Superconductors for Power Transmission Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advent of high temperature superconductors has stimulated interest in their utilization in electric power utility applications. A study of their impact upon power transmission and generation was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The ...

F. J. Edeskuty W. F. Stewart K. D. Williamson L. K. Trocki

1988-01-01

303

Atmospheric transmission calculations for optical frequencies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative study of the transmission loss through the entire atmosphere for optical frequencies likely to be used for an earth-space communication link using existing data bases on scattering and absorption characteristics of the atmospheric constituents is presented.

Shaik, Kamran

1989-01-01

304

Transmission Electron Microscope Studies of Extraterrestrial Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selec...

L. P. Keller

1995-01-01

305

Adaptive Transmission Relaying Concepts for Improved Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concepts for adaptive protective relaying of transmission lines are presented. These include changes in on-line relay settings, relay characteristics or logic in response to power system or environmental changes, or as a result of operating experience. Su...

G. D. Rockefeller C. L. Wagner J. R. Linders K. L. Hicks D. T. Rizy

1987-01-01

306

Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism  

DOEpatents

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-01-03

307

Data transmission element for downhole drilling components  

DOEpatents

A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT)

2006-01-31

308

Extraordinary terahertz transmission of subwavelength plasmonic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental studies of extraordinary terahertz (THz) transmission in subwavelength plasmonic hole arrays patterned on both metals and doped semiconductors. Transmission efficiency higher than unity was achieved when it was normalized to the area occupied by the holes. The effects of hole shape, dielectric function of metals and surrounding media, polarization dependence, and array thickness on the enhanced THz transmission in both metals and plasmonic semiconductors were demonstrated by use of THz time-domain spectroscopy. Extraordinary THz transmission was also realized in metallic arrays having thickness of only one-third of the skin depth. THz surface plasmon resonance has potential applications in THz imaging, biosensing, interconnects, and the development of next generation photoconductive antennas for THz generation and detection.

Zhang, Weili; Azad, Abul K.

2006-10-01

309

Acoustic wave transmission through piezoelectric structured materials.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the transmission of acoustic waves through multilayered piezoelectric materials. It is modeled in an octet formalism via the hybrid matrix of the structure. The theoretical evolution with the angle and frequency of the transmission coefficients of ultrasonic plane waves propagating through a partially depoled PZT plate is compared to finite element calculations showing that both methods are in very good agreement. The model is then used to study a periodic stack of 0.65 PMN-0.35 PT/0.90 PMN-0.10 PT layers. The transmission spectra are interpreted in terms of a dispersive behavior of the critical angles of longitudinal and transverse waves, and band gap structures are analysed. Transmission measurements confirm the theoretical calculations and deliver an experimental validation of the model. PMID:19128815

Lam, M; Le Clézio, E; Amorín, H; Algueró, M; Holc, Janez; Kosec, Marija; Hladky-Hennion, A C; Feuillard, G

2009-05-01

310

Tunneled Data Transmission over Wireless Sensor Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for terminal communication through transmission links established across a wireless sensor network is developed and tested. Using protocols established for conventional wireless communication networks as a guiding principle, different methodol...

Y. T. Poh

2007-01-01

311

Multiwave Diffraction Analysis of Transmission Phase Gratings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multiwave coupled wave analysis of phase modulated, transmission gratings is made. The aim is to calculate the first order diffraction efficiency as a function of the modulation and a volume parameter, for arbitrary phase profiles. Sinusoidal, square, t...

C. W. Slinger

1989-01-01

312

Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Transmission Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical report summarizes design work done for ARDEC Picatinny Arsenal from April to October 2009 as part of an effort to design and fabricate nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) based on ferroelectric materials. These lines were intended to be key...

F. Crowne

2010-01-01

313

Dynamics of a Split Torque Helicopter Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system d...

T. L. Krantz

1994-01-01

314

Compressed Television Transmission: A Market Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic managemen...

L. Q. Cagan R. M. Lizak

1981-01-01

315

Airborne transmission of disease in hospitals  

PubMed Central

Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is an important public health issue with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality, over the last 5 years. Disease can be transmitted by air (over large distances), by direct/indirect contact or a combination of both routes. While contact transmission of disease forms the majority of HAI cases, transmission through the air is harder to control, but one where the engineering sciences can play an important role in limiting the spread. This forms the focus of this themed volume. In this paper, we describe the current hospital environment and review the contributions from microbiologists, mechanical and civil engineers, and mathematicians to this themed volume on the airborne transmission of infection in hospitals. The review also points out some of the outstanding scientific questions and possible approaches to mitigating transmission.

Eames, I.; Tang, J. W.; Li, Y.; Wilson, P.

2009-01-01

316

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOEpatents

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1994-01-01

317

Exponentially tapered non-uniform transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We solve the transmission line equations for a non-uniform transmission line (NUTL). The analytical method used is different to the Kuroda's one. First we find the solution in terms of voltage and current waves, then the expression of input impedance that allow us to find the R=const and X=const loci. In particular the solution is found for an exponential NUTL.

L. Vegni; F. Urbani; A. Toscano

1997-01-01

318

Mittag-Leffler Functions and Transmission Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The well-known equations pertaining to an infinitely long capacitor-resistor transmission line are recast following the methods of fractional calculus and the transmission characteristics expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. The same formalism can be used to model conduction in nerve fibers and conventional diffusion. This leads to physical interpretations of semi-derivatives and integrals as will be discussed.

Clarke, Ted; Narahari Achar, B. N.; Hanneken, John W.

2002-03-01

319

Electronic Communications Instructor Guide: Transmission Line Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Communications equipment, systems and test instruments are generally connected to one another by coaxial cable. For that reason, it is essential that students know the characteristics of transmission lines using coax cable and how to make basic measurements on them. This lesson aims to familiarize students with common measurements on coaxial transmission lines. The module may be downloaded in Microsoft Word Doc file format; a quick, free login is required to access the materials.

2012-12-03

320

Transmission bandpass guided-mode resonance filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the guided-mode resonance effects associated with waveguide gratings can be used to realize transmission bandpass filters. The key idea is the integration of the resonant waveguide gratings into a dielectric multilayer structure that efficiently reflects the off-resonance spectral components while passing the resonant part. This concept is applied to design multilayer transmission bandpass filters with high efficiency, narrow linewidth, symmetrical response, and low sidebands.

Magnusson, R.; Wang, S. S.

1995-12-01

321

Sexual Transmission of HCV between Spouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is debated. By excluding other risk factors, the role of sexual intercourse in the transmission could be detected more accurately. We screened HCV prevalence and risk factors in the spouses of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and followed the seroconversion rate of anti-HCV negative spouses.PATIENTS AND METHODS:Six hundred spouses of

Veysel Tahan; Cetin Karaca; Beytullah Yildirim; Aysun Bozbas; Resat Ozaras; Kadir Demir; Erol Avsar; Ali Mert; Fatih Besisik; Sabahattin Kaymakoglu; Hakan Senturk; Yilmaz Cakaloglu; Cem Kalayci; Atilla Okten; Nurdan Tozun

2005-01-01

322

Space-to-earth power transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

1976-01-01

323

Neutron transmission through curved nickel capillaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capillaries with metal surfaces can improve the transmission of thermal and cold neutrons for focusing devices on account of their greater critical angle and, therefore, greater angular acceptance than glass capillaries. The transmission characteristics of nickel tubes have been measured with both white beam and monochromatic neutrons. Results are given for curved nickel capillaries, and are compared with experimental results for glass capillaries and with results of computer simulations of the measurements.

Fokin, V. S.; Chen-Mayer, H. H.; Sharov, V. A.; Mildner, D. F. R.

1997-02-01

324

Comparing monetary policy transmission across European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing Monetary Policy Transmission across European Countries. — This paper re-evaluates the estimation of monetary policy\\u000a transmission. Within the Structural VAR framework, five methodological points are identified, recognition of which can help\\u000a to improve the reliability and credibility of estimates. The findings of the methodological analysis are applied to the estimation\\u000a of models for thirteen European countries. Results show that

Michael Ehrmann

2000-01-01

325

Measuring Transmission Efficiencies Of Mass Spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coincidence counts yield absolute efficiencies. System measures mass-dependent transmission efficiencies of mass spectrometers, using coincidence-counting techniques reminiscent of those used for many years in calibration of detectors for subatomic particles. Coincidences between detected ions and electrons producing them counted during operation of mass spectrometer. Under certain assumptions regarding inelastic scattering of electrons, electron/ion-coincidence count is direct measure of transmission efficiency of spectrometer. When fully developed, system compact, portable, and used routinely to calibrate mass spectrometers.

Srivastava, Santosh K.

1989-01-01

326

Robust Image Transmission Over Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust image and video communications have become more imperative due to the ubiquitous proliferation of multimedia applications\\u000a over wireless sensor networks. In this work, the transmission distortions on the image data induced by both channel and instant\\u000a node failures for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are considered. The effect of two techniques and their integration with multipath\\u000a transmission are investigated to

Pinar Sarisaray Boluk; Sebnem Baydere; A. Emre Harmanci

2011-01-01

327

Proton microbeam transmission between flat plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission of 1 MeV proton microbeam passing through between two parallel flat plates was investigated. During the measurements the surface of the plates was parallel to the beam axis. The energy and deflection of the beam were measured as a function of the sample position relative to the beam axis. We found significant differences in the proton transmission for metallic and insulator plates.

Nagy, G. U. L.; Bereczky, R. J.; Rajta, I.; Tökési, K.

2014-04-01

328

Acoustic transmission through a fuselage sidewall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A definition is given of an idealized fuselage sidewall structure and a simplified analytical model for determining acoustical transmission from the exterior to the interior of a fuselage was constructed. The representation of the sidewall structure chosen for the analytical model excludes complicating effects such as cabin pressurization, acoustic transmission through windows or door seal leaks, aerodynamic excitation, and structural vibration excitation of the fuselage skin.

Wilby, J. F.; Scharton, T. D.

1973-01-01

329

The inverse scattering problem for transmission lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of exact and approximate methods for solving the inverse scattering problem for transmission lines are reviewed. In particular, the application to transmission lines of Marcenko's version of the Gelfand-Levitan exact method for the quantum mechanical problem is compared with a more direct approach based on a different version of the Gelfand-Levitan method. In addition, some aspects of the lack of uniqueness of solutions are discussed, and some open questions related to the inverse scattering problem are suggested.

Kay, I.

1972-01-01

330

37 CFR 2.197 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 2.197 Section 2.197 Patents...2.197 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the cases...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2013-07-01

331

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2010-04-01

332

49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12 Section 583.12 Transportation... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied...

2013-10-01

333

37 CFR 1.8 - Certificate of mailing or transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Certificate of mailing or transmission. 1.8 Section 1.8 Patents...1.8 Certificate of mailing or transmission. (a) Except in the situations...correspondence stating the date of deposit or transmission. The person signing the...

