Sample records for weldon spring chemical

  1. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-08-10

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation.

  2. Proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2003-08-06

    This Proposed Plan (PP) presents the preferred alternative for addressing contaminated groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site, in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located about 30 mi west of St. Louis, in St. Charles County (Figure 1). This proposed action constitutes the final remedial action for the Weldon Spring site. The residual contamination in groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area is the only remaining contamination that needs to be addressed for the site. All other contamination has been addressed by previous remedial actions. After this remedial action is implemented, long-term surveillance and maintenance activities will maintain the effectiveness of all remedial actions conducted at the Weldon Spring site, including this final remedial action for groundwater and springs that is being proposed in this plan. DOE complies with the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in conducting remedial activities at the site. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process; that is, the analysis conducted and presented in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This PP is required under CERCLA to (1) notify the public and present a brief analysis of the remedial action alternatives, (2) identify and present the rationale for the preferred remedial action alternative identified in the PP, (3) summarize key information from the RI/FS evaluations, including the Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), and (4) inform the public of its role in the remedy selection process and give the public the opportunity to participate in the process. Remediation activities at the Weldon Spring site have been coordinated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). The EPA has overall oversight and approval authority, with consultation provided by the MDNR. A range of alternatives was considered in identifying the preferred alternative. The alternatives were developed after careful analysis of geological, environmental, and human health and ecological risk data and an evaluation of the effectiveness, implementability, and cost of the various technologies available for groundwater remediation at the Chemical Plant area. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities has been selected as the preferred alternative.

  3. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  4. WELDON SPRING EPA Region 7 10/13/2011 QUARRY/PLANT/ PITTS

    E-print Network

    . Charles County for construction of the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works facility. The former Ordnance Works of the former Ordnance Works area includes the DOE Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and Weldon Spring Quarry, the U source materials are contained in the on-site disposal cell. Residual contamination exceeding health

  5. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, J.G.

    1993-12-31

    Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

  6. Successful decommissioning and demolition at Weldon Spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    B&W Nuclear Environmental Services, Inc. (B&W NESI) and OHM Corporation (OHM) formed a joint venture company, B&W\\/OHM Weldon Spring, Inc. (B&W\\/OHM WSI) to perform work at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). This joint venture company combines the hazardous and toxic waste remediation experience of OHM with the radiological decontamination and decommissioning experience

  7. Bibliographic citations pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles County, Missouri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Owen; D. C. Michelson; N. P. Knox

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation of 166 bibliographic references pertinent to the Weldon Spring Site (WSS), St. Charles County, Missouri. The WSS is a surplus US government facility which consists of the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant; two separate low-level radioactive waste storage properties, designated the ''raffinate pits'' and ''quarry'', and a number of potentially contaminated vicinity properties. The facility was

  8. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  9. Environmental monitoring program for DOE, Weldon Spring, Missouri Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ficker

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Weldon Spring Site (DOE-WSS) is located in St. Charles Co., Missouri, and is comprised of two properties. One property is a part of the former Feed Materials Center operated by Mallinckrodt Chemical Works from 1956 to 1966. There are four raffinite pits on the property which contain radioactive residues from the processing of uranium ore concentrates,

  10. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  11. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Koegler; R. K. Nakaoka; R. K. Farnsworth; S. O. Bates

    1989-01-01

    This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification

  12. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  13. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the nature and extent of contamination is presented in Section 1.2, and the results of the BRA are summarized in Section 1.3. The objective of this FS is discussed in Section 1.4, and preliminary remediation goals are identified in Section 1.5. The organization of the remaining chapters of this FS is outlined in Section 1.6.

  14. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  15. Streamlined RI/FS planning for the groundwater operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M.H.; Durham, L.A.; Blunt, D.L.; Hartmann, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis and 22 km (14 mi) southwest of the City of St. Charles. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s and 1960s. The Army also used the chemical plant area for the production of explosives in the 1940s. The Weldon Spring Site chemical plant area was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Adjacent to the chemical plant area is another NPL site known as the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. The ordnance works area is a former explosive production facility that manufactured trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) during World War II. The ordnance works area covers 7,000 ha (17,232 acres); cleanup of this site is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE).

  16. Off-site population radiological dose and risk assessment for potential airborne emissions from the Weldon Spring Site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. I. Avci; B. M. Biwer; D. L. Blunt

    1992-01-01

    Radiological doses and health risks to the population around the Weldon Spring site from potential airborne emissions during remedial action at the chemical plant area of the site have been assessed with the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer code. Two treatment options are being considered for waste produced by site cleanup activities: chemical stabilization\\/solidification and vitrification. Over the entire

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE), Weldon Spring, MO. (Second remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 226-acre Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE) site is a former ordnance works and chemical plant near the city of Weldon Spring in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site is divided into two noncontiguous areas: a 217-acre chemical plant area, comprised of various buildings, ponds and four raffinate pits, and a 9-acre quarry, which forms a valley wall at the edge of the Missouri River floodplain. Since the early 1940s, the site has been used by various government agencies for chemical and ordnance processing with chemical and radioactive waste disposal in the quarry. From 1941 to 1946, the site was an Army ordnance works used for the production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) explosives. The selected interim remedial action for the site includes excavating an estimated 95,000 cubic yards of chemically and radioactively contaminated bulk wastes from the quarry and temporarily storing the wastes onsite in the chemical plant area; and implementing site access restrictions. The estimated total cost for the remedial action is $11,000,000.

  18. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Koegler; K. H. Oma; J. M. Jr. Perez

    1988-01-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options

  19. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the remediation of Vicinity Property 9 at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lonkhuyzen, R.A. Van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to excavate contaminated soil at Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), a 0.64-ha (1.6-acre) parcel near the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. A palustrine wetland approximately 0.10 ha (0.25 acre) in size within VP9 would be excavated. Site restoration should allow palustrine wetland to become reestablished. No long-term impacts to floodplains are expected.

  20. Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.

    2002-02-26

    The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

  1. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  2. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fourth year (1996) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The fourth year at the Weldon Springs Site shows sustained progress as the project moves through the final design and into the remedial action phases of the Chemical Plant Operable Unit. The remedial action phase includes the Foundations Removal work package, Chemical Solidification and Stabilization, and disposal cell.

  3. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

  4. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  5. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  6. Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy [Stoller LMS Team (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team (United States); Starr, Ken [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)] [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site management activities necessary to ensure that the Weldon Spring Site remains protective over the long-term. The LTS and M Plan is revised periodically to ensure its applicability to changing site, regulatory, or procedural conditions. In addition to addressing such activities as long-term groundwater monitoring and disposal cell maintenance, the LTS and M Plan was developed and issued to ensure that the use restrictions identified in the ESD were properly imposed and maintained. The LTS and M Plan included a detailed IC Implementation Plan, which includes a process for evaluating and identifying specific IC mechanisms that best accomplish the objectives set out in the ESD. Consistent with EPA guidance on selecting ICs, various IC mechanisms were evaluated, including government controls, proprietary controls, enforcement tools, and informational devices. Where appropriate, redundant mechanisms were employed to increase the effectiveness of the ICs. Information in the IC Implementation Plan includes: (1) a discussion of current site conditions (reflecting post-remedial action conditions for the Chemical Plant and Quarry Areas and the risk-basis for why use restrictions are needed); (2) the objectives of, or performance expectations for, the use restrictions; (3) specific ICs already in place and additional mechanisms identified for implementation; (4) a schedule for implementing additional ICs; (5) procedures for maintaining the ICs and for conducting periodic inspections; and (6) general provisions for the implementing ICs for the site. The actual agreements and documentation of the various ICs are included in an appendix of the LTS and M Plan. These documents are also available via the internet from the authorizing agencies (County, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, EPA, etc.) The Weldon Spring Site personnel have been successful in finalizing each of the ICs that were established for the site. The planning, establishment, and implementation of the ICs was a long and detailed process with several lessons-learned that were identified along the way. (authors)

  7. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  8. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

    1989-11-01

    This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Off-site population radiological dose and risk assessment for potential airborne emissions from the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, H.I.; Biwer, B.M.; Blunt, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Radiological doses and health risks to the population around the Weldon Spring site from potential airborne emissions during remedial action at the chemical plant area of the site have been assessed with the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer code. Two treatment options are being considered for waste produced by site cleanup activities: chemical stabilization/solidification and vitrification. Over the entire cleanup period of 7 years, the collective dose received by the people who live within 80 km (50 mi) of the site (about 3 million persons) is estimated to be about 34 person-rem for the chemical stabilization/ solidification option and 32 person-rem for the vitrification option. By comparison, the same population is expected to receive about 6 {times} 10{sup 6} person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. If only the population within a reasonable radius of impact is considered (about 10,700 persons live within 5 km [3 mi] of the site), the remedial action activities are estimated to result in about 5 person-rem over the entire cleanup period; the same population is expected to receive about 20,000 person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. Because the doses are low, no cancers or genetic effects are expected to occur among the population around the Weldon Spring site as a result of exposures resulting from potential radioactive releases to the atmosphere during remediation of the chemicalplant area.

  10. Off-site population radiological dose and risk assessment for potential airborne emissions from the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Avci, H.I.; Biwer, B.M.; Blunt, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Radiological doses and health risks to the population around the Weldon Spring site from potential airborne emissions during remedial action at the chemical plant area of the site have been assessed with the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 computer code. Two treatment options are being considered for waste produced by site cleanup activities: chemical stabilization/solidification and vitrification. Over the entire cleanup period of 7 years, the collective dose received by the people who live within 80 km (50 mi) of the site (about 3 million persons) is estimated to be about 34 person-rem for the chemical stabilization/ solidification option and 32 person-rem for the vitrification option. By comparison, the same population is expected to receive about 6 [times] 10[sup 6] person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. If only the population within a reasonable radius of impact is considered (about 10,700 persons live within 5 km [3 mi] of the site), the remedial action activities are estimated to result in about 5 person-rem over the entire cleanup period; the same population is expected to receive about 20,000 person-rem from natural background radiation during that time. Because the doses are low, no cancers or genetic effects are expected to occur among the population around the Weldon Spring site as a result of exposures resulting from potential radioactive releases to the atmosphere during remediation of the chemicalplant area.

  11. Comparison of surface meteorological data representativeness for the Weldon Spring transport and dispersion modeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus property available for other uses to the extent possible. This report presents the results of analysis of available meteorological data from stations near the Weldon Spring site. Data that are most representative of site conditions are needed to accurately model the transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with remedial activities. Such modeling will assist the development of mitigative measures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-23

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

  13. Expediting cleanup at the Weldon Spring site under CERCLA and NEPA

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; McCracken, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action project is being conducted under the Surplus Facilities Management Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE has developed an environmental compliance strategy for this project to meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). A key element of this strategy was the development of an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process to minimize, to the extent possible, the need to prepare duplicate documentation. Additionally, the project is implementing various expedited response actions to mitigate actual or potential uncontrolled releases if radioactively or chemically hazardous substances to the environment and to minimize potential health and safety risks to on-site personnel and local human and biotic populations. These actions are being conducted concurrently with the preparation of major environmental compliance documentation. The initiation of site cleanup via these response actions has fostered a very positive relationship with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region VII, the state of Missouri, and the affected public. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary for second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-08-11

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the second quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented constitutes the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the database during the second quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the database and KPA data are not merged into the regular database. All data received and verified during the second quarter were within a permissible range of variability, except for those listed. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were no above normal occurrences for springs or surface water. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the database during the second quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs.

  15. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

  17. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement: Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-11-06

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the third quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined above normal Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits, and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that above normal data occur.

  18. The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J. [Fernald Preserve, Ohio (United States); Deyo, Y. [Weldon Spring, St. Charles, Missouri (United States)

    2008-07-01

    At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

  19. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status to date January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fifth year (1997) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Staffing issues this year have been a challenge with the resignation of an Environmental Specialist (ES) in June 1997, and the death of Robert Stovall, an Environmental Engineer (EE) II in August 1997. Progress made during this period includes securing a contract laboratory, participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, oversight of the Feasibility Study/Proposed Plan (FS/PP), coordination between the US Department of Energy and the various State regulatory programs and interactions with the local public drinking water supply agency and health departments.

  20. Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Chemical Plant is located just north of the drainage divide separating the Mississippi River and the Missouri River in St. Charles County, Missouri. From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycled scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of dissolved solids and a different chemical composition compared to the native groundwater and surface water. This difference is indicated by the concentrations of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, uranium, radium, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium, all of which are greater than natural or background concentrations. Water from Burgermeister Spring, located about 1.5 miles north of the chemical plant area, contains uranium and nitrate concentrations greater than background concentrations. Groundwater in the shallow bedrock aquifer moves northward from the vicinity of the chemical plant toward Dardenne Creek. An abandoned limestone quarry several miles southwest of the chemical plant also has been used for the disposal of radioactive waste and rubble. Groundwater flow from the quarry area is southward through the alluvium, away from the quarry and toward the Missouri River. The St. Charles County well field is located in the Missouri River flood plain near the quarry and the large yield wells are open to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Water from a well 4,000 ft southeast of the quarry was analyzed; there was no indication of contamination from the quarry. Additional water quality and water level data are needed to determine if water from the quarry moves toward the well field. Observation wells need to be installed in the area between the chemical plant, pits, and Dardenne Creek. The wells would be used to provide access for measurements of depth to ground water and for the collection of water samples from the shallow bedrock aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

  1. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-01-28

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

  2. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources during the first two years (1993, 1994) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role at the Weldon Springs Site. The accomplishments to date include participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, assignment of two permanent on-site personnel to oversee the DOE progress, coordination between the US DOE and the various regulatory programs of the state, and continued independent analysis of the treated water discharges.

