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1

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri...

M. M. MacDonell M. L. Maxey J. M. Peterson I. E. Joya

1990-01-01

2

Radiological and chemical completion report for overhead piping removal for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Demolition of overhead piping and supports at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant was undertaken as an interim response action (IRA) within the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. IRAs are designed to ensure the health and safety of on-site personnel and minimize or preclude off-site releases of contamination. Prior to dismantlement a radiological survey and release plan was developed. Any radiologically contaminated material which exceeded release criteria was retained on site, along with all asbestos-containing insulation. Uncontaminated piping and supports were released from the site for salvage. This report summarizes the methods used to survey and release piping and supports and the amount of material released. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1990-05-01

3

Aquifer Characteristics Data Report for the Weldon Spring Site chemical plant/raffinate pits and vicinity properties for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the procedures and methods used, and presents the results of physical testing performed, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the shallow Mississippian-Devonian aquifer beneath the Weldon Spring chemical plant, raffinate pits, and vicinity properties. The aquifer of concern is composed of saturated rocks of the Burlington-Keokuk Limestone which constitutes the upper portion of the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. This aquifer is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium which can be described in terms of diffuse Darcian flow overlain by high porosity discrete flow zones and conduits. Average hydraulic conductivity for all wells tested is 9.6E-02 meters/day (3.1E-01 feet/day). High hydraulic conductivity values are representative of discrete flow in the fractured and weathered zones in the upper Burlington-Keokuk Limestone. They indicate heterogeneities within the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneity in the horizontal plane is believed to be randomly distributed and is a function of fracture spacing, solution voids, and preglacial weathering phenomena. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities in deeper portions of the aquifer are though to be due to the presence of widely spaced fractures. 44 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01

4

Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation.

NONE

1999-08-10

5

Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized.

Chang, Y.S.

1994-01-01

6

Successful decommissioning and demolition at Weldon Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

B&W Nuclear Environmental Services, Inc. (B&W NESI) and OHM Corporation (OHM) formed a joint venture company, B&W\\/OHM Weldon Spring, Inc. (B&W\\/OHM WSI) to perform work at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). This joint venture company combines the hazardous and toxic waste remediation experience of OHM with the radiological decontamination and decommissioning experience

1994-01-01

7

Phase 2 groundwater quality assessment for the Weldon Spring site chemical plant/raffinate pits and surrounding vicinity properties  

SciTech Connect

This report brings together the most current information on groundwater contamination in the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits (WSCP/WSRP) area and vicinity properties (WSVP) of the Weldon Spring Site (WSS). In 1988 the monitoring well network was extended by the addition of 33 new wells installed at two depths so they could be used for vertical and lateral characterization. The analytical categories for the study were inorganic anions, nitroaromatic compounds, radiochemical parameters, metals, and total organic carbon. Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a result of leaking raffinate pits. The apparent sources of sulfate contamination are associated with the manufacturing of TNT and DNT. Nitroaromatic compounds are present in the groundwater at the WSS as a result of operations at the WSOW during World War II. Historically, only two monitoring wells indicate uranium levels greater than 40 pCi/L which at this time seems to be the most likely drinking water standard the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will establish. Some metals concentrations in groundwater appear to be connected to the raffinate pits as a point source. Other metals are present in the groundwater, not point sources have been identified for them. The contract required detection limits (CRDLs) for some metals higher than regulatory drinking water standards. 19 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01

8

The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List (NPL).

Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

1989-01-01

9

Surficial materials investigation at the Weldon Spring Training Area St. Charles County, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weldon Spring Training Area at Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, is a portion of the former Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW) where trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) were manufactured during World War II. Nitroaromatic contaminants remain on the Weldon Spring Training Area (WSTA) despite several attempts to decontaminate the property since closure of the ordnance works in 1945.

Rueff

1993-01-01

10

Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat alternative in Zones 1 and 2 constitute the major component of the overall present-worth cost for Alternative 4, which indicates that the cost for Alternative 7 would be similarly high. Another observation is that although estimated times are shorter for the pump and treat approach than those for MNA, pump and treat for Zones 1 and 2 likely would take several decades (at least 30 years) to attain ARARs or bench marks. The cost estimates (in present-worth costs) for Alternatives 4 and 7 are much higher (approximately an order of magnitude higher) than those for Alternative 3.

NONE

1999-08-06

11

Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the nature and extent of contamination is presented in Section 1.2, and the results of the BRA are summarized in Section 1.3. The objective of this FS is discussed in Section 1.4, and preliminary remediation goals are identified in Section 1.5. The organization of the remaining chapters of this FS is outlined in Section 1.6.

NONE

1999-07-15

12

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

NONE

1996-08-01

13

Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

NONE

1998-02-01

14

Streamlined RI\\/FS planning for the groundwater operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis and 22 km (14 mi) southwest of the City of St. Charles. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a

M. H. Picel; L. A. Durham; D. L. Blunt; H. M. Hartmann

1995-01-01

15

Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

NONE

1999-07-15

16

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

1999-12-15

17

Radiological survey report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Site (WSS) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility comprising the Raffinate Pits facility, the Quarry, and potentially contaminated vicinity properties. Radiological characterization of the WSS will be conducted in three phases: the Raffinate Pits facility, Quarry, and the vicinity properties. Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) and its radiological support subcontractor, Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), conducted a radiological characterization survey of the Raffinate Pits during 1982 and 1983 in support of on-site construction work and a technical evaluation of site geology. The survey consisted of direct beta-gamma surface readings, near-surface gamma readings, exposure level measurements, and gamma-logs of boreholes. Soil samples were also collected from the surface, shallow boreholes, and trenches on the site. This report describes the radiological characterization of the Raffinate Pits facility, the procedures used to conduct the survey, the survey results, and their significance. 5 references, 9 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1984-08-01

18

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a

2002-01-01

19

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the remediation of Vicinity Property 9 at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to excavate contaminated soil at Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), a 0.64-ha (1.6-acre) parcel near the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. A palustrine wetland approximately 0.10 ha (0.25 acre) in size within VP9 would be excavated. Site restoration should allow palustrine wetland to become reestablished. No long-term impacts to floodplains are expected.

Lonkhuyzen, R.A. Van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-11-01

20

Bibliographic citations pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles County, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of 166 bibliographic references pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site (WSS), St. Charles County, Missouri. The WSS is a surplus US government facility which consists of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant; two separate low-level radioactive waste storage properties, designated the ''raffinate pits'' and ''quarry'', and a number of potentially contaminated vicinity properties. The facility was used by the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 to 1966 to refine uranium. After several years the US Department of the Army acquired responsibility for the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, performed some limited radiological decontamination, and then cancelled plans to construct a chemical process. Contamination of the facility and adjacent lands resulted from operation of the refining facility and the storage, transport, and disposal of process wastes on the property, as well as subsequent decontamination activities. All identified references to published technical documents that relate to the WSS were included in this report. In some cases citations from the reference section of existing documents were included in this report with no hardcopy to substantiate the existence of the document referenced.

Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P. (comps.)

1985-08-01

21

Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation

R. B. Weidner; M. W. Boback

1982-01-01

22

Radiological survey report for the Weldon Spring Quarry  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Site (WSS) is a US Department of Energy surplus facility comprising the Quarry, Raffinate Pits, Chemical Plant, and vicinity properties. Radiological characterization of the WSS is being conducted in four phases: the Raffinate Pits facility, Quarry, Chemical Plant, and the vicinity properties. Bechtel National, Inc. and its radiological support contractor, Eberline Analytical Corporation, conducted a radiological characterization survey of the Raffinate Pits in 1982 and 1983; the survey of the Quarry described in this document represents the second phase of the work and was performed in 1984 and 1985. The survey consisted of direct beta-gamma surface readings, near-surface gamma readings, exposure level measurements, radon emission rate measurements, and gamma logs of boreholes. Samples of surface soils, subsurface soils, surface water, and groundwater were collected. These samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides in the uranium and thorium natural decay chains. This report describes the radiological and chemical characterization of the Quarry, the procedures used to conduct the survey, and the survey results. Estimates based on the radiological data indicate that 95,000 yd/sup 3/ of surface and subsurface materials at the Quarry are contaminated in excess of DOE guidelines; concentrations of radionuclides in sediment from the Quarry pond were approximately 100 times background. Soil samples were not hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, but varying concentrations were found of chemicals classified as priority pollutants by the Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of uranium in groundwater exceeded DOE guidelines; however composites of water from the Quarry pond showed uranium concentrations only slightly in excess of the guideline. 15 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01

23

Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

1990-08-01

24

Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

NONE

1998-03-01

25

Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01

26

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

Meier, J.

2002-02-26

27

The effect of a zero-concentration sink on contaminant transport and remedial-action designs for the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

One-dimensional analytical expressions are developed to simulate two processes in a homogeneous porous medium: contaminant transport through a porous medium that has a zero-concentration sink located at a finite distance from a step-function source; and contaminant transport through a porous medium that has an initial steady-state distribution corresponding to a constant strength source and zero-concentration sink separated by a finite distance. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless form, making use of the flow system's Peclet number. Evaluation of the analytical expressions is accomplished by numerical inversion of Laplace-space concentrations using either a full Fourier series approach with acceleration, or the Stehfest algorithm. The analytical expressions are used to evaluate possible contaminant conditions at the Weldon Spring quarry near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The following results have been found: contaminant concentrations should be at or near steady-state conditions; the spatial distribution of contaminants should be a function of the flow system's Peclet number; contaminant concentrations near the Femme Osage Slough should approach zero; contaminant concentrations near the quarry during dewatering and bulk-waste removal should monotonically decrease with time; and the spatial distribution of contaminants during remedial activities should be relatively flat, especially near the dewatering pumps. Future work will entail evaluating existing radionuclide or chemical concentration data to determine the applicability of the proposed contaminant transport model and to improve the hydrogeological conceptualization of the quarry area and vicinity. 20 refs., 27 figs.

Tomasko, D.

1990-04-01

28

Results of Weldon Spring technical support for FY-1980  

SciTech Connect

A new sample of solution was collected from Pond 3 at the Weldon Spring site on July 10, 1980. This sample contained 2.15% NO/sub 3//sup -/ which was substantially higher than the previously measured values of 1.1 to 1.4% NO/sub 3//sup -/. The radium concentration of this sample was 200 pCi /sup 226/Ra/L which compares well with the previously measured value of 195 pCi /sup 226/Ra/L. A beaker-scale experiment has shown radium adsorption by bacteria naturally present in Pond 3. It took eight months for the bacteria to reduce the nitrate concentration to below 50 mg/L. By this time the bacteria had adsorbed 98.6% of the radium originally present in the solution.

Taylor, P.A.

1980-11-21

29

Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fourth year (1996) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The fourth year at the Weldon Springs Site shows sustained progress as the project moves through the final design and into the remedial action phases of the Chemical Plant Operable Unit. The remedial action phase includes the Foundations Removal work package, Chemical Solidification and Stabilization, and disposal cell.

NONE

1998-04-01

30

Work plan for the remedial investigation\\/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is being conducted as a Major System Acquisition under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property

J. M. Peterson; M. M. MacDonell; L. A. Haroun; F. K. Nowadly; W. C. Knight; G. F. Vajda

1988-01-01

31

Modeling to optimize operational practices to limit shallow dose and dose to the lens at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) began remediation of its chemical plant buildings in June 1992. The chemical plant was used by the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950`s and 1960`s to process uranium ore and natural thorium. Many remaining equipment surfaces were highly contaminated with uranium and thorium product residues, which are relatively weak gamma emitters, but

D. J. Hillman; S. W. Green

1994-01-01

32

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

NONE

1999-02-01

33

Environmental Response to Remedial Actions at the Weldon Spring Site--An Environmental Success Story  

SciTech Connect

Environmental remediation activities have been ongoing at the Weldon Spring Site for over a decade, beginning with small interim response actions and culminating in completion of surface cleanup as represented by closure of the 17 hectare (42-acre) on-site disposal cell. As remedial actions have incrementally been accomplished, the occurrence of site-related contaminants in on and off-site environmental media have effectively been reduced. The DOE-WSSRAP has demonstrated success through the effective reduction or elimination of site related water and airborne contaminants along multiple migration pathways. This paper briefly describes the remedial measures affected at Weldon Spring, and quantifies the environmental responses to those remedial measures.

Meier, J. A.; Welton, T. D.

2002-02-27

34

Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

1989-11-01

35

A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

1995-02-01

36

Off-site population radiological dose and risk assessment for potential airborne emissions from the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

Radiological doses and health risks to the population around the Weldon Spring site from potential airborne emissions during remedial action at the chemical plant area of the site have been assessed with the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer code. Two treatment options are being considered for waste produced by site cleanup activities: chemical stabilization/solidification and vitrification. Over the entire cleanup period of 7 years, the collective dose received by the people who live within 80 km (50 mi) of the site (about 3 million persons) is estimated to be about 34 person-rem for the chemical stabilization/ solidification option and 32 person-rem for the vitrification option. By comparison, the same population is expected to receive about 6 {times} 10{sup 6} person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. If only the population within a reasonable radius of impact is considered (about 10,700 persons live within 5 km [3 mi] of the site), the remedial action activities are estimated to result in about 5 person-rem over the entire cleanup period; the same population is expected to receive about 20,000 person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. Because the doses are low, no cancers or genetic effects are expected to occur among the population around the Weldon Spring site as a result of exposures resulting from potential radioactive releases to the atmosphere during remediation of the chemicalplant area.

Avci, H.I.; Biwer, B.M.; Blunt, D.L.

1992-11-01

37

Off-site population radiological dose and risk assessment for potential airborne emissions from the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

Radiological doses and health risks to the population around the Weldon Spring site from potential airborne emissions during remedial action at the chemical plant area of the site have been assessed with the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer code. Two treatment options are being considered for waste produced by site cleanup activities: chemical stabilization/solidification and vitrification. Over the entire cleanup period of 7 years, the collective dose received by the people who live within 80 km (50 mi) of the site (about 3 million persons) is estimated to be about 34 person-rem for the chemical stabilization/ solidification option and 32 person-rem for the vitrification option. By comparison, the same population is expected to receive about 6 [times] 10[sup 6] person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. If only the population within a reasonable radius of impact is considered (about 10,700 persons live within 5 km [3 mi] of the site), the remedial action activities are estimated to result in about 5 person-rem over the entire cleanup period; the same population is expected to receive about 20,000 person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. Because the doses are low, no cancers or genetic effects are expected to occur among the population around the Weldon Spring site as a result of exposures resulting from potential radioactive releases to the atmosphere during remediation of the chemicalplant area.

Avci, H.I.; Biwer, B.M.; Blunt, D.L.

1992-11-01

38

Expediting cleanup at the Weldon Spring site under CERCLA and NEPA  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action project is being conducted under the Surplus Facilities Management Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE has developed an environmental compliance strategy for this project to meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). A key element of this strategy was the development of an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process to minimize, to the extent possible, the need to prepare duplicate documentation. Additionally, the project is implementing various expedited response actions to mitigate actual or potential uncontrolled releases if radioactively or chemically hazardous substances to the environment and to minimize potential health and safety risks to on-site personnel and local human and biotic populations. These actions are being conducted concurrently with the preparation of major environmental compliance documentation. The initiation of site cleanup via these response actions has fostered a very positive relationship with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region VII, the state of Missouri, and the affected public. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; McCracken, S.H.

1989-01-01

39

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary for second quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the second quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented constitutes the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the database during the second quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the database and KPA data are not merged into the regular database. All data received and verified during the second quarter were within a permissible range of variability, except for those listed. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were no above normal occurrences for springs or surface water. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the database during the second quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs.

NONE

1998-08-11

40

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-02-01

41

Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

NONE

1998-03-01

42

Critical (public) masses: a case study of a radioactive waste site. [Weldon Springs  

SciTech Connect

Increasing public sensitivity to radioactive and other hazardous waste issues often results in opposition that ranges from presentations by individuals at various public meetings to organizations initiating legal action in the courts. Organized opposition to proposed plans by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a Surplus Facilities Management Program site near Weldon Spring, Missouri, has emerged during the two years that DOE has been involved in developing plans for this waste management site. An important aspect in the development of the major interest group in this case was the reliance on extra-local expertise at both the state and national levels. The group received organizational strategies, information on radioactive waste, legal advice, and direction from state and local environmental interest groups and various state agencies. In this paper, we present the historical development of organized public response and agency response to DOE's plans for the Weldon Spring site. The role of the interest group has emerged as one of a watchdog, scrutinizing and evaluating data, publications, and plans. Other organizations now rely on the group as a clearinghouse for information. This case is of particular importance to other waste management projects because it demonstrates the effective use of networking between various interest groups and agencies from the local to the national level. We believe that the emergence of such groups and their ties with a variety of extra-local organizations will be the rule rather than the exception in future waste projects. Agency personnel and project sponsors will find that an interactive, cooperative approach with such groups is an effective way to resolve waste issues.

Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

1985-01-01

43

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement: Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the third quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined above normal Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits, and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that above normal data occur.

NONE

1998-11-06

44

The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites  

SciTech Connect

At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J. [Fernald Preserve, Ohio (United States); Deyo, Y. [Weldon Spring, St. Charles, Missouri (United States)

2008-07-01

45

The effects of a perturbed source on contaminant transport near the Weldon Spring quarry  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a perturbed contamination source at the Weldon Spring quarry in St. Charles County, Missouri, on downstream solute concentrations were investigated using one-dimensional analytical solutions to an advection-dispersion equation developed for both constant-strength and multiple-stepped source functions. A sensitivity study using parameter base-case values and ranges consistent with the geologic conceptualization of the quarry area indicates that the parameters having the greatest effect on predicted concentrations are the distance from the quarry to the point of interest, the average linear groundwater velocity, the contaminant retardation coefficient, and the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation caused by response action activities. Use of base-case parameter value and realistic values for the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation produced a small effect on solute concentrations near the western extremity of the nearby municipal well field, as well as small uncertainties in the predicted results for the assumed model. The effect of simplifying assumptions made in deriving the analytic solution is unknown: use of a multidimensional flow and transport model and additional field work are needed to validate the model. 13 refs., 18 figs.

Tomasko, D.

1989-03-01

46

Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a

Y. E. Deyo; T. Pauling

2006-01-01

47

Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status to date January 1998  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fifth year (1997) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Staffing issues this year have been a challenge with the resignation of an Environmental Specialist (ES) in June 1997, and the death of Robert Stovall, an Environmental Engineer (EE) II in August 1997. Progress made during this period includes securing a contract laboratory, participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, oversight of the Feasibility Study/Proposed Plan (FS/PP), coordination between the US Department of Energy and the various State regulatory programs and interactions with the local public drinking water supply agency and health departments.

NONE

1998-04-01

48

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

NONE

1998-01-28

49

Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a 45-acre (.18 square kilometer) on-site engineered disposal facility. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the site were officially transferred to the DOE Office of Legacy Management in 2003. The Weldon Spring Site is located within the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area (population 3 million). DOE's close relationship with surrounding land owners created a need for innovative solutions to long-term surveillance and maintenance issues at the site. Through a Secretarial proclamation, a plan was established for development of a comprehensive public involvement and education program. This program would act as an institutional control to communicate the historical legacy of the site and would make information available about contamination present at the site to guide people in making decisions about appropriate site activities. In August 2002, the Weldon Spring Site Interpretive Center opened to the public with exhibits about the history of the area, the remediation work that was completed, and a site information repository that is available to visitors. In addition, the Hamburg Trail for hiking and biking was constructed as a joint DOE/MDC effort. The 8-mile trail travels through both DOE and MDC property; a series of historical markers posted along its length to communicate the history of the area and the remediation work that was done as part of WSSRAP activities. A ramp and viewing platform with informational plaques were constructed on the disposal cell to provide an additional mechanism for public education. With a basic marketing program, site visitor-ship has been steadily increasing. In 2005, approximately 15,400 visitors were associated with Interpretive Center operations and outreach activities. Science-oriented educational programs that directly relate to past remediation activities and present long-term surveillance and maintenance issues have been developed and are presented to St. Louis area school groups and other community-based organizations. Other innovative programs have been developed to address daily maintenance issues at the site and to promote beneficial community re-use of the property. Approximately 30,000 square feet of the former Administration Building has been transferred through a use-permit to Lindenwood University, a local institution with a total enrollment of about 12,000 students. Lindenwood is establishing a satellite college campus in the building in exchange for providing basic maintenance and payment of utilities for both the Administration Building and Interpretive Center. A volunteer program developed to address maintenance of the native plant gardens that surround the Interpretive Center has a current enrollment of approximately 25 volunteers. Another volunteer group of prairie ecosystem experts has been meeting regularly for the last 3 years to assist the site in long-term management of the established prairie surrounding the disposal cell. Public support of these community involvement activities at the site is strong. DOE has worked closely with the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission in developing the concepts for this approach and the Commission has helped promote these activities within the community. It is expected that continued public education in this manner will only serve to strengthen the institutional control commitments at the Weldon Spring Site. (authors)

Deyo, Y.E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Weldon Spring Site, 7295 Highway 94 South, St. Charles, MO 63304 (United States); Pauling, T. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

2006-07-01

50

Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St. Charles County, Missouri - A progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycles scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of

M. J. Kleeschulte; L. F. Emmett

1986-01-01

51

Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider the object attached to a spring in The animation considers an object attached to a spring. Assume that the spring is ideal (i.e. spring has no mass and the force required to stretch or compress the spring is given by Hooke's law). There are no external forces acting on the object-spring system. The user is asked to answer questions about the object-spring system.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

52

Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Depending on where you are, spring is either wrapping up or just around the bend. From the sounds of spring peepers peeping to birds chirping, this is definitely the season of re-birth. Check out this handful of sites that look at some of the signs of spring.The first site (1), from naturesound.com, allows you to hear the chorus of a truly spring sound: spring peepers. Next, from Education World, is a good collection of lesson plans for any teachers out there hoping to bring some spring fever into the classroom, or at least try to harness it(2). The Chicago Tribune (3)has the spirit with this feature on the signs of spring in the third site. The fourth site (4), from the Illinois State Museum, will help those out there considering putting in their own prairie garden this spring -- a perfect time to plant. The fifth site (5) is from eNature.com and offers a great look at the spring migration. Lastly is a show from NPR on spring bugs (4).

53

Physical and chemical differences in karst springs of Cantabria, northern Spain: do invertebrate communities correspond?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic macroinvertebrate communities were studied and environmental variables were measured in six rheocrene springs in Cantabria,\\u000a northern Spain. Principal component analysis revealed two different spring types according to their physical and chemical\\u000a characteristics. Springs from group A (GA) had higher temperature and conductivity, while springs in group B (GB) had higher\\u000a values of pH, altitude, mean water velocity, percentage of

José Barquín; Russell G. Death

2009-01-01

54

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs), Operable Unit 1, Tarpon Springs, FL., July 2, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 at the Stauffer Chemical Tarpon Springs Site in Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida. The major components of the selected remedy include: Limited excavation of radiologi...

1998-01-01

55

Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. The occurrence of hot springs, however, appears to be independent of the age, composition, or magmatic history of the pluton. Preliminary chemical and isotopic analyses suggest the hot springs waters belong to two groups. Most of the analyzed hot springs appear to have chemical and isotopic compositions indicating they were derived from deeply circulating meteoric water. About 25 percent of the analyzed hot springs show a distinct saline character with high concentrations of chloride, sodium, potassium, and calcium indicating either much more complex water-rock reactions than occurred in the other hot springs or the addition of another type of water. The present chemical and isotopic data are insufficient to determine the source of the constituents of the saline hot springs. Chemical geothermometers suggest subsurface temperatures in the general range of 100?C to 160?C. If the hot spring waters have derived their heat solely from deep circulation, the waters must have reached depths of 9,000 to 15,000 feet, assuming geothermal gradients of 30?C to 50?C/km. If hot magmatic water has Seen added to the geothermal systems or if dilution or mixing has occurred, temperatures of 100?C to 160?C may be reached at shallower depths. The geologic and chemical data are too preliminary to make an estimate of the potential of the hot springs as a geothermal resource. The data suggest, however, that most of the hot springs of central and western Alaska have relatively low subsurface temperatures and limited reservoir capacities in comparison with geothermal areas presently being utilized for electrical power generation.

Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace, Jr.

1973-01-01

56

Chemical analyses for thermal and mineral springs examined in 1982-1983  

SciTech Connect

Six water samples from three different spring systems were collected and analyzed for major element concentrations. This report presents the results of those analyses, along with predicted reservoir temperatures using various geothermometers. In addition, a table of chemical analyses from the US Geological Survey for Washington springs not previously reported in state geothermal reports is included.

Korosec, M.A.

1984-01-01

57

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL.

NONE

1997-11-01

58

Chemical equilibria in the thermal spring waters of Virginia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of waters from 10 thermal springs located in western Virginia near the 38th parallel lineament have been analysed for major dissolved components and for Sr, Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd; from these analyses, free ion activities have been calculated. The temperatures of the springs range from 17° to 39°C, the heat apparently being derived simply from deep circulation along synclinal, Middle Ordovician limestones. More than 95 per cent of the dissolved solids consist of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ HCO 3-, and SO 42-. The concentrations of these components, as well as the spring temperatures, have not changed appreciably in 140 yr in some springs. The waters that have temperatures below 25° are all undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite, possibly because they have been contaminated by shallow ground waters. The waters with temperatures above 25° are in equilibrium with calcite and dolomite. Furthermore, in this latter group, the calcium-sulfate activity product and the sulfate-carbonate activity ratio are nearly constant, even though the waters are under saturated with respect to gypsum, anhydrite, celestite and strontianite. This can be explained if CaSO 4 is coprecipitated in a mineral such as aragonite. The waters have absorbed some dissolved oxygen near the surface, but at depth they may be anoxic with Eh controlled by the oxidation of pyrite to goethite. The extremely low chloride concentrations of these waters clearly distinguish them from the brines which deposited Mississippi Valley and Appalachian type epithermal ore deposits.

Helz, G. R.; Sinex, S. A.

1974-12-01

59

Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1981-01-01

60

Public Health Assessment for Stauffer Chemical Company/Tarpon Springs, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD010596013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs Plant) site is located northwest of the city of Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida. Soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water are contaminated. When the plant was in operation there was community concern...

1993-01-01

61

Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington  

SciTech Connect

Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1982-02-01

62

SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

Thompson, J. M.; Grunder, A. L.; Hildreth, Wes

1983-01-01

63

Phytoplankton spring bloom in the Tagus coastal waters: hydrological and chemical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variability of phytoplankton as well as hydrological and chemical conditions in the Tagus coastal waters were studied during the spring of 1994. The highly patchy distribution of phytoplankton and the community structure were related to the specific abiotic conditions prevailing in the area. Two main water masses were distinguished: a tidally mixed one alongshore Lisbon-cape Espichel and a stratified

L. Cabeçadas; M. J. Brogueira; G. Cabeçadas

1999-01-01

64

Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 ?C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63?C in 1889 to 48?C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77?C in 1995 and neared boiling (98?C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3?C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition of steam discharges from the Southeast Geysers. The hot spring waters are low in ions of Cl, B, and Li, but relatively high in HCO3, SO4 and NH4. The stable-isotope compositions (deuterium and oxygen-18) of these waters plot near the global meteoric water line. Geochemical data through time reveal apparent maxima in the concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Mn in 1991 to 1992, before the cluster became hotter. The black-to-gray deposits from the new spring cluster are rich in pyrite and contain anomalous metals. About one-half mile to the east of the hot springs, mineralized water discharges intermittently from an old adit of the Schwartz (Anderson) mine, and enters a tributary of Anderson Creek. This drainage increased substantially in July 1998, and a slurry of mine water and precipitates were transported down the tributary and into Anderson Creek. In December 1998, the adit water was 22?C, and had a chemical composition that was similar to spring waters that once discharged in the ravines surrounding the old Anderson Springs resort. The cause for the abrupt changes that have occurred in thermal features at Anderson Springs is still not resolved. One possibility is that these changes are a response to withdrawal of steam from The Geysers geothermal field over more than 20 years of production. Pressure declines in the geothermal reservoir may have caused a 'drying out' of the overlying condensation zone. Induced boiling in this zone and upflow of deep steam to shallower depths would cause heating and vaporization of shallow ground waters. In addition, earthquakes occurring in the vicinity of Anderson Springs have increased significantly after nearby geothermal power plants began operation. These earthquakes may have enhanced surface discharge of thermal fluids along fractures and faults.

Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, S. R.; Sorey, M. L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, E. M.

2000-01-01

65

Physical characteristics and chemical quality of selected springs in parts of Juab, Millard, Tooele, and Utah counties, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic, geologic, and partial water quality data were collected at 90 selected springs in west-central Utah, and chemical analyses performed on water samples from 62 of the springs. Descriptions of the physiographic and geologic conditions, climate, and vegetation patterns for the study area are included. Allowable limits of certain chemical constituents in water for human and livestock consumption are included with the water quality data. Three classifications of springs were established based on physical characteristics of the springs, and chemical composition of the springflow: (1) mountain springs; (2) non-thermal valley springs, and (3) thermal valley springs. Mountain springs are in and near recharge areas, have seasonal variations of discharge and temperature, typically discharge from extrusive and metamorphic geohydrologic units, and generally discharge freshwater. Non-thermal valley springs are peripheral to recharge areas, have seasonal variations of discharge and temperature, typically discharge from a variety of geohydrologic units, and have variable water composition. Thermal valley springs are near topographic low areas of valleys , and have little seasonal variation of discharge or temperature. They typically discharge from unconsolidated deposits (but the discharge probably has flowed through buried carbonate geohydrologic units). They also have a considerable range of water composition that reflects the relative complexity of the groundwater system. (Author 's abstract)

Wilberg, D. E.; Stolp, B. J.

1985-01-01

66

Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs), Operable Unit 1, Tarpon Springs, FL, July 2, 1998  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 at the Stauffer Chemical Tarpon Springs Site in Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida. The major components of the selected remedy include: Limited excavation of radiologically and chemically contaminated material/soil which exceed Residential Cleanup Standards; Consolidation of contaminated material/soil in the main pond area, slag area, and/or other areas on-site; Institutional Controls must be placed on the site; In-situ Solidification/Stabilization of pond material and contaminated soil below the water table will be required in the consolidation areas on-site.

Not Available

1998-11-01

67

Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

1980-01-01

68

Public Health Assessment for Public Health Assessment Addendum, Stauffer Chemical Company (Tarpon Springs), Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD010596013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1947 to 1981, the Stauffer Chemical Company in Tarpon Springs, Florida, made elemental phosphorus from phosphate ore. Residents in the area expressed concern about possible adverse health effects resulting from exposure to radium and heavy metals lea...

1999-01-01

69

Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sources of nitrate (NO-3) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in the sinkhole plain has NO-3 concentrations in excess of the USEPA's drinking water standard of 10 mg N/1. Relative to background levels, the NO-3 concentrations in water from 52% of the wells, and probably all of the springs in the study area, are anomalously high, suggesting that sources other than naturally occurring soil organic matter have contributed additional NO-3 to groundwater in the shallow karst aquifer. This information, and the dominance of agriculture in the study area, suggest that agrichemical contributions may be significant. To test this hypothesis, water samples from 10 relatively large karst springs were collected during four different seasons and analyzed for inorganic constituents, dissolved organic carbon, atrazine, and ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ions. The isotopic data were most definitive and suggested that the sources of NO-3 in spring water are dominated by N-fertilizer with some possible influence of atmospheric NO-3 and, to a much lesser extent, human and/or animal waste. Differences in the isotopic composition of NO-3 and some of the chemical characteristics were observed during the four consecutive seasons in which spring water samples were collected. Isotopic values for ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ranged from 3.2??? to 19.1??? and from 7.2??? to 18.7???, respectively. The trend of ??15N and ??18O data for NO-3 also indicated that a significant degree of denitrification is occurring in the shallow karst hydrologic system (within the soil zone, the epikarst and the shallow karst aquifer) prior to discharging to springs. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Panno, S. V.; Hackley, K. C.; Hwang, H. H.; Kelly, W. R.

2001-01-01

70

Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-01-01

71

Public health assessment for Stauffer Chemical Company/Tarpon Springs, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD010596013. Preliminary report  

SciTech Connect

The Stauffer Chemical Co. (Tarpon Springs Plant) site is located northwest of the city of Tarpon Springs, Pinellas County, Florida. Soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water are contaminated. When the plant was in operation there was community concern about noxious fumes coming from the site. The community is currently concerned about airborne dust transporting contaminants from the site. Contaminants of concern at the site are antimony, arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, lead, thallium, vanadium, radon, radium and sulfur dioxide.

Not Available

1993-08-04

72

Chemical evolution of thermal springs at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica: Effect of volcanic activity, precipitation, seismic activity, and Earth tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arenal Volcano in NW Costa Rica, Central America has been active during the last 37 years. However, only relatively low temperature springs have been identified on its slopes with temperatures less than around 60 °C. The springs are clustered on the NE and NW slopes of the volcano, close to contacts between the recent and older volcanic products or at faults that intercept the volcano. This volcano is located in a rain forest region with annual rainfall averaging around 5 m. During the last 15 years, the temperature and chemical composition of 4 hot springs and 2 cold springs have been monitored approximately every 3 months. In addition, two more thermal sites were identified recently and sampled, as well as two boreholes located on a fault NE of the volcano. Scatter plots of chemical species such as Cl and B suggest that the waters in these discharges belong to the same aquifer with a saline end member similar to Río Tabacón at the beginning of the study period (1990) and the deeper borehole (B-2) in 2004. The waters of Quebrada Bambú and Quebrada Fría represent a more dilute end member. Both long-term (over the 15 years) and short-term or seasonal decreases in concentration and steady or decreasing temperature are noted in NW springs. Springs located at the NE show increasing temperatures and ion concentrations, except for bicarbonate that has decreased in concentration for all the springs. This behavior is likely associated with a shallow source for the solutes and heat for this aquifer. To the NW the early lavas and pyroclastic flows have been cooling down, decreasing the contribution of leaching products to the infiltrating waters. To the NE, pyroclastic flows to the N during the last decade are contributing increasing concentrations of solutes and heat throughout water infiltration and circulation within the faults and the surficial drainage that has a NE regional trend. For the short-term or seasonal variations, concentrations of chemical constituents decrease when precipitation increases. However, correlations between concentrations and the number of seismic events per month and the modeled vertical tidal acceleration are also observed. The intrinsic periodic behavior of all these variables influenced by the Earth's rotation can complicate the interpretation of the chemical changes at hot springs. For example, variations in atmospheric pressure can affect the degassing and seismic tremor of a volcano as well as the rate of precipitation. Frequent monitoring and understanding of these variations is essential at every volcano if we want to use the variations in chemical composition of hot springs in volcanic monitoring.

López, D. L.; Bundschuh, J.; Soto, G. J.; Fernández, J. F.; Alvarado, G. E.

2006-09-01

73

The role of tributary mixing in chemical variations at a karst spring, Milandre, Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Solute concentration variations during flood events were investigated in a karst aquifer of the Swiss Jura. Observations were made at the spring, and at the three main subter- raneous tributaries feeding the spring. A simple transient flow and transport numerical model was able to reproduce chemographs and hydrographs observed at the spring, as a result of a mixing of

J. Perrin; P.-Y. Jeannin; F. Cornaton

2007-01-01

74

Chemical trends in the Ice Springs basalt, Black Rock Desert, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Holocene Ice Springs volcanic field of west-central Utah consists of 0.53 km/sup 3/ of tholeiitic basalts erupted as a sequence of nested cinder cones and associated lava flows. Whole rock x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption analysis of ninety-six samples of known relative age document statistically significant inter- and intra-eruption chemical variations. Elemental trends include increases in Ti, Fe, Ca, P, and Sr and decreases in Si, K, Rb, Ni, Cr, and Zr with decreasing age. Microprobe analyses of microphenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, and Fe-Ti oxides and of groundmass olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene indicate limited chemical variation between mineral assemblages of the eruptive events. Petrographic analyses have identified the presence of minor amounts of silicic xenoliths, orthopyroxene megacrysts, and plagioclase xenocrysts. Potassium-argon determinations establish the existence of excess argon in the basaltic cinder (30.05 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) and in distal lava flows (8.29 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) which suggest apparent ages of 16 and 4.3 million years respectively. Strontium isotopic data (Puskar and Condie, 1973) show systematic variations from oldest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7052) to youngest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7059).

Lynch, W.C.; Nash, W.P.

1980-06-01

75

Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCOâ waters to moderately saline COâ-charged NaCl-NaHCOâ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally

R. H. Mariner; J. R. Swanson; G. J. Orris; T. S. Presser; W. C. Evans

1981-01-01

76

Operation safe removal: Spring Valley, Washington, DC, fact sheets on identified World War I chemical agents. Final report, January-February 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 1993, World War I era, chemical munitions were found buried at a construction site in the Spring Valley area of Washington, DC. This site was previously the American University Campus rented by the Chemical Warfare Service Research Center. Pursuant to the safe removal of the chemical munitions and their identification, concise fact sheets were prepared on the chemical

H. Salem; L. Miller; E. Olajos; S. Reutter

1994-01-01

77

Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

Katz, B. G.

1989-01-01

78

The Influence of Distant Fires on the Chemical Properties of Arctic Aerosol During the Spring of 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigating Arctic aerosol chemical properties and sources was a primary component of the spring 2008 Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC) airborne field study above Alaska and the nearby Arctic Ocean. Size-resolved, non-refractory (NR) aerosol composition was measured on a 10-second basis and with high sensitivity aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft using an Aerodyne Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol

A. M. Middlebrook; R. Bahreini; J. Brioude; C. A. Brock; J. A. Cozic; J. A. de Gouw; K. D. Froyd; J. S. Holloway; D. A. Lack; S. M. Lance; D. M. Murphy; T. B. Ryerson; J. P. Schwarz; J. R. Spackman; D. S. Thomson; T. D. Thornberry; P. Veres; C. Warneke

2008-01-01

79

Chemical Characterization and Single Scattering Albedo of Atmospheric Aerosols Measured at Amami-Oshima, Southwest Japan, During Spring Seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intensive field program was performed to measure atmospheric aerosols at Amami-Oshima, a small island located at southwest Japan, in the spring season of 2001, 2003, and 2005 under the ACE-Asia, APEX and ABC-EAREX2005 projects. Chemical analysis of the fine and coarse aerosols was made for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon, water soluble ions, and trace elements. Single scattering

H. Tsuruta; M. Yabuki; T. Takamura; S. Sudo; S. Yonemura; Y. Shirasuna; K. Hirano; K. Sera; T. Maeda; T. Hayasaka; T. Nakajima

2008-01-01

80

Chemical composition of water and gas from five nearshore subaqueous springs in Clear Lake, northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1971 The Geysers-Clear Lake area was selected by the US Geological Survey geothermal research program as a region for extensive investigation. Under this program thermal water samples were first collected in December, 1974 during a winter of normal rainfall; the last samples were collected in February, 1977 during a period of drought. The drought exposed many springs which normally

J. M. Thompson; J. D. Sims; S. Yadav; M. J. Rymer

1979-01-01

81

Chemical and physical characteristics of springs discharging from regional flow systems of the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin, western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional carbonate aquifer in the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin, USA, covers thousands of square kilometers. It is a significant potential source of water for growth in this arid area. Few wells penetrate the carbonate aquifer, so information on water quantity and quality is derived in large part from ‘regional springs’ that discharge from regional interbasin flow systems. For this study, springs in the carbonate-rock province were sampled; their physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics were compared to those of known regional springs to identify previously unrecognized regional waters using both examination of the data and multivariate statistical analysis. Criteria for comparison included temperature, discharge, 3H activity, carbon isotope values, and ratios of major and trace ions. Of the 18 springs selected for detailed chemical and isotopic sampling, five springs—Hot, Littlefield, Petrified, Saratoga, and Warm (a)—were identified as regional, and one (Monte Neva Hot) was identified as a possible regional spring. Regional springs provide an easy, low-cost means of investigating aquifer properties; identification of regional springs thus increases the ability to understand the regional carbonate aquifer. The techniques applied in this study can also be used in other regional aquifer systems with diverse and complex geology.

Hershey, Ronald L.; Mizell, Steve A.; Earman, Sam

2010-06-01

82

Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring  

PubMed Central

Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

2011-01-01

83

Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.  

PubMed

Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Biži?-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B; de Beer, Dirk

2012-06-05

84

Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea  

PubMed Central

Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea?Dead Sea water conduit.

Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Hausler, Stefan; Bizic-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jorg; Glockner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rodiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stark, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

2012-01-01

85

Chemical composition and source characterization of spring aerosol over Horqin sand land in northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2005, daily particulate matter (PM2.5) aerosol samples were collected at Tongliao, a site in the Horqin sand land of northeastern China. The concentrations of 20 elements, 9 water-soluble ions, and elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively) were determined in the filter samples. Crustal material was the major contributor to the PM2.5 mass, but rural biomass burning

Z. X. Shen; J. J. Cao; R. Arimoto; R. J. Zhang; D. M. Jie; S. X. Liu; C. S. Zhu

2007-01-01

86

Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: Origins, pathways, and budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx ) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-d imensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Explor atory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA G oddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It

Isabelle Bey; Daniel J. Jacob; Jennifer. A. Logan; Robert M. Yantosca

2001-01-01

87

Mining Sites on the National Priorities List: NPL Site Summary Reports. Volume 3 (Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp. (Soda Springs Plant) to Ormet Corp). Draft report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

Volume III of the Mining Sites on the National Priorities List contains the following NPL Site Summary Reports: Kerr-McGee Chemical Corp. (Soda Springs Plant), Lincoln Park, Martin Marietta Reduction Facility, Midvale Slag (Valley Materials Slag), Milltown Reservoir Sediments, Monsanto Chemical Company, Monticello Mill Site, Monticello Vicinity Properties, Mouat Industries, and Ormet Corporation.

Houseman, V.

1991-06-21

88

Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges\\u000a in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae\\u000a species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%),\\u000a Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most

Bianfang Hu; Shulian Xie

2007-01-01

89

"Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.  

PubMed

There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721

Pence, Charles H

2011-12-01

90

Chemical ozone losses in Arctic and Antarctic polar winter/spring season derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements 2002-2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric ozone profiles are retrieved for the period 2002-2009 from SCIAMACHY measurements of limb-scattered solar radiation in the Hartley and Chappuis absorption bands of ozone. This data set is used to determine the chemical ozone losses in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar vortices by averaging the ozone in the vortex at a given potential temperature. The chemical ozone losses at isentropic levels between 450 K and 600 K are derived from the difference between observed ozone abundances and the ozone modelled taking diabatic cooling into account, but no chemical ozone loss. Chemical ozone losses of up to 30-40% between mid-January and the end of March inside the Arctic polar vortex are reported. Strong inter-annual variability of the Arctic ozone loss is observed, with the cold winters 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 showing chemical ozone losses inside the polar vortex at 475 K, where 1.7 ppmv and 1.4 ppmv of ozone were removed, respectively, over the period from 22 January to beginning of April and 0.9 ppmv and 1.2 ppmv, respectively, during February. For the winters of 2007/2008 and 2002/2003, ozone losses of about 0.8 ppmv and 0.4 ppmv, respectively are estimated at the 475 K isentropic level for the period from 22 January to beginning of April. Essentially no ozone losses were diagnosed for the relatively warm winters of 2003/2004 and 2005/2006. The maximum ozone loss in the SCIAMACHY data set was found in 2007 at the 600 K level and amounted to about 2.1 ppmv for the period between 22 January and the end of April. Enhanced losses close to this altitude were found in all investigated Arctic springs, in contrast to Antarctic spring. The inter-annual variability of ozone losses and PSC occurrence rates observed during Arctic spring is consistent with the known QBO effects on the Arctic polar vortex, with exception of the unusual Arctic winter 2008/2009. The maximum total ozone mass loss of about 25 million tons was found in the cold Arctic winter of 2004/2005 inside the polar vortex between the 450 K and 600 K isentropic levels from mid-January until the middle of March. The Antarctic vortex averaged ozone loss as well as the size of the polar vortex do not vary much from year to year. The total ozone mass loss inside the Antarctic polar vortex between the 450 K and 600 K isentropic levels is about 50-60 million tons and the vortex volume for this altitude range varies between about 150 and 300 km3 for the period between mid-August and mid-November of every year studied, except for 2002. In 2002 a mid-winter major stratospheric warming occurred in the second half of September and the ozone mass loss was only about half of the value in the other years. However, inside the polar vortex we find chemical ozone losses at the 475 K isentropic level that are similar to those in all other years studied. At this isentropic level ozone losses of 70-90% between mid-August and mid-November or about 2.5 ppmv are observed every year. At isentropic levels above 500 K the chemical ozone losses were found to be larger in 2002 than in all other years studied. Comparisons of the vertical variation of ozone losses derived from SCIAMACHY observations with several independent techniques for the Arctic winter 2004/2005 show that the SCIAMACHY results fall in the middle of the range of previously published results for this winter. For other winters in both hemispheres - for which comparisons with other studies were possible - the SCIAMACHY results are consistent with the range of previously published results.

Sonkaew, T.; von Savigny, C.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Weber, M.; Rozanov, A.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Grooß, J.-U.

2013-02-01

91

Chemical weather in Arctic spring 2011: WACCM-GEOS5 data analysis of Aura temperature and constituents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents analysis of Aura observations of temperature, ozone and other related constituents in the WACCM chemistry-climate model driven by GEOS-5.1/5.2 meteorological fields. The results of multi-year spring (2005-2011) Arctic simulations are compared with the severe ozone depletion during March-April of 2011. The OMI and MLS ozone data were assimilated and chemical analysis results were evaluated against FTIR, ozonesondes and other independent observations of constituents. The analysis of limb-viewing temperature and ozone data (such as MLS and HIRDLS) highlights a value of space-borne observations with adequate vertical resolutions to examine and predict positions of layers of severe ozone depletion in polar regions.

Yudin, V. A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.; Tilmes, S.; Vitt, F.

2011-12-01

92

Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

Gay, Hannah

2012-07-01

93

Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

2006-01-01

94

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Katz, B. G.; Griffin, D. W.

2008-01-01

95

Microwave measurements of arctic chlorine monoxide and computed chemical ozone loss in spring 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Bremen (Germany) operates a microwave radiometer for the detection of stratospheric chlorine monoxide at 204 GHz, ozone at 142 GHz and water vapor at 22 GHz. The radiometer for atmospheric measurements (RAM) is located at the primary Arctic station of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change - NDSC - in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen at 79° North and 12° East. We observed a maximum chlorine monoxide (ClO) volume mixing ratio (VMR) of 1.2 ± 0.2 ppb in early March 2000 inside the polar vortex. The observed ClO decreased almost linearly to background values until late March. The vortex averaged chemical ozone loss derived from our observations accumulated to 45% at the 475 K isentropic level over the complete vortex existence period from December 1999 to March 2000.

Klein, U.; Lindner, K.; Bagdohn, S.; Wohltmann, I.; Künzi, K. F.

96

Chemical composition of the snowpack during the OASIS spring campaign 2009 at Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the seasonal snowpack was determined close to Barrow, an Arctic coastal location in northern Alaska. One hundred and twelve samples of different snow types including fresh snow, surface hoar, diamond dust, blowing snow, rounded snow grains, and depth hoar were collected and analyzed for major sea salt components, bromide, and nitrate. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and potassium are mainly introduced into the snowpack by the deposition of sea salt, while magnesium and calcium result from a combination of sea salt and dust. Sulfate was strongly depleted in most samples compared to other sea salt components. This is attributed to the precipitation of mirabilite in newly formed sea ice and frost flowers that leads to an efficient fractionation of sulfate. Uptake of volatile but soluble species from the gas phase also contributed to the observed chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in the snow. However, for chloride and sulfate the input from the marine sources was overwhelming and the uptake from the gas phase was only visible in the samples with low concentrations like fresh snow, diamond dust, and surface hoar. Nitrate concentrations in the snowpack were less variable and for aged snow nitrate was related to the specific surface area of the snow indicating the adsorption of nitric acid can be an important nitrate source in the aged snow. Bromide was also introduced into the snowpack from marine sources, but due to its high reactivity it was partly transferred back to the atmosphere in the form of reactive species. The result of these processes was evident in bromide concentrations, which were both enriched and depleted at the snowpack surface while deeper layers were mostly depleted. Blowing snow also exhibited a depleted bromide composition. For all compounds except nitrate, many depth hoar samples exhibited the greatest concentrations, probably as a result of higher input earlier in the season as well as increases due to the sublimation of water during the metamorphism of the snow.

Jacobi, H. W.; Voisin, D.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Cozic, J.; Douglas, T. A.

2012-07-01

97

Chemical Characterization and Single Scattering Albedo of Atmospheric Aerosols Measured at Amami-Oshima, Southwest Japan, During Spring Seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intensive field program was performed to measure atmospheric aerosols at Amami-Oshima, a small island located at southwest Japan, in the spring season of 2001, 2003, and 2005 under the ACE-Asia, APEX and ABC-EAREX2005 projects. Chemical analysis of the fine and coarse aerosols was made for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon, water soluble ions, and trace elements. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of aerosols was independently estimated by two methods. The one (SSAc) is by chemical compositions assuming a half internal mixture between EC and non sea-salt sulfate, and the other (SSAo) is by optical measurements of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The backward trajectory analysis showed that the aerosol concentrations in the air masses arrived at Amami, were much higher from the Asian Continent than from other regions, and two types of aerosol enhancement were observed. The one was caused by polluted air masses from the urban-industrial area of east-coast China, the other was by high mineral dusts due to large- scale dust storms in the desert regions of northwest China. The SSAc was in a range of 0.87-0.98, and in good agreement with the SSAo after some corrections for original scattering and absorption coefficients. The SSAc showed no significant difference between the air masses from the polluted area and the desert regions. The negative correlation between the SSAc and EC was divided into two groups depending on the concentration of non sea-salt sulfate, while the increase in mineral dusts did not show any correlation with the SSAc.

Tsuruta, H.; Yabuki, M.; Takamura, T.; Sudo, S.; Yonemura, S.; Shirasuna, Y.; Hirano, K.; Sera, K.; Maeda, T.; Hayasaka, T.; Nakajima, T.

2008-12-01

98

Kamchatka's thermal hot springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kamchatka Peninsula is featured in this website including information on geography, climate, fauna, flora, volcanoes, thermal springs, Valley of Geysers, native people, and options for travel in Kamchatka. This specific page highlights a selection of Kamchatka's hot springs, presenting basic information on temperature ranges, chemical and physical characteristics, surrounding vegetation, and general location.

Kamchatka, Vision O.

99

Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in rock collapse for uncased wells completed in highly fractured rock. However, the propagation of newly formed large fractures that potentially could damage well structures or result in pirating of water from production wells appears to be of limited possibility based on review of relevant studies. Characteristics of hydraulic conductivity, storage, and fracture porosity were interpreted from flow rates observed in individual wells completed in the Bigfork Chert and Stanley Shale; from hydrographs produced from continuous measurements of water levels in wells completed in the Arkansas Novaculite, the Bigfork Chert, and Stanley Shale; and from a potentiometric-surface map constructed using water levels in wells throughout the study area. Data gathered from these three separate exercises showed that fracture porosity is much greater in the Bigfork Chert relative to that in the Stanley Shale, shallow groundwater flows from elevated recharge areas with exposures of Bigfork Chert along and into streams within the valleys formed on exposures of the Stanley Shale, and there was no evidence of interbasin transfer of groundwater within the shallow flow system. Fifteen shallow wells and two cold-water springs were sampled from the various exposed formations in the study area to characterize the water quality and geochemistry for the shallow groundwater system and for comparison to the geochemistry of the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. For the quartz formations (novaculite, chert, and sandstone formations), total dissolved solids concentrations were very low with a median concentration of 23 milligrams per liter, whereas the median concentration for groundwater from the shale formations was 184 milligrams per liter. Ten hot springs in Hot Springs National Park were sampled for the study. Several chemical constituents for the hot springs, including pH, total dissolved solids, major cations and anions, and trace metals, show similarity with the shale formations

Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

2009-01-01

100

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical\\u000a compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application\\u000a of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures

Brian G. Katz; Dale W. Griffin

2008-01-01

101

Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: chemical and microbiological indicators.  

PubMed

Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m(3)/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank. PMID:19232432

Katz, Brian G; Griffin, Dale W; Davis, J Hal

2009-02-15

102

Chemical analyses of spring waters and factor analysis to monitor the functioning of a karstic system. The role of precipitations regimen and anthropic pressures.  

PubMed

An approach is presented to study the functioning of a karstic massif and assess the adverse effects of the anthropogenic pressure by monitoring some water chemical and physical parameters of its main springs. The approach has been applied to the Sette Comuni Plateau (Veneto Region, Italy) hosting a well developed karstic system, whose aquifer presents high vulnerability and undergoes a relevant anthropogenic pressure. The Oliero springs, amongst the largest karstic springs in Europe, are the main water output of the plateau. Electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved O(2), hardness, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ionic species (NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), F(-)), elements (Cr(III), Cr(VI), Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb), and some chlorinated solvents were monitored for one year. This study presents the application of a factor analysis on the water parameters enabling the identification of the dominant chemical and biological processes and pollution sources affecting the karstic system. Results show four factors which are interpreted as karstification, photosynthesis, storm flow pollution and anions. Finally, by associating metals, chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids with the amount of rainfall in the 48 h before samplings, further detailed information to the fast response of the aquifer to precipitation events was detected and interpreted according to the factor analysis results. The proposed approach, by providing information on the functioning of the aquifer, may help the management of the karstic plateau and is easily adaptable to similar environments. PMID:21779610

Capraro, Federica; Bizzotto, Alessandro; Masiol, Mauro; Pavoni, Bruno

2011-07-21

103

Note on the effects of winter and spring waterlogging on growth, chemical composition and yield of rapeseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regions where climatic conditions are adequate for rapeseed production soils may suffer waterlogging of varying duration. A pot trial was conducted to determine the effects of waterlogging on the growth, nutrient absorption and yield of rapeseed. As the effect of anoxia is known to depend on temperature the study was carried with winter or spring floods of 3, 7

Flavio H. Gutierrez Boem; Raúl S. Lavado; Claudia A. Porcelli

1996-01-01

104

Spring Constants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be completed before students have learned about spring constants. It should be pointed out to students that if a rubber band or spring is stretched too much, the spring constant is not constant. Graphs will vary based on the s

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

105

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

1997-06-01

106

Hydrologic and chemical data for wells, springs, and streams in Nevada, TPS. 1-21 N., and Rs. 41-57 E  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of published and unpublished geologic, hydrologic, and chemical-quality data for ground and surface water in central Nevada, Tps. 1 to 21 N. and Rs. 41 to 57 E., Mount Diablo base and meridian, reveal the following information: Rocks exposed in central Nevada are of sedimentary and igneous origin and range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Paleozoic age generally are carbonate or clastic, and rocks of Mesozoic age generally are clastic and granitic. Rocks of Tertiary age principally are volcanic, and the valley fill of Quaternary age is alluvial-fan and lake deposits. The rocks are folded, faulted, and highly fractured. Precipitation is closely related to altitude. In general, as the altitude increases the precipitation increases. Most of the streamflow in the valleys originates as snow in the nearby mountains. The streams generally flow only in response to snowmelt and to flash-flood-producing storms. Important chemical quality characteristics of the ground and surface water in central Nevada are hardness, expressed as CaCO3, generally in excess of 120 ppm, and a dissolved-solids content of less than 500 ppm. The principal chemical types of both ground and surface waters are sodium and calcium bicarbonates. The major uses of ground water in central Nevada are for irrigation and stock. Frequency of use of wells in decreasing order is: irrigation, stock, domestic, industrial, municipal, and observation. Of the 606 wells tabulated, 29 have multiple uses. Frequency of use of spring water in decreasing order is: stock, irrigation, domestic, and public facilities. Of the 135 springs tabulated, 5 have multiple uses.