2013-07-01

334

18 CFR 35.34 - Regional Transmission Organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Regional Transmission Organizations. 35.34 Section 35...Procedures and Requirements Regarding Regional Transmission Organizations § 35.34 Regional Transmission Organizations. (a) Purpose....

2009-04-01

335

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission system monitoring and control. 73...Broadcast Stations § 73.1400 Transmission system monitoring and control...The following are typical methods of transmission system operation: (a)...

2013-10-01

336

40 CFR 123.43 - Transmission of information to EPA.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmission of information to EPA. 123.43...Information and Permit Review § 123.43 Transmission of information to EPA. ...for the following: (1) Prompt transmission to the Regional Administrator...

2013-07-01

337

49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220.47 Transportation...Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by the word...

2013-10-01

338

18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Transmission infrastructure investment. 35...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure investment....

2009-04-01

339

49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192...STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.706 Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at...

2013-10-01

340

47 CFR 73.1695 - Changes in transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Changes in transmission standards. 73.1695 Section 73...Stations § 73.1695 Changes in transmission standards. The FCC will consider...a proposed change or modification of transmission standards adopted for...

2013-10-01

341

47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90 Telecommunication...Procedures-General § 80.90 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2013-10-01

342

77 FR 69754 - Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. RM11-26-000] Promoting Transmission Investment Through Pricing Reform AGENCY...evaluation of applications for electric transmission incentives under section 219 of the...acted on numerous applications for transmission incentives. The Commission has...

2012-11-21

343

47 CFR 73.644 - Subscription TV transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Subscription TV transmission systems. 73.644 Section 73...Stations § 73.644 Subscription TV transmission systems. (a) Licensees...same program material using normal transmission standards. (4) Modification...

2013-10-01

344

18 CFR 35.34 - Regional Transmission Organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional Transmission Organizations. 35.34 Section 35...Procedures and Requirements Regarding Regional Transmission Organizations § 35.34 Regional Transmission Organizations. (a) Purpose....

2010-04-01

345

47 CFR 101.207 - Suspension of transmission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 101.207 Section 101.207 Telecommunication...Operational Requirements § 101.207 Suspension of transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon...

2013-10-01

346

47 CFR 80.312 - Priority of distress transmissions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Priority of distress transmissions. 80.312 Section 80.312...80.312 Priority of distress transmissions. The distress call has absolute priority over all other transmissions. All stations which hear it...

2013-10-01

347

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2013-10-01

348

49 CFR 192.719 - Transmission lines: Testing of repairs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. 192...STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.719 Transmission lines: Testing of repairs. (a...replacement pipe. If a segment of transmission line is repaired by cutting...

2013-10-01

349

47 CFR 80.1135 - Transmission of maritime safety information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission of maritime safety information. ...Safety Communications § 80.1135 Transmission of maritime safety information. ...(b) The mode and format of the transmissions mentioned in this section is in...

2013-10-01

350

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751 Section 74...Stations § 74.751 Modification of transmission systems. (a) No change...directive antenna pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss characteristics, or...

2013-10-01

351

Design Considerations for Transmission Lines and Pulse-Forming Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lumped-constant analysis of transmission lines is given. Transient voltages and currents in infinite, open circuit, and terminated transmission lines are considered. The use of a transmission line as a pulse generator is discussed. The optimum operati...

R. W. Hawkins

1964-01-01

352

49 CFR 192.179 - Transmission line valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission line valves. 192.179 Section 192.179...of Pipeline Components § 192.179 Transmission line valves. (a) Each transmission line, other than offshore segments,...

2013-10-01

353

49 CFR 192.709 - Transmission lines: Record keeping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Transmission lines: Record keeping. 192...Maintenance § 192.709 Transmission lines: Record keeping. Each...maintain the following records for transmission lines for the periods...

2013-10-01

354

49 CFR 192.745 - Valve maintenance: Transmission lines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. 192.745 Section 192.745 Transportation...Maintenance § 192.745 Valve maintenance: Transmission lines. (a) Each transmission line valve that might be required during...

2013-10-01

355

47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. 73.322 Section...Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission standards. (a) An...one channel of a two channel (biphonic) sound transmission, modulation of the...

2013-10-01

356

47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023 Section...Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station licensees...television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR...

2010-10-01

357

47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023 Section...Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station licensees...television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR...

2009-10-01

358

47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023 Section...Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission systems. Station licensees...television channel in a distributed transmission system. [73 FR...

2013-10-01

359

Finite-difference interblock transmissivity for unconfined aquifers and for aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More accurate alternatives to the widely used harmonic mean interblock transmissivity are proposed for block-centered finite-difference models of ground-water flow in unconfined aquifers and in aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity. The harmonic mean is the exact interblock transmissivity for steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge if the transmissivity is assumed to be spatially uniform over each finite-difference block, changing abruptly at the block interface. However, the harmonic mean may be inferior to other means if transmissivity varies in a continuous or smooth manner between nodes. Alternative interblock transmissivity functions are analytically derived for the case of steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge. The second author has previously derived the exact interblock transmissivity, the logarithmic mean, for one-dimensional flow when transmissivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow. We show that the logarithmic mean transmissivity is also exact for uniform flow parallel to the direction of changing transmissivity in a two- or three-dimensional model, regardless of grid orientation relative to the flow vector. For the case of horizontal flow in a homogeneous unconfined or water-table aquifer with a horizontal bottom and with areally distributed recharge, the exact interblock transmissivity is the unweighted arithmetic mean of transmissivity at the nodes. This mean also exhibits no grid-orientation effect for unidirectional flow in a two-dimensional model. For horizontal flow in an unconfined aquifer with no recharge where hydraulic conductivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow the exact interblock transmissivity is the product of the arithmetic mean saturated thickness and the logarithmic mean hydraulic conductivity. For several hypothetical two- and three-dimensional cases with smoothly varying transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity, the harmonic mean is shown to yield the least accurate solution to the flow equation of the alternatives considered. Application of the alternative interblock transmissivities to a regional aquifer system model indicates that the changes in computed heads and fluxes are typically small, relative to model calibration error. For this example, the use of alternative interblock transmissivities resulted in an increase in computational effort of less than 3 percent. Numerical algorithms to compute alternative interblock transmissivity functions in a modular three-dimensional flow model are presented and documented.

Goode, D. J.; Appel, C. A.

1992-01-01

360

Point of Connection Transmission Pricing in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Electricity Policy (NEP) [1], issued by the Government of India, mandates transmission prices to be distance and direction sensitive and capture utilization of the network by each network user. In line with the mandate, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) [2] has issued Sharing of Interstate Transmission Charges and Losses Regulations, 2010 [3], to introduce point of connection (PoC)-based transmission pricing methodology in India. The methodology under the above regulations introduces one of the major reforms of its kind in the Indian power sector and seeks to share the total transmission charges in proportion to respective utilization of the transmission system by different entities. In this paper, the authors have enumerated their experience gained from the implementation of PoC-based transmission pricing regime in India. Authors have also discussed various issues encountered in the process of implementation and the methodology adopted.

Soonee, S. K.; Barpanda, S. S.; Joshi, Mohit; Mishra, Nripen; Bhardwaj, Vaishally

2013-05-01

361

Evaluation of transmission network capacity use for wheeling transactions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the principles and the implementation of a methodology to evaluate the transmission network capacity use for firm transmission services including wheeling transactions. In this methodology transmission network capacity use for a transaction is a function of the magnitude of electric power, the length of the transmission lines and the type of facilities involved in the transaction. This capacity value provides an equitable means of allocating the cost of transmission facilities among users of the firm transmission service.

Shirmohammadi, D.; Gribik, P.R.; Law, E.T.K.; Malinowski, J.H.; O'Donnell, R.E. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1989-11-01

362

Dispersion tolerance and transmission distance of a 40Gb\\/s dispersion management soliton transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the tolerance of the variation of average dispersion in a 40-Gb\\/s dispersion-managed soliton (DMS) transmission system. It is theoretically shown that dispersion tolerance is governed by pulse broadening and soliton interaction, and that the largest dispersion tolerance can be achieved by optimizing the pulse energy depending on the transmission distance. We construct a 40-Gb\\/s recirculating loop transmission system

Yuichi Takushima; Tomohiro Douke; Xiaomin Wang; Kazuro Kikuchi

2002-01-01

363

An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.  

SciTech Connect

References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

1994-08-01

364

Thermal influence on precise gear transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conjugate meshing of involute gears is required in precise gear transmission. However, in the working process, the heat generated in friction results in deformation of the tooth profile of the gear, radial and axial deformation of the shaft and bearing. Meanwhile, there is thermal deformation with non-similarity in the gear box that the shafts and bearings are installed on, which leads to a change of the bearing clearance, axis deflection of the shaft and the gear meshing state. As a result of all these effects, vibration and noise are generated in the transmission system, and it intensifies the possibility of damaging the parts. In this paper, mathematical physics methods and thermal elastic theory are employed to analyze the influence of tooth profiles, gear parameters (transmission ratio i, overlapping coefficients ?, backlash jn, etc), gear meshing, working clearance of the bearing (it relates with the initial clearance, tolerance matching, rotational speed, temperature changes, etc) and the shape of the gear box (cylindricity error, axis deflection, etc) caused by the temperature change. The result can be employed in selecting gear parameters and designing the shape of the gear tooth, bearing clearance and shell structure, and it is also helpful to the design of gear transmissions and screw transmissions.

Zhang, Yong; Fei, Yetai; Miao, EnMing; Zhang, Xiao-rou

2013-01-01

365

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01

366

Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

2010-01-01

367

The design of automatic transmission fluid to meet the requirements of electronically controlled transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design changes in automatic transmissions have resulted in new requirements for automatic transmission fluids. Electronic controls, for instance, perform best with fluids having better low-temperature properties. Achievement of the target low-temperature properties can be accomplished in different ways. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed with respect to total fluid performance. Fluid performance properties examined include viscometrics, shear

R. J. Hartley; J. P. Sunne; D. R. Chrisope

1990-01-01

368

Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of

Margaret L Russell; Julia Keenliside; Richard Webby; Kevin Fonseca; Pam Singh; Lorraine Moss; Mark Loeb

2009-01-01

369

Transmission and visualization of large geographical maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission and visualization of large geographical maps have become a challenging research issue in GIS applications. This paper presents an efficient and robust way to simplify large geographical maps using frame buffers and Voronoi diagrams. The topological relationships are kept during the simplification by removing the Voronoi diagram's self-overlapped regions. With the simplified vector maps, we establish different levels of detail (LOD) models of these maps. Then we introduce a client/server architecture which integrates our out-of-core algorithm, progressive transmission and rendering scheme based on computer graphics hardware. The architecture allows the viewers to view different regions interactively at different LODs on the network. Experimental results show that our proposed scheme provides an effective way for powerful transmission and manipulation of large maps.