  3. Modeling to optimize operational practices to limit shallow dose and dose to the lens at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project.

    PubMed

    Hillman, D J; Green, S W

    1994-10-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) began remediation of its chemical plant buildings in June 1992. The chemical plant was used by the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950's and 1960's to process uranium ore and natural thorium. Many remaining equipment surfaces were highly contaminated with uranium and thorium product residues, which are relatively weak gamma emitters, but are strong beta emitters that deposit the majority of their energy within the first centimeter of tissue. An essential part of the remediation, therefore, is to control the dose to the skin, extremities, and the lens of the eye from the broad range of betas emitted by uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides. The WSSRAP planned to quantitatively record the dose to the skin, extremities, and the lens of the eye, when warranted, through selection and use of appropriate passive dosimeters. That would not, however, constitute control. A direct-reading instrument was needed that could be used by field technicians to anticipate and prevent work methods and situations that would otherwise result in the unnecessary commitment of dose. However, the interpretation of real-time instrument readings produced by a broad spectrum of beta energies is typically challenging at best, particularly when the shallow dose rate and the lens dose rate are both of interest. The purpose of this effort was, therefore, to (1) select a direct-reading instrument for use in the buildings that could be used to provide rule-of-thumb action levels for field technicians, which, if exceeded, would warrant worker protective measures; (2) determine the approximate conversions between the instrument readings and the shallow (including extremity) dose rate and lens of the eye dose rate; and (3) specify protective measures and dosimetry for the lens of the eye, if warranted. Methods described in the literature are used to estimate action levels for direct instrument readings and to demonstrate that lens dosimetry and special protective measures for the lens of the eye are not necessary at the WSSRAP. PMID:8083056

  4. WELDON SPRING FORMER ARMY

    E-print Network

    .S. Armed Services. A series of land transfers left the Army with 1,655 acres, which it has operated since samples from the building were taken. The interior wooden boards were removed and replaced with sheetrock

  5. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kelvin H.

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Engineering (FYE) 2 CHEG 112 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 CHEM 111 General Chemistry 3 CHEM 112 General Chemistry and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 3 CHEG 325

  6. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term

    E-print Network

    Lee, Kelvin H.

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FALL 2010 Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 MATH 242 Analytic Geometry & Calculus B 4 MATH 243 Analytic Geometry & Calculus C 4 Critical Reading and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering

  7. Assessment of Weldon Spring chemical plant in St. Charles County, Missouri. Interim report, April 1975March 1976

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neidbrmeyer

    1976-01-01

    Portions of a former explosives production facility in St. Charles County, Missouri, were transferred from the US Army to the former US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) for construction and operation of a feed materials plant in support of the Atomic Energy Program. The uranium and thorium processing subsequently conducted between 1957 and 1966 resulted in the radiological contamination of the

  8. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 milligramsper litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100?C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in 'granitic' terranes.

  9. Chemical Oceanography 3 credits MSL 660 -Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    Chemical Oceanography ­ 3 credits MSL 660 - Spring 2011 Syllabus Meets: T, Th 09:45-11:15, 138 Irv and biochemistry are helpful. Biological and physical oceanography are helpful, but we work around it if students;can provide introductory general oceanography texts for any students who have not had this background

  10. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  11. DR SUE WELDON Public participation and partnership

    E-print Network

    and governance in a changing political and economic context Social Science in Forestry #12;Social Science in a changing political and economic context Sue Weldon in collaboration with Paul Tabbush Forestry Commission). Social science in forestry. Public participation and partnership: a review of Forestry Commission

  12. Application of chemical geothermometers to some Tunisian hot springs

    SciTech Connect

    Dhia, H.B. (Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Sfax (TN)); Meddeb, N. (Office National des Mines, 26 Rue d'Angleterre, Tunis (TN))

    1990-01-01

    Forty-five Tunisian hot springs are studied as geothermal indicators. Several chemical geothermometers are applied in this sedimentary geological environment. Hot springs are selected among 70 existing within the country. Selection is based on complete water analyses with a good ionic balance. Measured temperature ranges from 21 to 73{degrees}C and discharge rates range from 0.1 to 40 l/s. Studied springs show mainly chloride type waters. Geothermometers applied are: silica, Na/K, Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Ca-Mg, Na/Li and Mg/Li. Temperatures estimated by those geothermometers are plotted against the measured values to evaluate the applicability of the geothermometers used. The Na/K and Na/Li geothermometers appear to give unreliable results, as water composition seems to be greatly affected by interaction with the evaporitic and dolomitic rocks that are ubiquitous in Tunisia. The Na-K-Ca-Mg, Mg/Li and silica geothermometers seem to give plausible values, emphasizing the role played by Mg and its importance for Tunisian hot waters.

  13. Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Chemical similarities among physically distinct spring types in a karst terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Thrailkill, J.

    1987-01-01

    In karst regions where correlations between physical characteristics of springs and temporal variations in spring water chemistry have been found, spring water chemistry has been used to infer physical attributes of karst systems. Possible correlations between chemical and physical characteristics of springs were tested in the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky where previous dye-tracing studies have identified two physically distinct spring types: local high-level springs discharging from shallow flow paths and major low-level springs discharging from a deep integrated conduit system. Representative high-level and major springs were sampled over a 16-month period and analyzed for major dissolved components. Both spring types showed similar variations in temperature, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and hardness. No systematic differences in ionic concentrations or in saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite were apparent between the two spring types. Chemical similarities between high-level and major springs during low flow are attributed to recharge of major springs by percolation and by high-level springs and to the occurrence of most chemical reactions near the recharge zone rather than in the deep conduit system. During high discharge, however, most recharge to the major springs is surface runoff which produces low ionic concentrations. Similarly low ionic concentrations in the high-level springs are thought to result from rapid flow through the soil-rock zone and short flow distances. These relationships indicate that spring water chemistry is not only a function of conduit size but also an indicator of recharge type and amount and flow path length. Differing flow path lengths to major and high-level springs counteract the effect of varying conduit size between the two spring types and result in similar ionic concentrations. These data indicate that spring water chemistry cannot be used to predict physical characteristics of karst aquifers in the Inner Bluegrass Region. The physical and chemical attributes of springs in the Inner Bluegrass were compared to those of springs in the Nittany Valley of Pennsylvania. A reported high correlation between physical and chemical characteristics of springs in the Pennsylvania karst system reflects geological and structural controls not present in the Inner Bluegrass Region.

  15. Chemical analyses of thermal and nonthermal springs in Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Most thermal waters issuing in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are acidic (pH =3.5), low-Cl (concentrations =30 mg/L) hot springs which are characteristic of vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems and, as such, are not useful for liquid chemical geothermometry. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley, hot spring localities characterized by neutral pH and low Cl containing water, may have equilibrated in shallow aquifers so that temperatures estimated by both the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers approach the measured spring temperatures of 65? to 95?C. Waters rich in chloride (>2000 mg/L), such as those at Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs, situated south of LVNP, are the most appropriate springs for liquid chemical geothermometry and indicate subsurface temperatures between 220? and 230?C. The chemical and thermal characteristics of these springs may result either from boiling at depth and subsequent mixing with meteoric water or from conductive cooling during lateral flow. In either case ~220? to 230?C thermal water probably originates inside LVNP and flows south to Morgan Hot Springs.

  16. Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    Consider the object attached to a spring in The animation considers an object attached to a spring. Assume that the spring is ideal (i.e. spring has no mass and the force required to stretch or compress the spring is given by Hooke's law). There are no external forces acting on the object-spring system. The user is asked to answer questions about the object-spring system.

  17. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL.

  19. Chemical composition of thermal springs, cold springs, streams, and gas vents in the Mt. Amiata geothermal region (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, V.; Minissale, A. A.; Prati, F.

    1987-04-01

    A geochemical study of thermal and cold springs, stream waters and gas emissions has been carried out in the Mt. Amiata geothermal region. The cold springs and stream waters do not seem to have received significant contribution from hot deep fluids. On the contrary, the thermal springs present complex and not clearly quantifiable interactions with the hot fluids of the main geothermal reservoir. The liquid-dominated systems in the Mt. Amiata area, like most of the high-enthalpy geothermal fields in the world, are characterized by saline, NaCl fluids. The nature of the reservoir rock (carbonatic and anhydritic), and its widespread occurrence in central Italy, favor a regional circulation of "Ca-sulfate" thermal waters, which discharge from its outcrop areas. Waters of this kind, which have been considered recharge waters of the known geothermal fields, dilute, disperse and react with the deep geothermal fluids in the Mt. Amiata area, preventing the use of the main chemical geothermometers for prospecting purposes. The temperatures obtained from the chemical geothermometers vary widely and are generally cooler than temperatures measured in producing wells. Other thermal anomalies in central Italy, apart from those already known, might be masked by the above-mentioned circulation. A better knowledge of deep-fluid chemistry could contribute to the calibration of specific geothermometers for waters from reservoirs in carbonatic rocks.

  20. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  1. SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Grunder, A.L.; Hildreth, Wes

    1983-01-01

    Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

  2. Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys viewing the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys the on-time launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Weldon and other guests of NASA viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP viewing site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  3. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Jeffrey

    2014-03-10

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  4. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baum, Jeffrey

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  5. CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB

    E-print Network

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 (10/31/12) CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB Atomic, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16 may be counted

  6. Watercress and amphipods Potential chemical defense in a spring stream macrophyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond M. Newman; W. Charles Kerfoot; Zac Hanscom

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of defensive chemicals in the avoidance of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) by the cooccurring amphipod,Gammarus pseudolimnaeus at two spring brooks: Carp Creek, Michigan and Squabble Brook, Connecticut. We conducted observations and laboratory experiments on the consumption of watercress, the toxicity of damaged (frozen) watercress, and the toxicity of damage-released secondary chemicals. Field-collected yellowed watercress typically lacked

  7. Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Depending on where you are, spring is either wrapping up or just around the bend. From the sounds of spring peepers peeping to birds chirping, this is definitely the season of re-birth. Check out this handful of sites that look at some of the signs of spring.The first site (1), from naturesound.com, allows you to hear the chorus of a truly spring sound: spring peepers. Next, from Education World, is a good collection of lesson plans for any teachers out there hoping to bring some spring fever into the classroom, or at least try to harness it(2). The Chicago Tribune (3)has the spirit with this feature on the signs of spring in the third site. The fourth site (4), from the Illinois State Museum, will help those out there considering putting in their own prairie garden this spring -- a perfect time to plant. The fifth site (5) is from eNature.com and offers a great look at the spring migration. Lastly is a show from NPR on spring bugs (4).

  8. Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

    2000-01-01

    The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 °C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63°C in 1889 to 48°C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77°C in 1995 and neared boiling (98°C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3°C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition of steam discharges from the Southeast Geysers. The hot spring waters are low in ions of Cl, B, and Li, but relatively high in HCO3, SO4 and NH4. The stable-isotope compositions (deuterium and oxygen-18) of these waters plot near the global meteoric water line. Geochemical data through time reveal apparent maxima in the concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Mn in 1991 to 1992, before the cluster became hotter. The black-to-gray deposits from the new spring cluster are rich in pyrite and contain anomalous metals. About one-half mile to the east of the hot springs, mineralized water discharges intermittently from an old adit of the Schwartz (Anderson) mine, and enters a tributary of Anderson Creek. This drainage increased substantially in July 1998, and a slurry of mine water and precipitates were transported down the tributary and into Anderson Creek. In December 1998, the adit water was 22°C, and had a chemical composition that was similar to spring waters that once discharged in the ravines surrounding the old Anderson Springs resort. The cause for the abrupt changes that have occurred in thermal features at Anderson Springs is still not resolved. One possibility is that these changes are a response to withdrawal of steam from The Geysers geothermal field over more than 20 years of production. Pressure declines in the geothermal reservoir may have caused a "drying out" of the overlying condensation zone. Induced boiling in this zone and upflow of deep steam to shallower depths would cause heating and vaporization of shallow ground waters. In addition, earthquakes occurring in the vicinity of Anderson Springs have increased significantly after nearby geothermal power plants began operation. These earthquakes may have enhanced surface discharge of thermal fluids along fractures and faults.

  9. The role of tributary mixing in chemical variations at a karst spring, Milandre, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.; Jeannin, P.-Y.; Cornaton, F.

    2007-01-01

    SummarySolute concentration variations during flood events were investigated in a karst aquifer of the Swiss Jura. Observations were made at the spring, and at the three main subterraneous tributaries feeding the spring. A simple transient flow and transport numerical model was able to reproduce chemographs and hydrographs observed at the spring, as a result of a mixing of the concentration and discharge of the respective tributaries. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model showed that it is possible to produce chemical variations at the spring even if all tributaries have constant (but different for each of them) solute concentrations. This process is called tributary mixing. The good match between observed and modelled curves indicate that, in the phreatic zone, tributary mixing is probably an important process that shapes spring chemographs. Chemical reactions and other mixing components (e.g. from low permeability volumes) have a limited influence. Dissolution-related (calcium, bicarbonate, specific conductance) and pollution-related parameters (nitrate, chloride, potassium) displayed slightly different behaviours: during moderate flood events, the former showed limited variations compared to the latter. During large flood events, both presented chemographs with significant changes. No significant event water participates in moderate flood events and tributary mixing will be the major process shaping chemographs. Variations are greater for parameters with higher spatial variability (e.g. pollution-related). Whereas for large flood events, the contribution of event water becomes significant and influences the chemographs of all the parameters. As a result, spring water vulnerability to an accidental pollution is low during moderate flood events and under base flow conditions. It strongly increases during large flood events, because event water contributes to the spring discharge.