Robinson, B. P.; Thordarson, William; Beetam, W. A.

1967-01-01

107

It's Spring Cleaning Season!  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... JavaScript. For closed captioning, click the CC button on the lower right-hand corner of the player. It's Spring Cleaning Season! ... the harsh chemicals you may use for the job. Follow the directions on all cleaning products for both effectiveness and safety. ...

108

Hole Springing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hole springing tests were executed during the period July 1969 through September 1971 in five different media - coral, clay shale, weathered granite, unweathered granite, and interbedded sandstone and shale to investigate the feasibility of constructing c...

R. H. Gillespie

1972-01-01

109

Octopus Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference site consists of images and descriptions of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. Part of the teacher workshop "Extremities: Geology and Life in Yellowstone and Implications for Other Worlds," it describes both the cool water and hot water habitats of the spring. Sampling techniques are included with a description of the microbial mat community. The images and descriptions cover three web pages, each of which can be accessed through links at the base of the pages.

Treiman, Allan; Institute, Lunar A.

110

Chemistry of the Spring Waters of the Ouachita Mountains Excluding Hot Springs, Arkansas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical analysis of the waters from 93 springs and 9 wells in the Ouachita Mountains (excluding Hot Springs), Arkansas, are reported. The study was carried out to investigate groundwater quality, its subsurface temperature, and its potential as a mineral...

G. H. Wagner K. F. Steele

1980-01-01

111

Chemical properties of soil and water-stable aggregates after sixty-seven years of cropping to spring wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three non-replicated, unfertilized, dryland grain rotations—continuous wheat, wheat-fallow, and wheat-wheat-fallow—were established in 1912 on a Dark Brown Chernozemic (Typic Haploboroll) soil. The effect of long-term cropping on the chemical constituents of total water-stable aggregates was assessed. There was a loss in percentage of total water-stable aggregates and a shift in aggregate size distribution with time. Together with an increase

J. F. Dormaar

1983-01-01

112

Quantum Spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

113

Spring Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this would not be considered a standard lab, it does help students with projects and other labs that involve the combinations of springs or rubber bands. Even if the activity is not used elsewhere, it allows students one more chance to practice u

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

114

Chemical characterization of air masses transported to the Arctic during the ARCTAS-A spring deployment: biomass burning versus fossil fuel combustion signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major research objective of the ARCTAS-A field campaign was to obtain in-situ data on the nature and the extent of atmospheric pollution in the Arctic during spring. We deployed a PTR-MS instrument aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft to measure a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including acetonitrile, methanol, acetone and benzene. The VOCs serve as tracers for mid-latitude pollution of different nature (biomass burning vs. fossil fuel combustion) and age. For air mass classification, we additionally use the DACOM dataset for carbon monoxide (CO) which is a general long-lived tracer for incomplete combustion. According to our analysis, strongly biomass-burning impacted air was encountered during the second half of the campaign at altitudes between 1.8 and 7.4 km, with the maximum impact being observed at altitudes between 3.5 and 5 km. A pronounced signature of fossil fuel combustion-derived pollution was observed at altitudes mostly above 1 km including some strongly polluted layers at high altitudes between 6 and 8.5 km. Furthermore, our markers indicate the omnipresence of aged background pollution of anthropogenic origin. In our ongoing analysis, we are comparing the experimental results with the output from the FLEXPART chemical tracer transport model which will allow us to locate the geographic source regions of the observed pollution tracers.

Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Burkhart, J. F.

2009-12-01

115

Variable Stiffness Torsion Springs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs emp...

D. C. Alhorn M. E. Polites

1994-01-01

116

Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

Knowles, Jr. , L.; Katz, B. G.; Toth, D. J.

2010-01-01

117

Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ?15N and ?18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

2010-12-01

118

Chemical characteristics of aerosols in MABL of Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during spring inter-monsoon: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of aerosols in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) of Bay of Bengal (BoB) and Arabian Sea (AS) has been studied during the spring and inter-monsoon (March-May 2006) based on the analysis of water soluble constituents (Na+, NH{4/+}, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO{3/-} and SO{4/2-}), crustal elements (Al, Fe, and Ca) and carbonaceous species (EC, OC). The total suspended particulates (TSP) ranged from 5.2 to 46.6 ?g m-3 and 8.2 to 46.9 ?g m-3 during the sampling transects in the BoB and AS respectively. The water-soluble species, on average, accounted for 44% and 33% of TSP over BoB and AS respectively, with dominant contribution of SO{4/2-} over both the oceanic regions. However, distinct differences with respect to elevated abundances of NH{4/+} in the MABL of BoB and that of Na+ and Ca2+ in AS are clearly evident. The non-sea-salt component of SO{4/2-} ranging from 82 to 98% over BoB and 35 to 98% over AS; together with nss-Ca2+/nss-SO{4/2-} equivalent ratios 0.12 to 0.5 and 0.2 to 1.16, respectively, provide evidence for the predominance of anthropogenic constituents and chemical transformation processes occurring within MABL. The concentrations of OC and EC average around 1.9 and 0.4 ?g m-3 in BoB and exhibit a decreasing trend from north to south; however, abundance of these carbonaceous species are not significantly pronounced over AS. The abundance of Al, used as a proxy for mineral aerosols, varied from 0.2 to 1.9 ?g m-3 over BoB and AS, with a distinctly different spatial pattern — decreasing north to south in BoB in contrast to an increasing pattern in the Arabian Sea.

Kumar, Ashwini; Sudheer, A. K.; Sarin, M. M.

2008-07-01

119

Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg\\/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m3\\/s) from

Brian G. Katz; Dale W. Griffin; J. Hal Davis

2009-01-01

120

Warm springs of the western Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

Springs from a 130 x 140 km area west of the Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas to the Oklahoma border were analyzed for major and trace elements and temperature was measured in situ. Six springs had anomalous surface temperatures and 13 springs had anomalous subsurface temperatures (based on the solubility of chalcedony). All of the anomalous springs are located near folded, shale-brittle rock (e.g., novaculite) contacts. The chemical variation of the anomalous springs is significant enough that a variety of sources are suggested for these springs.

Steele, K.F.; Wagner, G.H.

1981-10-01

121

Mercury in the Arctic spring: a tracer for physical and chemical processes linking the atmosphere to the land and sea (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic mercury story is an intriguing one: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is oxidized to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during early spring atmospheric mercury deposition events. The RGM produced is readily deposited to snow and ice surfaces. Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) are associated with mercury concentrations in surface snow and sea ice that are routinely above 100 ng\\/L. The

T. A. Douglas; M. Sturm; J. D. Blum; L. S. Sherman; A. Steffen

2009-01-01

122

Springs in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of springs in Egypt deal only with examples of natural springs producing potable water. None of the natural springs producing highly mineralized thermal water for therapeutical are considered. No water from natural springs in Egypt is bottled. Egyptian standards state that the total dissolved solids in potable water should not exceed 1000 ppm, except in Siwa, where the only

H. Idris

1996-01-01

123

Springs in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of springs in Egypt deal only with examples of natural springs producing potable water. None of the natural springs producing highly mineralized thermal water for therapeutical purposes are considered. No water from natural springs in Egypt is bottled. Egyptian standards state that the total dissolved solids in potable water should not exceed 1000 ppm, except in Siwa, where the

H. Idris

1996-01-01

124

Spatial dominance and inorganic carbon assimilation by conspicuous autotrophic biofilms in a physical and chemical gradient of a cold sulfurous spring: the role of differential ecological strategies.  

PubMed

The community composition and ecophysiological features of microbial autotrophic biofilms were studied in Fuente Podrida, a cold sulfur spring located in East Spain. We demonstrated how different ecophysiological strategies, such as resistance and/or utilization of sulfide and oxygen, light adaptation, or resistance to high water flow, allow each of the microorganisms described to efficiently colonize several areas within the environmental gradient. In the zone of the spring constantly influenced by sulfide-rich waters, biofilms were formed by purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and filamentous colorless sulfur bacteria. Purple bacteria showed higher photosynthetic efficiency per pigment unit than cyanobacteria, although they were dominant only in anoxic areas. Two filamentous cyanobacteria, strain UVFP1 and strain UVFP2, were also abundant in the sulfide-rich area. Whereas the cyanobacterial strain UVFP2 shows a strategy based on the resistance to sulfide of oxygenic photosynthesis, strain UVFP1, additionally, has the capacity for sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses cluster the benthic strain UVFP1 with genus Planktothrix, but with no particular species, whereas UVFP2 does not closely cluster with any known cyanobacterial species. The colorless sulfur bacterium Thiothrix sp. extended throughout the zone in which both sulfide and oxygen were present, exhibiting its capacity for chemolithoautotrophic dark carbon fixation. Downstream from the source, where springwater mixes with well-oxygenated stream water and sulfide disappears, autotrophic biofilms were dominated by diatoms showing higher photosynthetic rates than cyanobacteria and, by a lesser extent, by a sulfide-sensitive cyanobacterium (strain UVFP3) well adapted to low light availability, although in the areas of higher water velocity far from the river shore, the dominance shifted to crust-forming cyanobacteria. Both types of microorganisms were highly sensitive to sulfide impeding them from occupying sulfide-rich areas of the spring. Sulfide, oxygen, light availability, and water velocity appear as the main factors structuring the autotrophic community of Fuente Podrida spring. PMID:16211325

Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Silvestre, Juan José; Vicente, Eduardo; Hahn, Martin W

2005-10-13

125

Chemical Characteristics of Air Masses Transported in the Boundary Layer to the South China Coast During Spring: Results from TRACE-P in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a cooperative effort in support of the TRACE-P and ACE-Asia intensive in spring 2001, trace gases and aerosols have been measured at a relatively remote coastal site in southeastern Hong Kong. The main objective of the measurement program was to provide continuous ground-base data in the subtropical region of eastern Asia and to characterize the southward outflow of continental

T. Wang; A. J. Ding; D. R. Blake; W. Zahorowski; C. N. Poon; Y. S. Li

2002-01-01

126

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1998-12-01

127

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1999-06-01

128

Analysis of stable isotopes and radioisotopes to determine impacts of Canal lining on groundwater flows and chemical composition of springs and wells at the Dos Palmas Preserve and vicinity, Salton Sea, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water from the Colorado River has been diverted to the Coachella Valley in Riverside County, California through both lined and unlined sections of the Coachella Canal since 1949. A portion of the canal that was unlined previous to 2006 contributed to a significant increase in flow in springs and wells located in its downgradient path. In December 2006, a project to line the entire canal was completed. Prior to the completion of the lining, samples were collected from several springs and well locations downgradient from the Coachella Canal to assess their geochemical and isotopic signatures for comparison to native and groundwater sources. Three distinct groups of water were identified based on analysis of stable isotopes. One group consisted of nearly pure canal water with ?18O ranging from -11.3 to -11.7 and ?D ranging from -84 to -95. A second group consisted of nearly pure native groundwater with ?18O ranging from -7.3 to -8.7 and ?D ranging from -59.5 to -71. A third group consisted of various mixtures of canal and native groundwater with ?18O ranging from -8.7 to -11.1 and ?D ranging from -80 to -91. Radioisotopes were also analyzed in canal water and groundwater. Canal water contained about 6.0 Tritium Units (TU) and about 90 percent modern carbon (PMC). Groundwater at and near discharge springs showing nearly a canal water stable isotope signature had nearly the same radioisotope signature as canal water, suggesting a short groundwater residence time during transit from the canal to the springs. Groundwater at and near discharge springs showing a native groundwater signature had no measurable tritium and less than 10 PMC, indicating a relatively old water. Leakage from the Canal has created an extensive series of wetlands and wetland habitat, and there has been some concern that lining the canal with concrete will cause these habitats to be lost. Accordingly, samples were collected again from several of the downgradient wells and springs in August 2008 after lining of the Canal was completed, and isotope analysis was used to monitor how this has affected the flow and composition of the water. These samples nearly all had ?18O values ranging from -11.2 to -11.9 and ?D values ranging between -91 and -96, which correlates with the composition of the nearly pure canal water. This indicates that the canal lining has not yet had any noticeable effect yet on the isotopic composition of the flow in downgradient springs and wells. Continued monitoring of the canal and springs for stable isotopes and radioisotopes will be carried out in the future to determine impacts of canal lining on groundwater flows and chemical composition.

Erdelyi, N. T.; Hibbs, B. J.

2009-12-01

129

Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico–Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano–hydrothermal system (Mexico–Guatemala).\\u000a Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW\\/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge\\u000a at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500–2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral\\u000a (pH from 5.8 to 6.9)

Dmitri Rouwet; Salvatore Inguaggiato; Yuri Taran; Nicholas Varley

2009-01-01

130

Constant Force Spring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In many instances a suspension system is required to protect equipment from the combined effects of both shock and vibration. A new nonlinear spring, the vacuum spring, has been developed which may satisfy both shock and vibration requirements simultaneou...

K. D. Robertson

1968-01-01

131

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from American Experience: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, learn how the lethal impact of the pesticide DDT on wildlife inspired biologist Rachel Carson to write Silent Spring.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-07-01

132

Springs in Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of springs in Egypt deal only with examples of natural springs producing potable water. None of the natural springs producing highly mineralized thermal water for therapeutical are considered. No water from natural springs in Egypt is bottled. Egyptian standards state that the total dissolved solids in potable water should not exceed 1000 ppm, except in Siwa, where the only available source for water for human consumption is from springs that have water containing more than 2000 ppm TDS. Six natural springs in Egypt provide typical examples for the Sinai and the Western Desert: Ain Furtaga in the southern pre-Cambrian province of Sinai Peninsula; Ain El Gudeirat in the sedimentary plateau of North Sinai; and Ain El Bishmo, Ain El Bousa, and Ain El Gabal in the Western Desert Oases of Bahariya, Kharga, and Dakhla. They discharge from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer system. The sixth spring, Ain El Arayes, is a spring in Siwa Oasis.

Idris, H.

1996-03-01

133

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

134

Ombla Spring, Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ombla Spring is located on the Adriatic coast near the town of Dubrovnik. The spring discharges at sea level. To eliminate the influence of the tide, a small dam was constructed 50 m downstream of the spring outlet. The spring water overflows the dam crest at an elevation of 2.40 m. Since 1897 the springwater has been used for the water supply for Dubrovnik.

Milanovi?, P.

1996-03-01

135

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

Wnet

2010-11-05

136

Springs of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous springs in Japan. The largest and most famous ones are volcanic and karstic springs. Springs in the areas of Mount Fuji, Mount Aso, and Akiyoshidai are discussed here as sources of water used for drinking, irrigation, fish cultivation, industrial water, and sightseeing.

Yamamoto, S.

1996-03-01

137

The Classical spring poem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the existence of valuable commentaries on some Classical spring poems, this area of study has been insufficiently explored. After providing a definition and a schema of the spring poem as such, this dissertation investigates, through the detailed analysis of the specific spring poems (Catullus 46; Horace Odes 1. 4, 4. 7, 4. 12; Palatine Anthology 9. 363, 10. 1,

Dorin Garofeanu

2008-01-01

138

A batch study on the bio-fixation of carbon dioxide in the absorbed solution from a chemical wet scrubber by hot spring and marine algae.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide mass transfer is a key factor in cultivating micro-algae except for the light limitation of photosynthesis. It is a novel idea to enhance mass transfer with the cyclic procedure of absorbing CO(2) with a high performance alkaline abosorber such as a packed tower and regenerating the alkaline solution with algal photosynthesis. Hence, the algae with high affinity for alkaline condition must be purified. In this study, a hot spring alga (HSA) was purified from an alkaline hot spring (pH 9.3, 62 degrees C) in Taiwan and grows well over pH 11.5 and 50 degrees C. For performance of HSA, CO(2) removal efficiencies in the packed tower increase about 5-fold in a suitable growth condition compared to that without adding any potassium hydroxide. But ammonia solution was not a good choice for this system with regard to carbon dioxide removal efficiency because of its toxicity on HSA. In addition, HSA also exhibits a high growth rate under the controlled pHs from 7 to 11. Besides, a well mass balance of carbon and nitrogen made sure that less other byproducts formed in the procedure of carboxylation. For analysis of some metals in HSA, such as Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, related to the photosynthesis increased by a rising cultivated pH and revealed that those metals might be accumulated under alkaline conditions but the growth rate was still limited by the ratio of bicarbonate (useful carbon source) and carbonate. Meanwhile, Nannochlopsis oculta (NAO) was also tested under different additional carbon sources. The results revealed that solutions of sodium/potassium carbonate are better carbon sources than ammonia carbonate/bicarbonate for the growth of NAO. However, pH 9.6 of growth limitation based on sodium was lower than one of HSA. The integrated system is, therefore, more feasible to treat CO(2) in the flue gases using the algae with higher alkaline affinity such as HSA in small volume bioreactors. PMID:16860839

Hsueh, H T; Chu, H; Yu, S T

2006-07-24

139

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

2004-01-01

140

Water-quality data for the Missouri River and Missouri River alluvium near Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1991--92  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the water-quality data collected at two cross sections across the Missouri River and from monitoring wells in the Missouri River alluvium near Defiance, Missouri. The sampling results indicate the general water composition from the Missouri River changes with different flow conditions. During low-base flow conditions, the water generally contained about equal quantities of calcium and sodium plus potassium and similar quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate. During high-base flow conditions, water from the river predominantly was a calcium bicarbonate type. During runoff conditions, the water from the river was a calcium bicarbonate type, and sulfate concentrations were larger than during high-base flow conditions but smaller than during low-base flow conditions. The total and dissolved uranium concentrations at both the upstream and downstream cross sections, as well as from the different vertical samples across the river, were similar during each sampling event. However, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and total and dissolved uranium concentrations varied with different flow conditions. Sodium and sulfate concentrations were larger during low-base flow conditions than during high-base flow or runoff conditions, while nitrate concentrations decreased during low-base flow conditions. Both total and dissolved uranium concentrations were slightly larger during runoff events than during low-base or high-base flow conditions.

Kleeschulte, M.J.

1993-12-31

141

Coil spring venting arrangement  

DOEpatents

A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

McCugh, R.M.

1975-10-21

142

Controls on the genesis of a high-fluoride thermal spring: Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the source, evolution, reactions and environmental impacts of F-rich thermal water at Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland. Thermal water of the Innot Hot Springs has a surface temperature of 71°C, alkaline pH (8.1), low dissolved oxygen (0.61 mg\\/L) and low total dissolved solids (652 mg\\/L). The main chemical composition is Na – Cl, with F concentrations (16 mg\\/L) being comparatively high.

B. G. Lottermoser; J. S. Cleverley

2007-01-01

143

Coupled spring equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupled spring equations for modelling the motion of two springs with weights attached, hung in series from the ceiling are described. For the linear model using Hooke's Law, the motion of each weight is described by a fourth-order linear differential equation. A nonlinear model is also described and damping and external forcing are considered. The model has many features that

Temple H. Fay; Sarah Duncan Graham

2003-01-01

144

A Magnet Spring Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the…

Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

2006-01-01

145

Spring Scale Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how spring scales work and how they are used for non-exact weight measurement. Learners work in teams to develop their own working spring scale out of ordinary items. They test their scale, present their designs to the group, compare their designs with those of other teams, and reflect on the experience.

Ieee

2013-07-08

146

Masses and Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive simulation adapted from the University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology project, hang various masses from different springs and see the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy of each spring system. You can even slow time or move your demonstration to another planet.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

147

Rotary spring energy storage  

SciTech Connect

The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

Cooley, S.

1981-07-01

148

Spring and aufeis (icing) hydrology in Brooks Range, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing studies and field hydrometeorological and geophysical investigations were employed to characterize several aufeis fields in the Brooks Range, Alaska. Geochemical studies were undertaken together with field hydrological measurements to better understand the chemical and thermal properties of stream base flow (groundwater spring) that contributes to winter aufeis development. The spring water temperature was measured at several major aufeis

Kenji Yoshikawa; Larry D. Hinzman; Douglas L. Kane

2007-01-01

149

SPRING_TANK  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

150

Mineral springs and miracles.  

PubMed Central

Development of hot springs in the Canadian Rockies was closely linked to their reputed medicinal value. In 1885, the federal government created a small reserve around the springs at Sulphur Mountain, an area later enlarged to become Banff National Park, in recognition of the "great sanitary and curative advantage to the public." Images p730-a p731-a p732-a p733-a p734-a p736-a

Forster, M. M.

1994-01-01

151

Springs of Great Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictably, in a country such as Britain, with its preponderance of consolidated, sedimentary, mainly fissure-flow aquifers, there is a very large number of springs, many of which are, or have been, used for public supply. Migratory springs are a feature of the British (Ur. Cretaceous) Chalk, the most important British aquifer. The Chalk's low specific yield and high capillary moisture retention together give rise to very considerable fluctuations (more than 33 m in some areas) of the unconfined water table. Along the gentle dip slopes of the Chalk (North and South Downs of southern and southeastern England) springs may migrate laterally for several miles, giving rise to seasonal streams locally known as “bournes” or “lavants”. However, springs such as at Duncton, West Sussex, at the base of the much steeper scarp slopes of the Chalk, form point sources, the flows from which tend to be relatively steady; such springs commonly supply and are the original reason for the existence of many of the small towns and villages which nestle along the bases of the chalk scarps of Sussex and Kent. Where the Chalk forms coastal cliffs, a number of springs break out at the base of the cliff between high and low tide levels; there are major chalk coastal springs, for instance, at St. Margaret's Bay (Kent) and at Arish Mells, east of Lulworth Cove, Dorset. Such springs are not used for direct supply (their salinity is usually too high) but are indicators of the presence of local reserves of groundwater for possible future development.

Day, J. B. W.

1996-03-01

152

Studying springs in series using a single spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only one single spring is presented. Paint marks placed on the coils of the spring allowed us to divide it into segments, and consider it as a collection of springs connected in series. The validity of Hooke's law for the system and the relationship between the spring constants of the segments and the spring constant of the entire spring are verified experimentally. The easy setup, accurate results, and educational benefits make this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

2011-01-01

153

ICP MS analysis and classification of potable, spring, and mineral waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-three water samples were categorized into five classes as the tap, mineral, mineral carbonated, spring, and spring\\u000a carbonated water, or, alternatively, into four or three categories — with all spring water samples together or as tap, mineral,\\u000a and spring water, respectively. The samples originated from four European countries and thirty-one chemical descriptors (concentrations\\u000a of contained elements) were used for their

Filip Kraic; Ján Mocák; Željka Fiket; Goran Kniewald

2008-01-01

154

Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium, and sulfate show statistically significant differences between the median values of base-flow and stormflow samples. While variations in these constituents do not degrade water quality, the differences do provide evidence of variability in the factors controlling water quality of the hot springs and show that water quality is influenced by the locally derived, cold-water component of flow to the springs. Water temperature was measured continuously (3-minute intervals) between August 2000 and October 2002 at four hot springs. Continuous water-temperature data at the springs provide no indication of persistent long-term change in water temperature through time. Short time-scale water-temperature decreases occur in response to mixing of hot-springs water with locally derived recharge after storm events; the magnitude of these decreases varied inversely with the amount of rainfall. Maximum decreases in water temperature for specific storms had a non-linear relation with the amount of precipitation measured for the events. Response time for water temperature to begin decreasing from baseline temperature as a result of storm recharge was highly variable. Some springs began decreasing from baseline temperature as quickly as 1 hour after the beginning of a storm; one spring had an 8-hour minimum response time to show a storm-related temperature decrease. Water-quality, water-temperature, isotopic, and radiochemical data provide multiple lines of evidence supporting the importance of the contribution of cold-water recharge to hot springs. All the springs sampled indicated some measure of influence from local recharge. Binary mixing models using silica and total dissolved solids indicate that cold-water recharge from stormflow contributes an estimated 10 to 31 percent of the flow of hot springs. Models using water temperature indicate that cold-water recharge from stormflow contributes an estimated 1 to 35 percent of the flow of the various hot springs. Alth

Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

2007-01-01

155

Beppu hot springs  

SciTech Connect

Beppu is one of the largest hot springs resorts in Japan. There are numerous fumaroles and hot springs scattered on a fan-shaped area, extending 5 km (3.1 miles) from east to west and 8 km (5.0 miles) from north to south. Some of the thermal manifestations are called {open_quotes}Jigoku (Hells){close_quotes}, and are of interest to visitors. The total amount of discharged hot springs water is estimated to be 50,000 ton/day (9,200 gpm) indicating a huge geothermal system. The biggest hotel in Beppu (Suginoi Hotel) installed a 3-MW geothermal power plant in 1981 to generate electricity for its own private use.

Taguchi, Schihiro [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan); Itoi, Ryuichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga (Japan); Yusa, Yuki [Kyoto Univ., Beppu (Japan)

1996-05-01

156

Silent Spring Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Named after ecologist Rachel Carson's landmark book, _Silent Spring_, the Silent Spring Institute (SSI) is a "scientific research organization dedicated to identifying the links between the environment and women's health, especially breast cancer." The SSI website contains descriptions of several research projects including the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study, Geographic Information System Exposure Assessment, Groundwater and Drinking Water Initiatives, and Household Exposure Study. SSI also makes a number of downloadable publications available including journal articles and issues of the Institute's own _Silent Spring Review_. The site posts relevant news stories from a variety of sources, and contains a sizeable News Archive as well. In addition, the site offers a great many annotated links, and a glossary with pertinent medical, scientific, and environmental terms.

157

Roller belleville spring damper  

SciTech Connect

A double acting damper for use in rotary drilling includes a splined tubular telescopic joint and employs plural paralleled stacks of double acting series stacked roller belleville spring washers in an annular pocket between the inner and outer tubular members of the joint. The springs, spline and telescopic bearings are in an oil filled volume sealed from the outside by a pressure seal at the lower end of the damper and a floating seal at the upper end. Electric and magnetic means are provided to check on the condition and quantity of the lubricant.

Hebel, J.B.

1981-07-07

158

Dynamics of an actin spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

2003-03-01

159

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

160

A Quadratic Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

Fay, Temple H.

2010-01-01

161

Editors' Spring Picks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

Library Journal, 2011

2011-01-01

162

Spring Into Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maria lifts up a book from the table. Dietre eats cereal for breakfast. Akisha winds up a toy robot. Jacob puts batteries in a flashlight. These seemingly dissimilar events demonstrate various ways children experience energy daily. You can help primary students make sense of these experiences and build their conceptual understanding of energy with this series of hands-on energy activities. We've used these lessons successfully for several years and have been continually impressed with the understandings that students develop as they conduct them. The lessons focus primarily on elastic, or spring, energy and use a conceptual hook, a simple phrase that identifies the key ideas from the activities. In these lessons, the "hook" is "lift, squeeze, stretch, and twist," which summarizes some of the ways students can "put" energy in objects. We chose to emphasize spring energy because it is tangible--students can easily observe the spring (or similar objects such as a rubberband) change as they squeeze, stretch, or twist it, and they can feel the spring resist them as they change its shape.

Van Hook, Stephen; Huziak-Clark, Tracy

2007-03-01

163

Springing of ships waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is the result of an investigation of the assumptions underlying the general applied method for the calculation of springing of ships in waves, which has been proposed by the author some decade ago. It has been found that, contrary to the general practice in seakeeping research, the frequency response method can not be applied for the determination of

F. F. Van Gunsteren

1978-01-01

164

Echoes of Spring Valley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

Boyken, J. Clarine J.

165

Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

Dowdy, June P., Ed.

1998-01-01

166

Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

2011-01-01

167

Studying springs in series using a single spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper,

Juan D. Serna; Amitabh Joshi

2011-01-01

168

Tethered Mass and Spring Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tethered Mass and Spring model shows a mass constrained to move in the x-direction by a horizontal rod and connected to a spring of natural length L = 10. One end of the spring is connected to a movable (draggable) ceiling and the other end is connected to the mass. Users can drag the mass along the rod and users can control the height of the ceiling H by dragging which changes the stretch of the spring. The height H, the spring constant k, and the natural length of the spring L can also be adjusted using the sliders at the bottom of the position vs. time graph. The Tethered Mass and Spring model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_mech_lagrangian_TetheredMassAndSpring.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-09-02

169

Therapeutic and injurious characteristics of thermal and sulphurous springs.  