Zhang, Liqiang; Zhang, Liang; Ren, Yingchao; Guo, Zhifeng

370

Astrocytes Optimize the Synaptic Transmission of Information  

PubMed Central

Chemical synapses transmit information via the release of neurotransmitter-filled vesicles from the presynaptic terminal. Using computational modeling, we predict that the limited availability of neurotransmitter resources in combination with the spontaneous release of vesicles limits the maximum degree of enhancement of synaptic transmission. This gives rise to an optimal tuning that depends on the number of active zones. There is strong experimental evidence that astrocytes that enwrap synapses can modulate the probabilities of vesicle release through bidirectional signaling and hence regulate synaptic transmission. For low-fidelity hippocampal synapses, which typically have only one or two active zones, the predicted optimal values lie close to those determined by experimentally measured astrocytic feedback, suggesting that astrocytes optimize synaptic transmission of information.

Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter; Levine, Herbert

2008-01-01

371

Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

2013-03-01

372

Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor  

DOEpatents

A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

2011-05-24

373

Technique and test of packet transmission network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the rapid development of telecommunication service, the broadband amalgamation of full service is becoming the main theme in the development of communication industry. The Packet Transmission Network adopts the technique of T-MPLS to meet next generation's demand on high speed, various services and high quality. Firstly, Requirements of PTN (Packet Transmission Network)are analyzed. Then, by deep analysis the key technology of PTN on MAN. At the same time, PTN technologies have been applied in multi-service's adaptation and transmission which are carried out by communication each other of MSTP and PTN, T-MPLS and IP/MPLS, PBT and IP/MPLS. At last, test of PTN are analyzed in detail. Test results of PTN show that PTN can replace core router to provide highly-efficient packet forward service in core network.

Feng, Xiancheng; Duan, Wenxiao; Luo, Fan

2011-11-01

374

Analog data transmission via fiber optics  

SciTech Connect

In the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD), as in most high-energy particle detectors, the electromagnetic noise environment is the limiting factor in electronic readout performance. Front-end electronics are particulary susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and great care has been taken to minimize its effects. The transfer of preprocessed analog signals from the detector environs, to the remote digital processing electronics, by conventional means (via metal conductors), may ultimately limit the performance of the system. Because it is highly impervious to EMI and ground loops, a fiber-optic medium has been chosen for the transmission of these signals. This paper describes several fiber-optic transmission schemes which satisfy the requirements of the SLD analog data transmission.

Cisneros, E.L.; Burgueno, G.F.

1986-10-01

375

Attenuation of terahertz transmission through rain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Marshall-Palmer, Weibull raindrop size distribution and Mie electromagnetic scattering model, the relationships of attenuation coefficient of terahertz (THz) atmospheric window waves with precipitation rate and temperature are studied. Furthermore, combined with the loss of electromagnetic wave transmission in free space, the attenuation of THz communication and the transmission of current mobile communication signals through rain are compared and analyzed. The results show that the attenuation coefficient of THz transmission is increased with increasing precipitation rate, the difference of attenuation coefficient at different THz window waves is small, and the maximum difference is about 3 dB. The rain attenuation of THz wave is first decreased and then increased with increasing temperature, but the temperature has little effect on it. The attenuation of THz wave through rain is much larger than that of mobile communication signal.

Luo, Yi; Huang, Wan-xia; Luo, Zi-yi

2012-07-01

376

High-transmission electrowetting light valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-efficiency spatial light modulation has been demonstrated for transmissive electrowetting (EW) light valves (ELVs). The ELV structure consists of a competitive oil/water-on-dielectric EW cell fabricated on an optically transparent substrate. ELVs are configured as display devices by attaching a diffuse backlight powered by white converted InGaN light emitting diodes. The oil film contains ~1wt. % nonpolar organic chromophores which absorb with near-neutral optical density across the visible light spectrum. Using the EW effect, spatial light modulation is achieved as the water layer locally displaces the oil film. The transmissivity of the cell can be modulated from ~5% (zero bias) to >80% (~30 V). ELV switching speed depends on cell size, typically ~10-100 ms for 1 and 3 mm2 cells. Additional optical enhancement can decrease the off-state ELV transmissivity to <1%.

Heikenfeld, J.; Steckl, A. J.

2005-04-01

377

Input Pulse Response in Nonlinear Transmission Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear transmission lines have been demonstrated to be an effective technique for generating high power ultrawideband or mesoband radiation without the need for a vacuum system, electron beam, or magnet. Experiments have been performed at UM on a discrete element nonlinear transmission line that uses ferrite inductors as the nonlinear element. Pulse sharpening of multi-kA input pulses has been observed in addition to the generation of oscillations at the characteristic LC frequency. The response to various input pulses to excite a single inductor on a single stage of the nonlinear transmission line, which may consist of a linear capacitor and a nonlinear inductor, will be modeled. Also studied is the pulse response to a nonlinear telegraphic equation. Results of these modeling efforts as well as experimental results performed at UM will be presented.

Rittersdorf, Ian M.; French, David M.; Johnson, Michael; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Shiffler, Donald; Hoff, Brad; Luginsland, John

2010-11-01

378

Noise transmission through nonlinear sandwich panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical study is presented to predict the noise transmission through nonlinear double wall sandwich panel systems subject to random loading. Viscoelastic and nonlinear spring dash-pot models are chosen to characterize the behavior of the core. The noise transmission through this panel system is determined into an acoustic enclosure of which the interiors are covered with porous absorption materials. The absorbent boundary conditions of the enclosure are accounted for by a two-step transformation of the boundary effect into a wave equation which governs the acoustic pressure field. The nonlinear panel response and interior acoustic pressure are obtained by utilizing modal analyses and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Numerical results include the nonlinear response time histories and noise reduction. It is found that by proper selection of the dynamic parameters and damping characteristics, the noise transmission can be significantly reduced by the double wall sandwich construction.

Vaicaitis, R.; Hong, H.-K.

1983-04-01

379

Solar light transmission of polymer optical fibers  

SciTech Connect

Light transfer (10 m) has been shown in recent experiments that used large-core optical fibers. Theoretical models are not extensive, however, and a further correlation between the theory and experiments has not been given. In this paper, straight and bent fiber subsystem models are introduced with skew and meridional rays to predict the light transmission of POFs (plastic optical fibers). Such fibers have been realized, for example, in HSL (hybrid solar lighting) systems. The purpose of this paper is to combine the straight and bent fiber subsystems to estimate the light transmission of HSL systems. It is shown that meridional rays, for which the optical-loss parameters were estimated, better represent the experimental results compared to skew rays ({+-}5.3% vs {+-}24.7% of %-difference). Model predictions were compared with the results of a commercial software. Sensitivity analysis on the subsystems indicated the most-to-least significant parameters in light transmission. (author)

Tekelioglu, Murat [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Wood, Byard D. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322 (United States)

2009-11-15

380

Generic architecture for live video transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibilities for video transmission via the Internet have improved a great deal over the last 2 years. The state of the art in this field is Streaming Video which allows video data to be transmitted via the network in real time and simultaneously displayed. Streaming Video technology is being developed continuously. Our examinations of this technology have shown that special protocols are preferable for real time applications. Technologies such as Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) in particular can make a significant contribution to the Quality of Service provided during video transmission by enabling bandwidth reservation. This paper analyzes specific requirements for video-on-demand and those for live transmission. Based on the resulting ideal properties, we propose a generic architecture for a live video server which can be flexibly adapted to various transfer protocols.

Manhart, Sonia; Kampa, Andreas

1998-09-01

381

Millimeter-wave nonlinear transmission line tripler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTLs) provide a nonlinear, dispersive medium for soliton propagation. Taking advantage of the soliton propagation effects, electrical impulse compression and harmonic generation can be achieved in NLTL circuits. In this paper, characteristics of solitons propagating along NLTLs have been investigated and simulated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. Unique nonlinear interactions among solitons propagating along nonlinear transmission lines are observed in our model. A novel NLTL millimeter-wave tripler has been developed which is realized by periodically loading back-to-back diodes in a high-impedance transmission line. Our simulation results show that this NLTL tripler has higher conversion efficiency than conventional NLTL triplers.

Wang, Xudong; Ren, Jishi; Hwu, R. J.

1998-11-01

382

Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors  

DOEpatents

A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

Nambu, Shigeo (Fuchu, JP)

1985-01-01

383

Manipulating chiral transmission by gate geometry: switching in graphene with transmission gaps.  

PubMed

We explore the chiral transmission of electrons across graphene heterojunctions for electronic switching using gate geometry alone. A sequence of gates is used to collimate and orthogonalize the chiral transmission lobes across multiple junctions, resulting in negligible overall current. The resistance of the device is enhanced by several orders of magnitude by biasing the gates into the bipolar npn doping regime, even as the ON state in the homogeneous nnn regime remains highly conductive. The mobility is preserved because the switching involves the suppression of transmission over a range of energy (transmission gap) instead of a structural band gap that would reduce the number of available channels of conduction. Under a different biasing scheme (npn to npp), this transmission gap can be made highly gate tunable, allowing a subthermal turn-on that beats the Landauer bound on switching energy, limiting present-day digital electronics. PMID:24127633

Sajjad, Redwan N; Ghosh, Avik W

2013-11-26

384

NWCC Transmission Case Study Conclusions Summary  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The NWCC Transmission Case Studies Conclusions Summary In the spring of 1999, the Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG), with the cooperation of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a forum on transmission issues associated with the production of energy from wind. As a result of this forum, a number of issues were identified which, if successfully resolved, could help reduce barriers to the future expansion of wind power. The NWCC, being a multi-stakeholder group, was in an ideal position to conduct follow-up activities among a cross-section of the interested parties. The follow-up activities took the form of three case studies in the areas of interest identified by forum participants: (1) Transmission policy and pricing; (2) ''Virtual wheeling'' arrangements; and, (3) Transmission system improvements. The case studies provide an interesting snapshot in time dealing with a range of issues associated with scheduled or planned regulatory and restructuring proceedings related to energy transmission. The NWCC Transmission Subcommittee and the UWIG reviewed early drafts of the case studies in November 1999. The case studies were conducted through a questionnaire and interview process with interested parties. In writing each case study, NWCC staff attempted to identify all stakeholder groups with an interest in each topic and solicit their input. While all parties do not agree on every issue presented, a serious effort has been made to present all views in an unbiased fashion. At the end of each case study, relevant conclusions are drawn and recommendations for next steps are provided where appropriate.