  10. Aqua de Ney, California, a spring of unique chemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feth, J.H.; Rogers, S.M.; Roberson, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    The chemistry of water of Aqua de Ney, a cold spring of unusual character located in Siskiyou County, Calif., has been re-examined as part of a study of the relation of water chemistry to rock environment. The water has a pH of 11??6 and a silica content of 4000 parts per million (p.p.m.), the highest values known to occur in natural ground waters. The rocks exposed nearby consist of two volcanic sequences, one predominantly basaltic in composition, the other highly siliceous. Neither these rocks nor the sedimentary and igneous rocks presumed to underlie the area at depth seem to offer explanation of the unusual mineralization which includes 240 p.p.m. of boron, 1000 p.p.m. of sulphide (as H2S), and 148 p.p.m. of ammonia nitrogen (as NH4) in a water that is predominantly sodium chloride and sodium carbonate in character. By analogy, it is assumed that water from Aqua de Ney is the product of an initial mixture of connate sea water with a calcium magnesium sulphate water. It is postulated that ion exchange has increased the content of sodium and reduced that of calcium and magnesium, and that sulphate reduction has brought about the high alkalinity, high pH, and high content of sulphide. The large silica value is explained as the result of solution of silica by water having the high pH observed. ?? 1961.

  11. Chemical and stable isotopic models for boundary creek warm springs, southwestern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, W. T.; Bowman, J. R.

    1990-10-01

    Thermal springs of the Boundary Creek hydrothermal system in the southwestern part of Yellowstone Park outside the caldera boundary vary in chemical and isotopic composition, and temperature. The diversity may be accounted for by a combination of processes including boiling of a deep thermal water, mixing of the deep thermal water with cool meteoric water and/or with condensed steam or steam-heated meteoric water, and chemical reactions with surrounding rocks. Dissolved-silica, Na +, K + and Ca 2+ contents of the thermal springs could result from a thermal fluid with a temperature of 200 ± 20°C. Chloride-enthalpy and silica-enthalpy mixing models suggest mixing of 230°C, 220 mg/l Cl - thermal water with cool, low-Cl - components. A 350 to 390°C component with Cl - ? 300 mg/l is possibly present in thermal springs inside the caldera but is not required to fit observed spring chemical and isotopic compositions. Irreversible mass transfer models in which a low-temperature water reacts with volcanic glass as it percolates downward and warms, can account for observed pH and dissolved-silica, K +, Na +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations, but produces insufficient Cl - or F - for measured concentrations in the warm springs. The ratio of aNa/ aH, and Cl - are best accounted for in mixing models. The water-rock interaction model fits compositions of acid-sulfate waters observed at Summit Lake and of low-Cl - waters involved in mixing. The cold waters collected from southwestern Yellowstone Park have ?D values ranging from -118 to -145 per mil and ?18O values of -15.9 to -19.4 per mil. Two samples from nearby Island Park have ?D values of -112 and -114 per mil and ?18O values of -15.1 and -15.3 per mil. All samples of thermal water plot significantly to the right of the meteoric water line. The low Cl - and variable ?D values of the thermal waters indicate isotopic compositions are derived by extensive dilution with cold meteoric water and by steam separation on ascent to the surface. Many of the hot springs with higher ?D values may contain in addition a significant amount of high-D, low-Cl -, acid-sulfate or steam-heated meteoric water. Mixing models, Cl - content and isotopic compositions of thermal springs suggest that 30% or less of a deep thermal component is present. For example, the highest-temperature springs from Three Rivers, Silver Scarf and Upper Boundary Creek thermal areas contain up to 70% cool meteoric water and 30% hot water components, springs at Summit Lake and Middle Boundary Creek spring 57 are acid-sulfate or steam-heated meteoric water; springs 27 and 48 from Middle Boundary Creek and 49 from Mountain Ash contain in excess of 50% acid-sulfate water; and Three Rivers spring 46 and Phillips could result from mixing hot water with 55% cool meteoric water followed by mixing of acid-sulfate water. Extensive dilution by cool meteoric water increases the uncertainties in quantity and nature of the deep meteoric, thermal component.

  12. Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

  13. Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001 over the western Pacific: Regional ozone production and its global impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Wild; Michael J. Prather; Hajime Akimoto; Jostein K. Sundet; Ivar S. A. Isaksen; James H. Crawford; Douglas D. Davis; Melody A. Avery; Yutaka Kondo; Glen W. Sachse; Scott T. Sandholm

    2004-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variation in ozone production over major source regions in East Asia during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) measurement campaign in spring 2001 is assessed using a global chemical transport model. There is a strong latitudinal gradient in ozone production in springtime, driven by regional photochemistry, which rapidly diminishes as the season

  14. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska. [Subsurface temperature of 100°C to 160°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Miller; I. Barnes; W. W. Jr. Patton

    1973-01-01

    Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. Preliminary chemical and isotopic analyses suggest

  15. Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise Area, southwesten Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers ' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. (USGS)

  16. Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Kelly, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    The sources of nitrate (NO-3) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in the sinkhole plain has NO-3 concentrations in excess of the USEPA's drinking water standard of 10 mg N/1. Relative to background levels, the NO-3 concentrations in water from 52% of the wells, and probably all of the springs in the study area, are anomalously high, suggesting that sources other than naturally occurring soil organic matter have contributed additional NO-3 to groundwater in the shallow karst aquifer. This information, and the dominance of agriculture in the study area, suggest that agrichemical contributions may be significant. To test this hypothesis, water samples from 10 relatively large karst springs were collected during four different seasons and analyzed for inorganic constituents, dissolved organic carbon, atrazine, and ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ions. The isotopic data were most definitive and suggested that the sources of NO-3 in spring water are dominated by N-fertilizer with some possible influence of atmospheric NO-3 and, to a much lesser extent, human and/or animal waste. Differences in the isotopic composition of NO-3 and some of the chemical characteristics were observed during the four consecutive seasons in which spring water samples were collected. Isotopic values for ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ranged from 3.2??? to 19.1??? and from 7.2??? to 18.7???, respectively. The trend of ??15N and ??18O data for NO-3 also indicated that a significant degree of denitrification is occurring in the shallow karst hydrologic system (within the soil zone, the epikarst and the shallow karst aquifer) prior to discharging to springs. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

  18. Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

    2011-01-01

    Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

  19. "Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.

    PubMed

    Pence, Charles H

    2011-12-01

    There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721

  20. Optimization Under Uncertainty: Methods and Applications in Radiation Therapy Weldon Lodwick *

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    1 Optimization Under Uncertainty: Methods and Applications in Radiation Therapy Weldon Lodwick uncertainty to radiation therapy planning, where it is natural and useful to model the uncertainty The use of particle beams to treat tumors is called the radiation therapy problem (RTP). Beams

  1. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

  2. Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: Origins, pathways, and budgets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Bey; Daniel J. Jacob; Jennifer. A. Logan; Robert M. Yantosca

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx ) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-d imensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Explor atory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA G oddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It

  3. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon outside the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Standing in front of the U.S. Lab, named Destiny, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (left) thanks Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, for briefing him on the equipment inside the Lab. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  4. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon outside the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep Dave Weldon (at left) looks at the U.S. Lab, called Destiny. With him are Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, Dana Gartzke, the congressman's chief of staffm and Boeing workers. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  5. Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

  6. Effects of weld metal profile on the fatigue life of integrally reinforced weldon fittings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Woods; E. C. Rodabaugh

    1994-01-01

    The cyclic fatigue life of fabricated tee intersections, including integrally reinforced weld-on fittings, has been a topic of discussion in the recent past. The discussion has centered around questions concerning the accuracy of the ASME B31.3 Code equations in calculating the stress intensification factors, (SIFs), for these types of intersection geometries. The SIF of an intersection is an indicator of

  7. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal fluids from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Beckles, Denise M.

    2013-03-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous, geothermal field associated with the active Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc. The 'Sulphur Springs Park' is an important tourist attraction (touted as the 'world's only drive-through volcano') with some of the hot pools being developed into recreational pools. Some 200,000 people visit the park each year. Since 2001, the hydrothermal fluids of Sulphur Springs have been sampled as part of an integrated volcanic monitoring programme for the island. Gas and water samples were analysed to characterise the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system, and to assess the equilibrium state and subsurface temperatures of the reservoir. This has also enabled us, for the first time, to establish baseline data for future geochemical monitoring. The gases are of typical arc-type composition, with N2 excess and low He and Ar content. The dry gas composition is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 601-993 mmol/mol), with deeper magmatic sourced H2S-rich vapour undergoing boiling and redox changes in the geothermal reservoir to emerge with a hydrothermal signature in the fumarolic gases. Fluid contributions from magmatic degassing are also evident, mainly from the moderate to high contents of HCl and deeply-sourced H2S gas, respectively. Sulphur Springs hydrothermal waters have acid-sulphate type compositions (SO4 = 78-4008 mg/L; pH = 3-7), and are of primarily meteoric origin which have been affected by evaporation processes based on the enrichment in both ?18O and ?D (?18O = - 1 to 15‰ and ?D = - 9 to 14‰ respectively) in relation to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). These waters are steam-heated water typically formed by absorption of H2S-rich gases in the near surface oxygenated groundwaters. Reservoir temperatures calculated from the evaluation of gas equilibria in the CO2-CH4-H2 system reveal higher temperatures (190 to 300 °C) than those derived from quartz geothermometry (95 to 169 °C), which appeared to be affected by dilution with meteoric waters. Generally, no significant variations in fluid geochemistry of the hydrothermal system were observed between 2001 and 2006, and we propose that there were no changes in the state of volcanic activity during this period.

  8. Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1970-01-01

    Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile components such as boron and ammonia. ?? 1971.

  9. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V Panno; K. C Hackley; H. H Hwang; W. R Kelly

    2001-01-01

    The sources of nitrate (NO3?) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in

  11. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  12. Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water precludes an origin of the high chloride by evaporation at atmospheric pressure. One way to account for the unique chemical and isotopic composition of this highly concentrated wateris by recirculation of water that had gone through one cycle of adiabatic cooling during upflow (decompressional boiling) back down into the hydrothermal system, where it is reheated to greater than 220 C. This previously boiled water then undergoes additional cycles of decompressional boiling during subsequent upflow. Another way the unique chemical and isotopic composition of Double Bulger water might evolve is by excess boiling in the formation that results from a decrease in fluid pressure within the channels of upflow. The annual disturbance at Norris Geyser Basin generally appears to be triggered by a cyclic up and down movement of the boilingpoint curve within the hydrothermal system in response to changes in the potentiometric surface of the cold water that is adjacent to, and interconnected with, that hydrothermal system. Annual disturbance phenomena that are easily recognized at Norris Geyser Basin may not be easily recognized elsewhere in Yellowstone National Park because (1) the neutral-chloride waters at Norris ascend directly from higher-temperature and higherpressure reservoirs (270 to >300 C at Norris compared to 180-215C at Upper and Lower Geyser Basins) that are capable of producing massive amounts of high-pressure steam, and (2) the clay that makes hot spring and geyser waters become turbid at Norris, heralding the start of the disturbance, comes from acid altered rocks that are widely distributed at intermediate depths at Norris, and that are rare in other geyser basins.