PubMed

The dissolution of underground rocks by water, flowing underneath, makes the water rich with chemical compounds and ions. These chemical constituents with the heat of water, absorbed from the exothermic reactions of volcanic activities, gain the therapeutic properties to human sufferings or vice versa. The general history of sulphurous and thermal springs, their effects and causes are discussed below. PMID:16414639

Khan, I A; Husaini, S M

1989-01-01

170

The heavy spring at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springs are used in simple demonstrations for the students of Physics classes to illustrate the Hooke's Law and harmonic oscillations. The spring is usually considered as a light object that does not possess a mass. What happens if the spring is heavy, that is, if its mass is not negligible? This paper aims to discuss this problem as plainly as

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

2011-01-01

171

Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?  

PubMed

Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and holy water in churches and hospital chapels. Of the holy springs investigated, only 14% met the microbiological and chemical requirements of national drinking water regulations. Considering results from sanitary inspections of the water catchments, no spring was assessed as a reliable drinking water source. All holy water samples from churches and hospital chapels showed extremely high concentrations of HPC; fecal indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus occurred only in the most frequently visited churches. We conclude that it is highly necessary to include holy springs in programs for assessment and management of water quality. Public awareness has to be raised to perceive holy springs as potential sources of illness. Holy water can be another source of infection, especially in hospital chapels and frequently visited churches. Recommendations are made for proper water quality management of both water types. PMID:22960479

Kirschner, Alexander K T; Atteneder, Michael; Schmidhuber, Angelika; Knetsch, Sonja; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina

2012-09-01

172

Considerations on the spring analogy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an investigation on the spring analogy. The spring analogy serves for deformation in a moving boundary problem. First, two different kinds of springs are discussed: the vertex springs and the segment springs. The vertex spring analogy is originally used for smoothing a mesh after mesh generation or refinement. The segment spring analogy is used for deformation of the mesh in a moving boundary problem. The difference between the two methods lies in the equilibrium length of the springs. By means of an analogy to molecular theory, the two theories are generalized into a single theory that covers both. The usual choice of the stiffness of the spring is clarified by the mathematical analysis of a representative one-dimensional configuration. The analysis shows that node collision is prevented when the stiffness is chosen as the inverse of the segment length. The observed similarity between elliptic grid generation and the spring analogy is also investigated. This investigation shows that both methods update the grid point position by a weighted average of the surrounding points in an iterative manner. The weighting functions enforce regularity of the mesh. Based on these considerations, several improvements on the spring analogy are developed. The principle of Saint Venant is circumvented by a boundary correction. The prevention of inversion of triangular elements is improved by semi-torsional springs. The numerical results show the superiority of the segment spring analogy over the vertex one for a small rotation of an NACA0012 mesh. The boundary correction allows for large deformation of the mesh, where the standard spring analogy fails. The final test is performed on a Navier-Stokes mesh. This mesh contains high aspect ratio mesh cells near the boundary. Large deformation of this mesh shows that the semi-torsional spring improvement is imperative to retain the validity of this mesh. Copyright

Blom, Frederic J.

2000-03-01

173

Signs of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because Spring has officially arrived, this week's Topic In Depth focuses on events that occur with the arrival of the new season.Offered by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the first Web site (1) focuses on seasonal events like hibernation and migration, and the rhythms behind them. Next is a phenology site (2), where visitors can register to record their observations of Spring online or just learn what phenology is and why it is important. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also has a phenology Web site for kids (3). The Missouri Botanical Garden (4) keeps a record of the plants in bloom each week, with corresponding photos and a choice of either a brief or more detailed description. Plantwatch (5), a site from the University of Alberta that encourages students and volunteers to register and report observations, has recently added a downloadable teacher's guide. Operation Migration (6), the organization that has successfully led endangered Whooping Crane migration by ultralight aircraft, provides daily updates as the birds begin preparing for their journey north. Users who want to begin identifying the birds that return to their yard this spring may be interested in the Peterson online identification guide (7). The final site (8) traces the life cycle of the Bumblebee, beginning with the queen emerging from hibernation and building a nest.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

174

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

175

Workshop Materials Spring 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials Workshop I Handout - pdf Workshop II Handout - pdf Workshop III Handout - pdf IA Review Rubric - pdf - This is an editable pdf. When opened click on a star to indicate your selection. Advanced IA Features Sample IA Project 1 - Adding video and images to your project Sample IA Project 2 - Adding video, audio, images, and rss feeds to your project Sample Activities A true AUTO-mobile - ...

Heather

2008-09-08

176

Geochemistry of Geothermal Springs In Northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles contains eight potentially active volcanoes, many of which are associated with geothermal springs. During the period 2003-2007 most of these springs were sampled and analyzed geochemically. The data presented here are for three groups of geothermal springs located in the northern part of the island. One group, the Penville Cold Soufrière, is located within the summit area of Morne Aux Diables volcano. The second group, Picard Warm Springs, is located on the northwestern flank of Morne Diablotins volcano. The third group is located in the Portsmouth area, including the adjacent Prince Rupert Bay, and consists of both subaerial and submarine springs. It is not known with which volcano these springs may be associated. The chemistry of each sample from the geothermal springs was compared to "reference standards" including three seawater samples (standard seawater and two surface samples from Prince Rupert Bay) and three fresh water samples (Emerald Pool and two rainwater samples). Of the more than 38 elements analyzed, 21 elements were consistently two or more orders of magnitude higher when compared to the "reference" standards. When these values were plotted on chemical variation diagrams, two trend lines were consistently developed. One included seawater and the submarine hot springs; the other, the fresh water samples and all the subaerial springs. The intersection of these trend lines is interpreted to represent the composition of a possible magmatic component prior to dilution with seawater and/or meteoric water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis of the springs for the whole island have also been undertaken. VSMOW graphs of ? 18O and ?D indicate that all of the geothermal springs on Dominica lie on a trend between the meteoric water line (MWL) and a magmatic source. The compositions of the geothermal springs from northern Dominica are interpreted to represent mixing of variable amounts of freshwater or seawater with a magmatic source that appears to be constant for all these northern springs. The similarity of the isotopic results for all the geothermal springs on Dominica suggests that this magmatic source may be constant throughout the island.

Harrell, S. R.; Smith, A. L.; Melchiorre, E. B.; Fryxell, J. E.

2008-12-01

177

The effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of chrome silicon steel compression springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of compression springs. Product manufacturers are constantly searching for ways to make their products last longer. This dissertation addresses three questions: (1) What is the effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of chrome silicon steel compression springs? Does the life increase, decrease, or remain the same? (2) What is the effect of cryogenic treatment on the Percent Load Loss (Stress Relaxation) of chrome silicon steel compression springs? (3) What are the possible changes in the material that cause these effects? The following tests were carried out; wire tensile test, hardness test, chemical analysis, residual stress, retained austenite, lattice parameter, force vs. deflection, percent load loss (stress relaxation), fatigue, microstructures, and eta carbides. This research produced a number of key findings: (1) The cryogenically treated springs had a longer cycle life and a higher endurance limit than the untreated springs. (2) The percent load loss (stress relaxation) of the cryogenically treated springs was similar to the untreated springs. (3) The cryogenically treated springs had a higher compressive residual stress at the surface than the untreated springs. The conclusions of this research are that the cryogenic treatment of chrome silicon steel compression springs led to an increase in compressive residual stress on the wire surface, which in turn led to an increase in fatigue life and a higher endurance limit. A recommended future study would be to compare cryogenically treated springs to shot peened springs.

Smith, Debra Lynn

178

Signals of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Signals of Spring is a web-based professional development package that provides training for teachers and integrated science curricular materials including data interpretation and applications for teachers and students. Students in expert teams work collaboratively and use NASA and other satellite earth imagery to explain the migration of land and marine animals tracked by satellites. Remote sensing imagery and GIS type interactive maps are seen in the site. Students select an area of expertise to focus on including weather, geography, vegetation, bathymetry, sea surface, or phytoplankton (chlorophyll). Students maintain analysis journals online and receive feedback from wildlife biologists and earth scientists. Teachers can use the online learning program to become certified in Signals of Spring and implement the program in their classrooms. Professional development for teachers is available as in-service or online. Three graduate credits are available at a low teacher cost. Connections are made between the content students need for standardized tests and concepts in geography, earth science, language arts, life science and technology. Registration is required for full access to the learning materials for students and teachers.

Schuster, Glen

2002-05-23

179

The Science of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offering related to the science of the spring season. The first site -- Seasons, Equinoxes, Solstices, and Climate (1) -- is offered by Assistant Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Eric G. Blackman of the University of Rochester. Visitors can learn how the earth's axis and orbit causes the seasons and what the equinox and solstice are, as well as about astronomical effects on the Earth's climate. The second Web site tackles similar issues, but at a more elementary level. Seasons Reasons (2), from ScienceU.com, explains what causes the seasons to change, and provides informative graphics of the Earth's orbit and axis angle during the various seasons. Next, from MSNBC News, comes the Mysteries of the Universe: What Causes Earth's Seasons (3) Web site. The highlight of this site is the well-designed and informative graphic at the top of the page that concisely explains the cause of the seasons. Other portions of the site include the history of our understanding of these topics, a description of the vernal and autumnal equinox, and more. The fourth site related to spring is offered by The University of Illinois Extension called There is a Season (4). The site describes how the sun rises and sets differently throughout the year, and provides two simple but well designed lesson plans related to this topic called I See the Light and Grab Some Rays. The next Web site focuses on a different spring science phenomenon specific to lakes called What is Lake Turnover? (5). Maintained by the Missouri Department of Conservation, the site (although a bit graphically uninteresting) gives an informative description of what spring lake turnover is and what causes it. The sixth site, also dealing with lake turnover, is provided by the Sea Education Association. This well-designed site offers a student activity that demonstrates this process, which is called Density Dynamics (6). The introduction explains that bodies of water form layers based on differences in density affected most by temperature in fresh water and both temperature and salinity in salt water. Using beakers filled with water of varying temperatures and food coloring, students observe what happens when these fluids are mixed in order to better understand what happens naturally in lakes. From the National Institute of Standards and Technology comes the Saving Time, Saving Energy: Daylight Saving Time, its History, and Why We Use It (7) Web site. Visitors can learn how seasonal daylight changes caused the US to adapt daylight saving time as early as 1883 and how its use has progressed throughout the world. The last Web site, offered by the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club, contains information on the weather predictions of Punxsutawney Phil and is called Phil's Past Predictions (8). The site chronicles the "famous" groundhog's predictions, which historically have been used to determine the coming of spring by whether or not it sees its shadow. Visitors will find a list of every year's results, its accuracy, and various other links relating to the groundhog's exploits.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

180

Spatial analysis for spring locations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to create a comprehensive GIS database of spring locations across the American Southwest. To complete the assignment you will be required to locate all springs within a county of the Four Corners region and map them on a geologic map of the area. Start by finding all spring names and locations in national and state digital resources (i.e., GNIS, NHD, USFS, AGIC...) as well as from Topographic 7.5 minute Quadrangle maps and peer reviewed papers. Once a comprehensive list is formed you must determine a strategy for deleting duplicates. Note that there can be several springs with the same name; Cibola County, New Mexico, has 4 different Coyote Springs but each one is on a different mountain range, therefore all three springs would be valid. Create a detailed document of the procedures and resources you used to create your final list. You will also create a final mxd product (GIS map) that has a completed springs layer using no less than three resources, geologic map and DEM to show elevation contours. The outcomes of this activity are 1) understanding that spring orifice locations can change over time 2) to show the complexity of using digital resources 3) to create a comprehensive list of spring locations over several years of having the assignment completed

Frus, Rebecca

181

PhET: Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

2008-07-29

182

Missouri Springs: Blue Jewels in the Ozarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the Missouri Springs of the Ozarks, a series of large springs that occur south of the Missouri River along the Ozark Uplift. There is general information on springs, including what they are, how they form, and their connection to the groundwater system. Photographs and brief descriptions are provided for the twenty largest springs in the state. There is also a map showing the distribution of springs in Missouri, and information on visiting springs. Other information includes material about mineral springs and spas, historical uses of springs, groundwater systems and karst hydrology, and scuba diving in the springs (not generally recommended).

Schaper, Jo

183

Spring business meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spring business meeting of the GP Section was held during the GP Luncheon on Tuesday, May 20, 1986, in Baltimore, Md. Outgoing President Neil Opdyke introduced the newly elected officers: President Subir Banerjee (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), President-Elect Ron Merrill (University of Washington, Seattle), and Secretary Laurie Brown (University of Massachusetts, Amherst). Announcements to members included upcoming workshops on rock magnetism and deep sea drilling (further details available elsewhere in the GP Compass) and the formation of a group to study the earth's core and lower mantle (the International Study of the Earth's Core and Lower Mantle, or ISECALM). The intention of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Earth Sciences Division to have deadlines of August 15 and January 15 for proposal submission was also announced.

184

Combined Spring Element in TILLY.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The user-defined element combined spring (C/SPRING) which is implemented in the TILLY program can be used to model different types of elements. Based on the concept of the Discrete Element Method (DEM), element definitions are given for: (1) beam element ...

J. W. Welleman

1992-01-01

185

Mammoth Hot Springs Online Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Mammoth Hot Springs. Prominent hot springs and terraces are highlighted with photos and information concerning their cycles of activity. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

186

Thermal mineral water springs in Karlovy Vary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the western part of the Czech Republic about 130 180 km west of the capital of Prague, in an area of about 300 sq km, several dozen mineral springs occur from various origins, with water of different chemical characteristics, temperatures, and levels of carbonation and radioactive intensity. Mineral waters are widely utilized, in particular for spa treatment of a broad range of ailments as well as for bottling (curative and table waters), industrial uses of carbon dioxide, evaporation for the salts dissolved in them and, in regard to thermal waters, for local heating.

Vrba, J.

1996-03-01

187

Chemical of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

1997-01-01

188

Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

Aldwell, C. R.

1996-03-01

189

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2009-10-01

190

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2010-10-01

191

Fusulinid biostratigraphy of Bird Spring Formation in Spring Mountains near Mountain Springs Pass, Clark County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Fusulinids from a 955.16 m thick section of Chesterian into Wolfcampian rocks of the Indian Springs and Bird Spring formations exposed near Mountain Springs Pass represent the biozones of Millerella to Pseudoschwagerina. Species of Millerella, Plectofusulina, Staffella, Schubertina, Pseudostaffella, Profusulinella, Fusulinella, Beedeina, Oketaella, Pseudofusulina, Triticites, Schwagerina, Eoparafusulina, and Cuniculinella were described. One new species of Millerella and three new species of Tricities were named. The Mountain Springs section can be correlated intraregionally with other sections in Clark County using similar cherty limestones or sandstone-dominated strata in association with biozones recognized in the southern Great Basin. The thickening of strata from the Mountain Springs section to the Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon sections demonstrated by this method reflects each section's position to the northeast-trending Las Vegas-Wasatch hinge line between thin, shallow shelf sediments and thicker sediments to the west after palinspastic reconstruction. The large diversity of fusulinid species in the Mountain Springs section relative to Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon suggests that a fusulinid diversity index may be useful in correlating similar paleoenvironments. Fusulinid biozones of the Mountain Springs section can also be correlated regionally with fusulinid subbiozones A through G of the Shasta Lake area in northern California and with fusulinid biozones of the Mid-Continent based on similar species and occurrences.

Gamache, M.T.; Webster, G.D.

1987-05-01

192

Spring Wheat in North Kazakhstan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book highlights problems in the biology of spring (soft) and durum (hard) wheat, its place in crop rotation schedules, basic and presowing land preparation, weed control, and varietal trials. It describes various agronomical measures to increase the ...

A. I. Baraev

1983-01-01

193

Silent Spring after 50 years.  

PubMed

As Silent Spring passed the half-century mark, historians have continued to reflect on its significance. For this issue of Endeavour, we drew together six articles that explore a few of the many legacies of this remarkable book. Given the impressive scope and breadth of the papers in this issue, it is clear that Silent Spring, and the shock waves surrounding its publication, continue to provide rich fodder for historical analysis. PMID:23174334

Davis, Frederick R

2012-11-20

194

The heavy spring at work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springs are used in simple demonstrations for the students of Physics classes\\u000ato illustrate the Hooke's Law and harmonic oscillations. The spring is usually\\u000aconsidered as a light object that does not possess a mass. What happens if the\\u000aspring is heavy, that is, if its mass is not negligible? This paper aims to\\u000adiscuss this problem as plainly as

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

2011-01-01

195

Earlier spring in Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, long-term changes in the first bloom date of shrub and tree species in Seoul (126.56°E, 37.34°N), Korea were examined using historical observational data for the period 1922-2004 (83 years). The study focused on two shrub species, golden-bell (Forsythia koreana) and azalea (Rhododendron mucronulatum), and three tree species, cherry (Prunus yedoensis), peach (Prunus persica), and American locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The annual-mean temperature has increased by about 2 °C in Seoul over the 83 years analyzed. The temperature increase is significant during the winter and early spring and becomes less significant during late spring. As a result of this regional warming, all five species showed an advance in the first bloom date over this time period. The advanced date is particularly apparent in early-spring flowering species like golden-bell (-2.4 days 10-year-1), azalea (-2.4 days 10-year-1), cherry (-1.4 days 10-year-1), and peach (-1.4 days 10-year-1) as compared to late-spring flowering species like American locust (-0.5 days 10-year-1).The present results have demonstrated that the major factor for the determination of flower blooming is heat accumulation, i.e. a certain threshold of growing degree-days (GDD) index. In particular, early spring flowers were sensitive to the accumulation of warm temperature than late-spring flowers.

Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, E.-J.; Lee, I.; Jeong, S.-J.

2006-11-01

196

Silent spring revisited  

SciTech Connect

A landmark in environmental concerns--this extraordinary book continues the ecological revolution that Rachel Carson started 20 years ago. The risks of pesticide use remain but the issues today have become conflicts of values. How do we trade off the dangers of toxic chemicals and their cost to the environment with the benefits of higher agricultural productivity. This book presents a daring new look at these very important concerns.

Marco, G.G.; Hollingworth, R.M.; Durham, W.

1986-01-01

197

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65...Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction...safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters...

2009-10-01

198

An Overview of the Spring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring is a highly modular, distributed, object-oriented operating system. This paper describes the goals of the Spring system and provides overviews of the Spring object model, the security model, and the naming ar chitecture. Implementation details of the Spring micr okernel, virtual memory system, file system, and UNIX emulation are sup- plied.

James G. Mitchell; Jonathan J. Gibbons; Graham Hamilton; Peter B. Kessler; Yousef Y. A. Khalidi; Panos Kougiouris; Peter W. Madany; Michael N. Nelson; Michael L. Powell; Sanjay R. Radia

1994-01-01

199

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65...Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction...safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters...

2010-10-01

200

Automobile leaf springs from composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel springs with fiberglass reinforced composite leaf springs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a general study on the analysis, design and fabrication of composite springs. From this viewpoint, the suspension spring of a compact car, “a jeep” was selected as a prototype.A single leaf, variable

H. A. Al-Qureshi

2001-01-01

201

Geology Fieldnotes: Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site provides information about Hot Springs National Park in Arkansas, including geology, photographs, park maps, and visitor information. The cold and hot (143 degrees Farenheit) springs are a big attraction here, having existed for some 4,000 years. This site describes the springs here as well as the hydrothermal process that heats the water of the springs.

202

Springs in time: fish fauna and habitat changes in springs over a 20-year interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the range of threats to springs and the number of spring-endemic species, studies of temporal changes in the fauna of springs have rarely been reported. Changes in the fish of 22 Oklahoma (USA) springs were compared among surveys in 1981, 1982, and 2001. 2. Twenty-year assemblage differences were correlated with physical alteration of specific springs and stocking of native

ELIZABETH A. BERGEYa

203

Herbicide contamination and dispersion pattern in lowland springs.  

PubMed

Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800 m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the proximity of these fragile GDE. PMID:23018054

Laini, Alex; Bartoli, Marco; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Capri, Ettore; Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco

2012-09-25

204

Changes in European spring phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European phyto-phenological database of the EU 5th Framework project POSITIVE facilitated an examination of the rate and spatial pattern of changes in spring phenology across Europe. This database was collected, evaluated and composed from different national databases of Eastern and Western Europe covering the time period 1951-1998. Results show that spring phases have advanced four weeks in Western and Central Europe, and have been delayed up to two weeks in Eastern Europe. Western European spring starts earlier because of the intensive flow of warmer Atlantic air masses; the Eastern part of Europe has a different phenological rhythm and trends, that can be explained by the influence of the Siberian high. The highest rate of significant (p < 0.05) phenological change (-0.3 to -0.4 days per year) occurs in the Western Europe and Baltic Sea regions for early spring phases of hazel and colts-foot. Spring phases of birch, apple and lilac, and summer phases, such as the flowering of linden, tend to occur earlier with an average rate of -0.1 to 0.3 days per year.

Ahas, R.; Aasa, A.; Menzel, A.; Fedotova, V. G.; Scheifinger, H.

2002-11-01

205

76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Cañon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9447-1] Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Ca[ntilde]on City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride; Carbon Monoxide and PM...Monoxide Attainment/Maintenance Plan Colorado Springs Attainment/ Maintenance Area''...

2011-08-02

206

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01

207

Regulation of an Actin Spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To produce motion, cells rely on the conversion of potential energy into mechanical work. One such example is the dramatic process involving the acrosome reaction of Limulus sperm, whereby a 60 ?m-long bundle of actin filaments straightens from a coiled conformation to extend out of the cell in five seconds. This cellular engine and the motion it produces represent a third type of actin-based motility fundamentally different from polymerization or myosin-driven processes. The motive force for this extension originates from stored elastic energy in the overtwisted, pre-formed coil---much like a compressed mechanical spring. When the actin bundle untwists, this energy is converted to mechanical work powering the extension. We report on experiments probing the regulation of this actin spring by extracellular calcium. We find that extracellular calcium needs to be present for the spring to activate, and that calcium regulates the velocity of the extension.

Tam, Barney; Shin, Jennifer; Brau, Ricardo; Lang, Matthew; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

2006-03-01

208

Macroinvertebrate communities of karst springs of two river catchments in the Southern Limestone Alps (the Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroinvertebrate communities of 16 karst springs in the Southern Limestone Alps (Slovenia, SE Europe), were studied from\\u000a May to September 1999, together with the major chemical parameters of the water and selected physical characteristics of the\\u000a springs. The springs are located in an area of 800 km2, between 410 and 955 m a.s.l., and drain into two rivers whose catchments are separated

Nataša Mori; Anton Brancelj

2006-01-01

209

Equivalent mass of a coil spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hooke's law force on a coil spring often constitutes a student's first introduction to the properties of simple harmonic motion. The usual treatment assumes a vertical massless spring, held fixed at one end and stretched by a hanging mass M at the other. An occasional text, however, points out that the treatment, in the case of a hanging spring, can be improved by taking into account the equivalent mass mo/3 of the spring. It is only necessary to addmo/3 to the hanging mass M in the expression that relates the frequency of the spring oscillations to M and to the spring constant k.

Ruby, Lawrence

2000-03-01

210

Acoustic communication in spring peepers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral and amplitude features of the advertisement call of male spring peeper tree frogs (Hyla crucifer) were analyzed and compared to the physiological characteristics of the peripheral auditory system in both males and females determined by single unit electrophysiological recording in the VIIIth cranial nerve. The call is a very simple, nearly tonal signal with a single spectral peak (mean

Walter Wilczynski; Harold H. Zakon; Eliot A. Brenowitz

1984-01-01

211

Finding Spring on Planet X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

212

Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

213

TEACH Evaluation, Spring 2002. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TEACH is a partnership program involving California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB), College of the Canyons (COC) and the Newhall and Hart School Districts to provide students with supervised fieldwork and specialized support services while pursuing a California teaching credential. This Spring 2002 TEACH evaluation reports on surveys of COC…

Meuschke, Daylene M; Dixon, P. Scott; Gribbons, Barry C.

214

Hot Springs: Valley of Vapors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Best known for its 47 mineral-rich hot springs by those seeking relief in the ancient tradition of thermal bathing, This Arkansas mecca has been visited first by Indians seeking mudholes and later by turn-of-the century visitors coming to enjoy the plush ...

1994-01-01

215

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

216

NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of Lost Empires". It provides activity set-ups related…

Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

217

NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity…

Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

218

Community Needs Assessment, Spring 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Spring 1982, a districtwide survey was conducted by Cerritos College (CC) to assess the educational needs of the surrounding community. Residents were asked to provide demographic information and respond to questions about their awareness of the college, their perception and evaluation of various CC roles, and their preferences for courses and…

Dennis-Rounds, Jan

219

A Breath of Spring Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The most promising sights of spring in Nebraska this year were two conferences for women. One event, sponsored by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, was a Women's History Month Tea. A second conference was the meeting of the Nebraska Women in Higher Education. These two events suggest that there is a continuing interest in women's…

Grady, Marilyn L.

2009-01-01

220

Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

2006-12-01

221

Manufacture of springs from cold-worked austenitic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic chromonickel steel, containing 18% Cr and 9?10% Ni, is highly corrosion-resistant and nonmagnetic. Such steel is widely used in the medical, chemical, and food industries and in the manufacture of machine tools and equipment for tropical climates. Elastic components made from such steel—springs and membranes—should be characterized by high yield point and also high strength and hardness. The only

A. M. Adaskin

2009-01-01

222

14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2013-01-01

223

14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2013-01-01

224

14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter or unsafe flight...

2013-01-01

225

Triangular springs for modeling nonlinear membranes.  

PubMed

This paper provides a formal connexion between springs and continuum mechanics in the context of one-dimensional and two-dimensional elasticity. In a first stage, the equivalence between tensile springs and the finite element discretization of stretching energy on planar curves is established. Furthermore, when considering a quadratic strain function of stretch, we introduce a new type of springs called tensile biquadratic springs. In a second stage, we extend this equivalence to non-linear membranes (St Venant-Kirchhoff materials) on triangular meshes leading to triangular biquadratic and quadratic springs. Those tensile and angular springs produce isotropic deformations parameterized by Young modulus and Poisson ratios on unstructured meshes in an efficient and simple way. For a specific choice of the Poisson ratio, 0.3, we show that regular spring-mass models may be used realistically to simulate a membrane behavior. Finally, the different spring formulations are tested in pure traction and cloth simulation experiments. PMID:18192713

Delingette, Hervé

226

Rubber-Spring Bands and Their Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rubber springs of elongated bands of prismatic shape and mold-cured to metal to form sandwich armature are called rubber springbands. This paper reviews the multiple applications of this simply shaped type of rubber springs and demonstrates some examples ...