Steve Wiese, Terry Allison

2000-09-01

385

New Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Designed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prime source of vibration and noise in a gear system is the transmission error between the meshing gears. Transmission error is caused by manufacturing inaccuracy, mounting errors, and elastic deflections under load. Gear designers often attempt to compensate for transmission error by modifying gear teeth. This is done traditionally by a rough "rule of thumb" or more recently under the guidance of an analytical code. In order for a designer to have confidence in a code, the code must be validated through experiment. NASA Glenn Research Center contracted with the Design Unit of the University of Newcastle in England for a system to measure the transmission error of spur and helical test gears in the NASA Gear Noise Rig. The new system measures transmission error optically by means of light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. A photodetector circuit converts the light to an analog electrical signal. To increase accuracy and reduce "noise" due to transverse vibration, there are parallel light paths at the top and bottom of the gears. The two signals are subtracted via differential amplifiers in the electronics package. The output of the system is 40 mV/mm, giving a resolution in the time domain of better than 0.1 mm, and discrimination in the frequency domain of better than 0.01 mm. The new system will be used to validate gear analytical codes and to investigate mechanisms that produce vibration and noise in parallel axis gears.

Oswald, Fred B.

2001-01-01

386

Transmission of slow highly charged ions through rectangular nanocapillaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmission of slow highly charged ions through rectangular nanocapillaries in phlogopite mica is studied. The transmission profiles have rhombic pattern at tilt angles within the geometrical opening angle of the capillaries. The time evolution of ion transmission reveals certain features contributing to the tailored transmission profiles.

Akram, N.; Zhang, H. Q.; Soroka, I. L.; Trautmann, C.; Schuch, R.

2014-04-01

387

Optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays in ultrathin metal films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to thick opaque metal films, where an extraordinary high transmission of light is observed through subwavelength hole arrays, in ultrathin metal films perforation can lead to a suppressed or an enhanced transmission. Here we systematically investigate the optical transmission through semitransparent Au films structured with square arrays of subwavelength holes experimentally and theoretically. We measure the transmission at various

Julia Braun; Bruno Gompf; Thomas Weiss; Harald Giessen; Martin Dressel; Uwe Hübner

2011-01-01

388

Environmental Assessment of Bonneville Power Administration 1983 Transmission Rate Proposal.  

SciTech Connect

Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to increase its transmission rates effective November 1, 1983, in order to assure that it complies with the Bonneville Project Act and Federal Columbia River Transmission System (Transmission System) Act. This Environmental Assessment has been prepared by BPA to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the proposed transmission rate increases. 3 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1983-08-01

389

Transmission Range Control in Multihop Packet Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for analyzing the performance of transmission strategies in a multihop packet radio network where each station has adjustable transmission radius. A larger transmission radius will increase the probability of finding a receiver in the desired direction and contribute bigger progress if the transmission is successful, but it also has a higher probability of collision with

Ting-Chao Hou; Victor Li

1986-01-01

390

Evaluation of transmission network capacity use for wheeling transactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the principles and the implementation of a methodology to evaluate the transmission network capacity use for firm transmission services including wheeling transactions. In this methodology, transmission network capacity use of a transaction is a function of the magnitude of electric power, the length of the transmission lines, and the type of facility involved in the transaction. This

D. Shirmohammadi; P. R. Gribik; E. T. K. Law; J. H. Malinowski; R. E. O'Donnell

1989-01-01

391

Formulating automatic transmission fluids with improved low temperature fluidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the driving force for reducing the low-temperature viscosity of automatic transmission fluids which is improving low temperature transmission operability. The need for this change in fluid performance can be attributed to the evolution from hydraulic control of transmissions to electronic control. This requirement for automatic transmission fluids of improved low temperature fluidity causes a shift in

R. F. Watts; J. P. Szykowski

1990-01-01

392

Asymmetric transmission through metallic grating with dielectric substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the phenomenon of asymmetric TM light transmissions through metallic grating with dielectric substrate, which depends on neither magneto-optical nor nonlinear materials. Numerical evidence shows that the asymmetry in total transmissions is induced by first-order transmissions, while the zero-order transmissions keep symmetric. With optimized parameters, the asymmetry can be as high as 0.4279.

Zhu, Haibin; Li, Feng; Tang, Bin; Zang, Xiaofei; Jiang, Chun

2014-05-01

393

Counter electrodes in transmissive electrochromic light modulators  

SciTech Connect

Transmissive electrochromic light modulators require two electrodes to be in the light path, a primary electrochromic material and a charge-balancing counter electrode (CE). Two insertion-type CEs are reviewed, IrO{sub 2}, for operation in protic environments, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} for operation in non-aqueous, Li-based electrolytes. Both undergo anodic coloration processes which complement the blue cathodic coloration of WO{sub 3}. Reversible and deep visible light transmission modulation has been demonstrated for WO{sub 3}/IrO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5} series combinations.

Rauh, R.D.; Cogan, S.F. (EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States))

1988-01-01

394

Projected US transmission lines, 1987--1997  

SciTech Connect

An annually published survey of transmission line projects currently planned or under construction in the US. Design, cost, ownership, location and operating information are provided for lines that are scheduled to enter service within the next 10 years. The current edition of this report covers the years 1987--1997 and includes lines 138 kV or larger in size. Nearly 300 transmission projects in 42 states are included. Subscribers to the UDI Utility Data Base receive two complimentary copies of this report.

Not Available

1987-01-01

395

Optical rotors - Lightwave transmission across rotating interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of optical rotors, which provide for transmission of photonic signatures across a rotating interface, in lightwave transmission systems is examined. The advantages and applications of optical rotors are discussed. The basic operating principles of an optical rotor, which is based on a graded-index lens, are described, and a diagram of the lens is provided. Consideration is given to the fabrication of dual-fiber, multifiber, and single-mode optical rotors. The performances of these optical rotors are evaluated in terms of means insertion loss, crosstalk, and rotational variation. Diagrams of multifiber, dual-fiber, and single-mode optical rotors are presented.

Shi, Y. C.; Klafter, Leon; Bradley, James F.; Lynch, John F.

1987-04-01

396

Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

Keller, Lindsay P.

1995-01-01

397

Congenital transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This article presents a case of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in a Peruvian infant. His mother was diagnosed with disseminated TB, and treatment commenced 11 days postpartum. The infant was diagnosed with TB after 40 days and died at 2 months and 2 days of age. Congenital transmission of TB to the infant was suspected, because direct postpartum transmission was considered unlikely; also, thorough screening of contacts for TB was negative. Spoligotyping confirmed that both mother and baby were infected with identical strains of the Beijing family (SIT1). PMID:24821847

Espiritu, Nora; Aguirre, Lino; Jave, Oswaldo; Sanchez, Luis; Kirwan, Daniela E; Gilman, Robert H

2014-07-01

398

Exactly controllable transmission of nonautonomous optical solitons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate nonautonomous optical soliton dynamics accurately governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with varying fiber loss and/or Raman gain. Based on the Painlevé analysis a Painlevé integrability condition of this equation, which means a balance between the dispersion, nonlinearity, and the fiber loss and/or gain, has been obtained. Under this condition the optical soliton transmission in fibers can be exactly controlled by proper dispersion and nonlinearity managements and the Raman gain. The existing experiments confirm the validity of our result, which provides a general guidance to design a fiber in information transmission using optical solitons.

Luo, Hong-Gang; Zhao, Dun; He, Xu-Gang

2009-06-01

399

Neutral line protection system for HVDC transmission  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the principle of fault detection and its simulator study, principal circuitry, field test results and field performance records on the neutral line protection system for an HVDC transmission system. In the protection system, 125 Hz AC current injected to the neutral line is utilized as a pilot current to detect the neutral line faults. The pilot current injection is made through the neutral line surge capacitor without detracting its capability. Combined with a metallic return protecting breaker, this protection system has demonstrated a satisfactory performance on the grounding fault clearance without interrupting the power transmission.

Kato, Y.; Watanaba, A.; Konishi, H.; Kawai, T.; Inoue, Y.; Irokawa, H.

1986-07-01

400

A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts  

PubMed Central

The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners.

Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

2010-01-01

401

Microwave transmission system for space power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wavelength microwaves.

Dickinson, R. M.

1976-01-01

402

Fault-tolerant almost exact state transmission  

PubMed Central

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault-tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose an experimental implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices.

Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Lian-Ao; Modugno, Michele; Yao, Wang; Shao, Bin

2013-01-01

403

EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

2012-04-01

404

Prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies): a review.  

PubMed

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or "mad cow disease", as well as Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Disease in humans, have recently been attracting public attention. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) has issued guidelines on the topic (Endoscopy 1997; 29: 203-4), which were accompanied by a review article by T. Ponchon ("Transmission of hepatitis C and prion diseases through digestive endoscopy: evaluation of risk and recommended practices", Endoscopy 1997; 29: 199-202) dealing with the potential transmission of BSE and hepatitis C through gastrointestinal endoscopy. The following article on prion diseases in general provides a more in-depth overview of these disorders and their epidemiology and pathophysiology. PMID:9342575

Hansen, N J

1997-08-01

405

Potential of laser for SPS power transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

Bain, C. N.

1978-01-01

406

Impact analysis of electrical transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

The impact of electric transmission lines on the well-being and peace of mind of people living and working near or under them is investigated. Considered are: induced charges on wire fences/ shocks from farm machinery/ ill effects on behavior, growth, and reproduction of cattle/ interference with radio and television reception/ interference with the operation of electronic farm equipment and machinery/ storm damage/ and toxic effects of ozone production. Whether justifiable or not, the existence of electric transmission lines affects the marketability of property. (1 graph, 2 tables)

Kellough, W.R.

1980-12-01

407

Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

2013-01-01

408

Modeling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation with Tapered Transmission Line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tapered transmission line was used for impedance matching, for high voltage pulse, and atmospheric medium is applied to characteristic equation of tapered transmission line and reflection coefficient so that nonlinear load and circuit modeling of atmospheric medium was simulated by electromagnetic transient program (EMTP). A characteristic of atmospheric medium and Time delay are decided by inductance and capacitance of tapered transmission line. For electromagnetic wave propagation modeling, in this paper, tapered transmission line is implemented. It is difficult to model tapered transmission line directly. Other transmission line that can be expressed by the circuit is used. So object of this paper is efficient modeling of tapered transmission line.

Lee, Kun-A; Ko, Kwang-Cheol

2012-09-01

409

Transmission overhaul estimates for partial and full replacement at repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Timely transmission overhauls increase in-flight service reliability greater than the calculated design reliabilities of the individual aircraft transmission components. Although necessary for aircraft safety, transmission overhauls contribute significantly to aircraft expense. Predictions of a transmission's maintenance needs at the design stage should enable the development of more cost effective and reliable transmissions in the future. The frequency is estimated of overhaul along with the number of transmissions or components needed to support the overhaul schedule. Two methods based on the two parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life are used to estimate the time between transmission overhauls. These methods predict transmission lives for maintenance schedules which repair the transmission with a complete system replacement or repair only failed components of the transmission. An example illustrates the methods.

Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

1991-01-01

410

Planet position errors in planetary transmission: Effect on load sharing and transmission error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an advanced model of spur gear transmissions developed by the authors is used to study the influence of carrier planet pin hole position errors on the behaviour of the transmission. The model, initially conceived for external gear modeling, has been extended with internal meshing features, and thus increasing its capabilities to include planetary transmission modeling. The new features are presented, along with the summary of the model general approach. The parameters and characteristics of the planetary transmission used in the paper are introduced. The influence of carrier planet pin hole position errors on the planet load sharing is studied, and several static cases are given as examples in order to show the ability of the model. Tangential and radial planet pin hole position errors are considered independently, and the effect of the load level is also taken into account. It is also given attention to the effect on the transmission error of the transmission. Two different configurations for the planetary transmission are used, attending to the fixed or floating condition of the sun, and the differences in terms of load sharing ratio are shown.

Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana; Sancibrián, Ramón; García, Pablo

2013-03-01

411

Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission  

PubMed Central

While there has been great progress in treating HIV-1 infection1, preventing transmission has thus far proven an elusive goal. Indeed, recent trials of a candidate vaccine and microbicide have been disappointing, both for want of efficacy and concerns about increased rates of transmission2–4. Nonetheless, studies of vaginal transmission in the SIV-rhesus macaque model point to opportunities in the earliest stages of infection where a vaccine or microbicide might be protective, by limiting the expansion of infected founder populations at the portal of entry5, 6. Here we show in this SIV-macaque model, that an outside-in endocervical mucosal signalling system, involving MIP-3?, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and CCR5+cell-attracting chemokines produced by these cells, in combination with the innate immune and inflammatory responses to infection in both cervix and vagina, recruit CD4+T cells to fuel this obligate expansion. We then show that glycerol monolaurate, a widely used antimicrobial compound 7 with inhibitory activity against production of MIP-3? and other proinflammatory cytokines8, can inhibit mucosal signalling and the innate and inflammatory response to HIV-1 and SIV in vitro, and in vivo can protect rhesus macaques from acute infection despite repeated intra-vaginal exposure to high doses of SIV. This novel approach, plausibly linked to interfering with innate host responses that recruit the target cells necessary to establish systemic infection, opens a promising new avenue for development of effective interventions to block HIV-1 mucosal transmission.

Li, Qingsheng; Estes, Jacob D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Duan, Lijie; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Southern, Peter J.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Brunner, Kevin G.; Nephew, Karla R.; Pambuccian, Stefan; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

2009-01-01

412

Accelerated Monotonic Algorithms for Transmission Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for designing fast and mono- tonic algorithms for transmission tomography penalized- likelihood image reconstruction. The new algorithms are based on paraboloidal surrogate functions for the log- likelihood. Due to the form of the log-likelihood func- tion, it is possible to find low curvature surrogate func- tions that guarantee monotonicity. Unlike previous meth- ods, the proposed surrogate

Hakan Erdogan; Jeffrey A. Fessler

1998-01-01

413

Fast Monotonic Algorithms for Transmission Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for designing fast and monotonic algorithms for transmission tomography penalized- likelihood image reconstruction. The new algorithms are based on paraboloidal surrogate functions for the log likelihood. Due to the form of the log-likelihood function it is possible to find low curvature surrogate functions that guarantee monotonicity. Unlike previous methods, the proposed surrogate functions lead to monotonic

Hakan Erdogan; Jeffrey A. Fessler

1999-01-01

414

Reflection and transmission for conformal defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their properties are investigated and they are computed in a number of examples. We obtain a

Thomas Quella; Ingo Runkel; Gérard M. T. Watts

2007-01-01

415

Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

1990-01-01

416

Bird streamer flashovers on FPL transmission lines  

SciTech Connect

FPL transmission lines with excessive unknown cause outages were investigated and determined to have experiences bird streamer flashovers. Findings are extended to similar lines and the frequency of bird streamer occurrences are estimated. Outage patterns associated with bird streamer flashovers are presented.

Burnham, J.T. [Florida Power and Light, Juno Beach, FL (United States). Transmission Line Dept.] [Florida Power and Light, Juno Beach, FL (United States). Transmission Line Dept.

1995-04-01

417

The Albedo effect on neutron transmission probability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to evaluate the albedo effect on the neutron transmission probability through slab shields. For this reason we have considered an infinite homogeneous slab having a fixed thickness equal to 20 ? (? is the mean free path of the neutron in the slab). This slab is characterized by the factor Ps (scattering probability) and

A. Khanouchi; A. Sabir; M. Boulkheir; R. Ichaoui; J. Ghassoun; A. Jehouani

1997-01-01

418

A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We

Monika Bright; Silvia Bulgheresi

2010-01-01

419

Impulse noise correction in TV transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a real-time digital image processing approach for correcting the impulse noise impairment in television transmission. The described algorithm identifies the pixels impaired with impulse noise and subsequently corrects them. A real-time processing board is constructed to demonstrate the algorithm

Qin Zhang; Rabab K. Ward; Julong Du

1995-01-01

420

LANDSAT D data transmission and dissemination study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the quantity of data processed by the system is discussed investigating the various methods for transmission within the system. Various methods of data storage are considered. It is concluded that the entire processing system should be located in White Sands, New Mexico.

1976-01-01

421

Modeling a Harmonic Drive Gear Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to capture the dynamic behavior of harmonic drives, dynamic models must include accurate representations of transmission friction, compliance, and kinematic error. Experimental observations are used to guide the development of a model to describe harmonic-drive operation. This model is able to replicate many of the features observed in actual harmonic-drive dynamic response. Valuable insights are gained about the

Timothy D. Tuttle; Warren P. Seering

1993-01-01

422

Effect of temperature on optical fiber transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented concerning the effects of temperature on the transmission properties of various optical fibers including a silicone plastic clad, an acrylic plastic clad, and CVD step-index fibers both with and without polyurethane jackets. Results are presented for the normalized transmitted power vs temperature, the index of refraction vs temperature, and induced attenuation coefficients vs temperature. The data show

W. F. Yeung; A. R. Johnston

1978-01-01

423

Beaver Creek to Wray, Colorado, Transmission Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed transmission line will have only a small impact on the environment, primarily during construction and will be only a minor intrusion on the landscape in an area that is mostly inaccessible to the general public. The small disturbance during c...

1971-01-01

424

Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

1993-01-01

425

Coalition formation in transmission expansion planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of a decentralized coalition formation scheme in a specific power systems transmission expansion scenario is the purpose of this paper. The authors define first who are the agents in the expansion game and provide a decentralized coalition scheme based on bilateral Shapley values. Finally, they allocate the total costs of expansion amongst the agents, based on the coalition

Javier Contreras; Felix F. Wu

1999-01-01

426

Gear-change apparatus for vehicle transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a gear-change apparatus for a vehicular transmission having forward gear trains each established through an associated synchronizing mechanism, and a reverse gear train established by axial movement on a shaft of a reverse idler gear, an improvement comprising: a cam mechanism having a first cam fixed in place on a reverse shift fork for shifting the reverse

H. Kuratsu; Y. Yoshimura; N. Sekine; Y. Kima

1988-01-01

427

Mechanical Transmission of Hop Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOP MOSAIC VIRUS (HMV), the cause of a severe disease of the Golding hop varieties, was shown by Paine1 to be transmitted by the winged form of the damson-hopaphid, Phorodon humuli Schr., but transmission by sap extracts has not been reported. This has been accomplished with both concentrated and crude extracts of leaves from plants of sensitive and tolerant hop

J. T. Legg

1965-01-01

428

Supervisory control of electric power transmission networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology of discrete event systems (DESs) and supervisory control is applied to a power transmission line restoration problem, aiming to increase the steady-state security level of a power network during restoration. An example using the IEEE 14-bus system serves to demonstrate the potential of the DES formulation in the control of power networks, and to introduce the basic tools

J. Prosser; J. Selinsky; Harry Kwatny; M. Kam

1995-01-01

429

Statistical Design of Electric Power Transmission Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents a statistical planning method for expanding electric power transmission networks in the presence of load\\/generation and network uncertainties. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to obtain a set of alternative network expansion plans which have optimum reliability and expansion cost. Present methods optimize the existing network based on a deterministic performance index. Therefore, they are limited

Albert Guvenis

1983-01-01

430

Isolation of an electrical power transmission well  

Microsoft Academic Search

In processes using electrical power to apply heat to a subsurface formation through a transmission well, power losses are reduced by installing in flowlines leading to the well one or more devices that electrically disrupts the flowline and that creates a tortuous flow path for liquids flowing through the device. The parts of the device contacting liquids are either fabricated

Perkins

1985-01-01

431

Structural Analysis for Electric Power Transmission Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric power transmission industry is facing numerous changes in the ways in which traditional structures are being designed. De-regulation, and subsequent re- regulation, has resulted in increased oversight of the design process. Concurrently, budget reductions have led to staff reductions, often achieved through retirements and promotions. Thus, there is now increased reliance upon computer software for the performance-based design

William F. Cofer

432

Well completion for electrical power transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is provided a well completion for electrical alternating current power transmission that minimizes power losses and related corrosion problems. Casing is used both as the electrode and conductor. Most of the conductor portion is made of nonmagnetic metal, for example aluminum, and is electrically insulated both exteriorly and interiorly. The insulation extends below the point where the nonmagnetic metal

Perkins

1984-01-01

433

Regulation of an Electric Power Transmission Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing regulatory contracts for the operators of power transmission networks has become a critical policy issue in the United States. In this paper, a regulatory contract is proposed that induces network operators to optimally expand the grid, which is crucial for the emergence of efficient wholesale power markets, while also satisfying the other traditional regulatory objectives. The proposed mechanism is

Thomas-Olivier Leautier

2000-01-01

434

Blackouts in electric power transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an analysis of blackouts in electric power transmission systems is implemented and studied in simple networks with a regular structure. The proposed model describes load demand and network improvements evolving on a slow timescale as well as the fast dynamics of cascading overloads and outages. The model dynamics are demonstrated on the simple power system networks.

KARAMITSOS IOANNIS; ORFANIDIS KONSTANTINOS

2006-01-01

435

Visualization of an electric power transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization techniques are applied to an electric power system transmission network to create a graphical picture of network power flows and voltages. A geographic data map is used. Apparent power flow is encoded as the width of an arrow, with direction from real power flow. Flows are superposed on flow limits. Contour plots and color coding failed for representing bus

P. M. Mahadev; R. D. Christie

1994-01-01

436

Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, Louisiana  

PubMed Central

Autochthonous transmission of the Chagas disease parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, was detected in a patient in rural New Orleans, Louisiana. The patient had positive test results from 2 serologic tests and hemoculture. Fifty-six percent of 18 Triatoma sanguisuga collected from the house of the patient were positive for T. cruzi by PCR.