  13. 155:208 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics I Spring 2015 Lectures: Tue. & Fri., 12:00 p.m.1:20 p.m., Hill-116

    E-print Network

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    155:208 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics I Spring 2015 Lectures: Tue. & Fri., 12:00 p.m.­1:20 p in Curriculum: This is the first in a sequence of two courses in Thermodynamics (155:208 & 155:309). Students completing 155:208 will be required to take 155:309 in the fall semester of their junior year. The material

  14. Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in rock collapse for uncased wells completed in highly fractured rock. However, the propagation of newly formed large fractures that potentially could damage well structures or result in pirating of water from production wells appears to be of limited possibility based on review of relevant studies. Characteristics of hydraulic conductivity, storage, and fracture porosity were interpreted from flow rates observed in individual wells completed in the Bigfork Chert and Stanley Shale; from hydrographs produced from continuous measurements of water levels in wells completed in the Arkansas Novaculite, the Bigfork Chert, and Stanley Shale; and from a potentiometric-surface map constructed using water levels in wells throughout the study area. Data gathered from these three separate exercises showed that fracture porosity is much greater in the Bigfork Chert relative to that in the Stanley Shale, shallow groundwater flows from elevated recharge areas with exposures of Bigfork Chert along and into streams within the valleys formed on exposures of the Stanley Shale, and there was no evidence of interbasin transfer of groundwater within the shallow flow system. Fifteen shallow wells and two cold-water springs were sampled from the various exposed formations in the study area to characterize the water quality and geochemistry for the shallow groundwater system and for comparison to the geochemistry of the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. For the quartz formations (novaculite, chert, and sandstone formations), total dissolved solids concentrations were very low with a median concentration of 23 milligrams per liter, whereas the median concentration for groundwater from the shale formations was 184 milligrams per liter. Ten hot springs in Hot Springs National Park were sampled for the study. Several chemical constituents for the hot springs, including pH, total dissolved solids, major cations and anions, and trace metals, show similarity with the shale formations

  15. Effects of weld metal profile on the fatigue life of integrally reinforced weld-on fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, G.E. (M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Rodabaugh, E.C. (Rodabaugh (E.C.), Dublin, OH (United States))

    1994-06-01

    The cyclic fatigue life of fabricated tee intersections, including integrally reinforced weld-on fittings, has been a topic of discussion in the recent past. The discussion has centered around questions concerning the accuracy of the ASME B31.3 Code equations in calculating the stress intensification factors, (SIFs), for these types of intersection geometries. The SIF of an intersection is an indicator of the fatigue life of the intersection when it is subjected to bending moments caused by thermal, flow, or mechanically induced cyclical displacements. Schneider, Rodabaugh, and Woods concur that inaccuracies in the Code SIF equations do exist and that these equations should be revised. This report presents new Markl type SIF data on the B.W.Pipet (BWP), an integrally reinforced weld-on branch fitting, manufactured by WFI International, Inc., in Houston, Texas. The scope of this research project was to determine the influence of the installation weld metal profile of the Pipet to the run pipe on the SIF. The SIF data were then compared to calculated SIF values using equations from the American Society of Mechanical engineers (ASME) B31.1, ASME B31.3, and ASME Section 3, Subsection NC, for the purpose of determining which Code equation may be the most appropriate for calculating the SIF for these particular fittings.

  16. Chemical analyses of spring waters and factor analysis to monitor the functioning of a karstic system. The role of precipitations regimen and anthropic pressures.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Federica; Bizzotto, Alessandro; Masiol, Mauro; Pavoni, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    An approach is presented to study the functioning of a karstic massif and assess the adverse effects of the anthropogenic pressure by monitoring some water chemical and physical parameters of its main springs. The approach has been applied to the Sette Comuni Plateau (Veneto Region, Italy) hosting a well developed karstic system, whose aquifer presents high vulnerability and undergoes a relevant anthropogenic pressure. The Oliero springs, amongst the largest karstic springs in Europe, are the main water output of the plateau. Electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved O(2), hardness, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ionic species (NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), F(-)), elements (Cr(III), Cr(VI), Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb), and some chlorinated solvents were monitored for one year. This study presents the application of a factor analysis on the water parameters enabling the identification of the dominant chemical and biological processes and pollution sources affecting the karstic system. Results show four factors which are interpreted as karstification, photosynthesis, storm flow pollution and anions. Finally, by associating metals, chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids with the amount of rainfall in the 48 h before samplings, further detailed information to the fast response of the aquifer to precipitation events was detected and interpreted according to the factor analysis results. The proposed approach, by providing information on the functioning of the aquifer, may help the management of the karstic plateau and is easily adaptable to similar environments. PMID:21779610

  17. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank.

  18. Kamchatka's thermal hot springs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vision of Kamchatka

    The Kamchatka Peninsula is featured in this website including information on geography, climate, fauna, flora, volcanoes, thermal springs, Valley of Geysers, native people, and options for travel in Kamchatka. This specific page highlights a selection of Kamchatka's hot springs, presenting basic information on temperature ranges, chemical and physical characteristics, surrounding vegetation, and general location.

  19. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (center) and his chief of staff Dana Gartzke (second from left) get a close-up look at the interior of the U.S. Lab, called 'Destiny.' Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway (second from right), with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, helps with their familiarization of the equipment. They are joined (far left and right) by workers from Boeing. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  20. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Inside the U.S. Lab, called 'Destiny,' which is in the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (right) looks over equipment. In the background (center) is Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  1. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (center) looks over the U.S. Laboratory, called 'Destiny,' with a group of Boeing workers. Behind (left) the congressman is Dana Gartzke, the congressman's chief of staff. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny, which will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, will have five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000.

  2. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, points out a feature to U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (right) in the U.S. Lab, called 'Destiny.' In the far background is Dana Gartzke, the congressman's chief of staff. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  3. Spring carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters in the northern East China Sea: Water mixing, biological uptake of CO2, and chemical buffering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei-Dong; Chen, Jian-Fang; Jin, Hai-Yan; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Jin-Wen; He, Xian-Qiang; Bai, Yan

    2014-09-01

    We investigated sea surface total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a in the connection between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS) during April to early May 2007. In spring, Changjiang dilution water (CDW), ECS offshore water, and together with Yellow Sea water (YSW) occupied the northern ECS. Using 16 day composite satellite-derived chlorophyll-a images, several algal blooms were identified in the CDW and ECS offshore water. Correspondingly, biological DIC drawdown of 73 ± 20 ?mol kg-1, oversaturated DO of 10-110 ?mol O2 kg-1, and low fugacity of CO2 of 181-304 ?atm were revealed in these two waters. YSW also showed CO2 uptake in spring, due to the very low temperature. However, its intrusion virtually counteracted CO2 uptake in the northern ECS. In the CDW and the ECS offshore water, Revelle factor was 9.3-11.7 and 8.9-10.6, respectively, while relatively high Revelle factor values of 11.4-13.0 were revealed in YSW. In the ECS offshore water, the observed relationship between DIC drawdown and oversaturated DO departed from the Redfield ratio, indicating an effect of chemical buffering capacity on the carbonate system during air-sea reequilibration. Given the fact that the chemical buffering capacity slows down the air-sea reequilibration of CO2, the early spring DIC drawdown may have durative effects on the sea surface carbonate system until early summer. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, these insights are fundamental to understanding sea surface carbonate chemistry dynamics in this important ocean margin.

  4. Public health assessment for public health assessment addendum, Stauffer Chemical Company, Tarpon Springs, Florida, Region 4, CERCLIS number FLD010596013. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1999-08-06

    From 1947 to 1981, the Stauffer Chemical Company in Tarpon Springs, Florida, made elemental phosphorus from phosphate ore. Residents in the area expressed concern about possible adverse health effects resulting from exposure to radium and heavy metals leaching from phosphate slag that was used in nearby roads and buildings. Besides radium, other contaminants of concern to residents were arsenic, asbestos, uranium, radon, and ionizing radiation. There is elevated background radiation from natural radium in phosphate slag and aggregate, but exposures are not expected to result in any adverse health outcomes. Phosphate slag contains concentrations of metals above background levels. However, based on current epidemiological and medical information the levels are not likely to represent a public health hazard.

  5. Investigation of Organic Chemicals Potentially Responsible for Mortality and Intersex in Fish of the North Fork of the Shenandoah River, Virginia, during Spring of 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter L.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Schroeder, Vickie L.; Werner, Stephen; Furlong, Edward T.; Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Declining fish health, fish exhibiting external lesions, incidences of intersex, and death, have been observed recently within the Potomac River basin. The basin receives surface runoff and direct inputs from agricultural, industrial, and other human activities. Two locations on the North Fork of the Shenandoah River were selected for study in an attempt to identify chemicals that may have contributed to the declining fish health. Two passive sampling devices, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were deployed during consecutive two-month periods during the spring and early summer of 2007 to measure select organic contaminants to which fish may have been exposed. This study determined that concentrations of persistent hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (< picograms per liter), legacy pesticides (<10 picograms per liter), and polychlorinated biphenyls (<280 picograms per liter) were low and indicative of a largely agricultural area. Atrazine and simazine were the most commonly detected pesticides. Atrazine concentrations ranged from 68 to 170 nanograms per liter for the March to April study period and 320 to 650 nanograms per liter for the April to June study period. Few chemicals characteristic of wastewater treatment plant effluent or septic tank discharges were identified. In contrast, para-cresol, N,N-diethyltoluamide, and caffeine commonly were detected. Prescription pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine, venlafaxine, and 17a-ethynylestradiol were at low concentrations. Extracts from the passive samplers also were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen. An estrogenic response was observed in POCIS samples from both sites, whereas SPMD samples exhibited little to no estrogenicity. This indicates that the chemicals producing the estrogenic response have a greater water solubility and are, therefore, less likely to bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of organisms.

  6. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005 samplings, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant was 40 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from that wastewater treatment plant was 28 percent effluent. At each site, 300 individual constituents were determined to characterize the water. Most of the inorganic constituents were detected in all of the stream and treatment-plant effluent samples, whereas detection of synthetic organic compounds was more limited and contaminants typically occurred only in wastewater treatment-plant effluents and at downstream sites. Concentrations ranged from nanograms per liter to milligrams per liter.

  7. Global chemical model analysis of biomass burning and lightning influences over the South Pacific in austral spring

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global chemical model analysis of biomass burning and lightning influences over the South Pacific- Tropics A) in September­October 1996. Aircraft observations up to 12 km during that mission revealed (through long-range transport and decomposition of peroxyacetylnitrate), but lightning dominates

  8. Tidally oscillating bisulfide fluxes and fluid flow rates observed with in situ chemical sensors at a warm spring in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Josh N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Fitzwater, Steve E.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Coletti, Luke J.; Jannasch, Hans W.

    2010-12-01

    An In Situ Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ISUS) was coupled to a benthic chamber to characterize the bisulfide flux emanating from a warm spring at the Extrovert Cliff locality within Monterey Bay, California. The chamber was periodically flushed with bottom seawater to reset chemical concentrations, which enabled deployments over multiple days. Data from several deployments, each lasting at least 10 days, were used to calculate flow rates, fluid concentrations, and fluxes over time. The bisulfide concentration of the fluid entering the chamber varied from 75 to 4500 ?mol l -1. Positive temperature anomalies up to 3.5° were associated with these elevated concentrations. Linear flow rates ranged from 2 to >17 m day -1, while the bisulfide fluxes varied from 0.2 to 80 mol m -2 day -1. The bisulfide originated at depth and was not produced in the surface sediments via an anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Tides modulated the flow as well as the composition of the fluid entering the chamber. It appeared that a deep sourced fluid, which supplied the bisulfide, was mixed with a second, ambient seawater-like fluid before entering the flux chamber. At low tides, flow rates were at their highest and the contribution of the deep sourced fluid to the fluid entering the chamber was at a maximum.

  9. Masses & Springs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-27

    In this online activity, learners use a realistic mass and spring laboratory. They hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. Learners can even slow time and transport the lab to different planets! A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. Use this activity for a lesson on Hooke's Law and Conservation of Energy. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 30 languages.

  10. From work plan to rod and beyond: Lessons learned on regulatory issues at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Uhlmeyer, T. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., St. Charles, MO (United States); Ferguson, R. [United Science Industries, Woodlawn, IL (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) is a key element of successful cleanup activities at environmental restoration sites. A number of ARAR issues were raised during the, planning, assessment, and implementation of restoration activities at a US Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste site in Missouri. Resolutions were developed for issues ranging from storage time requirements to land disposal restrictions. This paper discusses ARAR issues and resolutions.

  11. 5-Year Planning Document for CEE Course Offerings Course Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    5-Year Planning Document for CEE Course Offerings Course Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring CEE 001 Cooperative Education Program Archambault Archambault Archambault Archambault Course Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring Fall Spring 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014

  12. The chemical ecology of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    E-print Network

    Scott, Timothy Patton

    1989-01-01

    that secretions f A~i' I I I k' gl 9 Idh dt tdhyh . Vht(1999), however, states that this species' secretions linger in the air after the head-slapping display, and that an oily sheen, presumably from the paracloacal glands, appears on the surface of the water... Committee: Dr, Paul J, Weldon The involvement of chemoreception in feeding and the nature of chemicals discharged from skin glands of the American alligator (~Alii lgBIr ~mi ~i~i~in i were investigated in individuals from Louisiana. A review of stomach...

  13. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, L., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  14. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the cockpit of the orbiter Atlantis, which is in the Orbiter Processing Facility, Laural Patrick (left), a systems engineer with MEDS, points out a feature of the newly installed Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS), known as the 'glass cockpit,' to U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon. The congressman is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. He was in Palmdale, Calif., when Atlantis underwent the modification and he wanted to see the final product. The full-color, flat-panel MEDS upgrade improves crew/orbiter interaction with easy-to-read, graphic portrayals of key flight indicators like attitude display and mach speed. The installation makes Atlantis the most modern orbiter in the fleet and equals the systems on current commercial jet airliners and military aircraft. Atlantis is scheduled to fly on mission STS- 101 in early December.

  15. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  16. SPRING 2009 1 SPRING 2009

    E-print Network

    Newell, James A.

    discusses efforts to develop metacognition in teams of engineering students by: first, exploring personal they are to continue their learning [4]. this paper explores methods of instilling metacognition in engineeringSPRING 2009 1 SPRING 2009 Advances in Engineering Education The Impact of Structured Writing

  17. Spring Review 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Between July 2009 and October 2011, a new habitat was found for a rarely reported freshwater dinoflagellate species, Thompsodinium intermedium - Comal Springs (Comal County), Texas. In 2011, diel in-situ monitoring in ...

  18. Octopus Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Allan Treiman

    This reference site consists of images and descriptions of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. Part of the teacher workshop "Extremities: Geology and Life in Yellowstone and Implications for Other Worlds," it describes both the cool water and hot water habitats of the spring. Sampling techniques are included with a description of the microbial mat community. The images and descriptions cover three web pages, each of which can be accessed through links at the base of the pages.