O. Suhajda

1969-01-01

227

Composition of pore and spring waters from Baby Bare: global implications of geochemical fluxes from a ridge flank hydrothermal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm hydrothermal springs were discovered on Baby Bare, which is an isolated basement outcrop on 3.5 Ma-old crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We have sampled these spring waters from a manned submersible, along with associated sediment pore waters from 48 gravity and piston cores. Systematic variations in the chemical composition of these waters indicate

C. Geoffrey Wheat; Michael J. Mottl

2000-01-01

228

RUNNING SPRINGS: SPEED AND ANIMAL SIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find

CLAIRE T. FARLEY; JAMES GLASHEEN; THOMAS A. MCMAHON

1993-01-01

229

49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

2011-10-01

230

49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

2012-10-01

231

Three Uses for Springs in Legged Locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running animals and robots can save energy and reduce unwanted heat production by bouncing along on springs, using the principle of the pogo stick. (The principal springs in animals are tendons.) They can make further energy savings by using return springs to halt the legs at the end of each foward or backward swing and start them swinging the other

R. Mcn. Alexander

1990-01-01

232

Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

233

Equivalent mass of a coil spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hooke's law force on a coil spring often constitutes a student's first introduction to the properties of simple harmonic motion. The usual treatment assumes a vertical massless spring, held fixed at one end and stretched by a hanging mass M at the other. An occasional text, however, points out that the treatment, in the case of a hanging spring,

Lawrence Ruby

2000-01-01

234

Springs in Time: Fish Faunal Changes in Oklahoma Springs Over a 20Year Interval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springs face a number of threats affecting water quality, habitat characteristics, and biodiversity. Despite these threats and the occurrence of spring-endemic species, temporal changes in spring biota have been little studied. We compared among-year changes in 22 Oklahoma springs with fish that were sampled in 1981 and 1982, and again in 2001, after 20 years. Although flow reduction from groundwater

E. A. Bergey; J. E. Weaver

2005-01-01

235

Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Springs Supporting a MidContinent Marine Ecosystem: An Analogue for Martian Springs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L\\/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated

Stephen E. Grasby; Kathleen L. Londry

2007-01-01

236

Microscopic Physical Biomarkers in Carbonate Hot Springs: Implications in the Search for Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms—submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72°C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In

Carlton C. Allen; Fred G. Albert; Henry S. Chafetz; Joan Combie; Catherine R. Graham; Thomas L. Kieft; Steven J. Kivett; David S. McKay; Andrew Steele; Anne E. Taunton; Michael R. Taylor; Kathie L. Thomas-Keprta; Frances Westall

2000-01-01

237

Seasonality of macroalgae and epilithic diatoms in spring-fed streams in Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seasonal study of two spring-fed stream systems in south-central Texas was undertaken over a 15-month period from June 1996\\u000a to September 1997. Relative abundance of the epilithic diatom flora, percent cover of macroalgae, and several physical and\\u000a chemical conditions were monitored in one 20-m stretch in each of the streams at approximately two-month intervals. Six additional\\u000a spring-fed stream segments

Alison R. Sherwood; Robert G. Sheath

1998-01-01

238

Supplemental data from the Ennis and other thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana, 1978-1980  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogeologic data were collected principally during 1978 to 1980 in eight hot-spring areas, in the Marysville geothermal test well, in the Butte mine and in the Bitterroot and Missoula River valleys to provide a basis for evaluating the geothermal potential of the areas. Measurements are tabulated for subsurface temperatures, water levels, rates of flow, and the chemical composition of water and gas in wells and test holes. Most of the data are for the area near Ennis Hot Springs.

Leonard, R.B.; Wood,W.A.

1980-10-01

239

1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

240

FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

Beard, L. S.; Ellis, C. E.

1984-01-01

241

Academic Computing Newsletter: Spring 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academic Computing newsletter with recent staff development and hires, and software and hardware upgrades. Contents include:\\u000aWelcome to Max Ivey 1 Y2K Congratulations 1 New Faces 1 Hardware\\/Software Update 2 Library Notes 3 Campus Network Utilizatioon 3 Technology Events 4 Campus Technology 5 Westnet Spring Schedule 6 Dailey Hall Workshop Schedule 7 ACS General Information 8

Mary Jo Orzech

2000-01-01

242

Volusia Blue Spring - A Hydrological Treasure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs are natural openings in the ground through which water beneath the surface discharges into hydrologic features such as lakes, rivers, or the ocean. The beautiful springs and spring rivers are among Florida's most valued natural resources; their gemlike refreshing waters have been a focal point of life from prehistoric times to the present (2008). The steady flow of freshwater at a nearly constant water temperature attracted animals now long absent from Florida's landscape. Fossil remains and human artifacts, discovered by divers from many spring runs, attest to the importance of springs to the State's earliest inhabitants. Explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to John and William Bartram and others, often mentioned the springs that were scattered across central and northern Florida. As colonists and settlers began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to be the focus of human activity, becoming sites of missions, towns, and steamboat landings.

German, Edward R.

2008-01-01

243

DHS Summary Report -- Robert Weldon  

SciTech Connect

This summer I worked on benchmarking the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fission multiplicity capability used in the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX. This work involved running simulations and then comparing the simulation results with experimental experiments. Outlined in this paper is a brief description of the work completed this summer, skills and knowledge gained, and how the internship has impacted my planning for the future. Neutron multiplicity counting is a neutron detection technique that leverages the multiplicity emissions of neutrons from fission to identify various actinides in a lump of material. The identification of individual actinides in lumps of material crossing our boarders, especially U-235 and Pu-239, is a key component for maintaining the safety of the country from nuclear threats. Several multiplicity emission options from spontaneous and induced fission already existed in MCNPX 2.4.0. These options can be accessed through use of the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a physics model for the simulation of neutron and gamma ray emission from fission and photofission that was included in MCNPX 2.7.B as an undocumented feature and then was documented in MCNPX 2.7.C. The LLNL multiplicity capability provided a different means for MCNPX to simulate neutron and gamma-ray distributions for neutron induced, spontaneous and photonuclear fission reactions. The original testing on the model for implementation into MCNPX was conducted by Gregg McKinney and John Hendricks. The model is an encapsulation of measured data of neutron multiplicity distributions from Gwin, Spencer, and Ingle, along with the data from Zucker and Holden. One of the founding principles of MCNPX was that it would have several redundant capabilities, providing the means of testing and including various physics packages. Though several multiplicity sampling methodologies already existed within MCNPX, the LLNL fission multiplicity was included to provide a separate capability for computing multiplicity as well as including several new features not already included in MCNPX. These new features include: (1) prompt gamma emission/multiplicity from neutron-induced fission; (2) neutron multiplicity and gamma emission/multiplicity from photofission; and (3) an option to enforce energy correlation for gamma neutron multiplicity emission. These new capabilities allow correlated signal detection for identifying presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Therefore, these new capabilities help meet the missions of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), which is tasked with developing nuclear detection strategies for identifying potential radiological and nuclear threats, by providing new simulation capability for detection strategies that leverage the new available physics in the LLNL multiplicity capability. Two types of tests were accomplished this summer to test the default LLNL neutron multiplicity capability: neutron-induced fission tests and spontaneous fission tests. Both cases set the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card to 5 (i.e. use LLNL multiplicity). The neutron-induced fission tests utilized a simple 0.001 cm radius sphere where 0.0253 eV neutrons were released at the sphere center. Neutrons were forced to immediately collide in the sphere and release all progeny from the sphere, without further collision, using the LCA card, LCA 7j -2 (therefore density and size of the sphere were irrelevant). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific multiplicity did not exceed 0.36%. Neutron-induced fission multiplicities were computed for U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241. The spontaneous fission tests also used the same spherical geometry, except: (1) the LCA card was removed; (2) the density of the sphere was set to 0.001 g/cm3; and (3) instead of emitting a thermal neutron, the PAR keyword was set to PAR=SF. The purpose of the small density was to ensure that the spontaneous fission neutrons would not further interact and induce fissions (i.e. th

Weldon, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

244

Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The equation of motion of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator is x(t) = Acos(wt+f) where A is the amplitude, omega is the angular frequency, and phi is the phase. Verify the correctness of these equations for the maximum speed and maximum acceleration by measuring the angular frequency of the oscillator and the amplitude of the oscillator, calculating the maximum speed and acceleration, and comparing these values to those found on the graphs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

245

Sources and Chronology of Nitrate Contamination of Spring Waters: Integrating Science and Policy Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human health and ecological concerns have arisen regarding spring waters in Florida as a steady increase in nitrate concentrations has been observed during the past 30 years. The extensive aesthetic, cultural, and recreational value of these springs, which also supply water for human consumption and support critical ecological habitats, could be threatened by the presence of nitrate. As part of the response to these concerns by the State of Florida, several research studies have used various chemical and isotopic tracers to determine sources of nitrate contamination and age of ground water discharging from springs. Since 1997, 60 water samples have been collected from 44 springs and analyzed for isotopic (15N, 3H/3He, 18O, 2H, 13C) and other chemical tracers (CFCs, major ions, dissolved gases, SF6). Delta 15N values of nitrate ranged from 2.6 to 12.9 per mil (median = 5.8 per mil) and indicated that nitrate in most spring waters originated from synthetic fertilizers. CFCs, 3H/3He, and SF6, used to estimate the residence time of ground water discharging from springs, indicated that spring-water ages ranged from 5 to 39 years. Concentrations of these multiple transient tracers are consistent with a two-component hydrologic model with mixtures of varying proportions of young water (less than 8 years) from the shallow part of the aquifer system and older water (20-50 years) from the deeper part of the flow system. Given residence times of 20-40 years for ground water discharging from most springs, it could take decades for nitrate concentrations to decrease to near background levels, even with immediate reductions in nitrogen inputs to the land surface. These research results are being used by the State of Florida to inform elected officials, water-resource mangers, and planners that decisions about land use today will affect the quality of ground water in springs for decades.

Katz, B. G.; Stevenson, J. A.

2002-12-01

246

Springs in Time: Fish Faunal Changes in Oklahoma Springs Over a 20-Year Interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs face a number of threats affecting water quality, habitat characteristics, and biodiversity. Despite these threats and the occurrence of spring-endemic species, temporal changes in spring biota have been little studied. We compared among-year changes in 22 Oklahoma springs with fish that were sampled in 1981 and 1982, and again in 2001, after 20 years. Although flow reduction from groundwater use is a major threat to springs, we found little evidence of flow impacts in these fish-containing springs. Flow reduction was not a major threat because springs may have been impacted prior to the study and springs containing fish were in areas with low groundwater water use (although some of these springs are threatened by proposed large-scale groundwater sales). Twenty-year assemblage differences were correlated with physical alteration of specific springs and the introduction of fish. These introductions were possible because of alterations that deepened habitats. Between-year variation in spring fish assemblages was affected by movement of species in and out of springs. The distinctive fish fauna in 1982 was correlated with unusually high spring rains and the resultant greater connectivity between springs and streams.

Bergey, E. A.; Weaver, J. E.

2005-05-01

247

Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits: developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars.  

PubMed

Current interpretations of the early history of Mars suggest many similarities with the early Earth and therefore raise the possibility that the Archean and Proterozoic history of life on Earth could have a counterpart on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including thermal springs, could well yield important information. By delivering water and various dissolved species to the sunlit surface of Mars, springs very likely created an environment suitable for life, which could have been difficult, if not impossible, to attain elsewhere. The chemical and temperature gradients associated with thermal springs sort organisms into sharply delineated, distinctive and different communities, and so diverse organisms are concentrated into relatively small areas in a predictable and informative fashion. A wide range of metabolic strategies are concentrated into small areas, thus furnishing a useful and representative sampling of the existing biota. Mineral-charged springwaters frequently deposit chemical precipitates of silica and/or carbonate which incorporate microorganisms and preserve them as fossils. The juxtaposition of stream valley headwaters with volcanoes and impact craters on Mars strongly implies that subsurface heating of groundwater created thermal springs. On Earth, thermal springs create distinctive geomorphic features and chemical signatures which can be detected by remote sensing. Spring deposits can be quite different chemically from adjacent rocks. Individual springs can be hundreds of meters wide, and complexes of springs occupy areas up to several kilometers wide. Benthic microbial mats and the resultant stromatolites occupy a large fraction of the available area. The relatively high densities of fossils and microbial mat fabrics within these deposits make them highly prospective in any search for morphological evidence of life, and there are examples of microbial fossils in spring deposits as old as 300 Myr. PMID:11536937

Walter, M R; Des Marais, D J

1993-01-01

248

Preservation of Biological Information in Thermal Spring Deposits: Developing a Strategy for the Search for Fossil Life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current interpretations of the early history of Mars suggest many similarities with the early Earth and therefore raise the possibility that the Archean and Proterozoic history of life on Earth could have a counterpart on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including thermal springs, could well yield important information. By delivering water and various dissolved species to the sunlit surface of Mars, springs very likely created an environment suitable for life, which could have been difficult, if not impossible, to attain elsewhere. The chemical and temperature gradients associated with thermal springs sort organisms into sharply delineated, distinctive and different communities, and so diverse organisms are concentrated into relatively small areas in a predictable and informative fashion. A wide range of metabolic strategies are concentrated into small areas, thus furnishing a useful and representative sampling of the existing biota. Mineral-charged springwaters frequently deposit chemical precipitates of silica and/or carbonate which incorporate microorganisms and preserve them as fossils. The juxtaposition of stream valley headwaters with volcanoes and impact craters on Mars strongly implies that subsurface heating of groundwater created thermal springs. On Earth, thermal springs create distinctive geomorphic features and chemical signatures which can be detected by remote sensing. Spring deposits can be quite different chemically from adjacent rocks. Individual springs can be hundreds of meters wide, and complexes of springs occupy areas up to several kilometers wide. Benthic microbial mats and the resultant stromatolites occupy a large fraction of the available area. The relatively high densities of fossils and microbial mat fabrics within these deposits make them highly prospective in any search for morphological evidence of life, and there are examples of microbial fossils in spring deposits as old as 300 Myr.

Walter, M. R.; Des Marais, David J.

1993-01-01

249

Selected data from thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data collected during 1975-77 are combined with published and unpublished data from several sources to provide a data base that can be useful for assessing the geothermal potential of 27 hot-spring areas in southwestern Montana. Parameters determined in the field were site location, flow rate, specific conductance , pH, and temperature. Laboratory determinations were concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents. The stable isotopic composition and gross alpha and gross beta activity of the waters were determined for several sites, as well as the composition of gases associated with the water. Temperatures of the thermal waters exceeded 100 F at each of the locations. Temperature profiles in water wells near several hot-spring areas are tabulated. Sources of data included in the report, and sources of related data not in the report, are identified in the Selected References. (Woodard-USGS)

Leonard, Robert B.; Brosten, Tordis M.; Midtlyng, Norman A.

1978-01-01

250

A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits.  

PubMed

The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

2005-05-01

251

EXPLORATION STRATEGY FOR HOT-SPRING PRECIOUS-METAL DEPOSITS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discovery of economic precious-metal deposits related to physical-chemical processes in the near-surface portions of high-temperature hot-spring systems has led to intensive exploration efforts for this deposit type. To increase the probability of success, these exploration programs should (1) be based on the most important visually recognizable or readily measurable deposit-model criteria; (2) be able to identify specific targets within the best search areas; and (3) be able to rank the order of priority among the targets. We propose a process-recognition exploration strategy for hot-spring deposits that has been developed from data from precious-metal occurrences at several localities in the western United States. The exploration model is based on the degree to which recognizable geologic and geochemical criteria are favorable or unfavorable to the occurrence of an economic deposit, either through their presence or absence.

Berger, Byron, R.; Adams, Samuel, S.

1984-01-01

252

Spring, 1980, DECUS symposium review  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (DECUS) holds biannual symposia where its membership and the host company can exchange ideas, problems, and solutions. This report by the newly formed DECUS Local User Group at LLL collects information gathered at the Spring '80 symposium in Chicago on April 22-25. Information is presented for the following special interest groups (SIGs): RSX/IAS SIG, VAX/VSM SIG, PASCAL (languages) SIG, networks SIG, TECO SIG, LSI-11 SIG, RT-11 SIG, site manager SIG, and database SIG. (RWR)

Allen, M.J.; Duffy, J.M.; McDonald, W.M.; Oppenheimer, J.L.; Brandt, J.J.; Grant, C.W.; O'Brien, D.W.; VanLehn, A.L.

1980-10-24

253

My Physics Labs - Single Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation displays the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator. The user can adjust the physical parameters in the problem including mass, spring stiffness, and damping. Graphs can be plotted relating any two dynamical quantities: position, velocity, acceleration, energy (potential, kinetic, and total), and the work done by damping. Bar graphs showing the energy are displayed in a separate area. The web page also gives and outline of the physics, the mathematical models used, and the numerical methods for the simulation. This is one of a group of simulations of classical systems.

Neumann, Erik

2008-07-30

254

The Spring Nucleus: A Microkemel for Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spring system is a distributed operating system that supports a distributed, object-oriented application framework. Each individual Spring system is based around a microkernel known as the nucleus, which is structured to support fast cross-address-space object invocations. This paper discusses the deign rationale for the nucleus' IPC facilities and how they fit into the overall Spring programming model. We then

Graham Hamilton; Panos Kougiouris

1993-01-01

255

MR imaging findings in spring ligament insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Spring ligament insufficiency is associated with chronic posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and may constitute an indication\\u000a for surgical repair or reconstruction. This study examines the accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of insufficiency of the spring\\u000a ligament. Design and patients. Two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists independently scored the MRI findings in 13 cases of surgically proven spring\\u000a ligament insufficiency and

Lawrence Yao; Amilcare Gentili; Andrea Cracchiolo

1999-01-01

256

A Spring, Hooke's Law, and Archimedes' Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass on a spring is a simple and inexpensive device that can be used to demonstrate many important physics concepts. Almost all standard introductory physics lab manuals include at least one or two experiments with a spring.1,2 Most of these experiments explore Hooke's law and simple harmonic motion. We would like to suggest another simple ``spring-based'' experiment that we

Irina Struganova

2005-01-01

257

HOOKE'S LAW AND A SIMPLE SPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spring constant of a screen-door spring was determined both statically, by measuring its elongation when subjected to loading, and dynamically, by measuring the period of a mass hung from one end and set into vertical oscillation. The resulting values of 218.6 + 0.4 N\\/m and 217.8 + 1.0 N\\/m, respectively, indicate that the spring's behavior follows Hooke's law to

DONALD C. PECKHAM

258

A Spring, Hooke's Law, and Archimedes' Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass on a spring is a simple and inexpensive device that can be used to demonstrate many important physics concepts. Almost all standard introductory physics lab manuals include at least one or two experiments with a spring.1,2 Most of these experiments explore Hooke's law and simple harmonic motion. We would like to suggest another simple ``spring-based'' experiment that we performed for the past two years in an introductory physics lab at Barry University.

Struganova, Irina

2005-11-01

259

Measuring AFM Cantilever Spring Constants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum computing group at NIST are developing superconducting Josephson junctions as qubits. To build a functional qubit, it is essential to understand the properties of the materials at the nanoscale. Conducting atomic force microscopy, which can simultaneously measure topography and conductance, is a promising tool for these purposes. Previous results suggest that control of the imaging force in CAFM is vital to achieve reproducible images. The imaging force is calculated with Hooke's Law (F = kx) and a constant cantilever deflection (x) can be maintained. To achieve reproducible images between scans and when changing cantilevers, we have designed a system for measuring the spring constant of each cantilever in situ. Using a high-speed digitizer and a signal analysis program, we record thermal fluctuations of a cantilever (), and then determine its spring constant using [ k=frack_BT] In this poster, we discuss the thermal resonance method and details of the system we have implemented at NIST. In addition we present data comparing the thermal method with a second method and data evaluating the consistency of the thermal method.

Chynoweth, K.; Lang, K.; Wigton, M.

2004-10-01

260

Major and trace element hydrochemistry in a spring-fed river (Spring River, Arkansas)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses the unique hydrology of the Spring River of Arkansas and the consequent variations in the chemistry of the waters. The Spring River supports one of the most diverse fish fauna in the south-central region of the U.S. and is an economic base for this region of Arkansas. The mouth of the Spring River in northeast Arkansas is

N. Bickford; R. Hannigan

2001-01-01

261

1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the Springs of the South and West by Moorman) No date 'MAP OF ROUTES AND DISTANCES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS' - White Sulphur Springs, U.S. Route 60, White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, WV

262

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 In the Spotlight Genevieve Joseph Genevieve Joseph is no stranger to clinical trials. Before joining the PLCO study, she enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a very

263

Geology Fieldnotes: Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pipe Spring is a naturally occurring, free-flowing spring on the Arizona Strip that has attracted wayfarers and settlers for many centuries. The information on this site deals primarily with the prehistoric and recent human history of the monument, and includes links to additional resources.

264

Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

2012-01-01

265

The Arab Spring: Implications for Israeli Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular uprising that started in Tunisia in December 2010 quickly spread across the Arab world, culminating in a historic regional realignment with far-reaching implications. This essay details the implications of the Arab Spring for Israeli security. After highlighting the history of Israel’s defense strategy and reviewing the Arab Spring revolts, the authors find that the recent uprisings exacerbate several

Jeffrey S. Morton; Nicole Shortt

2012-01-01

266

Microbial Ecology of Olympic Hot Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thg ecglggy of Olympic Hor Springs in Olympic National Park was studied through laboratory and field_observarions The hot spring environment provided an interesting system for study since it probably had existed throughout the time that life had been evolving on earh. The otganisms found growing under these thermal conditions helped to reveal the extent to which evolutioo had been pushed.

John G. Kleyn

267

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet Amy SubarMeet Richard Hayes From Lab to Life Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Clinical Trials

268

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 Cancer Information Services If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a toll-free

269

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 3, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 2000 Cancer Information Services If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a toll-free

270

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 1, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office What is the PLCO Trial?Why volunteer?Screening testsWhy two study groups? From Lab to Life

271

IA Tuesday Workshop Materials, Spring 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All Workshop Materials during Spring 2010 for printing and viewing. Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

Olsen, Mr.

2010-01-19

272

Hydrogeologic assessment---Figeh Spring, Damascus, Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeological studies at Figeh Springs were directed to determine groundwater flow paths, research, storage and discharge units, and the maximum reliable yield. The project was designed to provide information upon which to base pumpage to augment low-season flows from the spring which is the major water supply for the city of Damascus, Syria. As a basis for conclusions and recommendations,

P. E. Lamoreaux; Travis H. Hughes; Bashir A. Memon; Neal Lineback

1989-01-01

273

Hydrogeologic assessment—Figeh Spring, Damascus, Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogeological studies at Figeh Springs were directed to determine groundwater flow paths, research, storage and discharge units, and the maximum reliable yield. The project was designed to provide information upon which to base pumpage to augment low-season flows from the spring which is the major water supply for the city of Damascus, Syria.

P. E. Lamoreaux; Travis H. Hughes; Bashir A. Memon; Neal Lineback

1989-01-01

274

NTNU Java: Spring Force and SHM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet presents the relations between simple harmonic motion and force with a demonstration of spring motion. It graphs both force and velocity versus position as the simulation runs. The user can add and remove mass and 'pull' the spring.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2004-12-19

275

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

276

Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring water with low [Ca2+] and [HCO3-] precipitated smaller quantities of calcite and required longer flow distances to achieve CaCO3 supersaturation (e.g. Hot Creek). Spring water discharge volumes were controlled mainly by seasonal to millennial fluctuations in meteoric precipitation. Modern spring systems are characterized by reduced discharge volumes, channeled flow, and minimal calcite precipitation. Currently, spring water does not precipitate calcite where it flows into streams prior to achieving critical CaCO 3 supersaturation (e.g. Fall Creek).

Rainey, Dustin Kyle

277

A natural tracer investigation of the hydrological regime of Spring Creek Springs, the largest submarine spring system in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents results from a nearly two-year monitoring of the hydrologic dynamics of the largest submarine spring system in Florida, Spring Creek Springs. During the summer of 2007 this spring system was observed to have significantly reduced flow due to persistent drought conditions. Our examination of the springs revealed that the salinity of the springs' waters had increased significantly, from 4 in 2004 to 33 in July 2007 with anomalous high radon ( 222Rn, t1/2=3.8 days) in surface water concentrations indicating substantial saltwater intrusion into the local aquifer. During our investigation from August 2007 to May 2009 we deployed on an almost monthly basis a continuous radon-in-water measurement system and monitored the salinity fluctuations in the discharge area. To evaluate the springs' freshwater flux we developed three different models: two of them are based on water velocity measurements and either salinity or 222Rn in the associated surface waters as groundwater tracers. The third approach used only salinity changes within the spring area. The three models showed good agreement and the results confirmed that the hydrologic regime of the system is strongly correlated to local precipitation and water table fluctuations with higher discharges after major rain events and very low, even reverse flow during prolong droughts. High flow spring conditions were observed twice during our study, in the early spring and mid-late summer of 2008. However the freshwater spring flux during our observation period never reached that reported from a 1970s value of 4.9×10 6 m 3/day. The maximum spring flow was estimated at about 3.0×10 6 m 3/day after heavy precipitation in February-March 2008. As a result of this storm (total of 173 mm) the salinity in the spring area dropped from about 27 to 2 in only two days. The radon-in-water concentrations dramatically increased in parallel, from about 330 Bq/m 3 to about 6600 Bq/m 3. Such a rapid response suggests a direct connection between the deep and the surficial aquifers.

Dimova, Natasha T.; Burnett, William C.; Speer, Kevin

2011-04-01

278

Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

1979-01-01

279

Chemical tracing of salinity sources in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kinneret is a freshwater lake in northern Israel that receives a major part of its salt input from unmonitored springs that discharge through the lake's bottom. We attempt to characterize the nature of these springs by estimating their chemical composition. While the springs around Lake Kinneret are subject to wide spatial and temporal variations in their ionic concentrations, specific

Yehoshua Kolodny; Amitai Katz; Abraham Starinsky; Tamar Moise; Ehud Simon

1999-01-01

280

Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are probably limited in extent, compared to geothermal fields now being used elsewhere in the world. Only the Bell Island and Bailey Bay sites now offer any potential for generation of electricity; these sites could also be used for a variety of direct uses such as space heating, wood or lumber processing, and perhaps aquaculture. The other sites have less potential but could be used locally for space heating or agriculture enhancement.

Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

1980-06-01

281

Statistical Modeling of Spring Discharge at Rock and Wekiva Springs in Orange County, Florida. Special Publication SJ2007-SP12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to develop a historic daily spring discharge time series for Rock and Wekiva springs from an assortment of auxiliary data such as: (a) previously recorded spring discharge at the spring of interest and at adjacent springs, (...

2007-01-01

282

Shot-Peening Procedures for Helical Compression Springs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various shot-peening procedures for the manufacture of cold-wound helical compression springs were investigated to establish optimum shot-peening methods to increase the life endurance properties of springs. Production springs that are typical of small ar...

H. P. Swieskowski

1975-01-01

283

2. Photocopy of photograph (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Photocopy of photograph (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) James R. Dunlap, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, FACADE OF LODGE - Hot Springs Lodge, Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, CO

284

Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

285

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve mustâ...

2011-10-01

286

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

287

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

288

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve mustâ...

2012-10-01

289

Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

290

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

291

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

292

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

293

2. SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) CHAPEL, STORE BUILDING, SPRING HOUSE, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) CHAPEL, STORE BUILDING, SPRING HOUSE, AND BATH HOUSE, SOUTHEAST FACADES (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

294

National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011  

SciTech Connect

Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

Schell, D. J.

2011-04-01

295

Microbial diversity of soil from two hot springs in Uttaranchal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples collected from two hot springs, Soldhar and Ringigad, both located in the Garhwal region of Uttaranchal Himalaya were analysed for their physical, chemical and microbial components. The alkaline pH, total absence of carbon and nitrogen, and high temperature were features common to soil samples from both sites. The Soldhar samples contained higher amounts of Cu, Fe and Mn.

Bhavesh Kumar; Pankaj Trivedi; Anil Kumar Mishra; Anita Pandey; Lok Man S Palni

2004-01-01

296

A global model study of processes controlling aerosol size distributions in the Arctic spring and summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global chemical transport model (CTM) with size-resolved aerosol microphysics to evaluate our understanding of the processes that control Arctic aerosol, focussing on the seasonal changes in the particle size distribution during the transition from Arctic haze in spring to cleaner conditions in summer. This period presents several challenges for a global model simulation because of changes in

Hannele Korhonen; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Dominick V. Spracklen; David A. Ridley; Johan Ström

2008-01-01

297

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

DeMario, Edmund E. (Columbia, SC); Lawson, Charles N. (Columbia, SC)

1993-01-01

298

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

1993-11-23

299

Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflo...

M. O. Gary R. H. Gary W. H. Asquith

2008-01-01

300

Pumping tests of well Campbell et al. No. 2, Gila Hot Springs, Grant County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Well Campbell et al. No. 2 near Gila Hot Springs in southwestern New Mexico (Section 5, Township 13 South, Range 13 West) was pumped for a five-step test and a 48-hour constant-rate test during October 1981. Measurements included depth to water in the pumping well and two observation wells, and discharge rates at the pumping well and two springs. The water level in the pumping well responded during both tests. However, water-level changes in the observation wells were too small for analytical use and discharge rates from the springs showed no change. Chemical analyses of water samples collected from two springs and the pumping well show very similar water chemistries. Estimates of hydraulic properties show transmissivity from 12,000 to 14,000 gpd/ft and a storativity of 0.05. Combining these parameters with well data gives the first-year optimum discharge rate as 50 gpm with 20 feet of drawdown. Pumping this well at 50 gpm for forty years should produce only small water-level changes in wells a few hundred feet away. It would diminish the flow of the springs, and for planning purposes the combined discharge of the springs and well should be considered constant.