Perniciaro, Leon; Yabsley, Michael J.; Roellig, Dawn M.; Balsamo, Gary; Diaz, James; Wesson, Dawn

2007-01-01

437

Corporate Finance and the Monetary Transmission Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the transmission effects of monetary policy in a general equilibrium model of the financial sector, with bank lending and securities markets. Bank lending is constrained by capital adequacy requirements, and asymmetric information adds a cost to outside bank equity capital. In our model, monetary policy does not affect bank lending through changes in bank liquidity; rather, it operates

Patrick Bolton; Xavier Freixas

2005-01-01

438

Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document  

SciTech Connect

Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

1994-01-01

439

Intrinsic modulators of auditory thalamocortical transmission  

PubMed Central

Neurons in layer 4 of the primary auditory cortex receive convergent glutamatergic inputs from thalamic and cortical projections that activate different groups of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Of particular interest in layer 4 neurons are the Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which hyperpolarize neurons postsynaptically via the downstream opening of GIRK channels. This pronounced effect on membrane conductance could influence the neuronal processing of synaptic inputs, such as those from the thalamus, essentially modulating information flow through the thalamocortical pathway. To examine how Group II mGluRs affect thalamocortical transmission, we used an in vitro slice preparation of the auditory thalamocortical pathways in the mouse to examine synaptic transmission under conditions where Group II mGluRs were activated. We found that both pre- and post-synaptic Group II mGluRs are involved in the attenuation of thalamocortical EPSP/Cs. Thus, thalamocortical synaptic transmission is suppressed via the presynaptic reduction of thalamocortical neurotransmitter release and the postsynaptic inhibition of the layer 4 thalamorecipient neurons. This could enable the thalamocortical pathway to autoregulate transmission, via either a gating or gain control mechanism, or both.

Lee, Charles C.; Sherman, S. Murray

2012-01-01

440

Tx-200-6 Hydrokinetic Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From a commercial power train the US Army Tank-Automotive Command has developed the automatic TX-200-6 hydrokinetic transmission for use with vehicle engines developing not more than 425 pound-feet of torque. Each quadrant position of forward speeds, manu...

1969-01-01

441

Energetic Transmission Line Completion/Interruption Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control mechanism is provided for coupling/interrupting two transmission leads. A first cam configured for spring-loaded rotation in a direction of rotation is positioned between the two leads. A lead coupler attached to the first cam couples the two le...

M. J. Sanford

1998-01-01

442

Transmission Company at the Cross-Roads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation discusses the role of the gas transmission companies. Gas pipelines are usually tailor-made for a specified gas flow and a specified point of delivery and cannot be used cost-effectively for other purposes. This means that producer and i...

C. Heinrich

1998-01-01

443

Transmission techniques for digital terrestrial TV broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the potential of OFDM signaling, with its limitations and inherent problems, as well as another potential technique that has so far been overlooked: single-carrier transmission with frequency-domain equalization. The carrier synchronisation issue is dealt with before the authors introduce coded-OFDM (COFDM), which makes use of channel coding and frequency-domain interleaving

Hikmet Sari; Georges Karam; Isabelle Jeanclaude

1995-01-01

444

Advanced transmission solutions for offshore wind farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future offshore wind farms will have large power ratings and will be situated much further offshore than current projects. The associated costs for grid connection will be high. This paper explores alternative methods of grid connection. By creating synergies with other applications for offshore power transmission, the total costs will be lower. Such synergies include the bundling of multiple wind

W. L. Kling; R. L. Hendriks; J. H. den Boon

2008-01-01

445

Water Transmission Pipelines- An Updated Design Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will discuss the current design practices for the primary water transmission products in the US: steel pipe, concrete pressure pipe and ductile iron pipe. It details a more efficient approach to the design of pipe materials and the preparation of equal alternate specifications. Today's steel, concrete and ductile iron pipe industries utilize the Pressure Class Design approach. The

Richard D. Mielke

446

On the theory of concave transmission grating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focal properties of a concave transmission grating have been investigated. It has been shown that such a grating can be usefully employed for production of spectra particularly when the source of light is at infinity. Expressions for astigmatism of spectral lines and for optimum grating width have been derived.

K. Majumdar; Mahipal Singh

1970-01-01

447

The transgenerational transmission of holocaust trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines an attachment-theory based model of transgenerational trauma inspired by the successful psychoanalytic treatment of a severely disturbed adolescent with obsessive-compulsive disorder who was the first child of the first daughter of a holocaust survivor. It is proposed that the transmission of specific traumatic ideas across generations may be mediated by a vulnerability to dissociative states established in

Peter Fonagy

1999-01-01

448

Optical fiber multiplexed image transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fiber multiplexed image transmission system can be used in dangerous and low accessible environments, such as in nuclear or high explosion risk environments because the optical fiber cable is insensitive to the electromagnetic disturbances and, when an appropriate optical fiber is used, it withstands the gamma radiation. The system has the capability to simultaneously transmit, by using the

Sorin Miclos; Tudor Zisu; Bogdan Robea

1998-01-01

449

Automatic Height Transmission is One Step Closer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of automatic height transmission, the essential ¿third dimension¿ for use in the control of aircraft, has been brought closer by action taken recently at the Seventh Session of the International Civil Aviation Organization. The Session recommended adoption of technical standards that will: 1) update and improve the existing international standards for SSR, better known in the U. S. as

P. DeForrest McKeel

1962-01-01

450

Simulated axial transmission propagation on cortical bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic axial transmission technique, used to assess cortical shells of long bones, is investigated using numerical simulations. The 3-D finite difference code generates synthetic signals recorded at different distance emitter-receiver for a linear arrangement of transducers placed along the bone axis. Academic modeling of bone based on cylindrical tubular shape made of anisotropic and porous material has been reported

M. Talmant; E. Bossy; P. Laugier

2004-01-01

451

Fast transmission in ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, various fast transmission strategies for sending information from a source s over a large distance to a target t in ad hoc wireless networks where the nodes are distributed as a Poisson process of intensity is presented. The existence of an infinite component, i.e., percolation, is not sufficient for our problem since the proportion of vertices in

Paul Balister; Bela Bollobas; M. Walters

2004-01-01

452

Noise transmission of double wall composite shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes analytical studies of noise transmission of double wall laminated composite cylindrical shells of finite extent. The main objective is to estimate structureborne noise generated by the concentrated random forces. The theoretical solutions of the governing acoustic-structural equations are obtained utilizing modal decomposition. Results indicate that from the viewpoint of noise attenuation the composite shell does not seem

R. Vaicaitis; D. A. Bofilios

1985-01-01

453

Transmission ion chamber: Design and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Transmission Ion Chamber (TIC) was constructed for use at the focal plane of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA). The motivation for the construction of the TIC was to allow energy loss information to be added to the focal plane identification data. Three experiments immediately benefited form this information. First, an astrophysics experiment studying 69Br via the ? decay of

B. Shumard; T. Pennington; D. J. Henderson; D. Seweryniak; K. E. Rehm; C. L. Jiang; C. N. Davids; C. J. Lister; B. J. Zabransky; B. Blank

2005-01-01

454

60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Millimeter-wave transceivers require a local reference frequency for upconversion from baseband to RF for transmission, or downconversion of received RF signals down to baseband. This reference can also be divided down to a lower frequency for use as the ...

A. Niknejad C. Marcu

2008-01-01

455

Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

Siebert, Fred S.

456

Nonlinear transient analysis of coupled transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach for the analysis of transients in coupled transmission lines is presented. The method uses a modal scattering parameter formulation and is applicable to the case of lossy lines and nonlinear terminations. The advantage of this method over other techniques resides in the computational stability, in its flexibility in the choice of a reference system, and in the

J. E. Schutt-Aine; R. Mittra

1989-01-01

457

Optimal transient simulation of transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an attempt to formulate a high-level description of the optimal transmission line simulation method. To formulate the optimal approach, most significant aspects of the problem are identified, and alternative approaches in each of the aspects are analyzed and compared to find the combination that results in the maximum efficiency, accuracy and applicability for the transient analysis of

Dmitri Borisovich Kuznetsov; J. E. Schutt-Aine

1996-01-01

458

HVDC transmission: a path to the future?  

SciTech Connect

Direct current transmission has been the poor stepchild of the U.S. electric industry. Although early-generation plants were based on DC technology, it was soon deemed uneconomical to transmit electricity over long distances, but it now appears poised for a change. Both the increasing technical potential and changing economics of HVDC lines promise a growing role in the future. (author)

Teichler, Stephen L.; Levitine, Ilia

2010-05-15

459

Volatility transmission patterns and terrorist attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to analyse volatility transmission between the US and Eurozone stock markets considering the financial market responses to the September 11, March 11 and July 7 terrorist attacks. In order to do this, we use a multivariate GARCH model and take into account the asymmetric volatility phenomenon, the non-synchronous trading problem and the turmoil periods

Helena Chuliá; Francisco Climent; Pilar Soriano; Hipòlit Torró

2009-01-01

460

Glutamate-mediated transmission, alcohol, and alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate-mediated neurotransmission may be involved in the range of adaptive changes in brain which occur after ethanol administration in laboratory animals, and in chronic alcoholism in human cases. Excitatory amino acid transmission is modulated by a complex system of receptors and other effectors, the efficacy of which can be profoundly affected by altered gene or protein expression. Local variations in

Peter R Dodd; Alison M Beckmann; Marks S Davidson; Peter A Wilce

2000-01-01

461

Hydraulic characteristics in superconducting power transmission cables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic characteristics of sub-cooled nitrogen in superconducting power transmission line have been investigated to design the transmission line. To estimate the friction factor in corrugated pipes, the pressure drop was measured across a 10-m length corrugated pipe for various mass flow rates and compared with that in smooth pipes (Proc. 17th Cryo. Eng. Conf. (1998) 475). Another concern is the cooling method of the transmission line. A usual counter-flow cooling method has been found to be very difficult at liquid nitrogen temperature, because the thermal conductivity of the dielectric materials between the counter-flows at liquid nitrogen temperature are 10 times larger than that at liquid helium temperature. Instead, an externally cooling method was proposed (Proc. 17th Cryo. Eng. Conf. (1998) 475). As the results, the friction factor of outer corrugated jacket within three cables has become an important parameter to design the transmission lines. This friction factor is measured and compared with various formulas in this paper.

Fuchino, S.; Tamada, N.; Ishii, I.; Higuchi, N.

2001-05-01

462

MRSA transmission between cows and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from cows with subclinical mastitis and from a person who worked with these animals. The bovine and human strains were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods and were of a low frequency spa type. To our knowledge, this finding indicates the first documented case of direct transmission of MRSA between cows and humans.

Eva Juhasz-Kaszanyitzky; S. Janosi; P. Somogyi; A. Dan; Graaf-van Bloois van der L; Dulijkeren van E; J. A. Wagenaar

2007-01-01

463

Noise transmission by viscoelastic sandwich panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical study on low frequency noise transmission into rectangular enclosures by viscoelastic sandwich panels is presented. Soft compressible cores with dilatational modes and hard incompressible cores with dilatational modes neglected are considered as limiting cases of core stiffness. It is reported that these panels can effect significant noise reduction.

Vaicaitis, R.

1977-01-01

464

Reducing the risk of tuberculosis transmission.  