  19. Comparing pre- and post-chemical abrasion ages for Miocene Peach Springs Tuff zircon from ID-TIMS and SIMS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidzbarski, M. I.; Mundil, R.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Peach Spring Tuff (PST) is a voluminous (>600 km3), zoned ignimbrite (trachyte to high-SiO2 rhyolite) that is exposed widely in eastern California, western Arizona, and southernmost Nevada, which was erupted from the Silver Creek caldera in the southwestern Black Mountains, AZ. PST serves as a regionally widespread marker unit and its eruption age has been determined to 18.8 to 18.9 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar methods, when corrected for systematic bias and normalized to the U-Pb system (Renne et al., 2010,). We performed ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from individual pumice clasts from PST to evaluate the growth history of zircon in the PST magma system. Sectioned, polished zircon from conventional epoxy mounts allows dating of internal growth domains (e.g. cores, interiors, and near-rim), whereas mounting unpolished zircon in indium and analyzing unpolished crystal faces provides a means to selectively sample the final increments of crystal growth (Reid and Coath, 2000). Combining U-Pb ages of unpolished zircon rims with near-rim interior analyses on sectioned grains yields a mean age of ca. 18.3 Ma, whereas ages of cores of sectioned crystals yield a mean of ca. 18.9 Ma. Several zircons have rim and/or core ages that are several hundred thousand years older or younger than these means (up to 1 m.y. total spread), although the uncertainties for individual SIMS ages are 2 to 5% (2 sigma uncertainty). Therefore, the distribution of ages is challenging to resolve. A modest number of the older grains are plausibly recycled antecrysts, but we suspect that the youngest zircons may have experienced Pb-loss. Failure to account for the possibility of inheritance and Pb-loss may lead to erroneous interpretations about crystallization in the PST system. In order to evaluate and mitigate the effects of Pb-loss, we employed the chemical abrasion (CA) technique of Mattinson (2005), which effectively eliminates domains in zircon that have suffered Pb-loss, and removes micro-inclusions that typically contain common Pb. Thermal annealing followed by CA techniques were used for ID-TIMS dating of a sub-set of zircon crystals previously analyzed by SIMS. Prior to TIMS analyses, zircon crystals were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the effects of CA on crystal domains sampled by SIMS. SEM images reveal that whole portions of crystals were removed by the CA technique, and a heterogeneous pattern of etching that was not confined to specific compositional zones visible in cathodoluminescence. Most of the SIMS sputter pits that yield spurious ages, are associated with etching and/or preferential annealing by the combined annealing and CA technique, suggesting that the young ages relative to the 40Ar/39Ar age may be due to Pb loss. ID-TIMS yields a coherent U-Pb age population of 18.8 Ma, with several older and younger crystals that might reflect xenocrysts, Pb-loss, and/or younger crystallization. In order to maintain spatial resolution and further evaluate the effects of Pb-loss in PST zircon, the annealing and CA-technique will be applied to zircon prior to SIMS dating. References: Reid and Coath, 2000, Geology 28: 443 Renne et al., 2010, GCA 78: 5349

  20. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean C. Alhorn; Michael E. Polites

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their

  1. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean C. Alhorn; Michael E. Polites

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their

  2. Failure analysis of the suspension spring of a light duty truck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. B. Eryürek; M. Ereke; A. Göksenli

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the failure of the rear suspension spring is analyzed in detail. The rear axle suspension system of the truck and fractured flat spring is investigated. Fracture surface, mechanical and chemical properties and microstructure of the spring material is analyzed. Forces acting on the spring is determined and strength calculations are carried out. Later, failure behaviour and cause

  3. AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SPRING 2013

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    PLS 4613 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SPRING 2013 CREDITS: 3.0 DESCRIPTION: Identification of Florida's aquatic weed problems and methods of chemical, biological, mechanical and physical weed control. Specific, insect biocontrol, grass carp, and current laws regulating aquatic weed control. INSTRUCTOR: William T

  4. Quantum Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  5. Quantum Spring

    E-print Network

    Chao-Jun Feng; Xin-Zhou Li

    2012-05-21

    In this paper, we will give a short review on \\textit{quantum spring}, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio $r$ of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it \\textit{quantum spring}. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonically with the increasing of the ratio $r$. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  6. Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Fall 2015 Spring 2016 Fall 2016 College of Applied Sciences

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Fall 2015 Spring 2016 242 SCWK 242 SCWK 242 SCWK 242 SCWK 242 College of Business Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014 Fall 2014 Spring 2015 Fall 2015 Spring 2016 Fall 2016 Accountancy BUS 220J BUS 220J

  7. SPRING: helical spring design software for microcomputers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1984-01-01

    SPRING is an interactive microcomputer program that has been developed for use in designing helical compression, extension, and torsion springs. It is designed to provide only those design options for which no design constraints are violated. Five standard spring materials may be chosen. Fatigue models for both torsion and bending are included. Ten examples of results using SPRING are given,

  8. Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry Series Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry Series - 1 - Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry Seminar Series All Alex Levine at alevine@chem.ucla.edu. #12;Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry Series - 2 - April 2 Alexander will be reviewed in some mixture. #12;Spring 2007 Physical Chemistry Series - 3 - April 9 Seth Fraden, Professor

  9. Fall _________ Spring ________

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ) _____________________________________________________________ Required Safety and Security Information (All applicants must complete this section.) 1. Have you ever been an institution of higher education on the basis of conduct or behavior.) 4. Have you ever been requiredTerm: Year Fall _________ Spring ________ A_____ B_____ NSE- MSU APPLICATION Personal Information

  10. Spring Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Moore, Lang

    Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

  11. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico–Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitri Rouwet; Salvatore Inguaggiato; Yuri Taran; Nicholas Varley

    2009-01-01

    This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano–hydrothermal system (Mexico–Guatemala).\\u000a Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW\\/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge\\u000a at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500–2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral\\u000a (pH from 5.8 to 6.9)

  12. Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants

    E-print Network

    1 Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants Spring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring Greenhouse Bedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding Plants Purdue University Authors: Raymond A others. In the northern part of the country, these plants are typically grown in greenhouses in late

  13. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico-Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, Dmitri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Varley, Nicholas; Santiago S., José A.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano-hydrothermal system (Mexico-Guatemala). Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500-2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral (pH from 5.8 to 6.9) thermal ( T from 25.7°C to 63.0°C) HCO3-SO4 waters are thought to have formed by the absorption of a H2S/SO2-CO2-enriched steam into a Cl-rich geothermal aquifer, afterwards mixed by Na/HCO3-enriched meteoric waters originating from the higher elevations of the volcano as stated by the isotopic composition (?D and ?18O) of meteoric and spring waters. Boiling temperature fumaroles (89°C at ~3,600m a.s.l. NW of the summit), formed after the May 1986 phreatic explosion, emit isotopically light vapour (?D and ?18O as low as -128 and -19.9‰, respectively) resulting from steam separation from the summit aquifer. Fumarolic as well as bubbling gases at five springs are CO2-dominated. The ?13CCO2 for all gases show typical magmatic values of -3.6 ± 1.3‰ vs V-PDB. The large range in 3He/4He ratios for bubbling, dissolved and fumarolic gases [from 1.3 to 6.9 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)] is ascribed to a different degree of near-surface boiling processes inside a heterogeneous aquifer at the contact between the volcanic edifice and the crystalline basement (4He source). Tacaná volcano offers a unique opportunity to give insight into shallow hydrothermal and deep magmatic processes affecting the CO2/3He ratio of gases: bubbling springs with lower gas/water ratios show higher 3He/4He ratios and consequently lower CO2/3He ratios (e.g. Zarco spring). Typical Central American CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios are found for the fumarolic Agua Caliente and Zarco gases (3.1 ± 1.6 × 1010 and 6.0 ± 0.9 R A, respectively). The L/ S (5.9 ± 0.5) and ( L + S)/ M ratios (9.2 ± 0.7) for the same gases are almost identical to the ones calculated for gases in El Salvador, suggesting an enhanced slab contribution as far as the northern extreme of the Central American Volcanic Arc, Tacaná.

  14. Spring Migration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The new Spring Migration site from eNature.com and the National Wildlife Federation provides an online reference for bird enthusiasts that shows the dates that each species can be expected to return to its summer habitat. Site visitors can choose from a large number of species found in their range. Maps show summer and winter habitat ranges and migration patterns. The site also provides photos, field guide information, and bird call audio for each species.

  15. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  16. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  17. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  18. A batch study on the bio-fixation of carbon dioxide in the absorbed solution from a chemical wet scrubber by hot spring and marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, H T; Chu, H; Yu, S T

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide mass transfer is a key factor in cultivating micro-algae except for the light limitation of photosynthesis. It is a novel idea to enhance mass transfer with the cyclic procedure of absorbing CO(2) with a high performance alkaline abosorber such as a packed tower and regenerating the alkaline solution with algal photosynthesis. Hence, the algae with high affinity for alkaline condition must be purified. In this study, a hot spring alga (HSA) was purified from an alkaline hot spring (pH 9.3, 62 degrees C) in Taiwan and grows well over pH 11.5 and 50 degrees C. For performance of HSA, CO(2) removal efficiencies in the packed tower increase about 5-fold in a suitable growth condition compared to that without adding any potassium hydroxide. But ammonia solution was not a good choice for this system with regard to carbon dioxide removal efficiency because of its toxicity on HSA. In addition, HSA also exhibits a high growth rate under the controlled pHs from 7 to 11. Besides, a well mass balance of carbon and nitrogen made sure that less other byproducts formed in the procedure of carboxylation. For analysis of some metals in HSA, such as Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, related to the photosynthesis increased by a rising cultivated pH and revealed that those metals might be accumulated under alkaline conditions but the growth rate was still limited by the ratio of bicarbonate (useful carbon source) and carbonate. Meanwhile, Nannochlopsis oculta (NAO) was also tested under different additional carbon sources. The results revealed that solutions of sodium/potassium carbonate are better carbon sources than ammonia carbonate/bicarbonate for the growth of NAO. However, pH 9.6 of growth limitation based on sodium was lower than one of HSA. The integrated system is, therefore, more feasible to treat CO(2) in the flue gases using the algae with higher alkaline affinity such as HSA in small volume bioreactors. PMID:16860839

  19. THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE REMEDIATION OF WWI CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE SPRING VALLEY SUPERFUND SITE, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  20. Chemical and Physical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols (a) A Case Study in the Unique Properties of Agricultural Aerosols (b) The Role of Chemical Composition in Ice Nucleation during the Arctic Spring 

    E-print Network

    Moon, Seong-Gi

    2011-08-08

    dataset is reported for these physical and chemical properties of agricultural aerosols appropriate for use in a site-specific emission inventory. The emission rate and transport of the aerosols are also discussed. In addition, mixing ratios of total...

  1. Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Internationalization Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    RFP ­ FF Internationalization Spring 2011 1 Faculty Fellows Program for Internationalization Spring committee. #12;RFP ­ FF Internationalization Spring 2011 2 · Complete a 500-750 word reflection on what spring term 2011. Meetings will be held from 2:00 to 4:00 on these Thursdays: March 31; April 7; May 5

  3. Introduction to Fall & Spring

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    Stat I Introduction to Statistics EDLF 7310 Fall & Spring Foundations of Educational Research EDLF 7300 Fall Qualitative I EDLF 7404 Fall & Spring Stat II Experimental Design EDLF 8300 Fall & Spring Stat III Regression EDLF 8310 Fall & Spring Data Management EDLF 5500 Fall Qualitative II EDLF

  4. Spring MVC Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Mak

    \\u000a In this chapter, you will learn web-based application development using the Spring MVC framework. Spring MVC is one of the\\u000a most important modules of the Spring framework. It builds on the powerful Spring IoC container and makes extensive use of\\u000a the container features to simplify its configuration. Most Spring MVC configurations are written in bean configuration files.

  5. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  6. Water-quality data for the Missouri River and Missouri River alluvium near Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1991--92

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the water-quality data collected at two cross sections across the Missouri River and from monitoring wells in the Missouri River alluvium near Defiance, Missouri. The sampling results indicate the general water composition from the Missouri River changes with different flow conditions. During low-base flow conditions, the water generally contained about equal quantities of calcium and sodium plus potassium and similar quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate. During high-base flow conditions, water from the river predominantly was a calcium bicarbonate type. During runoff conditions, the water from the river was a calcium bicarbonate type, and sulfate concentrations were larger than during high-base flow conditions but smaller than during low-base flow conditions. The total and dissolved uranium concentrations at both the upstream and downstream cross sections, as well as from the different vertical samples across the river, were similar during each sampling event. However, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and total and dissolved uranium concentrations varied with different flow conditions. Sodium and sulfate concentrations were larger during low-base flow conditions than during high-base flow or runoff conditions, while nitrate concentrations decreased during low-base flow conditions. Both total and dissolved uranium concentrations were slightly larger during runoff events than during low-base or high-base flow conditions.