Schwab, G.E.; Summers, W.K.; Colpitts, R.M. Jr.; Teuten, C.E.; Young, W.K.

1982-03-01

301

76 FR 59998 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Postharvest Chemical Use Survey and All Associated Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...after harvesting, how the chemicals are applied, when they...and 2009 the Postharvest Chemical Use survey was suspended...not publish a Postharvest Chemical Use report in the Spring of 2012 unless there is a change in the anticipated...

2011-09-28

302

The Science Teacher: Spring 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews chemistry-related articles published between Summer 2007 and February 2008, in The Science Teacher ( TST ). A new TST column addresses safety-with emphases in reviewed articles on chemical hygiene plans, bloodborne pathogens, ionizing radiation, eyewash and shower stations, electrical safety, and chemical management. In addition, activities for teaching about ionic compounds, an inquiry-based lab and card sorting project on freezing point depressions, and a simulation of Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment are described. Also included is a career focus on a green product chemist. Supplementary JCE articles for these articles and topics are referenced.

Long, Steve

2008-06-01

303

Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?  

PubMed

Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem. PMID:17723097

Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

2007-08-01

304

Cross-shaped torsional spring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.

Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.

1999-06-08

305

SPring-8 beamline control system.  

PubMed

The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation. PMID:15263588

Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

1998-05-01

306

Cross-shaped torsional spring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

Williamson, Matthew M. (Boston, MA); Pratt, Gill A. (Lexington, MA)

1999-06-08

307

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Box and Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to oscillation. It involves a box of known mass sliding across a frictionless surface into a relaxed spring. Given spring constant and initial speed, the student must determine how long the box is in contact with the spring before it is released at the equilibrium point. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, from conceptual analysis through quantitative calculation. To promote critical thinking, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-10

308

Monodromy in the resonant swing spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, it is shown that an integrable approximation of the spring pendulum, when tuned to be in 1:1:2 resonance, has monodromy. The stepwise precession angle of the swing plane of the resonant spring pendulum is shown to be a rotation number of the integrable approximation. Due to the monodromy, this rotation number is not a globally defined function of the integrals. In fact at lowest order it is given by arg(?+i?), where ? and ? are functions of the integrals. The resonant swing spring is therefore a system where monodromy has easily observed physical consequences.

Dullin, Holger; Giacobbe, Andrea; Cushman, Richard

2004-03-01

309

Supraglacial Sulfur Springs and Associated Biological Activity in the Canadian High Arctic-Signs of Life Beneath the Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique springs, discharging from the surface of an arctic glacier, release H2S and deposit native sulfur, gypsum, and calcite. The presence of sulfur in three oxidation states indicates a complex series of redox reactions. Physical and chemical conditions of the spring water and surrounding environment, as well as mineralogical and isotopic signatures, suggest biologically mediated reactions. Cell counts and DNA analyses confirm bacteria are present in the spring system, and a limited number of sequenced isolates suggests that complex communities of bacteria live within the glacial system.

Grasby, Stephen E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Longazo, Teresa G.; Lisle, John T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Beauchamp, Benoit

2003-11-01

310

Increase in thermal groundwater due to a flowing well near the Songshan hot spring in Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Songshan hot spring occurs in granite in Yanqing County in northwestern Beijing, China. TDS of the hot water ranges from 459 to 475 mg/L and pH varies between 8.6 and 9.13. The water is of Na SO4 type. Isotopic analyses indicate that the hot spring is meteoric in origin and receives recharge from precipitation in the northern and northwestern granite mountain with elevation of about 1,600 1,800 m. The depth of circulation of the thermal groundwater is estimated to be 2,240 m below the spring’s threshold and the temperature of the geothermal reservoir, 76°C. The residence time of the thermal groundwater is estimated to be about 52 years. A flowing well near the spring has chemical compositions and formation conditions similar to the spring. The discharge of the flowing well is approximately eighteen times larger than that of the spring and the residence time of the former (about 15.4 years) is about three times smaller than that of the latter. Although the well and spring are close to each other, the well’s larger flow rates, indicated residence time and high hydraulic head suggest that the well taps a separate, but genetically similar flow system.

Xun, Zhou; Juan, Li; Haiyan, Zhou; Bin, Fang; Lan, Yu; Shijun, Li

2008-02-01

311

Colloidal rare earth elements in a boreal river: Changing sources and distributions during the spring flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the physico-chemical speciation of the rare earth elements (REE) have been investigated in a subarctic boreal river during an intense spring flood event using prefiltered (<100 ?m) samples, cross-flow (ultra)filtration (CFF), flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). This combination of techniques has provided new information regarding the release and transport of the REE in river water. The colloidal material can be described in terms of two fractions dominated by carbon and iron, respectively. These two fractions, termed colloidal carrier phases, showed significant temporal changes in concentration and size distribution. Before the spring flood, colloidal carbon concentrations were low, the colloids being dominated by relatively large iron colloids. Colloidal concentrations increased sharply during the spring flood, with smaller carbon colloids dominating. Following the spring flood, colloidal concentrations decreased again, smaller carbon colloids still dominating. The REE are transported mainly in the particulate and colloidal phases. Before the spring flood, the REE composition of all measured fractions was similar to local till. During the spring flood, the REE concentrations in the colloidal and particulate fractions increased. The increase was most marked for the lighter REE, which therefore showed a strong enrichment when normalized to local till. Following the spring flood, the REE concentrations decreased again and reverted to a distribution similar to local till. These changes in the concentration and distributions of carbon iron and REE are interpreted in terms of changing hydrological flow paths in soil and bedrock which occur during the spring flood.

Andersson, Karen; Dahlqvist, Ralf; Turner, David; Stolpe, Björn; Larsson, Tobias; Ingri, Johan; Andersson, Per

2006-07-01

312

Pollution of protected springs in relation to high and low density settlements in Kampala—Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Kampala City like most towns in Uganda, provision of treated piped water has been concentrated in high-income zones with very little improvement in the high-density, low-income areas where the majority of the urban population lives. This has left protected springs as a major source of domestic water. These springs are “protected” during construction by providing provisions in two parts; a permeable section of gravel and sand into which the source waters enter, and a dam which prevents the water from bypassing the catchment or reservoir. A perforated supply pipe leads the water out of the reservoir. Very few studies have been carried out to determine the extent of pollution of protected springs and none on the comparison of protected springs in high- and low-density settlements. This study, carried out both in the dry and wet seasons, was aimed at establishing the water quality of protected springs in Kampala and contributory pollution factors. Both high- and low-density settlement areas were studied. Survey using questionnaires and field observations were done to identify sources of pollutants and to relate them to human activities and explain the possible causes and sources of pollution of the springs. Pollution (chemical and biological) levels were higher in protected springs located in high-density settlement areas and this was attributed to poor waste-management practices. Human activities like construction of pit latrines, some located less than 5 m upstream of protected springs, animal husbandry and indiscriminate dumping of wastes contributed to the presence of high levels of chemical and biological pollutants in the protected springs. Average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (49.5 mg/l) and ammonium-nitrogen (7.3 mg/l) and faecal coliforms (1.8 × 104 no./100 ml) were recorded. Pollution levels were higher in the rainy season and this was attributed to storm water runoff and its infiltration into the ground water. The results indicate that water from protected springs poses a health risk to the communities using it.

Nsubuga, F. B.; Kansiime, F.; Okot-Okumu, J.

313

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the locomotive is at rest. (c) A shock absorber may not be broken or leaking clearly formed droplets of oil or other...

2012-10-01

314

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the locomotive is at rest. (c) A shock absorber may not be broken or leaking clearly formed droplets of oil or other...

2011-10-01

315

Phage Community Dynamics in Hot Springs  

PubMed Central

In extreme thermal environments such as hot springs, phages are the only known microbial predators. Here we present the first study of prokaryotic and phage community dynamics in these environments. Phages were abundant in hot springs, reaching concentrations of a million viruses per milliliter. Hot spring phage particles were resistant to shifts to lower temperatures, possibly facilitating DNA transfer out of these extreme environments. The phages were actively produced, with a population turnover time of 1 to 2 days. Phage-mediated microbial mortality was significant, making phage lysis an important component of hot spring microbial food webs. Together, these results show that phages exert an important influence on microbial community structure and energy flow in extreme thermal environments.

Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Leeds, Steven; Schoenfeld, Tom; Rohwer, Forest

2004-01-01

316

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Courses and Workshops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information regarding courses and workshops available at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. These courses range in biological topics and bring in invited lecturers renowned in their specific field.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (1 Bungtown Rd.)

2012-07-24

317

Ejs Intro SpringLab Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Introductory Spring Lab model asks students to develop a model for a mass on a spring. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_intro_SpringLab.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to modify this simulation (and see how it is designed), if you have Ejs installed, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: . The Intro Spring Lab program is one of a suite of Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used in Introductory Physics Labs. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, and is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. Additional models can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-05-30

318

The Nonlinear Spring and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an air track experiment demonstrating the transfer of mechanical energy from elastic potential to kinetic. Discusses four methods for calculating energy stored in the spring. Included are pictures, typical data, and graphs. (YP)|

Sherfinski, John

1989-01-01

319

Adaptable Spring Force Clamping Apparatus and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adaptable spring force clamping apparatus and methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, an apparatus includes at least one elongated member adapted to be positioned proximate to a surface of a work piece. The elongated member includes first and second end...

C. A. Oberlee J. G. Buchheit L. F. Murray

2006-01-01

320

ARAB SPRING: GEOPOLITICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran’s foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Mohammad Agus Yusoff; Fakhreddin Soltani

2012-01-01

321

City of Soda Springs energy plan  

SciTech Connect

Soda Springs is a community of 4051 people located in southeastern Idaho. The City is planning to become a power sales customer of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and establish a City electrical department. To fulfill requirements and to better serve the City's consumers, the Mayor and City Council submitted a proposal for grant funds from BPA to develop a community energy plan for Soda Springs. The City was awarded a grant and this report is the final product of the planning process.

Not Available

1983-09-01

322

Microbial Ecology and Resultant Biomarkers Preserved in a Terrestrial Analog of a Martian Spring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Mars, groundwater discharge, heated by geological processes at depth, represents a likely late-stage reservoir of liquid water available for biological activity. Photo-geological observations of the Martian surface support geologically, relatively young groundwater discharge via sapping and/or fault-controlled springs. Our approach to the investigation of the possible biological potential of such reservoirs has been to characterize analogous, terrestrial spring systems. Our study site is a fault-driven, mesophilic, sulfur spring system between the Hayward and Calaveras faults in California. We have examined hydro-geological variables, nutrient availability for microbial metabolism, differences in extant community structure, and the seasonal changes associated with these variables. The springs under study also precipitate calcite and form large mounds, offering the potential to evaluate the preservation of biosignatures. The geochemistry and isotopic composition (2H/18O) of spring waters indicate that the various springs discharge waters represent differing amounts of mixing between deeper, connate water with shallow meteoric inputs. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments suggest that oxidation of sulfur compounds by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria is a significant process occurring in the springs, and lipid analyses support these observations. While the studied springs undergo seasonal shifts in their respective geochemistries, only the microbial community at one of the springs elicits a commensurate seasonal variation. During the dry season, the community at this spring shifts to a red, plaque-like biofilm and iron-cycling organisms from the Alphaproteobacteria class increase significantly in their relative abundance within the community. Preliminary chemical analysis of the calcite accretions indicates abundant organic carbon, and thus, suggests a possible record of prior microbial ecosystems. On-going investigations of recalcitrant lipid species such as bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), in both extant biology as well as the accreted calcite, is underway and should provide insight to the taphonomic processes affecting the viability of lipid biosignatures. Results emphasize the role of local geophysical history in spring microbial community structure and productivity.

Giska, J. R.; Moreau, J.; Rowland, J.; Cervini-Silva, J.; Manga, M.; Banfield, J.

2005-12-01

323

Causes of fluctuations in the rate of discharge of Clear Lake Springs, Millard County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Clear Lake Springs in southeastern Millard County are the source of water for the maintenance of the Clear Lakes Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Seasonal declines in the rate of discharge were noted during 1959-60. Fluctuations in the flow of Clear Lake Springs are caused both by natural variations in the quantity of recharge and by variations in the quantity of water pumped from an increasing number of irrigation wells in the southern four districts of adjacent Pavant Valley. The springs are the principal discharge point for an aquifer in a complex of highly permeable basalt flows. Water enters the basalt aquifer as direct recharge from precipitation, as interformational leakage from a contiguous artesian aquifer in lake and alluvial sediments, and as infiltration of infrequent flood runoff and of unconsumed irrigation water in the lowlands of Pavant Valley. A hydrograph of the flow of the springs indicates that precipitation on the basalt outcrop recharges the aquifer; this conclusion is strengthened by fluctuations in the chemical quality of the spring water. The effects due to precipitation, however, are partly masked by the larger effects due to the pumping of ground water for irrigation in southern Pavant Valley. Withdrawal of ground water from wells in the southern four districts causes seasonal reductions in the flow of the springs by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wells and the springs. Statistical analysis of three parameters--the (1) October-April precipitation, (2) annual pumpage, and (3) annual lowest rate of spring discharge--shows that a departure of 1 inch from the normal October-April precipitation at Fillmore is accompanied by a change of 0.41 cubic feet per second in the low flow of Clear Lake Springs. Similarly, a departure of 1,000 acre-feet from the 1961-64 average annual pumpage causes the low flow of the springs to change by 0.23 cubic feet per second. The average annual volume of discharge from Clear Lake Springs during 1960-64 was 14,900 acre-feet. The equation derived from the statistical analysis shows that of the average annual discharge, 3,000 acre-feet of water was derived from precipitation on the basalt, 9,000 acre-feet, from underflow from Pavant Valley, and 2,900 acre-feet, from undetermined sources.

Mower, R. W.

1967-01-01

324

Large-scale spring deposits on Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a large-scale spring hypothesis for the formation of various enigmatic light-toned deposits (LTDs) on Mars. Layered to massive LTDs occur extensively in Valles Marineris, chaotic terrains, and several large craters, in particular, those located in Arabia Terra. Most of these deposits are not easily explained with either a single process or multiple ones, either in combination or occurring sequentially. Spring deposits can have a very wide range of internal facies and exhibit complex architectural variations. We propose the concept of large-scale spring deposits for explaining LTDs on Mars. Stable volcano-tectonic settings, such as the ones typical on Mars, are compatible with a large-scale, long-term, multistage formation of spring deposits. The large-scale spring deposit model can explain the formation of LTDs with a common process, although active in different times and locations, compatible with coeval local or regional processes and deposits, such as volcaniclastic ones. LTDs, if formed as spring deposits derived from subsurface fluids, could potentially offer favorable conditions both to life and to the fossilization of past life forms.

Rossi, Angelo Pio; Neukum, Gerhard; Pondrelli, Monica; van Gasselt, Stephan; Zegers, Tanja; Hauber, Ernst; Chicarro, Agustin; Foing, Bernard

2008-08-01

325

Noble gas geochemistry in thermal springs  

SciTech Connect

The composition of noble gases in both gas and water samples collected from Horseshoe Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was found to be depth dependent. The deeper the sample collection within the spring, the greater the enrichment in Kr, Xe, radiogenic {sup 4}He, and {sup 40}Ar and the greater the depletion in Ne relative to {sup 36}Ar. The compositional variations are consistent with multi-component mixing. The dominant component consists of dissolved atmospheric gases acquired by the pool at the surface in contact with air. This component is mixed in varying degree with two other components, one each for gas and water entering the bottom of the pool. The two bottom components are not in equilibrium. In Horseshoe Spring, the bubbles entering at the bottom strip the atmospheric-derived pool gases from the surrounding water while en route to the surface. If the original bottom bubbles are noble gas, as in the case of Horseshoe, the acquired pool gases can then quickly obliterate the original bubble composition. These results are used to demonstrate that Yellowstone spring surface gas samples, and perhaps similarity sampled thermal springs from other hydrothermal systems, have gas abundances that depend more on spring morphology than processes occurring deeper in the hydrothermal system.

Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Smith, S.P. (Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (USA))

1988-07-01

326

Tubular spring slip joint and jar  

SciTech Connect

The present invention comprises a pressure balanced tubular spring slip-joint and jar including a generally tubular outer housing having longitudinal slot means in the wall thereof, and a hammer area of increased wall thickness at one end thereof, within which housing slidably extends a jar mandrel means having first and second longitudinally spaced enlarged diameter anvil areas, at least one fastener tapped into one of those anvil areas, the heads of said fastener protruding into said slot means. Both said housing and said mandrel means possesses axial bores therethrough, which are placed in communication via the bore of a tubular spring within the housing, whereby during extension and contraction of the slip-joint and jar means of the present invention the area within said axial bores and said spring bore is of a constant volume. The invention may be employed to provide force impulses in either longitudinal direction, said tubular spring aiding the application of those impulses when said housing and said mandrel means move relatively toward each other. By proper selection of spring length and use of a coiled spring having spaced coils, the present invention may also be employed as a bi-directional shock absorber.

Heemstra, T. R.

1985-04-23

327

Effects of Variable Flows on Invertebrate Drift in Two Spring Runs in Comal Springs, Texas, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comal Springs, TX, the largest spring in the western U.S., experiences anthropogenic flow reductions. Drift sampling evaluated the effects of fluctuating flow on quantitative patterns and taxonomic composition of invertebrate drift. The composition, abundance, and seasonal patterns of drift varied between runs. Invertebrate drift was greater (2x) at night than by day and marked crepuscular peaks in drift activity, common in streams throughout the world, were observed in only one spring run. Multiple regression analysis of the total drift rate and drift density in each spring run was performed with water depth, current velocity, and Julian day as independent variables. Significant relationships were found in spring run 1, but not in spring run 3. Simple linear correlations between drift of individual taxa in each spring run and the three independent variables showed significant negative relationships to current velocity and water depth, while drift rate and density of several taxa in spring run 3 showed significant positive relationships to current velocity. This indicates differences in habitat and organism ecology between the spring runs may cause different responses to variable flows. Such insects may be used as indicators of hydrological change and used to predict critical flow levels and aquifer management targets.

Arsuffi, T.; Norris, C. W.

2005-05-01

328

Manufacturing Methods for Machining Spring Ends Parallel at Loaded Length.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring...

P. T. Hinke D. M. Benson D. J. Atkins

1993-01-01

329

Using the translational potential energy of springs for prosthetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robotic tendon is modeled and the stiffness of the spring is tuned so that the spring power reduces the peak motor power and energy required for ankle gait. When determining stiffness from gait literature, it is usually assumed that one side of the spring is fixed. We assume that the spring is translating to derive a second method to

Jeffrey A. Ward; Thomas G. Sugar; Kevin W. Hollander

2011-01-01

330

Design of nonlinear springs for wideband magnetic vibration energy harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares four nonlinear springs for the micro power generator (MPG) application which convert low level vibration energy into electrical power. The magnet-spring system decides the generator's resonant frequency, and this work proves that the spring's nonlinearity level influences the width of the operating frequency. The four different planar springs have the same outer\\/inner dimensions and the same linear

Linghe Sui; Xuhan Dai; Xiaolin Zhao; Peihong Wang; Hailin Zhou

2011-01-01

331

Mass Distribution and Frequencies of a Vertical Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vertical spring in a gravitational field has a density increase from top to bottom. The density variation, which is often not noticeable, depends on the ratio of the spring weight to the quantity kz0, the spring constant k times the unstretched length z0. Two springs prepared by prestretch-ing 78 and 23 turn portions of a ``Slinky'' showed density increases

T. W. Edwards; R. A. Hultsch

1972-01-01

332

Experimental investigation on the mechanical performance of helical ceramic springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of helical ceramic springs were manufactured from MgO partially stabilized zirconia to investigate their mechanical properties. Nine springs were machined from zirconia tubing, initially one inch in length, with a rectangular pitch of 16, 14, or 12 turns per inch. An experimental apparatus that both supports and equalizes the applied loads on springs was developed. The spring deflection

M. Gopal; E. Atchley; J. E. Smith

2003-01-01

333

Radioactive mineral springs in Delta County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The system of springs in Delta County, Colo., contains geochemical clues to the nature and location of buried uranium-mineralized rock. The springs, which occur along the Gunnison River and a principal tributary between Delta and Paonia, are regarded as evidence of a still-functioning hydrothermal system. Associated with the springs are hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide gas seeps, carbon dioxide gas-powered geysers, thick travertine deposits including radioactive travertine, and a flowing warm-water (41?C) radioactive well. Geochemical study of the springs is based on surface observations, on-site water-property measurements, and sampling of water, travertine, soft precipitates, and mud. The spring deposits are mostly carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and chlorides that locally contain notable amounts of some elements, such as arsenic, barium, lithium, and radium. Samples from five localities have somewhat different trace element assemblages even though they are related to the same hydrothermal system. All the spring waters but one are dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The exception is an acid sulfate water with a pH of 2.9, which contains high concentrations of aluminum and iron. Most of the detectable radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, a uranium daughter product, but at least one spring precipitate contains abundant radium-228, a thorium daughter product. The 5:1 ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 suggests the proximity of a vein-type deposit as a source for the radium. The proposed locus of a thorium-uranium mineral deposit is believed to lie in the vicinity of Paonia, Colo. Exact direction and depth are not determinable from data now available.

Cadigan, Robert A.; Rosholt, John N.; Felmlee, J. Karen

1976-01-01

334

Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic and transcriptomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in situ in these ecosystems. [1] Havig et al., 2010. Merging isotopes and community genomics in a siliceous sinter-depositing hot spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences (in press). [2] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3] Hall et al., 2008. Molecular characterization of the diversity and distribution of a thermal spring microbial community using rRNA and metabolic genes. AEM 74:4910-4922. [4] Steunou et al., 2006. In situ analysis of nitrogen fixation and metabolic switching in unicellular thermophilic Cyanobacteria inhabiting hot spring microbial mats. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [5] Boyd et al., 2009. CO2 uptake and fixation by a thermoacidophilic microbial community attached to precipitated sulfur in a geothermal spring. AEM 75:4289-4296.

Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

2010-12-01

335

Effects of Variable Flows on Invertebrate Drift in Two Spring Runs in Comal Springs, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comal Springs, TX, the largest spring in the western U.S., experiences anthropogenic flow reductions. Drift sampling evaluated the effects of fluctuating flow on quantitative patterns and taxonomic composition of invertebrate drift. The composition, abundance, and seasonal patterns of drift varied between runs. Invertebrate drift was greater (2x) at night than by day and marked crepuscular peaks in drift activity, common

T. Arsuffi; C. W. Norris

2005-01-01

336

SPRING GERMINATING JOINTED GOATGRASS CAN PRODUCE VIABLE SPIKELETS IN SPRING SEEDED WHEAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most common strategy recommended for management of jointed goatgrass infestations is to rotate from winter wheat to a spring crop for several years. A field study was conducted at three locations in 1998 and 1999 to determine the effects of spring establishment timing on the ability of jointed ...

337

Winter and spring warming result in delayed spring phenology on the Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

Climate change has caused advances in spring phases of many plant species. Theoretically, however, strong warming in winter could slow the fulfillment of chilling requirements, which may delay spring phenology. This phenomenon should be particularly pronounced in regions that are experiencing rapid temperature increases and are characterized by highly temperature-responsive vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ratio method to determine the beginning, end, and length of the growing season of meadow and steppe vegetation of the Tibetan Plateau in Western China between 1982 and 2006. We then correlated observed phenological dates with monthly temperatures for the entire period on record. For both vegetation types, spring phenology initially advanced, but started retreating in the mid-1990s in spite of continued warming. Together with an advancing end of the growing season for steppe vegetation, this led to a shortening of the growing period. Partial least-squares regression indicated that temperatures in both winter and spring had strong effects on spring phenology. Although warm springs led to an advance of the growing season, warm conditions in winter caused a delay of the spring phases. This delay appeared to be related to later fulfillment of chilling requirements. Because most plants from temperate and cold climates experience a period of dormancy in winter, it seems likely that similar effects occur in other environments. Continued warming may strengthen this effect and attenuate or even reverse the advancing trend in spring phenology that has dominated climate-change responses of plants thus far.

Yu, Haiying; Luedeling, Eike; Xu, Jianchu

2010-01-01

338

Estimation of recession curve of karst spring hydrograph: example of the spring Gradole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spring Gradole represents a typical karst spring of the rising type, which is situated in central part of Istria (Croatia). The drainage area is composed mostly of carbonate rocks (limestone) and partly of flysch components (marls and sandstones). The average altitude of the catchment area is approximately 330 m a.s.l. Strong tectonic deformations have made carbonate deposits very permeable,

V. Denic-Jukic; K. Kustera; D. Jukic

2009-01-01

339

Recent Studies of Chemical Interactions on Surfaces Using Molecular Beams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molecular beams are being used to study chemical interactions on surfaces with increasing frequency and effectiveness. During the period beginning in 1970 through the spring of 1975, the number of published papers in this field approximately doubled. It i...

J. N. Smith R. L. Palmer

1976-01-01

340

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

341

Emission control valve with internal spring  

SciTech Connect

This patent describe, with an internal combustion engine, a crankcase gas flow control device located between the engine crankcase and the engine fuel-air induction. It comprises: a hollow housing defining an inlet at one end, a cylindrical flow passage, a diverging orifice passage and an outlet passage; a slender rod extending coaxially through the cylindrical flow passage and the diverging orifice passage; a tubular valve element within the housing and supported about the slender rod thereby allowing axial movement of the valve element along the rod; a coil-type compression spring extending about the rod and within the tubular valve element, one end of the spring fixedly connected to the rod, the other end of the spring bearing against the tubular valve element tending to move it along the rod toward the housing inlet and away from the diverging orifice passage whereby a gas pressure differential produced between the crankcase and the fuel-air induction causes the valve element to move against the spring force and resultantly the gas flows over the exterior of the valve element without interference by the spring thereby preventing turbulence. The housing has a walled elbow portion between the diverging orifice passage and the outlet whereby the downstream end of the rod is supported by the elbow wall.

Betterton, J.T.; Glover, A.H.; McKee, T.S.; Romanczuk, C.S.

1990-03-06

342

Geophysical Investigation of Neal Hot Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present newly acquired geophysical data that characterizes a geothermal system at Neal Hot Springs in eastern Oregon. The hot springs are in a region of complex and intersecting fault trends associated with two major extensional events, the Oregon-Idaho Graben and the western Snake River Plain. From surface observations and several boreholes in the area, it appears that a steeply dipping normal fault forms a half-graben basin and serves as a conduit for heated water at depth to migrate to the surface at Neal Hot Springs. We identify and characterize this fault with seismic reflection, gravity, magnetic, and electrical resistivity surveys. A self-potential survey indicates that water is upwelling over the fault plane, and suggests that the fault does provide the means for heated water to migrate to the surface. Smaller scale structure is also evident in both the gravity and seismic surveys, and could interact with the migration of water, and how the hot springs recharge. These preliminary results will be built upon in the upcoming years and a solid structural understanding of Neal Hot Springs and the surrounding area will be gained through the use of geophysics.

Colwell, C.; Van Wijk, K.; Liberty, L. M.