PubMed

Hospital workers are understandably concerned about the risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) as they perform their duties, so institutions throughout the United States are developing and implementing procedures to lower the risk of TB transmission in the healthcare setting. The TB infection control plan at University Hospital of Brooklyn is described. PMID:8196891

Allen, G

1994-05-01

465

NASA helicopter transmission system technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.

Zaretsky, E. V.

1983-01-01

466

VCSEL-based parallel optical transmission module  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design process and performance of the optimized parallel optical transmission module. Based on 1×12 VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) array, we designed and fabricated the high speed parallel optical modules. Our parallel optical module contains a 1×12 VCSEL array, a 12 channel CMOS laser driver circuit, a high speed PCB (Printed Circuit Board), a MT

Rongxuan Shen; Hongda Chen; Chao Zuo; Weihua Pei; Yi Zhou; Jun Tang

2005-01-01

467

Vertical transmission of Babesia microti, United States.  

PubMed

Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue. PMID:22840424

Joseph, Julie T; Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Moore, Julie M; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P

2012-08-01

468

Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States  

PubMed Central

Babesiosis is usually acquired from a tick bite or through a blood transfusion. We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies in the heel-stick blood sample and confirmed by detection of Babesia spp. DNA in placenta tissue.

Purtill, Kerry; Wong, Susan J.; Munoz, Jose; Teal, Allen; Madison-Antenucci, Susan; Horowitz, Harold W.; Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E.; Moore, Julie M.; Abramowsky, Carlos; Wormser, Gary P.

2012-01-01

469

Advances of Transmission Line Kicker Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast pulsed magnets or kickers are widely used in circular accelerators for injection, fast extraction and beam excitation. As from the early 60’ s transmission line type kicker magnets have been employed to produce rectangular field pulses with good rise time. Over some 40 years this technology has evolved with the rising requirements. While the necessary kick strength has increased

L. Ducimetiere

2005-01-01

470

Fast direct voltage controller for VSC transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a controller that enables good stability and fast responses of voltage source converter (VSC) transmission. The design is challenging because the uncontrolled system is multivariable having two possible rectifier inputs and many possible rectifier outputs and similar inputs and outputs on the inverter side. It is determined that the fastest possible controller is inverter DC voltage. An

L. A. Lamont; D. Jovcic; K. Abbott

2004-01-01

471

Sharing the Cost of Multicast Transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate cost-sharing algorithms for multicast transmission. Economic considerations point to two distinct mechanisms, marginal cost and Shapley value, as the two solutions most appropriate in this context. We prove that the former has a natural algorithm that uses only two messages per link of the multicast tree, while we give evidence that the latter requires a quadratic total number

Joan Feigenbaum; Christos H. Papadimitriou; Scott Shenker

2001-01-01

472

Transmission Range Effects on AODV Multicast Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

As laptop computers begin to dominate the marketplace, wireless adapters with varying bandwidth and range capabilities are being developed by hardware vendors. To provide multihop communication between these computers, ad hoc mobile networking is receiving increasing research interest. While increasing a node's transmission range allows fewer hops between a source and destination and enhances overall network connectivity, it also increases

Elizabeth M. Belding-royer; Charles E. Perkins

2002-01-01

473

Decoupling the multiconductor transmission line equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive discussion is presented of the method of decoupling the multiconductor transmission line (MTL) equations by the method of transformation of the voltages and currents to mode voltages and currents in order to obtain their general solution. Various ways of defining and obtaining the transformations are shown which serve to connect the myriad of such definitions and also point

Clayton R. Paul

1996-01-01

474

Electrical characterization of textile transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, electrical characterization and modeling of conductive textiles are presented. A dedicated measurement setup has been developed to allow reliable connection of the textile samples with the equipment cables. Geometrical fabric structures and fabrication tolerances as well as high frequency properties up to 6 GHz for four types of textiles have been determined. Transmission lines with controlled characteristic

Didier Cottet; Janusz Grzyb; Tünde Kirstein; Gerhard Tröster

2003-01-01

475

Tunable Nonlinear Transmission Lines with switched varactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear Transmission Lines (NLTLs) have been used in many applications for waveform shaping and impedance engineering. To minimize insertion loss and jitter, adaptive impedance is desirable. Here we propose to use switched varactors on NLTL to achieve impedance-tuning. We present an analytical model to examine the impact of switch parasitics on the performance of the NLTL. We find that for

Fan Yu; K. G. Lyon; E. C. Kan

2009-01-01

476

Study of Monolithic Nonlinear Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the physics of nonlinear phenomena on a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) system and its applications have been investigated. An exact counterpart of the 1-D exponential lattice model, proposed by M. Toda, was built by utilizing microfabrication and MBE techniques. An advantage of the current approach over previous lumped element circuits is that it precisely reproduces the physics of the

Hui Shi

1995-01-01

477

Bird streamer flashovers on FPL transmission lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

FPL transmission lines with excessive unknown cause outages were investigated and determined to have experiences bird streamer flashovers. Findings are extended to similar lines and the frequency of bird streamer occurrences are estimated. Outage patterns associated with bird streamer flashovers are presented.

J. T. Burnham

1995-01-01

478

Stabilizing Fiber-Optic Transmission Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voltage-controlled optical phase shifter is key. Optical phase shifter stabilizes propagation delay of fiber-optic transmission line by compensating for temperature and pressure effects. Applicable to phased array antenna systems and very-long-baseline interferometer distribution systems.

Lutes, G. F.; Lau, K. Y.

1984-01-01

479

Structural Modules Would Contain Transmission Lines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New proposal, originally suggested for Spacecraft, is a set of uniformly sized mass-producible modular structural elements that contain electric, fluid, and other transmission lines. Since lines are encapsulated, they are less likely to be damaged. Module shell could be solid metal, sheet metal, honeycomb, fiberglass, plastic, composites, or wood.

Leavy, W. A.

1982-01-01

480

Secret Communication via Multi-antenna Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a multiple antenna Gaussian broadcast channel, we look for inputs that facilitate secret transmission between authorized communication parties in the presence of passive eavesdroppers. In this work, we assume all channel information is known at the transmitter. For the general multiple antenna system, we find that the problem of optimizing over Gaussian inputs for achievable secrecy rate is not

Zang Li; Wade Trappe; Roy D. Yates

2007-01-01

481

Pulse transmission mode laser. Technical memo  

SciTech Connect

The Pulse Transmission Mode (PTM) laser has been examined as a possible laser for the WRELADS system under development at the Electronic Research Laboratories of DRCS. In particular the PTM laser offers a means of generating the short pulses (5 ns FWHM) required by the system but its output is limited by gain saturation to < 40 millijoule.

See, B.A.

1980-09-01

482

Modelling of an automated manual transmission system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles with automated manual transmissions (AMT) for gear shift control offer many advantages in terms of reduction of fuel consumption and improvement of driving comfort and shifting quality. Complexity, nonlinearity and high-order dynamics of the automated driveline, combined with strict requirements for high performance gear shifts, demand the development of driveline models, which include a detailed description of the actuators.

Gianluca Lucente; Marcello Montanari; Carlo Rossi

2007-01-01

483

Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

Henry, Zachary S.

1995-06-01

484

Global dynamic modeling of a transmission system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work performed on global dynamic simulation and noise correlation of gear transmission systems at the University of Akron is outlined. The objective is to develop a comprehensive procedure to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system coupled with the effects of gear box vibrations. The developed numerical model is benchmarked with results from experimental tests at NASA Lewis Research Center. The modal synthesis approach is used to develop the global transient vibration analysis procedure used in the model. Modal dynamic characteristics of the rotor-gear-bearing system are calculated by the matrix transfer method while those of the gear box are evaluated by the finite element method (NASTRAN). A three-dimensional, axial-lateral coupled bearing model is used to couple the rotor vibrations with the gear box motion. The vibrations between the individual rotor systems are coupled through the nonlinear gear mesh interactions. The global equations of motion are solved in modal coordinates and the transient vibration of the system is evaluated by a variable time-stepping integration scheme. The relationship between housing vibration and resulting noise of the gear transmission system is generated by linear transfer functions using experimental data. A nonlinear relationship of the noise components to the fundamental mesh frequency is developed using the hypercoherence function. The numerically simulated vibrations and predicted noise of the gear transmission system are compared with the experimental results from the gear noise test rig at NASA Lewis Research Center. Results of the comparison indicate that the global dynamic model developed can accurately simulate the dynamics of a gear transmission system.

Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.

1993-01-01

485

Breast milk transmission of HIV-1.  

PubMed

Breast milk provides infants and children immunologic, nutritional, and child spacing benefits. Yet it also transmits some viruses, for example, HIV-1. The World Health Organization recommends that, in conditions with poor access to breast milk substitutes, HIV-positive women should still breast feed due to the nutritional and infectious risk of artificial feeding. It appears that breast fed infants experience a slower progression of AIDS and death. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 may occur during pregnancy, at delivery, or through breast milk. The HIV-1 transmission rate via breast milk from acutely infected women is estimated to be 29-36%. A meta-analysis of case reports and small case series of women with chronic HIV-1 infection indicated a breast feeding transmission rate of 14%. Studies suggest that the likelihood of HIV-1 transmission via breast milk increases as duration of breast feeding increases. Infants with detectable HIV-1 DNA tend to have mothers whose absolute CD4 counts are less than 400 and have severe vitamin A deficiency. Breast milk has HIV-1 specific immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM). It appears that HIV-1 elicits a local immune response. Breast milk of HIV-1 positive mothers with non-infected children tends to still have IgM and IgA until 18 months. Potential risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 include cracked nipples and mastitis in the mother; oral thrush, malnutrition, inflammation of the lips, and mucosal compromise in the infant; and vigorous suction of the neonate and use of the wrong equipment for suctioning. Inhibiting factors of HIV-1 in breast milk are bovine and human lactoferrin and a membrane associated protein that attaches to the CD4 receptor and thus prevents attachment of the HIV antigen gp120 to the CD4 receptor on T-cells. PMID:12290880

Nduati, R; John, G

1995-12-01

486

76 FR 53450 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2011, beginning at 1 p.m. (EDT) and will focus on compliance issues related to Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and Independent System Operators (ISOs). The first informational conference is scheduled to end by 4 p.m. (EDT)....