  7. Sampling and analysis of 100 Area springs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report is submitted in fulfillment of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-30-01, submit a report to EPA and Ecology evaluating the impact to the Columbia River from contaminated springs and seeps as described in the operable unit work plans listed in M-30-03. Springs, seeps, sediments, and the Columbia River were sampled for chemical and radiological analyses during the period September 16 through October 21, 1991. A total of 26 locations were sampled. Results of these analyses show that radiological and nonradiological contaminants continue to enter the Columbia River from the retired reactor areas of the 100 Area via the springs. The primary contaminants in the springs are strontium-90, tritium, and chromium. These contaminants were detected in concentrations above drinking water standards. Analysis of total organic carbon were run on all water samples collected; there is no conclusive evidence that organic constituents are entering the river through the springs. Total organic carbon analyses were generally higher for the surface water than for the springs. The results of this study will be used to develop a focused, yet flexible, long-term spring sampling program. Analysis of Columbia River water samples collected at the Hanford Townsite (i.e., downstream of the reactor areas) did not detect any Hanford-specific contaminants.

  8. Controls on the genesis of a high-fluoride thermal spring: Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. G. Lottermoser; J. S. Cleverley

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the source, evolution, reactions and environmental impacts of F-rich thermal water at Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland. Thermal water of the Innot Hot Springs has a surface temperature of 71°C, alkaline pH (8.1), low dissolved oxygen (0.61 mg\\/L) and low total dissolved solids (652 mg\\/L). The main chemical composition is Na – Cl, with F concentrations (16 mg\\/L) being comparatively high.

  9. NRRI NowSpring/Summer 2009 2 From the director

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    and natural resource industry by-products. Now the lab is making it easy for bio-product businesses-- agri-chemical products NRRI serves industry with CASEO chemical library My colleagues and I continue to assessNRRI NowSpring/Summer 2009 2 From the director Chemical building blocks For the birds Iron Range

  10. Spring joint with overstrain sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

  11. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-04-13

    In this video segment adapted from American Experience: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, learn how the lethal impact of the pesticide DDT on wildlife inspired biologist Rachel Carson to write Silent Spring.

  12. Hot Springs Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

  13. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  14. Joshua Smith Spring 2006

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Joshua Smith Spring 2006 #12;The UGA Land Use Clinic provides in Georgia Author: Joshua Smith Editor: Jamie Baker Roskie University of Georgia Land Use Clinic Spring 2006....................................................................................................10 #12;#12;1Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Joshua Smith Spring 2006

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  16. STUDENT PULSE Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    SF STATE STUDENT PULSE SURVEY Spring 2013 Academic Planning and Development Academic Institutional Research (air.sfsu.edu) March 2013 #12;SF State Student Pulse Survey, Spring 2013 Page 1 Table of Contents State Student Pulse Survey, Spring 2013 Page 2 SF STATE ­ Student Pulse Survey Executive Summary

  17. President's Council Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    President's Council Spring 2008 President's Council April 2008, New Delhi The University of Tokyo #12;2 President's Council Spring 2008 Agenda · Opening Remarks 1. Todai Developments 2. India, Todai and Coming Decades 3. Going Forward · Summary · Closing Remarks #12;3 President's Council Spring 2008 Todai

  18. Spring Ballot Info Session

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Spring Ballot Info Session Tues, March 29, 12am-1pm · Thurs, March 31, 3-4pm · Weds, April 6, 5-6pm Grad Lounge at the Student Center Spring of votes cast must be 20% of the student body. Spring Ballot Info Session 2 #12

  19. University Calendar Spring 2016

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    University Calendar Spring 2016 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule that includes a fall and spring semester, as well as winter and summer sessions. (.PDF 400kb) Winter Session 2016 Jan 4-22 Spring Semester 2016 Jan 21 Residence halls open 9 a.m. Jan 22 Pre-semester registration

  20. Springs of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET

    2010-11-05

    In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

  1. Segmented Tubular Seat Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost seat cushion made with rows of hoop springs. Springs formed from elliptical tubes by cutting most of way through on planes perpendicular to cylindrical axis. Tubular spring simplifies construction and reduce cost of seat cushions in vehicles and furniture.

  2. Copper Alloy Spring Materials and Spring Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. SCHLABACH

    1973-01-01

    Copper alloys have long served as spring materials in electromechanical devices, but the miniaturization of electronic equipment has imposed new demands on these materials. The first is that of improved elastic properties to ensure satisfactory performance at the higher operating stresses and temperatures encountered in these miniaturized devices. The second is that of improved methods for characterizing those spring properties

  3. ESE 372: Electronics Spring 2012Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    ESE 372: Electronics Spring 2012Spring 2012 Web site: www.ece.sunysb.edu/~oe/leon.html visit-signal analysis of amplifiers, amplifier frequencyp g , g g g y p , p q y response, feedback, etc. Short 211 and ESE 314.pp , p , Class notes and hw assignments can be downloaded from www.ece.sunysb.edu/~oe

  4. Spring 10 Spring 11 Spring 12 Spring 13 Overall 20,402 21,091 21,354 20,642

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    Spring 10 Spring 11 Spring 12 Spring 13 Overall 20,402 21,091 21,354 20,642 Undergraduate 15,663 16,347 16,769 16,382 Spring 10 Spring 11 Spring 12 Spring 13 Grad (Mast EDS Doc) 4,340 4,333 4,178 3,883 Class Spring 10 Spring 11 Spring 12 Spring 13 Masters 3405 3367 3189 2886 First Time Freshman 166 146

  5. Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Shillinger Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring

  6. Force of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  7. Schedule of Classes Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    Schedule of Classes Spring 2007 Archival Edition DDAATTEESS && DDEEAADDLLIINNEESS March 20: Last June 11-15: Final examinations #12;2 UCLA Schedule of Classes Spring 2007 What's New? USIE Spring for their spring seminars. Mentorship with faculty sponsors continues during the Spring Quarter as students conduct

  8. Spring Motion Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-02

    The Spring Motion Model shows the motion of a block attached to an ideal spring. The block can oscillate back-and-forth horizontally. Users can change the mass of the block, the spring constant of the spring, and the initial position of the block. You can then see the resulting motion of the block, as well as see bar graphs of the energy and plots of the block's position, speed, and acceleration as a function of time. The Spring Motion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. See Related Materials for an interactive homework problem that takes learners step-by-step through each component of a "block and spring" exercise. It provides free-body diagrams, conceptual analysis, and explicit support in using the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem to solve the problem.

  9. Request for Change in Meal Plan / Huskie Bucks Fall 20__ / Spring 20__ Spring 20__

    E-print Network

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Request for Change in Meal Plan / Huskie Bucks Fall 20__ / Spring 20__ Spring 20__ Please Print one): Fall Semester 20__ / Spring 20__ Spring 20__ Semester Cancel Huskie Bucks Billing Please DO__ / Spring 20__ Spring 20__ Semester Office Use Only

  10. Thermal springs in Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, Wayne C., III; Callender, E.

    1992-01-01

    The ??18O values of pore wqters range from -15.2??? to -16.7???, and ??D values range from -119??? to -126??? (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water [SMOW]). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a ??18O value of -5.6??? and a ??D value of -120???. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest ??D and ??18O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites. -from Authors

  11. Spring Allergies Coming into Bloom

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151497.html Spring Allergies Coming Into Bloom Expert offers tips to minimize ... United States, it's time to think about spring allergies, a doctor says. Allergies to spring pollens cause ...

  12. Thermal springs in Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, W.C. III; Callender, E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Pore waters extracted from sediment cores were analyzed for their oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions and major ion chemistry to determine the source of water from a vent area for diffuse lake-bottom thermal springs or seeps in Frolikha Bay, northeastern Lake Baikal. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of pore waters range from {minus}15.2{per thousand} to {minus}16.7{per thousand}, and {delta}D values range from {minus}119{per thousand} to {minus}126{per thousand} (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW)). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a {delta}{sup 18}O value of {minus}5.6{per thousand} and a {delta}D values of {minus}120{per thousand}. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites.

  13. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14

    RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  14. alumni magazine Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Intouch alumni magazine Intouch Spring 2007 Personalised medicine The future of health has arrived John Yovich AM Vice Chancellor From the Vice Chancellor alumni magazine Intouch Spring 2007 © 2007. ____________________________ 12 Welcome to your new- look Intouch magazine, designed to reflect Murdoch University's new brand

  15. Fall Spring Spring Spring SpringFallFallFall Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior

    E-print Network

    . December 15, Sa Semester ends. Spring Semester 2008 January 14, M Instruction begins. January 21, M Martin­F Spring vacation. No classes. May 2, F Instruction ends. May 5­9, M­F Final examinations. May 10, Sa Instruction ends. July 17­18, Th­F Final examinations. July 19, Sa Summer Session ends. Fall Semester 2008

  16. Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  17. Better Instrument Springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Carson

    1933-01-01

    Electrical measuring instruments play an important part in the generation, distribution, and sale of electrical power, and in the development and testing of electrical machinery. The accuracy of electrical measuring instruments depends as much on the quality of the control springs as on the design of the torque producing elements. Unstable effects found in the application of spiral springs to

  18. A Magnet Spring Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the…

  19. Spring Scale Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IEEE

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore how spring scales work and how they are used for non-exact weight measurement. Learners work in teams to develop their own working spring scale out of ordinary items. They test their scale, present their designs to the group, compare their designs with those of other teams, and reflect on the experience.

  20. Analysis of stable isotopes and radioisotopes to determine impacts of Canal lining on groundwater flows and chemical composition of springs and wells at the Dos Palmas Preserve and vicinity, Salton Sea, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. T. Erdelyi; B. J. Hibbs

    2009-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River has been diverted to the Coachella Valley in Riverside County, California through both lined and unlined sections of the Coachella Canal since 1949. A portion of the canal that was unlined previous to 2006 contributed to a significant increase in flow in springs and wells located in its downgradient path. In December 2006, a project

  1. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Spring

    E-print Network

    Faghihi, M J

    2010-01-01

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states of another system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of $\\omega$ to $\\omega\\sqrt{1+\\mu a^\\dagger a}$ the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring (has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring) with attention to the {\\it dependence of frequency to the intensity of radiation field} that {\\it naturally} observed in nonlinear coherent states. Then, after the introduction of the generalized Hamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters as pa...

  2. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  3. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Spring

    E-print Network

    M. J. Faghihi; M. K. Tavassoly

    2010-04-13

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states of another system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of $\\omega$ to $\\omega\\sqrt{1+\\mu a^\\dagger a}$ the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring (has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring) with attention to the {\\it dependence of frequency to the intensity of radiation field} that {\\it naturally} observed in nonlinear coherent states. Then, after the introduction of the generalized Hamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters as particular quantum features will be revealed.

  4. SPRING COM COURSE REGISTRATION NUMBERS M-1 Spring Courses

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    SPRING COM COURSE REGISTRATION NUMBERS M-1 Spring Courses Name Subject Course # CRN Hours Med 14239 2 Longitud Career Development BMS 664 37599 37600 37601 0 M-2 Spring Courses Name Subject Course PRCL 646 17285 34686 34687 10 M-3 Spring Core Clerkships Name Subject Course # CRN Hours Obstetrics

  5. Studying springs in series using a single spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are very rare. In this paper, an experiment designed to study the static properties of a combination of springs in series using only one single spring is presented. Paint marks placed on the coils of the spring allowed us to divide it into segments, and consider it as a collection of springs connected in series. The validity of Hooke's law for the system and the relationship between the spring constants of the segments and the spring constant of the entire spring are verified experimentally. The easy setup, accurate results, and educational benefits make this experiment attractive and useful for high school and first-year college students.

  6. Schedule of Classes Spring 2006

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    Schedule of Classes Spring 2006 Dates and Deadlines March 20: Last day to pay fees March 30 Archival Edition #12;2 UCLA Schedule of Classes Spring 2006 What's New? USIE Spring Seminars --Tentative these studies, student facilitators develop for review and approval a formal syllabus for their spring seminars

  7. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  8. Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain access to these environments and cope with their extreme physicochemical characteristics may be provided with refuge from extinction. The disproportionate number of endemic crenobiotic species found in regional aquifer thermal springs, as well as in some local aquifer geothermal springs, within the Great Basin strongly suggests that these hydrothermal habitats represent important biodiversity hotspots, and efforts to conserve and restore these unique ecosystems should be a major priority to ensure that the valuable information that these species can provide is not lost forever.

  9. Chemistry of thermal and nonthermal springs in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Meaningful applications of water geothermometry to thermal springs in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are limited to Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs. Most hot springs located within LVNP are low-chloride, acid-sulfate waters associated with nearby steam vents. This type of hot-spring activity is characteristically found above vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock interaction at relatively shallow depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures close to measured spring temperatures of 65 to 95??C. Hot-spring waters located south of LVNP at Growler Hot Spring, Morgan Hot Springs, and in the south-central part of LVNP in the Walker "O" No. 1 well at Terminal Geyser are rich in chloride and yield calculated geothermometer temperatures between 220 and 230??C. These thermal waters probably originate within a zone of upflow of high-enthalpy fluid inside LVNP and cool conductively during lateral flow to the south and southeast. ?? 1985.