2011-12-01

343

Driven Mass and Spring Mesh Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Driven Mass and Spring Mesh model displays the dynamics of a 2D array of masses coupled by springs and driven by a sinusoidal force. The model shows a time-dependent animation of the displacement or each mass. The driving force can be applied at a single point (shown in red) or uniformly at all mesh points and the drive frequency f and amplitude A can be set as well as a damping coefficient b. As the frequency is varied the mesh vibrates strongly (resonates) at some frequencies and very little at others. These resonances have patterns that were first studied by Ernst Chladni and this simulation is designed to investigate these patterns using an idealized mass and spring model. In order to find the resonances, it is useful to plot the mechanical energy as a function of frequency f after the system reaches its oscillatory steady state. A resonance scan option shows this plot. The Driven Mass and Spring Mesh model is a supplemental simulation for the article "Chladni Patterns on Drumheads: A Physics of Music Experiment" by Randy Worland in The Physics Teacher 49(1), 24-27 (2011) and has been approved by the authors and The Physics Teacher editor. The model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_mech_DrivenMassAndSpringMesh.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-10-11

344

WHAT WE LEARNED ABOUT THE HYDROLOGICAL REGIME OF THE LARGEST SUBMARINE SPRING SYSTEM IN FLORIDA USING SALINITY AND RADON: A TWO-YEAR INVESTIGATION ON SPRING CREEK SPRINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida has one of the largest network of springs not only in the US but in the world. Among the approximately 700 documented springs in the state, 33 of them are considered to be first magnitude with discharge of over 2.9x105 m3\\/day. With an average annual discharge of 4.9x106m3\\/day, Spring Creek Springs submarine system in Wakulla County is the leader.

N. T. Dimova; W. C. Burnett; J. Chanton; R. N. Peterson

2009-01-01

345

Heavy metals in bottled natural spring water.  

PubMed

New regulations regarding the presence of contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in January 2009. These requirements include testing, reporting, and notification to regulate the presence of heavy metals in bottled natural spring water sold in California. In the study described in this article, six sources of bottled natural spring water were purchased and analyzed for silver, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. All of these metals except beryllium, mercury, and thallium were detected in at least one of the bottled natural spring water sources. No concentrations were above either federal or California maximum contaminant levels but arsenic concentrations exceeded California public health goals in all six sources. Improving the California notification requirements for bottled water contaminants would result in a process more similar to the notification process for tap water and would result in better-informed consumers. PMID:21667718

Sullivan, Michael J; Leavey, Shannon

2011-06-01

346

Spring Deposits and Mud Volcanoes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report evidence for spring deposits in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra. The Vernal structures are low mounds, each approximately 250 m by 500 m in extent, with terraced flanks, apical depressions, river-like channels, concentric fractures, and elliptical tonal anomalies. All of these features are common in terrestrial springs such as the Dalhousie complex in Australia. The structures occur in an apparent unit of interdune, water-laid sediment and are associated with evidence of subsurface fluid flow in sets of aligned outcrops. The Vernal springs may be part of a larger complex of spring deposits and lineations, suggesting that fluid flow in this region was relatively extensive. The structures in Vernal Crater are coated with a thin layer of dust, which prevents mineral identification from orbit. In an attempt to find evidence for additional spring mounds, we conducted a survey of nearly 2,000 locations for which CRISM spectral images are available. We used CRISM data to identify dust-free, hydrated areas and HiRISE, CTX, and MOC images to evaluate morphology. This study covered all longitudes and latitudes from 50N to 70S, except near Tharsis where data were analyzed south of 15S. No location exhibited morphological features that closely resembled those in Vernal Crater, suggesting that these putative spring mounds are not common in the highlands of Mars. Our search led us to concentrate on a dust-free area, centered at 41.8N, 332.5E in Acidalia Planitia where Farrand et al. (2005) identified features resembling spring mounds or mud volcanoes. Tanaka et al. (2005) mapped this region as part of the Early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis Unit, interpreted as reworked sediments from outflow channels and highland sources. We mapped over 20 high-albedo pitted domes in the area covered by one HiRISE frame, with dome diameters ranging from 350 m to 1 km. Nearby, similar domes have measured heights ranging from 36 to 65 m. The dome material is darker in THEMIS nighttime IR than the surrounding plains, indicating that the domes have relatively lower thermal inertia. The dome material is also very smooth, and appears smeared across the textured plains and in local depressions as if it were emplaced by low viscosity flows. CRISM spectral data (Leah Roach, Brown Univ.) were used to assess the mineralogy of selected features. Dome spectra exhibit a steep shoulder from 0.4 to 0.6 microns and are generally featureless in the near IR, overall resembling the spectra of bright Martian soil. The steep shoulder is due to the oxidization of iron to Fe3+. Dome spectra do not exhibit evidence for hydrated minerals or precipitates such as carbonates or silica. While a range of origins has been suggested for the Acidalia domes, we believe that they are most consistent with a mud volcano analog. A volcano or pseudocrater origin is unlikely, as no lava flows or volcanic features are observed in the vicinity. A spring mound origin is also unlikely, due to the absence of hydrated or spring precipitate mineral signatures in the CRISM spectral data as well as the absence of terracing, channels, and circumferential faults that typify the Vernal springs. In addition to the Vernal springs and the Acidalia mud volcanoes, several other recent studies have pointed to evidence of subsurface fluid flow. These include the large spring deposits proposed by Rossi et al. (2008), the resistant knobs in Candor Chasma (Chan, 2008), and the bleached zones along faults in Valles Marineris (Treiman, 2008). Together, these features are changing our understanding of the hydrologic history of Mars. class="ab'>

Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Baker, D. M.

2008-12-01

347

Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H{sub 2}S and the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing microbes, preliminary {delta}{sub 34}S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO{sub 2} degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

2000-05-01

348

Motility Powered by Supramolecular Springs and Ratchets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not all biological movements are caused by molecular motors sliding along filaments or tubules. Just as springs and ratchets can store or release energy and rectify motion in physical systems, their analogs can perform similar functions in biological systems. The energy of biological springs is derived from hydrolysis of a nucleotide or the binding of a ligand, whereas biological ratchets are powered by Brownian movements of polymerizing filaments. However, the viscous and fluctuating cellular environment and the mechanochemistry of soft biological systems constrain the modes of motion generated and the mechanisms for energy storage, control, and release.

L. Mahadevan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology;Department of Mechanical Engineering); P. Matsudaira (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research;Department of Biology and Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health)

2000-04-07

349

Improving exchange-spring nanocomposite permanent magnets.  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a counterintuitive approach for improving exchange-spring magnets. Contrary to the general belief that the exchange-spring interface must be ideal and atomically coherent, we thermally process, by annealing or high-temperature deposition, epitaxial Sm-Co/Fe thin-film bilayers to induce interfacial mixing. Synchrotron x-ray scattering and electron microscopy elemental mapping confirm the formation of a graded interface. The thermal processing enhances the nucleation field and the energy product. The hysteresis loop becomes more single-phase-like yet the magnetization remains fully reversible. Model simulations produce demagnetization behaviors similar to experimental observations.

Jiang, J. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Liu, Z. Y.; Kabius, B.; Trasobares, S.; Miller, D. E.; Bader, S. D.; Lee, D. R.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Liu, J. P.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Texas at Arlington

2004-11-29

350

Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

Watson, M.

1996-05-01

351

Estimation of Mass-Spring-Dumper Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter a procedure for parameters identification using an algebraic identification method for a continuous time constant linear system is described. A specific application in the determination of the parameters mass-spring-damper system is made. The method is suitable for simultaneously identifying, both, the spring constant and the damping coefficient. It is found that the proposed method is computationally fast and robust with respect to noises. The identification algorithm is verified by simulation results. The estimations are carried out on-line.

Becedas, Jonathan; Mamani, Gabriela; Feliu, Vicente; Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt

352

[History of hot spring bath treatment in China].  

PubMed

As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

2011-07-01

353

Hydrogeochemical and geophysical investigation of the Istanbul Tuzla-Icmeler spring area for environmental and land use planning purposes.  

PubMed

The spring waters of Tuzla-Icmeler are on the Marmara Sea coast in Tuzla town of Istanbul city. The springs discharge a natural sodium chloride mineral water that consumed for ages for therapeutic purposes attributed to their chemical properties. Development of springs commenced during the Ottoman times and a surface collection structure was built at the discharge point of the main spring. Two deep wells were drilled to tap mineral water within the past decades. The bottled water of these springs is also sold for a couple of years and its consumption as a beverage is increasing. The geochemical properties of these springs were investigated by several researchers in the past. This study comprises geochemical and geophysical measurements performed between July 2001 and July 2002 in order to construct a conceptual hydrogeological model for environmental and land use planning purposes. The seasonal evaluation of Tuzla-Icmeler (mineral spring) shows that the chemical properties fluctuate from the beginning of summer until the beginning of winter. This indicates that the overdraft of water during the summer season causes the movement and mix of normal groundwater with the mineralized groundwater. As a result, mixing of less mineralized groundwater decreases the salinity of mineralized groundwater. Using the site-specific hydrogeological, geochemical and geophysical data, zones of protection areas were delineated in order to prevent a possible pollution access to the springs and surroundings from nearby dockyards, dwellings and vehicle traffic. For this purpose, a new land use plan was proposed using the existing settlement sustainability plans. PMID:17279458

Yalcin, Tolga; Ozürlan, Gülcin; Cekirge, Nevin

2007-02-06

354

Interlayer diffusion studies of a Laves phase exchange spring superlattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth Laves phase (RFe2) superlattice structures grown at different temperatures are studied using x-ray reflectivity (XRR), x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized molecular beam epitaxy growth condition is matched with the XRR simulation, showing minimum diffusion/roughness at the interfaces. Electron microscopy characterization reveals that the epitaxial growth develops from initial 3D islands to a high quality superlattice structure. Under this optimum growth condition, chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy with high spatial resolution is used to study the interface. The analysis shows that the interface roughness is between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and there is no significant interlayer diffusion. The locally sharp interface found in this work explains the success of simple structural models in predicting the magnetic reversal behavior of Laves exchange spring superlattices.

Wang, C.; Kohn, A.; Wang, S. G.; Ward, R. C. C.

2011-03-01

355

University Center Surveys, Spring 2001. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The office of Institutional Development and Technology at the Santa Clarita Community College District, California, conducted surveys of Santa Clarita Valley (SCV) Residents and Santa Clarita Valley business executives during the Spring 2001 semester to assess the advanced training and degree program needs for the proposed University Center.…

Gribbons, Barry C; Meuschke, Daylene M; Dixon, P. Scott

356

Ejs CM Lagrangian Pendulum Spring Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lagrangian Pendulum Spring model asks students to solve the Lagrangian for a spring-pendulum and then develop a computational model of it. The model framework is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_CM_Lagrangian_pendulum_spring.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to run correctly, the student must add the correct physics to the EJS differential equation solver and parameter definitions. If EJS is installed on your computer, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/. The CM Lagrangian Pendulum Spring model is one of several Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used to incorporate computational physics in Classical Mechanics. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. Additional models can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Cox, Anne

2008-06-04

357

Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

2010-01-01

358

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the National Cancer Institute PLCO: State of the Union ReportGreetings and Happy New Year from NCI! Because You Asked Why Did PLCO Mail Mouthwash to Me? Around Town Highlights

359

Arab Spring: Causes, Consequences, and Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many experts compare the Arab spring to the popular revolutions that shook communist states in the late 1980s and early 1990s of the 20th century. After more than five decades of independence from European colonialism, autocratic rulers have failed to mee...

E. H. Aissa

2012-01-01

360

The economics of the Arab Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the economic underpinnings of the Arab spring. We locate the roots of the regiosn's long-term economic failure in a statist model of development that is financed through external windfalls and rests on inefficient forms of intervention and redistribution. We argue that the rising cost of repression and redistribution is calling into question the long-term sustainability of this

Adeel Malik; Bassem Awadallah

2011-01-01

361

Cold Spring Harbor Fish Hatchery and Aquarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Largest living collection of New York State freshwater reptiles, fish and amphibians. Educational programs available by appointment; teachers receive advance packet. In-school programs available during part of the year. Fees apply (for non-members), membership information available on website. Wheelchair accessible. Located Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

362

University Center Surveys, Spring 2001. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The office of Institutional Development and Technology at the Santa Clarita Community College District, California, conducted surveys of Santa Clarita Valley (SCV) Residents and Santa Clarita Valley business executives during the Spring 2001 semester to assess the advanced training and degree program needs for the proposed University Center.…

Gribbons, Barry C; Meuschke, Daylene M; Dixon, P. Scott

363

Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators  

DOEpatents

Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

364

Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators  

DOEpatents

Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

Shahinpoor, M.

1995-02-14

365

Spring stiffness influence on an oscillating propulsor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the propulsive dynamics of a thin foil pitching about its quarter chord and allowed to passively plunge. Specifically, we focus on the effect of variations in translational spring stiffness on propulsor plunge and on the minimum oscillation frequency required to produce positive thrust. Our numerical simulation utilizes a two-dimensional hydroelasticity model of the propulsor–fluid system in a constant

M. M. Murray; L. E. Howle

2003-01-01

366

Spring into Art: 87 Eclectic Titles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although fall has always been "the" season of art books, spring catalogs--which for most art publishers stretch between January and June--are replete with intriguing and, in some cases, even groundbreaking new publications. The quality of the reproductions and scholarship continues to impress, but so does the growing diversity of subjects, as…

Roncevic, Mirela

2010-01-01

367

HARD SPRING WHEAT TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 2007 CROP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2007 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA Hard Red Spri...

368

Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2006 Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeders’ experimental lines of wheat are evaluated for overall quality before being released for commercial production. The Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee provides milling and baking quality data on breeders’ experimental lines of wheat that are annually submitted to the Wheat Quality Counc...

369

OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the following…

Fullen, Jim, Ed.

1991-01-01

370

Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring

J. C. Lorenz; N. R. Warpinski; A. R. Sattler; D. A. Northrop

1990-01-01

371

Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This note discusses the boundary in the frequency--amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation. For fixed initial conditions and fixed parameter [epsilon] results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of solutions to the initial value problem as the parameters F…

Fay, Temple H.

2006-01-01

372

Arab Spring: Investing in Durable Peace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this White Paper is to offer a strategic analysis that could form the basis of the U.S. Army's engagement strategy in response to the 'Arab Spring.' To help appreciate the complexities of the rapidly unfolding events and the type of engagem...

A. Perliger C. Jebb D. DiMeo N. Lahoud R. Beitler

2011-01-01

373

BEAM DEFLECTOR FOR SPRING8 LINAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron gun of the SPring-8 linac contains a thermionic cathode with a control grid. After long_time operation of the gun, barium atoms evaporate from the heated cathode and accumulate on the grid, resulting in increase in the emission current from the grid. This grid emission spoils the purity of the single bunched beam of the storage ring, since it

T. Kobayashi; T. Asaka; H. Dewa; H. Hanaki; A. Mizuno

374

Oceanus. Volume 9, Number 3, Spring 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Spring 1976 issue of Oceanus is given over to ten papers that deal with the subject of ocean eddies. The subjects are: Eddies and Ocean Circulation (The discovery of variable flows in mid-ocean has significantly changed ideas about general circulation...

W. H. Macleish

1976-01-01

375

Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

Hinke, Patrick Thomas; Benson, Dwayne M.; Atkins, Donald J.

1993-11-01

376

Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothe...

A. B. Longyear

1980-01-01

377

Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center Preliminary Design. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct hea...

A. B. Longyear

1980-01-01

378

Cyanobacterial mats from hot springs produce antimicrobial compounds and quorum-sensing inhibitors under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar (water) and non-polar (ethyl acetate) extracts from the cyanobacterial layer (top 1–3 mm) of four hot spring microbial\\u000a mats in the Sultanate of Oman were tested for their antibacterial, antidiatom and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities under\\u000a natural conditions. The chemical composition of the active extracts was analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC-MS). Cyanobacteria within these mats were identified by direct microscopy

Sergey Dobretsov; Raeid M. M. Abed; Sultan M. S. Al Maskari; Jamal N. Al Sabahi; Reginald Victor

379

Geochemical and Biological Diversity of Acidic, Hot Springs in Lassen Volcanic National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used phylogenetic approaches and chemical\\/physical analyses to investigate the diversity of microorganisms in geochemically distinct acidic hot springs of Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) in northern California. Geochemical composition was analyzed for twelve sites within LVNP, and 16S rRNA clone libraries were prepared and analyzed for three sites (DK12 -93.5°C, pH 1.2; USW5 -86.2°C, pH 2.2; and SW3 -82°C,

Patricia L. Siering; Jessica M. Clarke; Mark S. Wilson

2006-01-01

380

Briquetting and combustion of spring-harvested reed canary-grass: effect of fuel composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding how spring-harvested reed canary-grass briquettes with various chemical compositions with respect to ash content influence the formation of emissions during combustion in a 180kW burner. Furthermore, an objective was to investigate possible ash problems during the combustion. Five fuels were used in the study consisting of three reed canary-grass samples

Susanne Paulrud; Calle Nilsson

2001-01-01

381

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

382

1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

383

2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

384

49 CFR 236.14 - Spring switch signal protection; requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Spring switch signal protection; requirements. 236.14...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES... General § 236.14 Spring switch signal protection; requirements. (a)...

2009-10-01

385

5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

386

VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Hale Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

387

4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

388

Spring constant of fibre-reinforced plastics circular springs embedded with nickel–titanium alloy wire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates, theoretically and experimentally, the feasibility of utilizing nickel–titanium alloy wires in altering the spring rates of a composite circular ring. Three-dimensional finite element analysis has been employed to study the transverse shearing effects. Reduction in spring stiffness at elevated temperatures can be prevented by inclusion of nickel–titanium alloy wire in the composite structure. The relationships between the

W. H. Wong; P. C. Tse; K. J. Lau; Y. F. Ng

2004-01-01

389

Chemical Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

Jolley, Mr.

2005-10-25

390

Changes in CaCO3 Mineralogy Resulting from Alterations in Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of CaCO3 mineral deposits (travertine) have been completed on samples collected from an in situ kinetic experiment (ISKA) at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS), Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate that the dominant mineral phase on the experimental substrate changes from aragonite to calcite when the biotic components of the system are treated via filtration and ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. This shift in CaCO3 mineralogy may provide a new class of biomarkers to identify biogenic carbonates in the geologic record. The ISKA, in which water was siphoned directly from the primary flow path of the hot springs at MHS, was used to: (1) filter (sterile 0.2 micron) spring water to reduce microbial biomass concentrations by 80%; (2) irradiate spring water with UV, inhibiting microbial metabolic and replication activity; and (3) supply unaltered spring water to serve as a natural control. XRD analysis on the CaCO3 precipitates of these experiments shows that the natural control samples are predominantly aragonite (93%), the filtration samples are predominantly calcite (95%), and the UV-irradiation samples are a mixture of both aragonite (70%) and calcite (30%), suggesting that presence of biomass favors the stability of the aragonite phase and that microbial activity selects for this less thermodynamically stable for of CaCO3. Petrographic analysis has revealed that the carbonate precipitate on the Na2CO3 experimental substrates consists of an initial layering of calcite crystals followed by nucleation and growth of the aragonite. These combined results strongly suggest that microbial biomass, through nucleation and crystallization kinetics, controls the mineralogy in advection-dominated flow regimes of terrestrial hot springs. Results from a controlled experiment using a laboratory bench-top ISKA are being collected to determine shifts in CaCO3 mineralogy under specific suites of physical, chemical and biological environmental conditions.

Vescogni, H. R.; Fouke, B. W.; Wilson, S. R.; Miller, P. A.; Kandianis, M. T.

2008-12-01

391

Parametric experimental study of wire rope spring tuned mass dampers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive experimental study of wire rope spring tuned mass dampers (TMDs) is presented. A single-degree-of-freedom system with a pendulum-type TMD was tested on the shaker table. The pendulum-type TMD employed wire rope spring(s) to provide both the elastic and the damping forces. The test program included two mass ratios, single- and double-sided spring arrangements, two wire rope diameters, three

Rafik R. Gerges; Barry J. Vickery

2003-01-01

392

Halogen-driven low-altitude O3 and hydrocarbon losses in spring at northern high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogen-driven ozone and hydrocarbon losses in springtime Arctic boundary layer are investigated using a regional chemical transport model. Surface observations of ozone at Alert and Barrow and aircraft observations of ozone and hydrocarbons during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) experiment from February to May in 2000 are analyzed. We prescribe halogen radical distributions on the basis

Tao Zeng; Yuhang Wang; Kelly Chance; Nicola Blake; Donald Blake; Brian Ridley

2006-01-01

393

Dynamical control of NH and SH winter\\/spring total ozone from GOME observations in 1995-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abnormal high wave activity in austral spring 2002 led to the first observation of a major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere resulting in a net winter increase of mid- to high latitude total ozone until September 2002. In previous years chemical ozone depletion inside the Antarctic vortex was sufficiently high to reduce mean total ozone south of 50°

M. Weber; S. Dhomse; F. Wittrock; A. Richter; B.-M. Sinnhuber; J. P. Burrows

2003-01-01

394

The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Pátzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must

James L. Bischoff; Isabel Israde-Alcántara; Victor H. Garduño-Monroy; Wayne C. Shanks III

2004-01-01

395

49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139... Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The outer edge of a wheel...not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail...

2011-10-01

396

49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139... Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The outer edge of a wheel...not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail...

2012-10-01

397

MOJAVE DESERT SPRING: THE AMPHIBIAN POINT OF VIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous springs are scattered throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, most of which are concentrated near the bases of mountain ranges. Spring-fed wetlands in this region comprise nearly all the available habitat for amphibians. We surveyed 128 springs for amphibians and habitat t...

398

78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal Communications...the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third...Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs consistent with the minimum distance...

2013-10-03

399

49 CFR 236.14 - Spring switch signal protection; requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring switch signal protection; requirements...All Systems General § 236.14 Spring switch signal protection; requirements...movements in only one direction through a spring switch in automatic block signal...

2012-10-01

400

27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Spring Mountain District. 9.143 Section...American Viticultural Areas § 9.143 Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The...viticultural area described in this section is âSpring Mountain District.â (b)...

2009-04-01

401

49 CFR 236.14 - Spring switch signal protection; requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring switch signal protection; requirements...All Systems General § 236.14 Spring switch signal protection; requirements...movements in only one direction through a spring switch in automatic block signal...

2011-10-01

402

Kate Spring field discovery, Nevada Basin and Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kate Spring field, the sixth commercial oil pool found in Nevada, was completed in January 1986. The well produced I 521 BO (10.6° API gravity) before it was shutin because of engineering problems and collapsing oil prices. The No. I Kate Spring was drilled on a seismically and geomorphically defined fault block upthrown from the Eagle Spring field (I mi

Flanigan

1988-01-01

403

Spring wetlands of the Great Artesian Basin, Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Artesian Basin is an aquifer system that underlies a large area of north-eastern Australia. The spring wetlands in the Great Artesian Basin are of conservation significance because they provide habitat for endemic species including fish, invertebrates and plants. Since European settlement massive quantities of water have been artificially extracted through bores, reducing spring-flows. Records of the springs of

R. J. Fensham; R. J. Fairfax

2003-01-01

404

3. SHOWING STREAM, STORE BUILDING (UPPER LEFT), SPRING HOUSE AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. SHOWING STREAM, STORE BUILDING (UPPER LEFT), SPRING HOUSE AND BATH HOUSE (NEAR STREAM), SOUTHEAST FRONTS AND SOUTHWEST SIDES (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

405

The Advancing Date of Spring Snowmelt in the Alaskan Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1960s the spring snowmelt has advanced by about 8 days in northern Alaska because of decreasing snowfall in winter and warmer spring conditions. This is attributed to shifting synoptic patterns that favor northerly airflow during winter but southerly flow in spring. Early snowmelt enhances the seasonal NET surface radiation budget dramatically, especially when the snow first disappears. At

R. S. Stone; D. Longenecker; E. G. Dutton; J. M. Harris

2001-01-01

406

75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...filed by Cochise Media Licenses, LLC...the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs...BNPH-20091016ADO), Cochise Media Licenses, the tentative...new FM station on Channel 268C3 at Peach Springs...amended by adding Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs...Audio Division, Media Bureau. [FR...

2010-01-22

407

36 CFR 7.18 - Hot Springs National Park.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hot Springs National Park. 7.18 Section...OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.18 Hot Springs National Park. (a) Commercial... The taking or carrying away of water, hot or cold, from any of the springs,...

2013-07-01

408

HARD RED SPRING WHEAT QUALITY REPORT: 2000/2001 CROP.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercially grown cultivars and experimental lines of hard red spring wheat were grown by breeders at cooperative experiment stations throughout the major spring wheat growing regions of the United States. Hard spring wheat was tested for kernel, milling, flour, dough, and baking quality. In 2000...

409

77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY...HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring Plant in Weldon...

2012-12-28

410

Modeling the effects of pumping wells in spring management: The case of Scirca spring (central Apennines, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the considered region climatic change is causing water resources decrease.In the region most of drinking water comes from springs, having a decreasing flow.It is necessary to develop new spring management strategies to meet water demand.A model of a spring showed the effects of wells location and pumping rates.Spring management can be optimized by using wells, limiting environmental problems.

Dragoni, W.; Mottola, A.; Cambi, C.

2013-06-01

411

77 FR 9958 - Spring Pygmy Sunfish Candidate Conservation Agreement With Assurances; Receipt of Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...would be implemented at the Beaverdam--Moss Creek/Spring Complex within Limestone...kilometers (km)) within four spring pools (Moss, Beaverdam, Thorsen, and Horton Springs...150-foot vegetated buffer zone around Moss Spring Pond; (2) prohibiting...

2012-02-21

412

Rotational hysteresis of exchange-spring magnets.  

SciTech Connect

We highlight our experimental studies and micromagnetic simulations of the rotational hysteresis in exchange-spring magnets. Magneto-optical imaging and torque magnetometry measurements for SmCo/Fe exchange-spring films with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy show that the magnetization rotation created in the magnetically soft Fe layer by a rotating magnetic field is hysteretic. The rotational hysteresis is due to the reversal of the chirality of the spin spiral structure. Micromagnetic simulations reveal two reversal modes of the chirality, one at low fields due to an in-plane untwisting of the spiral, and the other, at high fields, due to an out-of-plane fanning of the spiral.

Jiang, J.S.; Bader, S.D.; Kaper, H.; Leaf, G.K.; Shull, R.D.; Shapiro, A.J.; Gornakov, V.S.; Nikitenko, V.I.; Platt, C.L.; Berkowitz, A.E.; David, S.; Fullerton, E.E.

2002-03-27

413

Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones  

SciTech Connect

This project was a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the Harvey E. Yates Company (Heyco), Roswell, NM, conducted under the auspices of Department of Energy's Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project applied Sandia perspectives on the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology for the stimulation and production of low permeability gas reservoirs to low permeability oil reservoirs, such as those typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report details the results and analyses obtained in 1990 from core, logs, stress, and other data taken from three additional development wells. An overall summary gives results from all five wells studied in this project in 1989--1990. Most of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones.

Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Northrop, D.A.

1992-06-01

414

International Law Colloquia, Spring 2011 Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring 2011 Presenters:\\u000aJanuary 28: Hari M. Osofsky (University of Minnesota Law School), The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Multidimensional Governance February 4: Jason Yackee (University of Wisconsin Law School), Do BITs Attract Foreign Direct Investment? Hints from Alternative Evidence February 18: Evan J. Criddle (Syracuse University College of Law), Proportionality in Counterinsurgency: A Relational Theory March 4: Jeffrey

Evan J Criddle; Jeffrey L Dunoff; Anna Gelpern; Máximo Langer; Jide Nzelibe; Hari M Osofsky; Lesley Wexler; Jason Yackee

2011-01-01

415

Radiation of SPring8 very long undulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of the SPring-8 storage ring is the presence of four 30m long straight sections for the installation of very long insertion devices. Two characteristics of very long undulators are presented here: first, the problems brought by the necessity to phase the individual segments, which in turn, imposed the use of the in-vacuum technology; next, the near-field effects

X.-M. Maréchal; T. Bizen; T. Hara; T. Seike; T. Tanaka; H. Kitamura

2001-01-01

416

The Economics of the Arab Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the economic underpinnings of the Arab spring. We locate the roots of the region’s long-term economic failure in a statist model of development that is financed through external windfalls and rests on inefficient forms of intervention and redistribution. We argue that the rising cost of repression and redistribution is calling into question the long-term sustainability of this

Adeel Malik; Bassem Awadallah

2012-01-01

417

Characterization of a Pleistocene thermal spring in Mozambique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrogeological study was conducted with the objective to investigate the only currently known hot spring of Sofala Province in Mozambique with respect to the origin of the water, the discharge, and its chemical composition. Field investigations comprised a general land use survey, mapping of sediment and water temperatures, discharge measurements and on-site water chemistry as well as sampling for further chemical analyses and groundwater dating. Thermal water discharge occurs along a 100 m long NE-SW zone with water temperatures ranging from 42 to 64.5°C. The thermal water is a low-mineralized sodium-chloride-sulfate water enriched in phosphate, fluorine and nickel. The silica geothermometer, the silica concentration of 43 mg/kg and the ratios of Br/Cl and I/Cl of 2.5 × 10-3, suggest that the thermal water stems from approximately 5,000 m depth and had a long residence time with silicate rocks. This points towards Gorongosa Mountain as the water source area. 14C dating suggests a groundwater age of 11,000 years.