2011-08-26

487

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

488

La Transmission de l'information dans une ecole (Information Transmission in a School Situation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected portions of a longer paper entitled "Incidence relationnelle et institutionelle de la transmission de l'information dans une ecole," presented at the Institut Superieur de Pedagogie, 1973. (HW)

Versel, Simone

1973-01-01

489

The Cost of Transmission for Wind Energy: A Review of Transmission Planning Studies  

SciTech Connect

The rapid development of wind power that the United States has experienced over the last several years has been coupled with a growing concern that wind development will require substantial additions to the nation's transmission infrastructure. Transmission is particularly important for wind power due to the locational dependence of wind resources, the relatively low capacity factor of wind plants, and the mismatch between the short lead time to build a new wind project and the longer lead time often needed to plan, permit, and construct transmission. It is clear that institutional issues related to transmission planning, siting, and cost allocation will pose major obstacles to accelerated wind power deployment, but also of concern is the potential cost of this infrastructure build out. Simply put, how much extra cost will society bear to deliver wind power to load centers? Without an answer to this question, there can be no consensus on whether or not the cost of developing transmission for wind will be a major barrier to further wind deployment, or whether the institutional barriers to transmission expansion are likely to be of more immediate concern. In this report, we review a sample of 40 detailed transmission studies that have included wind power. These studies cover a broad geographic area, and were completed from 2001-2008. Our primary goal in reviewing these studies is to develop a better understanding of the transmission costs needed to access growing quantities of wind generation. A secondary goal is to gain a better appreciation of the differences in transmission planning approaches in order to identify those methodologies that seem most able to estimate the incremental transmission costs associated with wind development. Finally, we hope that the resulting dataset and discussion might be used to inform the assumptions, methods, and results of higher-level assessment models that are sometimes used to estimate the cost of wind deployment (e.g. NEMS and WinDS). The authors and general location of the 40 detailed transmission studies included in our review are illustrated in Figure ES-1. As discussed in the body of the report, these studies vary considerably in scope, authorship, objectives, methodology, and tools. Though we recognize this diversity and are cognizant that comparisons among these studies are therefore somewhat inappropriate, we nonetheless emphasize such simple comparisons in this report. We do so in order to improve our understanding of the range of transmission costs needed to access greater quantities of wind, and to highlight some of the drivers of those costs. In so doing, we gloss over many important details and differences among the studies in our sample. In emphasizing simple comparisons, our analysis focuses primarily on the unit cost of transmission implied by each of the studies. The unit cost of transmission for wind in $/kW terms on a capacity-weighted basis is estimated by simply dividing the total transmission cost in a study by the total amount of incremental generation capacity (wind and non-wind) modeled in that study. In so doing, this metric assumes that within any individual study all incremental generation capacity imposes transmission costs in proportion to its nameplate capacity rating. The limitations to this approach are described in some detail in the body of the report.

Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan; Porter, Kevin

2009-02-02

490

Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project  

SciTech Connect

In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the EERC, in collaboration with Meridian Environmental Services, developed and demonstrated the efficacy of a wind energy forecasting system for use in scheduling energy output from wind farms for a regional electrical generation and transmission utility. With the increased interest at the time of project award in the production of hydrogen as a critical future energy source, many viewed hydrogen produced from wind-generated electricity as an attractive option. In addition, many of the hydrogen production-related concepts involve utilization of energy resources without the need for additional electrical transmission. For this reason, under Task 4, the EERC provided a summary of end uses for hydrogen in the region and focused on one end product in particular (fertilizer), including several process options and related economic analyses.

Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

2012-06-09

491

Rotational swashplate pulse continuously variable transmission based on helical gear axial meshing transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research on pulse continuously variable transmission(CVT) is mainly focused on reducing the pulse degree and making pulse degrees a constant value. Current research mainly confined to find out new design parameters by using the method of optimization, and reduce the pulse degree of pulse CVT and its range of variation. But the fact is that the reduction of the pulse degree is not significant. This article presents a new structure of mechanical pulse CVT—the rotational swashplate pulse CVT with driven by helical gear axial meshing. This transmission is simple and compact in structure and low in pulsatile rate (it adopts 6 guide rods), and the pulsatile degree is irrelevant to the transmission ratio. Theoretically, pulsatile rate could be reduced to zero if appropriate curved surface of the swashplate is used. Compared with the connecting rod pulse CVT, the present structure uses helical gear mechanism as transmission part and it avoids unbalanced inertial force in the former model. This paper analyzes the principle of driving of this transmission, presents its mechanical structure, and discusses its motion characteristics. Experimental prototype of this type of CVT has been manufactured. Tests for the transmission efficiency(when the rotational speed of the output shaft is the maximum) and the angular velocity of the output shaft have been carried out, and data have been analyzed. The experimental results show that the speed of the output shaft for the experimental prototype is slightly lower than the theoretical value, and the transmission efficiency of the experimental prototype is about 70%. The pulse degree of the CVT discussed in this paper is less than the existing pulse CVT of other types, and it is irrelevant to the transmission ratio of the CVT. The research provides the new idea to the CVT study.

Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Wenyu; Lei, Hong; Tian, E.; Liu, Ziping

2012-11-01

492

The handover control mechanism for multi-path transmission using Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid advance of wireless networking technologies, end-host networking devices have been equipped with various network interfaces. Thus, it becomes possible for a wireless mobile host to improve its transmission efficiency by transmitting data through multiple network interfaces at the same time. In this paper, we focus on the mobility issues of SCTP multi-path transmission. M2-SCTP (Mobile Multipath –

Chung-ming Huang; Ching-hsien Tsai

2007-01-01

493

The design of automatic transmission fluid to meet the requirements of electronically controlled transmissions  

SciTech Connect

Design changes in automatic transmissions have resulted in new requirements for automatic transmission fluids. Electronic controls, for instance, perform best with fluids having better low-temperature properties. Achievement of the target low-temperature properties can be accomplished in different ways. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed with respect to total fluid performance. Fluid performance properties examined include viscometrics, shear stability, antiwear and stability toward thermal stress and oxidation.

Hartley, R.J.; Sunne, J.P.; Chrisope, D.R.

1990-01-01

494

Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae in goats.  

PubMed

Experimental transmission of Besnoitia caprae from naturally chronically-infected goats to susceptible ones was achieved by intra-nasal instillation and intra-conjunctival inoculation of cystozoite-containing suspensions, subcutaneous implantation of fascia containing cysts and alternate needle pricking between the infected and non-infected goats. Typical chronic symptoms developed in the fascia-infected does. Cystozoite inoculation into the eyes and mouth did not result in infection. Kids born of dams with acute and chronic besnoitiosis did not contract the infection in utero, suggesting that intra-uterine transmission may not occur. In contrast to does with acute besnoitiosis, which occasionally aborted, the does with chronic besnoitiosis gave birth to healthy kids. Kids below the age of 4 months (pre-weaned period) born of both infected and non-infected does were susceptible to besnoitiosis but appeared to be more resistant than adult goats. PMID:10855841

Njenga, M J; Kang'ethe, E K; Bwangamoi, O; Munyua, S J; Mugera, G M; Mutiga, E R

1999-12-01

495

Development of helicopter transmission seals, task 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High speed helicopter transmission seal concepts were designed, fabricated and tested. The concepts were a dual element split ring seal and a circumferential seal. The tests were performed in a rig using an actual input quill assembly. The test conditions were selected to simulate transmission operation and were 230 F oil temperature, and a sliding speed of 9400 ft/min. The split ring seal exhibited gross leakage and was considered unsatisfactory, while the circumferential seal leakage was less than 1 c.c./hour; this leakage is within acceptable limits. The circumferential seal wear was only to .0005 inches during a 100 hour run (40 starts and stops). During a 40 hour contamination test (mesh silica flour) the seal total wear was a maximum of .004 inches. This wear is considered acceptable.

Hayden, T. S.; Keller, C. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

496

Cascading failures in Europe's transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cascading failures constitute an important vulnerability of infrastructure networks, hence understanding the origin and propagation of these failures is of great interest. To this end, we study cascades of overload failures within the framework of the cascade model introduced by Motter and Lai (2002) applied for flows that have a distributed character. We investigate numerically the properties of these failures in the high-voltage European electric power transmission system from 2002 (Zhou and Bialek, 2005). The network consists of 1254 nodes (substations) specified by geographical locations, and 1812 links (transmission lines) that are assumed to be undirected. We find that assigning excess capacities in proportion to initial loads does not significantly mitigate cascading failures. Moreover, increasing the fractional excess capacity does not yield monotonically increasing gains. Using a simple model of spatial network - random geometric graph - we investigate methods beyond the proportional excess capacity allocation in order to improve the gains in mitigating such failures.

Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, G.

2013-03-01

497

Natural and transmission line produced positive ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive ions were studied at three field sites, two of which contained ions produced by high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. Natural ions were also studied at two of the three sites. The observed differences between natural and anthropogenic ion spectra near HVDC lines are attributed primarily to a shortening of ion lifetimes by the strong electric field associated with the HVDC lines. One exception is the production of potassium- and probably sodium-based ions from the decomposition of insects in transmission line coronas. Several ions which have been observed previously at mass 60 and 130 were also identified for the first time, using tandem mass spectrometric techniques, as trimethylamine and quinoline (and isoquinoline), respectively.

Eisele, F. L.

1989-05-01

498

Human to Mosquito Transmission of Dengue Viruses  

PubMed Central

The successful transmission of dengue virus from a human host to a mosquito vector requires a complex set of factors to align. It is becoming increasingly important to improve our understanding of the parameters that shape the human to mosquito component of the transmission cycle so that vaccines and therapeutic antivirals can be fully evaluated and epidemiological models refined. Here we describe these factors, and discuss the biological and environmental impacts and demographic changes that are influencing these dynamics. Specifically, we examine features of the human infection required for the mosquito to acquire the virus via natural blood feeding, as well as the biological and environmental factors that influence a mosquito’s susceptibility to infection, up to the point that they are capable of transmitting the virus to a new host.

Carrington, Lauren B.; Simmons, Cameron P.

2014-01-01

499

Data transmission system by photoelectric encoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The component, principles as well as practical applications for photoelectric encoding transmission system are described in detail. The infrared LED and corresponding IR receiver were used in the system to realize E-O and O-E transformation. The inspected data are transmitted by IR-LED after being converted and encoded to serial signals. The infrared modulated light which is obtained by IR receiver are decoded and converted to the original electric signals. Thereby, air-isolated photoelectric data transmission comes true. Signals are picked up with 8098 single-chip microcomputer, then transmitted to the computer via RS232 for further processing. Test results are reported which were obtained from the dynamic parameter measurement of catenary and pantograph system in electrified railway.

Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Li

2001-05-01

500

Vibration signature analysis of multistage gear transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented for multistage multimesh gear transmission systems. The analysis predicts the overall system dynamics and the transmissibility to the gear box or the enclosed structure. The modal synthesis approach of the analysis treats the uncoupled lateral/torsional model characteristics of each stage or component independently. The vibration signature analysis evaluates the global dynamics coupling in the system. The method synthesizes the interaction of each modal component or stage with the nonlinear gear mesh dynamics and the modal support geometry characteristics. The analysis simulates transient and steady state vibration events to determine the resulting torque variations, speeds, changes, rotor imbalances, and support gear box motion excitations. A vibration signature analysis examines the overall dynamic characteristics of the system, and the individual model component responses. The gear box vibration analysis also examines the spectral characteristics of the support system.

Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Savage, M.; Townsend, D. P.

1989-01-01