  10. Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan A. King; Sabrina Behnke; Kim Slack; David P. Krabbenhoft; D. Kirk Nordstrom; Mark D. Burr; Robert G. Striegl

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking

  11. Numerical simulation as a tool for checking the interpretation of karst spring hydrographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Eisenlohr; László Király; Mahmoud Bouzelboudjen; Yvan Rossier

    1997-01-01

    A schematic representation of karst aquifers may be that of a high hydraulic conductivity channel network with kilometre-wide intervals, surrounded by a low hydraulic conductivity fractured limestone volume and connected to a local discharge area, the karst spring. The behaviour of the karst spring (hydrographs, chemical or isotopic composition, etc.) represents the global response of the karst aquifer to input

  12. Compositional Similarities between Hot Mineral Springs in the Jordan and Suez Rift Valleys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Mazor

    1968-01-01

    THE chemical composition of the Hammam Farun hot spring (72° C) in the Suez Rift Valley has been found to be almost identical to that of the Tiberias Hot Springs (60° C) in the Jordan Rift Valley (Figs. 1 and 2 and Table 1). This finding is of vital importance in the evaluation and sorting out of various hypotheses that

  13. Dynamics of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

  14. SPRING_TANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

  15. VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    , Snakes Turtles 14 MARCH Lizards and Snakes I SPRING BREAK 25 MARCH Lizards and Snakes II 26 March Lizards, Snakes Turtles; ID Quiz28 MARCH Endothermy­Ectothermy 1 APRIL Review 2 April Birds 4 APRIL EXAM 2

  16. University Calendar Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    University Calendar Spring 2014 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON

  17. University Calendar Spring 2017

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    University Calendar Spring 2017 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON

  18. University Calendar Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    University Calendar Spring 2013 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY State.m. * Courses meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT

  19. University Calendar Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    University Calendar Spring 2015 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON.m. * Courses meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT

  20. A Quantum Optical Spring

    E-print Network

    Amit Rai; G. S. Agarwal

    2008-01-24

    We study the dynamics of the quantum optical spring, i.e., a spring whose spring constant undergoes discreet jumps depending on the quantum state of another system. We show the existence of revivals and fractional revivals in the quantum dynamics reminiscent of similar dynamical features in cavity QED. We recover in the semi classical limit the results for an oscillator whose frequency undergoes a sudden change. The quantum optical spring is conceivable for example by a micromirror under the influence of radiation pressure by a field which is strictly quantum. Our work suggests that driven systems would in general exhibit a very different dynamics if the drive is replaced by a quantum source.

  1. Double Spring Year

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; von Holten, Leslie

    2006-12-13

    Broadcast Transcript: South Korean fiancés are under pressure and the country's esteemed fortune tellers are turning up the heat. Why? Because this lunar year has two first days of spring--one last January, and another next February...

  2. Harbingers of Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  3. Biotechnology Laboratory Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    CH369T Biotechnology Laboratory Spring 2012 Instructor: Dr. Gene McDonald Office: WEL 3.270C Phone, and at the same time to introduce you to issues associated with various biotechnology laboratory operations. After

  4. Spring-powered actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Magill, R. J.; Gaiger, D. J.; Simkins, N.

    1985-07-30

    A spring-powered actuator especially for operating devices such as fire and/or smoke dampers, doors, hatches, vents, traps, valves and other devices having components which are movable between at least two positions. The spring-powered actuator of the invention comprises a longitudinally-displaceable re-wind screw which is rotatable to recharge the spring of the actuator, and a tilting element on the screw which is mounted for tilting movement with respect to the screw axis to allow longitudinal movement of the re-wind screw so as to permit rapid and reliable release of energy stored in the spring. When used in a combination fire and smoke damper, it thus opens or closes the blades of the latter.

  5. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  6. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  7. spring 2013 ohio state impact 1 SPRING 2013

    E-print Network

    spring 2013 ohio state impact 1 SPRING 2013 Ray Sharp: Placing Students First impact ohiostate How PAGE 8 PAGE 6 #12;2 ohio state impact giveto.osu.edu/ohiostateimpact #12;spring 2013 ohio state impact 1 But for Ohio State Cincinnati Celebration Alumni and friends in southwest Ohio helped kick off

  8. Prepare for Unpredictable Spring Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flooding. Whenever warm, moist air collides with cool, dry air, thunderstorms can occur. For much of the world, this happens in spring and summer. Because spring weather is so unpredictable, you may be unprepared when ...

  9. Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2011 Machining Valve Seats

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2011 Machining Valve Seats Overview: The team worked with Quaker Chemical Corporation to machine valve seats using three different lubricants provided-degree chamfer on the valve seats are very specialized and expensive. For this project, the cutting tool

  10. ENGINEERING COURSES FOR VISITATION, SPRING 2013 Discipline Abbreviations

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    Engineering ChBE = Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering CE = Civil Engineering CS = Computer Science EECE and Environmental Engineering Information Systems II, Professor Lori Troxel, M only 2:10-3:00, JH 298 CE 227, Water1 ENGINEERING COURSES FOR VISITATION, SPRING 2013 Discipline Abbreviations: BME = Biomedical

  11. Silent Spring Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Named after ecologist Rachel Carson's landmark book, _Silent Spring_, the Silent Spring Institute (SSI) is a "scientific research organization dedicated to identifying the links between the environment and women's health, especially breast cancer." The SSI website contains descriptions of several research projects including the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study, Geographic Information System Exposure Assessment, Groundwater and Drinking Water Initiatives, and Household Exposure Study. SSI also makes a number of downloadable publications available including journal articles and issues of the Institute's own _Silent Spring Review_. The site posts relevant news stories from a variety of sources, and contains a sizeable News Archive as well. In addition, the site offers a great many annotated links, and a glossary with pertinent medical, scientific, and environmental terms.

  12. Design of FSMA spring actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-hung Chen; Minoru Taya

    2004-01-01

    A new spring actuator composing of two parts: driving unit and ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) spring, is designed based on hybrid actuation mechanism. The driving unit, which is based on hybrid magnet, consists of coil, yoke, and ring shape permanent magnet (PM); the FSMA spring can be either composite material, which is made of shape memory alloy of superelastic

  13. 23 5 30 SPring-8

    E-print Network

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    1 23 5 30 - - JASRI SPring-8 1 2 BL25SU 21 =21 (MCD)3 MCD 4 MCD 10 (APEX) Press Release #12;2 N S (MCD) MCD MCD MCD 10 10 SPring-8 X 1 40 40 MCD 0.0010.1 0.1 6 10 1 20 MCD 10 1 100 5 SPring-8 MCD X MCD X MCD

  14. 1 Introduccin a Spring................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Qu es Spring?....................................................................................................... 4

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    )............................................................................ 43 5 Introducción a MVC en Spring.................................................................................. 45 5.1 Procesamiento de una petición en Spring MVC............................................................... 52 6 Ejercicios de MVC en Spring

  15. Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 Spring 2008 Spring 2008 Biology 111 Take Home Exam #3 BioEnergetics

    E-print Network

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    a. b. Draw a picture that approximates the absorption spectrum and the action spectrum using two water. c. In 2 sentences or less, explain why animals need to consume water. #12;Dr. Campbell's Bio111 Exam #3 ­ Spring 2008 3 8 pts. 5) a. Draw the chemical structures of ATP production from ADP

  16. Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillinger, G. L., Jr. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring force present in the portion of the spring that resides in a transition region between a relatively straight condition on the path and a fully wound condition on the spool. When the distal end is released, the distal end is accelerated toward the spool by the force existing at the transition region which force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the spring.

  17. The chemical and hydrologic structure of PO& Volcano, Costa Rica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Rowe Jr; Susan L. Brantley; Jose F. Fernandezb; Andrea Borgia

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the chemical characteristics of spring and river water draining the flanks of PoQ Volcano, Costa Rica indicates that acid chloride sulfate springs of the northwestern flank of the volcano are derived by leakage and mixing of acid brines formed in the summit hydrothermal system with dilute flank groundwater. Acid chloride sulfate waters of the Rio Agrio drainage basin

  18. Philosophy Courses Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    120, which counts as one of the two required courses in Math/Logic. Many philosophy courses (e - INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY McKinnon MW 3:25 ­ 4:40 CRN 21372 PHIL 120 ­ SYMBOLIC LOGIC Grantham MWF 11:00 ­ 11Philosophy Courses Spring 2015 All philosophy courses satisfy the Humanities requirement -- except

  19. Lemon Project Spring Symposium

    E-print Network

    Fashing, Norman

    2 0 11 Lemon Project Spring Symposium From Slavery Toward Reconciliation: African Americans & The College March 19, 2011 - Bruton Heights School #12;March 19, 2011 Greetings and welcome to the first Lemon Lemon Project: A Journey of Reconciliation." The BOV defined Lemon "as a long- term research project

  20. CHEMISTRY 12600 Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Wen

    CHEMISTRY 12600 Spring 2014 Professor Professor Gabriela C. Weaver WTHR laboratory each week. Required Course Materials Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 6th Ed., by M. S. Silberberg, McGraw-Hill, 2012. [ISBN: 978-0-07-340265-9] Chemistry 126 Laboratory

  1. CHEMISTRY 450 Spring, 2009

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    CHEMISTRY 450 Spring, 2009 Gautam Bhattacharyya, 363 Hunter Labs, phone: 656-1356 gautamb. This course does NOT have a separate laboratory meeting time. Course Goals CH 450 is the Chemistry Capstone course intended for chemistry majors in their final year of study. The main objectives for this course

  2. Planar torsion spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  3. TRUMAN STATE Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Student Visa Regulations #12;IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STAYING LEGAL IN THE UNITED STATES #12;USCIS: UWELCOME TO TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY Spring 2015 International Student Pre- Orientation Information.S. Citizen and Immigration Services (formerly called Immigration or the INS) is the U.S. Government entity

  4. TRUMAN STATE Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    ! · women & their age / weight - Just don't talk about it #12;AMERICAN CULTURE 101 Business & ProfessionalWELCOME TO TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY Spring 2015 International Student Pre- Orientation Information American Culture 101 #12;CULTURAL ADJUSTMENT AND AMERICAN CULTURE 101 Those Crazy Americans! Overview

  5. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  6. Spring black stem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring black stem is the most destructive alfalfa diseases in temperate regions of the U.S., Canada, Australia, and countries of Europe, Asia, and South America. The disease causes serious yield losses by reducing canopy dry matter and also decreases seed weight and crown and root mass. Forage qua...

  7. Forest Mensuration Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Products 9 HW 2 6 Statistical Concepts 3 - 7 Sampling Units 11 HW 3 8 Forest Inventory: Part I 12 Exam 2 9 HW 6 15 Non-timber Forest Vegetation Parameters 10 - 16 Review - HW 7 #12;LABORATORY SCHEDULEFOR 6934 Forest Mensuration Spring 2013 PREREQUISITE FNR 3410C or equivalent INSTRUCTOR Dr

  8. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  9. Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June P., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

  10. Perfect Ten spring splash

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    science and services DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILES, FASHION MERCHANDISING AND DESIGN 55 Lower College Road Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 USA #12;The University of Rhode Island Textiles, Fashion Merchandising and Design Department and the Textile Advisory Board cordially invite you to attend spring splash 2013

  11. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  12. SPRING SATIN PLUMCOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrids between plums (Prunus salicina Lindl., P. cerasifera Ehrh. or their hybrids) and apricots (P. armeniaca L.) are referred to as plumcots. Most commercial plumcots are from California and poorly adapted to the southeastern climate. ‘Spring Satin’ is a large, high-quality, early-ripening frui...

  13. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical peels ... skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used to ...

  14. Proceedings of the geosciences workshop

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1991-01-01

    The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  15. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING University of Massachusetts, Amherst ChE/MIE 571 Spring 2010 INFORMATION SHEET Physical and Chemical Processing of Materials and chemical processes involved in the design and manufacturing of materials used in current materials

  16. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Castenholz, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  17. Missouri Springs: Blue Jewels in the Ozarks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Schaper

    This site provides an introduction to the Missouri Springs of the Ozarks, a series of large springs that occur south of the Missouri River along the Ozark Uplift. There is general information on springs, including what they are, how they form, and their connection to the groundwater system. Photographs and brief descriptions are provided for the twenty largest springs in the state. There is also a map showing the distribution of springs in Missouri, and information on visiting springs. Other information includes material about mineral springs and spas, historical uses of springs, groundwater systems and karst hydrology, and scuba diving in the springs (not generally recommended).

  18. Composition of pore and spring waters from Baby Bare: global implications of geochemical fluxes from a ridge flank hydrothermal system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Geoffrey Wheat; Michael J. Mottl

    2000-01-01

    Warm hydrothermal springs were discovered on Baby Bare, which is an isolated basement outcrop on 3.5 Ma-old crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We have sampled these spring waters from a manned submersible, along with associated sediment pore waters from 48 gravity and piston cores. Systematic variations in the chemical composition of these waters indicate

  19. Experto Universitario Java Sesin 1: Spring core

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Spring core Puntos a tratar 2 #12;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Spring core

  20. Part I--Mechanics M01M.1--Massive Spring M01M.1--Massive Spring

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Part I--Mechanics M01M.1--Massive Spring M01M.1--Massive Spring Problem A spring has spring constant K, unstretched length L, and mass per unit length . The spring is suspended vertically from one) For a point whose distance from the upper end of the spring is x when unstretched, find its distance s(x) from

  1. A study of spring rates of dynamically loaded helical springs 

    E-print Network

    Whitwell, Franklin Carroll

    1965-01-01

    . 4 28 30 33 6. Test Results for Spring No. 5 . 35 7. Test Results for Spring No. 6 38 8. Test Results for Spring No. 7 40 9. Dimensionless Values 41 10. Galvanometer Damping 42 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Overall View of Experimental... . . . . . . 11 5. Force Transducer in Position for Calibration with Loading Rod and Weights. 12 Power Supply Box for Displacement Potentiometer 13 7 ~ Principal Elements of the Loading Mechanism, not to scale 4 14 Force Transducer Circuitry. 16 9...