Steinbruch, Franziska; Merkel, Broder J.

2008-12-01

418

N Springs expedited response action proposal  

SciTech Connect

Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

Not Available

1994-01-01

419

Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

420

Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs  

SciTech Connect

Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

1992-10-01

421

Hot springs of the central Sierra Nevada, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal springs of the central Sierra Nevada issue dilute to slightly saline sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters ranging in pH from 6.4 to 9.3. The solubility of chalcedony appears to control the silica concentration in most of the spring waters. Fales Hot Springs may be associated with a higher temperature aquifer, 150 degrees Celsius or more, in which quartz is controlling the silica concentration. Carbon dioxide is the predominant gas escaping from Fales Hot Springs, the unnamed hot spring on the south side of Mono Lake, and the two thermal springs near Bridgeport. Most of the other thermal springs issue small amounts of gas consisting principally of nitrogen. Methane is the major component of the gas escaping from the unnamed spring on Paoha Island in Mono Lake. The deuterium and oxygen isotopic composition of most of the thermal waters are those expected for local meteoric water which has undergone minor water-rock reaction. The only exceptions are the hot spring on Paoha Island in Mono Lake and perhaps the unnamed warm spring (south side of Mono Lake) which issues mixtures of thermal water and saline lake water. (Woodard-USGS)

Mariner, R. H.; Presser, T. S.; Evans, W. C.

1977-01-01

422

Regional-Scale Modeling and Emissions Analyses in Support of the IGAC Spring 2002 ITCT Field Experiment in the Eastern Pacific and Western US  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical weather FORecasting System (CFORS) was used in support of the IGAC Intercontinental Chemical Transport (ICTC) field experiment conducted in the Eastern Pacific during Spring 2002. CFORS consists of 3 major components: 1) 3D mesoscale calculations of meteorological fields using the RAMS model with on-line air-mass and emission markers; 2) detailed 3-dimensional photochemical calculations using the STEM chemical\\/transport model

G. R. Carmichael; Y. Tang; D. Streets; I. Uno; J. Woo; H. Levy; L. Horowitz

2002-01-01

423

Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing the contribution of the phototrophs to biosignature formation in this high iron system. These biosignatures can be used to assess the biological contribution to ancient iron deposits on Earth (e.g. Precambrian Banded Iron Formations) and, potentially, to those found on Mars. Most studies to date have focused on chemotrophic iron-oxidizing communities; however, recent research has demonstrated that phototrophs have a significant physiological impact on these iron thermal springs (Pierson et al. 1999, Pierson and Parenteau 2000, and Trouwborst et al., 2003). We completed a survey of the microfossils, biominerals, biofabrics, and lipid biomarkers in the phototrophic mats and stromatolitic iron deposits using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat was heavily encrusted with iron silicates while the narrow Oscillatoria mat was encrusted primarily with iron oxides. Encrustation of the cells increased with depth in the mats. Amorphous 2-line ferrihydrite is the primary precipitate in the spring and the only iron oxide mineral associated with the mats. Goethite, hematite, and siderite were detected in dry sediment samples on the face of the main iron deposit. Analysis of polar lipid fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) generated a suite of lipid biomarkers. The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat contained two mono-unsaturated isomers of n-C18:1 with smaller amounts of polyunsaturated n-C18:2, characteristic of cyanobacteria. The mat also contained abundant n,n-wax esters of C32 to C37, characteristic of Chloroflexus. 10-Methyl-C16 was also detected, indicative of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The narrow Oscillatoria mat was dominated by the aforementioned cyanobacterial biomarkers as well as iso-C17:1, a biomarker for some groups of SRB. Unusual dimethyl fatty acids were also detected. The goal of this research is to provide an initial dataset that will illustrate the maximum amount of paleobiological and paleoenvironmental information expected to form in these types of iron deposits. Insights from our research may help elucidate the role of phototrophs in the deposition of BIFs on Earth, and may assist in the search for evidence of fossilized microbial life in iron deposits on Mars. Pierson, B.K., M.N. Parenteau, and B.M. Griffin, Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: Ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65, 5474-5483, 1999. Pierson, B.K., and M.N. Parenteau, Phototrophs in high iron microbial mats: Microstructure of mats in iron-depositing hot springs, FEMS Microbiology Ecology 32, 181-196, 2000. Trouwborst, R., G. Koch, G. Luther, and B.K. Pierson, Photosynthesis and iron in hot spring microbial mats (abstract), NAI General Meeting, Astrobiology 2(4), 206, 2003.

Parenteau, M. N.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

2003-12-01

424

Surface Temperatures As Titan Enters Northern Spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since early in the mission, covering a period spanning late northern winter into early northern spring. The far-infrared portion of CIRS detects radiation emitted from the surface that reaches space through a spectral window of low atmospheric opacity at 19 microns wavelength. We previously reported surface temperatures from the portion of the mission prior to May 2008 that showed the north to be about 1 K colder than the south, appropriate to northern winter [1]. As Titan passed through northern spring equinox CIRS has been able to demonstrate that a shift took place to a more symmetric north-south distribution in temperatures [2]. Around equinox the temperature at the equator was 93.4 K and the poles were both near 91 K. The equatorial temperature was close to the value found at the surface by Huygens [3]. At equinox there remained a slight offset in peak temperatures toward the south, and the change in this offset from late northern winter suggests a seasonal lag of ?Ls = 9º solar longitude. This would place the time of northsouth symmetry at the same seasonal phase as the Voyager 1 encounter, just following the previous northern spring equinox. Voyager IRIS saw a northsouth temperature symmetry [4,5], and we conclude that the surface temperature distribution is repeating after one Titan year. Through a comparison with predictions from general circulation models, the measured temperatures and their seasonal changes provide constraints on the characteristics of the surface material. Of the two scenarios of Tokano [6], porous ice regolith and rock-ice mixture, the former is a closer match to the measurements. This implies that the surface has a relatively low thermal inertia. As Titan progresses toward northern summer the seasonal shift in surface heating is expected to alter Titan's weather and global circulation. CIRS will continue to monitor changes in the surface temperatures through Cassini's extended mission.

Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

2011-10-01

425

Resources for Anne Diekema's Spring 4010 Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are a list of resources for INST 4010 for using the National Science Digital Library and the Instructional Architect Some interesting IA projects: Addition and Subtraction Facts Advertising the Animals of Utah Mystery Island Mystery Island Explanation Race Across South America States For Sale! The Statue of Liberty Help with the Instructional Architect: Spring 4010 Handout How to use the IA National Science Digital Library Resources National Science Digital Library NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL Literacy Maps NSDL Elementary Education Resources ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-04-06

426

Resources for Yanghee Kim's Spring 4010 Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are a list of resources for INST 4010 for using the National Science Digital Library and the Instructional Architect Some interesting IA projects: Addition and Subtraction Facts Advertising the Animals of Utah Mystery Island Mystery Island Explanation Race Across South America States For Sale! The Statue of Liberty Help with the Instructional Architect: Spring 4010 Handout How to use the IA National Science Digital Library Resources National Science Digital Library NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL Literacy Maps NSDL Elementary Education Resources WebQuest Shell Web Quest ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-04-11

427

Thoron (220Rn) in spring water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thoron (220Rn, half-life 55.6 s) is a shorter-lived isotope of the radioactive noble-gas radon (the longer-lived isotope is 222Rn; half-life 3.6 d). Both radionuclides are part of a natural radioactive decay chain, thoron from the 232Th and radon from the 238U series. They can be found in soil-near air and soil-gas, and, in case of radon, its occurrence in ground water is well known. We expected to find also thoron in groundwater. But, as radon and thoron result from different decay chains, the geochemical and geophysical behaviour of their precursors differs, too. The emanation of thoron out of solid material that contains the thoron precursor 224Ra and the occurrence in aquatic systems are not well known. To assess the thoron emanation, we formulated two working hypotheses. The first one is based on the low solubility of the thoron precursors in oxic ground waters: 232Th and its daughter nuclides will remain located at almost the same positions in the crystal lattice as their precursors. In that case, the thoron concentration in groundwater depends on the distribution of the precursors in the aquifer material ("primary emanation"). The second hypothesis is based on the enhanced mobility of the radium isotopes, the precursors of 220,222Rn, in anoxic ground water of springs. If the anoxic spring water gets in contact with oxygen, Ra tends to co-precipitate with Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxides and accumulates at surface coatings. From the decay of 224Ra thoron emanates to the water phase ("secondary emanation"). We measured radon and thoron with a Rad7 solid-state detector coupled to a RadAQUA unit (closed gas loop, in contact with sprayed flowing water), which allows continuous measurement of radon and thoron in water. In order to test our working hypothesis, several springs containing oxygen were analysed - none of them showed any detectable thoron. At an anoxic mineral spring with Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxide precipitations at its outlet we have measured a thoron concentration of around 0.2

Huxol, S.; Höhn, E.; Surbeck, H.; Kipfer, R.

2009-04-01

428

Creation of an antiferromagnetic exchange spring  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence for the creation of an exchange spring in an antiferromagnet due to exchange coupling to a ferromagnet. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy on single crystal Co/NiO(001) shows that a partial domain wall is wound up at the surface of the antiferromagnet when the adjacent ferromagnet is rotated by a magnetic field. We determine the interface exchange stiffness and the antiferromagnetic domain wall energy from the field dependence of the direction of the antiferromagnetic axis, the antiferromagnetic pendant to a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop. The existence of a planar antiferromagnetic domain wall, proven by our measurement, is a key assumption of most exchange bias models.

Scholl, A.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.

2004-04-06

429

Bioactive selaginellins from Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring  

PubMed Central

Summary A new selaginellin named selaginellin O (1), along with three other known selaginellins (2–4) were isolated from Selaginella tamariscina (Beauv.) Spring. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, the structure of selaginellin O was demonstrated to be 4-[(4’-hydroxy-4-formyl-3-((4-hydroxyphenyl)ethynyl)biphenyl-2-yl)(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one. Compound 1, 2 and 3 exhibited appreciable cytotoxic activity against cultured HeLa cells (human cervical carcinoma cells), as well as significant antioxidant activity.

Shao, Yutian; Li, Kang; Xia, Wujiong

2012-01-01

430

Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg\\/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus\\/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing

M. N. Parenteau; T. Embaye; L. L. Jahnke; S. L. Cady

2003-01-01

431

Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

2009-01-01

432

Evaluating the Community Health Legacy of WWI Chemical Weapons Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring Valley, Washington, DC, was built over a World War I chemical weapons development site. Testing activities caused wide\\u000a dispersal of arsenic in soil and waste disposal resulted in localized subsurface contamination. Spring Valley presents an\\u000a interesting case study, a contaminated physical environment, but a strongly health-protective social environment. To address\\u000a a possible “healthy community” bias we selected a nearby

Mary Fox; Frank Curriero; Kathryn Kulbicki; Beth Resnick; Thomas Burke

2010-01-01

433

Spring structure for a thermionic converter emitter support arrangement  

DOEpatents

A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

Allen, Daniel T. (La Jolla, CA)

1992-01-01

434

Spring structure for a thermionic converter emitter support arrangement  

DOEpatents

A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs. 7 figs.

Allen, D.T.

1992-03-17

435

Spring flow, bacterial contamination, and water resources in rural Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field data from 25 karst springs were collected during the summer of 2008 near Verrettes, Haiti, to gain a better understanding\\u000a of water quality in fresh water springs used as the primary source of potable water in rural Haiti. Two water samples were\\u000a taken at each spring for bacterial analysis: one sample was submitted to a local hospital for analysis,

Peter J. WamplerAndrew; Andrew J. Sisson

2011-01-01

436

Tuning the spring constant of cantilever-free tip arrays.  

PubMed

A method to measure and tune the spring constant of tips in a cantilever-free array by adjusting the mechanical properties of the elastomeric layer on which it is based is reported. Using this technique, large-area silicon tip arrays are fabricated with spring constants tuned ranging from 7 to 150 N/m. To illustrate the benefit of utilizing a lower spring constant array, the ability to pattern on a delicate 50 nm silicon nitride substrate is explored. PMID:23286875

Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel J; Brown, Keith A; Boya, Radha; Shim, Wooyoung; Mirkin, Chad A

2013-01-03

437

Spring Thermal Fronts and Salmonine Sport Catches in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that salmonine catches in Lake Ontario are higher at thermal fronts in spring and early summer was tested in 1990 by comparing catches in nonfrontal water and three types of fronts: thermal bar (4°C); spring thermocline (6-8°C); and thermal break (>=9°C). A thermal front in the spring in Lake Ontario is a pronounced temperature cline across the surface

DANA C. AULTMAN; James M. Haynes

1993-01-01

438

Spring Thermal Fronts and Salmonine Sport Catches in Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that salmonine catches in Lake Ontario are higher at thermal fronts in spring and early summer was tested in 1990 by comparing catches in nonfrontal water and three types of fronts: thermal bar (4°C); spring thermocline (6–8°C); and thermal break (?9°C). A thermal front in the spring in Lake Ontario is a pronounced temperature cline across the surface

Dana C. Aultman; James M. Haynes

1993-01-01

439

Macroinvertebrate assemblages in Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five distinct macroinvertebrate assemblages were identified using cluster analysis of the rank-order abundances of 13 orders in 15 freshwater springs of central Pennsylvania, U.S.A. A principal components analysis of 20 environmental factors indicated that an insect-dominated assemblage occurred in low pH, softwater sandstone springs and an amphipod-dominated assemblage was associated with medium to hardwater springs with a silt to gravel

Douglas S. Glazier; James L. Gooch

1987-01-01

440

Quaternary faulting history along the Deep Springs fault, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

New geologic mapping, structural stud- ies, geochronology, and diffusion erosion modeling along the Deep Springs fault, Cal- ifornia, shed light on its Quaternary fault- ing history. The Deep Springs fault, a 26- km-long, predominantly north-northeast- striking, west-northwestdipping normal fault bounding the eastern side of Deep Springs Valley, cuts Jurassic batholithic rocks nonconformably overlain by middle Miocene to Pleistocene stream gravels,

Jeffrey Lee; Charles M. Rubin; Andrew Calvert

2001-01-01

441

NTNU Java: Simulate 1D Collision with a Virtual Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet simulates two particles moving and colliding in one dimension. The collision is elastic and is shown as being caused by a virtual spring. The user can change the starting velocities of the two particles and the spring constant of the virtual spring. The applet also graphs the momentum and kinetic energy of the two particles as they move. It is part of a larger collection of Java simulations. This simulation is based on the EJS programming platform.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2007-02-05

442

A model for understanding membrane potential using springs.  

PubMed

In this report, I present a simple model using springs to conceptualize the relationship between ionic conductances across a cellular membrane and their effect on membrane potential. The equation describing the relationships linking membrane potential, ionic equilibrium potential, and ionic conductance is of similar form to that describing the force generated by a spring as a function of its displacement. The spring analogy is especially useful in helping students to conceptualize the effects of multiple conductances on membrane potential. PMID:16298957

Cardozo, David L

2005-12-01

443

Experimental evidence for an optical spring  

SciTech Connect

An optical spring effect has been observed in the motion of a Fabry-Perot cavity suspended in the Low-Frequency Facility, R and D experiment of the VIRGO Collaboration. The experimental setup consists of a 1-cm-long cavity hanging from a mechanical isolation system, conceived to suppress seismic noise transmission to the optical components of the interferometer. The observed radiation pressure effect corresponds to an optical stiffness k{sub opt} ranging between 2.5x10{sup 4} and 6.5x10{sup 4} N/m. This paper reports several measurements of the mirror relative displacement carried out in different working conditions. The measured error signal spectra show broad resonances at frequencies compatible with the optomechanical system. In other runs cavity detuning oscillations have been observed at subhertz frequencies. In these cases the power spectrum of the control loop error signal exhibited a broad resonance with superimposed uniformly spaced peaks. These observations, validated by a simple model, prove that the fluctuations of the optical spring effect can become so large as to exhibit nonlinear features.

Di Virgilio, A.; Barsotti, L.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Corda, C.; Fiori, I.; Frasconi, F.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Passuello, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dattilo, V.; La Penna, P.; Pasqualetti, A. [EGO, European Gravitational Observatory, Cascina (Pi) (Italy); Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Losurdo, G. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Majorana, E.; Puppo, P. [Universita di Roma 1, and INFN-Roma 1, Roma (Italy); Mantovani, M. [Universita di Siena, Siena (Italy)] (and others)

2006-07-15

444

Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones  

SciTech Connect

This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.

1990-09-01

445

Quantum spring from the Casimir effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Casimir effect arises not only in the presence of material boundaries but also in space with nontrivial topology. In this Letter, we choose a topology of the flat (D+1)-dimensional spacetime, which causes the helix boundary condition for a Hermitian massless scalar field. Especially, Casimir effect for a massless scalar field on the helix boundary condition is investigated in two and three dimensions by using the zeta function techniques. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. When r is large, this force behaves like the Newton's law of universal gravitation in the leading order. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

2010-07-01

446

Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warmer winter and spring temperatures have been noted over the last century in Western Canada. Earlier spring plant development in recent decades has been reported for Europe, but not for North America. The first-bloom dates for Edmonton, Alberta, were extracted from four historical data sets, and a spring flowering index showed progressively earlier development. For Populus tremuloides, a linear trend shows a 26-day shift to earlier blooming over the last century. The spring flowering index correlates with the incidence of El Niño events and with Pacific sea-surface temperatures.

Beaubien, E. G.; Freeland, H. J.

447

Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature.  

PubMed

Warmer winter and spring temperatures have been noted over the last century in Western Canada. Earlier spring plant development in recent decades has been reported for Europe, but not for North America. The first-bloom dates for Edmonton, Alberta, were extracted from four historical data sets, and a spring flowering index showed progressively earlier development. For Populus tremuloides, a linear trend shows a 26-day shift to earlier blooming over the last century. The spring flowering index correlates with the incidence of El Niño events and with Pacific sea-surface temperatures. PMID:10993558

Beaubien, E G; Freeland, H J

2000-08-01

448

Faulting Plumbing: Spring Response to Creep on the Hayward Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two prominent sets of thermal springs lie along the western edge of the left step over region between the Calaveras and Hayward faults: the Alum Rock springs, San Jose, CA, and the Warm Springs, Fremont, CA. Co- and postseismic flow increases at both spring locations have been well documented (King et al., 1994 and Waring, 1915). Until recently, however, spring response to creep events was unknown. In January 2003, we documented a 20% decrease in discharge at the Warm Springs due to a 0.31mm right lateral creep event on the southern Hayward fault. The Warm Springs emanate from the Warm Springs fault that lies at the base of Mission Peak and merges with the Mission fault. The observed decrease in discharge is directly proportional to fluid pressure drop within the fault and therefore we suggest that creep on the Hayward fault resulted in a rapid stress change within a neighboring secondary fault. We present an analytical model that explains the observed discharge change and provides an estimate for the depth of fault zone permeability changes. Our results indicate that ongoing monitoring, geochemical sampling, and modeling of thermal springs within active faults zones offers the potential to directly observe fluid-fault interactions and better constrain the interactions of major fault zones with neighboring secondary faults.

Manga, M.; Rowland, J. C.

2003-12-01

449

Principal Facts for Gravity Stations in Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observed gravity values, station locations, terrain corrections, and Bouguer gravity data are provided in tabular form for approximately 410 gravity observations in Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona. (Author)

D. L. Peterson

1972-01-01

450

Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation  

SciTech Connect

A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests.

Sorey, M.L.

1991-01-01

451

A Mechanical Analogue for Chemical Potential, Extent of Reaction, and the Gibbs Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analogy that relates the one-dimensional mechanical equilibrium of a rigid block between two Hooke's law springs and the chemical equilibrium of two perfect gases using ordinary materials. (PVD)

Glass, Samuel V.; DeKock, Roger L.

1998-01-01

452

A Mechanical Analogue for Chemical Potential, Extent of Reaction, and the Gibbs Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an analogy that relates the one-dimensional mechanical equilibrium of a rigid block between two Hooke's law springs and the chemical equilibrium of two perfect gases using ordinary materials. (PVD)|

Glass, Samuel V.; DeKock, Roger L.

1998-01-01

453

Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1) Mg-HCO3, (2) Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3) Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4) Na-Cl-SO4 and (5) Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An increase in salinity is also observed which is due to mixing with a saline end-member (modified sea-water) and dissolution of gypsum/anhydrite. In some cases, the waters have pH values greater than 11. Such high values are associated with low temperature serpentinisation reactions. The system is a net sink for CO2. This feature is related not only to the hydrolysis of the primary minerals in the rock, but also to CaCO3 or Ca-Mg-CO3 solubility controls. Under hyperalkaline conditions, virtually all the carbon dioxide is lost from the water due to the sufficiently high calcium levels and carbonate buffering is then insignificant. Calcium sulphate solubility controls may also be operative when calcium and sulphate concentrations are particularly high.

Neal, C.; Shand, P.

454

The Geochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical composition of hot spring biofilms can reveal how the organisms in the biofilm interact with their environment, and how the products of that interaction can be recorded in hydrothermal mineral deposits. To provide a geochemical framework for quantifying the direct interaction of biofilms with their environments, we collected biofilm samples and their associated waters from hot springs located in Yellowstone National Park. The springs varied in pH (2 to 9) and temperature (<45 to >90 C), and were separated by distances that ranged from one to thousands of meters. Biofilm types include filaments, mats, and stromatotherms, and include microbial communities from the strictly chemolithotrophic to those dominated by phototrophs. Elemental analysis reveals that biofilms are made up of from 1 to 15 dry wt% carbon, and <1 to 5% nitrogen, indicating that biological materials constitute a small fraction of the total dry biofilm mass. Major element analysis via electron microprobe and complimentary x-ray fluorescence show that hydrothermal biofilms, regardless of location, water composition, and temperature, are dominantly composed of silica. Analyses reported as oxide sums show that SiO2 constitutes ~60 to >85 dry wt%, with the rest made up of Al2O3 (2 to 25%), and FeO (<1 to >20%), as well as minor alkali and alkali earth oxides (<3%). Trace element concentrations (in mol/kg dry weight, by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) can range from over two orders of magnitude less than the water (mol/kg) in which the biofilm is living to over two orders of magnitude greater. Hydrothermal fluid trace element concentrations can also vary over several orders of magnitude. As a consequence, sequestration factors, the ratio of concentration of an element in dry biomass (mol/kg) divided by the concentration in the associated water (mol/kg), permit comparison of biofilms from varying hydrothermal environments. Some elements behave similarly in all biofilms, with sequestration factors of greater than 10E2 (Ti), to approximately 10E0 (Ga, Cs), to less than 10E-2 (Li, B, W, As). Other elements show sequestration factors that are highly variable (Be, Mn, Cr, Mo). These differences may characterize specific community types, which would be correlated to modern hydrothermal deposits that harbored biofilms. Ultimately, these variations can provide novel biomarkers for these systems that can be used to look for evidence of life in the rock record.

Havig, J. R.; Shock, E. L.; Prapaipong, P.; Michaud, A.; Moore, G.

2006-12-01

455

A Model for Incorporating Chemical Reactions in Mesoscale Modeling of Laser Ablation of Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a methodology for including effects of chemical reactions in coarse-grained computer simulations such as those that use the united atom or bead and spring approximations. The new coarse-grained chemical reaction model (CGCRM) adopts the philosophy of kinetic Monte Carlo approaches and includes a probabilistic element to predicting when reactions occur, thus obviating the need for a chemically

Barbara J. Garrison; Yaroslava G. Yingling

2004-01-01

456

Differential responding to spring and fall song in mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments examined whether mockingbirds respond differently to the distinct acoustical features of spring and fall song. Playback of both spring and fall song produced agonistic responses among 35 Ss during both the spring and the fall. However, significantly more response occurred during playback of spring song, even when spring song was played in the fall. This consistent cross-season difference

Cheryl A. Logan; Keith R. Fulk

1984-01-01

457

The geometric, sedimentologic and hydrologic attributes of spring-dominated channels in volcanic areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In volcanic areas of Idaho, Oregon and Montana, a number of perennial streams emerge from single springs or zones of springs. Surface drainage areas to these springs can be very small, often much smaller than the recharge area of the springs. Channels downstream of springs are often straight, or if sinuous, without regularity to the pattern. Bars are absent or

Peter J Whiting; Douglas B Moog

2001-01-01

458

Overview of the SPring-8 Diagnostics Beamlines  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of the two SPring-8 diagnostics beamlines, the beamline I (dipole magnet source) and II (insertion device source). At the beamline I, synchrotron radiation (SR) in both the X-ray and the visible bands is exploited for characterizations of the electron beam. At the beamline II, by observing the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of X-ray SR of the insertion device (ID), new techniques for accelerator diagnostics are investigated. Irradiation experiments with the ID to develop accelerator components such as photon absorbers, and production of intensive 10 MeV {gamma}-rays by backward Compton scattering of external far infrared (FIR) laser photons are being prepared at the beamline II.

Takano, S.; Masaki, M.; Tamura, K.; Mochihashi, A.; Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, S.; Oishi, M.; Shoji, M.; Taniuchi, Y.; Okayasu, Y.; Ohkuma, H. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5198 (Japan); Okajima, S. [Center of Advanced Metrology, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi, 487-8501 (Japan)

2010-06-23

459

Monochromator Stabilization System at SPring-8  

SciTech Connect

A monochromator stabilization system with a semi-automatic tuning procedure has been developed. The system comprises an X-ray beam position/intensity monitor, a control electronics unit, a computer program that operates on a personal computer or workstation, a piezo translator attached to the first crystal of a double crystal monochromator, and a phase-sensitive detector as an optional component. The system suppressed the fluctuations of the photon beam intensity and the beam position by {approx}0.1% and {approx}1 {mu}m, respectively, at the sample locations in the beamlines of SPring-8 with a frequency of less than 10 Hz. The system with the phase-sensitive detector holds the peak of the rocking curve of the double crystal monochromator, which is effective in reducing the time required to perform the energy scan measurement.

Kudo, Togo; Tanida, Hajime; Inoue, Shinobu; Hirono, Toko; Furukakwa, Yukito; Suzuki, Motohiro [SPring-8/JASRI 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Nishino, Yoshinori [SPring-8/RIKEN 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ishikawa, Tetsuya [SPring-8/JASRI 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); SPring-8/RIKEN 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2007-01-19

460

Best Student Papers for 1987 Spring Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As they did at previous national meetings, several AGU sections selected Best Student Papers at the 1987 Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., during May 1987 as a means of encouraging student participation.Pal Wessel was selected by the Geodesy Section to receive their Best Student Paper Award for his paper entitled “Global Gravity Crossover Corrections: Implications and Applications,” which was coauthored by A. B. Watts (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), Palisades, N.Y.). Wessel received his B.Sc. (1982) and M.S. (1984) from the University of Oslo, Norway, in applied geophysics, while working on inversion of gravity anomalies over a continental rift (Oslo Graben). He is currently a Ph.D. candidate at LDGO. Wessel's research in gravity includes statistical analysis of shipboard gravity data, gridding algorithms, and computation of gravimetric geoids. He is also working on flexre of young oceanic lithosphere caused by thermal stresses.