  2. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jolley

    2005-10-25

    In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

  3. Ginnie Springs Cavern Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    In a quiet forest in central Florida, a mysterious pond filled with warm clear water hides a secret at the bottom. In this video, Jonathan explores the pond to find a spring which leads into a cave. As Jonathan travels underground, he meets unexpected marine life in the dark depths and learns how water travels through an aquifer from the underground world to the surface. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  4. Signs of Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    Because Spring has officially arrived, this week's Topic In Depth focuses on events that occur with the arrival of the new season.Offered by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the first Web site (1) focuses on seasonal events like hibernation and migration, and the rhythms behind them. Next is a phenology site (2), where visitors can register to record their observations of Spring online or just learn what phenology is and why it is important. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also has a phenology Web site for kids (3). The Missouri Botanical Garden (4) keeps a record of the plants in bloom each week, with corresponding photos and a choice of either a brief or more detailed description. Plantwatch (5), a site from the University of Alberta that encourages students and volunteers to register and report observations, has recently added a downloadable teacher's guide. Operation Migration (6), the organization that has successfully led endangered Whooping Crane migration by ultralight aircraft, provides daily updates as the birds begin preparing for their journey north. Users who want to begin identifying the birds that return to their yard this spring may be interested in the Peterson online identification guide (7). The final site (8) traces the life cycle of the Bumblebee, beginning with the queen emerging from hibernation and building a nest.

  5. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687 ...Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter...

  6. Spring 2015 Student Commencement Speaker Application Materials

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    Spring 2015 Student Commencement Speaker Application Materials Purpose The Student Commencement Speaker offers an address during the spring Commencement Ceremony in May and serves as the representative of the spring graduating class. Providing

  7. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687 ...Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter...

  8. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  9. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  10. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics...Construction Control Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  11. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687 ...Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter...

  12. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics...Construction Control Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  13. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687 ...Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter...

  14. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687 ...Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter...

  15. Frameworks de desarrollo de Aplicaciones -Spring

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Frameworks de desarrollo de Aplicaciones - Spring Índice 1 Presentación en Spring. Este framework de desarrollo de aplicaciones se ha convertido en un completo ecosistema en integración. Finalizaremos con una introducción al desarrollo rápido de aplicaciones con Spring Roo, que nos

  16. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  17. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics...Construction Control Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  18. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687 ...Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter...

  19. Spatial analysis for spring locations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rebecca Frus

    This activity is designed to create a comprehensive GIS database of spring locations across the American Southwest. To complete the assignment you will be required to locate all springs within a county of the Four Corners region and map them on a geologic map of the area. Start by finding all spring names and locations in national and state digital resources (i.e., GNIS, NHD, USFS, AGIC...) as well as from Topographic 7.5 minute Quadrangle maps and peer reviewed papers. Once a comprehensive list is formed you must determine a strategy for deleting duplicates. Note that there can be several springs with the same name; Cibola County, New Mexico, has 4 different Coyote Springs but each one is on a different mountain range, therefore all three springs would be valid. Create a detailed document of the procedures and resources you used to create your final list. You will also create a final mxd product (GIS map) that has a completed springs layer using no less than three resources, geologic map and DEM to show elevation contours. The outcomes of this activity are 1) understanding that spring orifice locations can change over time 2) to show the complexity of using digital resources 3) to create a comprehensive list of spring locations over several years of having the assignment completed

  20. PhET: Masses & Springs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

  1. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you wish ... cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice for ...

  2. Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

  3. UCR Spring 2012 | 1 SPRING2012VOL.7NO.2

    E-print Network

    Mills, Allen P.

    UCR Spring 2012 | 1 SPRING2012VOL.7NO.2 THE MA G A ZINE OF U C RIVE RSIDE Mining Big Data The Rise of Eamonn Keogh by Lonnie Duka 08 Mining Big Data The explosion of digital information is creating a new mine databases of information to uncover trends. Keep up with UCR news at UCR Today, the university

  4. Springing into Spring: Reading Games for the Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    As spring arrives, more time is spent outdoors. Unfortunately, as spring fever hits, books and learning often take a backseat. The goal is for educators to find a way to re-engage learners. In this article, the author presents a seasonal story and game that can help catch students' attention by making learning both informative and entertaining.…

  5. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY -FEATURE spring / summer 2013 --76 --spring / summer 2013

    E-print Network

    Stone, J. V.

    CRYSTALLOGRAPHY - FEATURE spring / summer 2013 -- 76 -- spring / summer 2013 CRYSTALLOGRAPHY - FEATURE The birth of X-ray crystallography at Leeds in 1912-1913 through the work of Sir William Henry precisely how these were arranged. X-ray crystallography is the chemist's most reliable tool for deducing

  6. A Test for Airborne Dispersal of Thermophilic Bacteria from Hot Springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George T. Bonheyo; Jorge Frias-Lopez; Bruce W. Fouke

    ABSTRACT Physical and chemical,barriers separate individual terrestrial hot springs and their affiliated communities,of thermophilic bacteria. However, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons suggest that seemingly identical or closely related bacterial species are found in multiple hot springs that are separated by distances that range from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. To investigate whether this dispersal could result from airborne

  7. Supplemental data from the Ennis and other thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana, 1978-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.B.; Wood,W.A.

    1980-10-01

    Hydrogeologic data were collected principally during 1978 to 1980 in eight hot-spring areas, in the Marysville geothermal test well, in the Butte mine and in the Bitterroot and Missoula River valleys to provide a basis for evaluating the geothermal potential of the areas. Measurements are tabulated for subsurface temperatures, water levels, rates of flow, and the chemical composition of water and gas in wells and test holes. Most of the data are for the area near Ennis Hot Springs.

  8. IA Thursday Workshop, Spring 2010

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Olsen

    2010-01-19

    IA Workshop handouts for Spring 2010 Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2010. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

  9. SPring8 beamline control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohata; T. Nakatani; Y. Furukawa; K. Tamasaku; M. Ishii; T. Matsushita; M. Takeuchi; R. Tanaka; T. Ishikawa

    2001-01-01

    Beamline control system in the SPring-8 is integrated by unified applications at all beamlines. That is the control, the data acquisition, the network and the interlock systems are constructed by the SPring-8 standard software framework and hardware components as we presented before (Ohata et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5 (1998) 590.). The system is designed adopting the same control framework

  10. Mammoth Hot Springs Online Tour

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yellowstone National Park

    This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Mammoth Hot Springs. Prominent hot springs and terraces are highlighted with photos and information concerning their cycles of activity. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone are also available online.

  11. DHS Summary Report -- Robert Weldon

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    This summer I worked on benchmarking the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fission multiplicity capability used in the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX. This work involved running simulations and then comparing the simulation results with experimental experiments. Outlined in this paper is a brief description of the work completed this summer, skills and knowledge gained, and how the internship has impacted my planning for the future. Neutron multiplicity counting is a neutron detection technique that leverages the multiplicity emissions of neutrons from fission to identify various actinides in a lump of material. The identification of individual actinides in lumps of material crossing our boarders, especially U-235 and Pu-239, is a key component for maintaining the safety of the country from nuclear threats. Several multiplicity emission options from spontaneous and induced fission already existed in MCNPX 2.4.0. These options can be accessed through use of the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a physics model for the simulation of neutron and gamma ray emission from fission and photofission that was included in MCNPX 2.7.B as an undocumented feature and then was documented in MCNPX 2.7.C. The LLNL multiplicity capability provided a different means for MCNPX to simulate neutron and gamma-ray distributions for neutron induced, spontaneous and photonuclear fission reactions. The original testing on the model for implementation into MCNPX was conducted by Gregg McKinney and John Hendricks. The model is an encapsulation of measured data of neutron multiplicity distributions from Gwin, Spencer, and Ingle, along with the data from Zucker and Holden. One of the founding principles of MCNPX was that it would have several redundant capabilities, providing the means of testing and including various physics packages. Though several multiplicity sampling methodologies already existed within MCNPX, the LLNL fission multiplicity was included to provide a separate capability for computing multiplicity as well as including several new features not already included in MCNPX. These new features include: (1) prompt gamma emission/multiplicity from neutron-induced fission; (2) neutron multiplicity and gamma emission/multiplicity from photofission; and (3) an option to enforce energy correlation for gamma neutron multiplicity emission. These new capabilities allow correlated signal detection for identifying presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Therefore, these new capabilities help meet the missions of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), which is tasked with developing nuclear detection strategies for identifying potential radiological and nuclear threats, by providing new simulation capability for detection strategies that leverage the new available physics in the LLNL multiplicity capability. Two types of tests were accomplished this summer to test the default LLNL neutron multiplicity capability: neutron-induced fission tests and spontaneous fission tests. Both cases set the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card to 5 (i.e. use LLNL multiplicity). The neutron-induced fission tests utilized a simple 0.001 cm radius sphere where 0.0253 eV neutrons were released at the sphere center. Neutrons were forced to immediately collide in the sphere and release all progeny from the sphere, without further collision, using the LCA card, LCA 7j -2 (therefore density and size of the sphere were irrelevant). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific multiplicity did not exceed 0.36%. Neutron-induced fission multiplicities were computed for U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241. The spontaneous fission tests also used the same spherical geometry, except: (1) the LCA card was removed; (2) the density of the sphere was set to 0.001 g/cm3; and (3) instead of emitting a thermal neutron, the PAR keyword was set to PAR=SF. The purpose of the small density was to ensure that the spontaneous fission neutrons would not further interact and induce fissions (i.e. th

  12. Workshop Materials Spring 2009

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Heather

    2008-09-08

    Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials Workshop I Handout - pdf Workshop II Handout - pdf Workshop III Handout - pdf IA Review Rubric - pdf - This is an editable pdf. When opened click on a star to indicate your selection. Advanced IA Features Sample IA Project 1 - Adding video and images to your project Sample IA Project 2 - Adding video, audio, images, and rss feeds to your project Sample Activities A true AUTO-mobile - ...

  13. Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality. PMID:22539220

  14. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  15. Signals of Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Glen Schuster

    2002-05-23

    Signals of Spring is a web-based professional development package that provides training for teachers and integrated science curricular materials including data interpretation and applications for teachers and students. Students in expert teams work collaboratively and use NASA and other satellite earth imagery to explain the migration of land and marine animals tracked by satellites. Remote sensing imagery and GIS type interactive maps are seen in the site. Students select an area of expertise to focus on including weather, geography, vegetation, bathymetry, sea surface, or phytoplankton (chlorophyll). Students maintain analysis journals online and receive feedback from wildlife biologists and earth scientists. Teachers can use the online learning program to become certified in Signals of Spring and implement the program in their classrooms. Professional development for teachers is available as in-service or online. Three graduate credits are available at a low teacher cost. Connections are made between the content students need for standardized tests and concepts in geography, earth science, language arts, life science and technology. Registration is required for full access to the learning materials for students and teachers.

  16. Southern Mars: It's Spring!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

    The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  17. The dependence of the spring constant in the linear range on spring parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siti Nurul Khotimah; Sparisoma Viridi; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    In basic physics laboratories, springs are normally used to determine both spring constants and the Earth's gravitational acceleration. Students generally do not notice that the spring constant is not a universal constant, but depends on the spring parameters. This paper shows and verifies that the spring constant in the linear range is inversely proportional to the number of windings and

  18. The Dependence of the Spring Constant in the Linear Range on Spring Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    In basic physics laboratories, springs are normally used to determine both spring constants and the Earth's gravitational acceleration. Students generally do not notice that the spring constant is not a universal constant, but depends on the spring parameters. This paper shows and verifies that the spring constant in the linear range is inversely…

  19. Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    Spring 2006 CS 649 6 t=2 t=3 t=1 t=0 #12;Isn't this solved? Spring 2006 CS 649 7 · NTP (Network TimeSpring 2006 CS 649 1 CS649 Sensor Networks IP Lecture 9: Synchronization I-Jeng Wang http-facto synchronization · Alternatives · TPSN · FTSP #12;Does timesync matter? Spring 2006 CS 649 3 · Internet Time

  20. An Overview of the Spring System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Mitchell; Jonathan J. Gibbons; Graham Hamilton; Peter B. Kessler; Yousef Y. A. Khalidi; Panos Kougiouris; Peter W. Madany; Michael N. Nelson; Michael L. Powell; Sanjay R. Radia

    1994-01-01

    Spring is a highly modular, distributed, object-oriented operating system. This paper describes the goals of the Spring system and provides overviews of the Spring object model, the security model, and the naming ar chitecture. Implementation details of the Spring micr okernel, virtual memory system, file system, and UNIX emulation are sup- plied.

  1. Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26

  2. SPring-8-II Conceptual Design Report

    E-print Network

    Fukai, Tomoki

    SPring-8-II Conceptual Design Report RIKEN SPring-8 Center November, 2014 #12;General Introduction #12;Seventeen years have passed since the 1997 inauguration of SPring-8 as the highest-electron-energy, large-scale third generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the world. Since then, SPring-8 has

  3. PHILOSOPHY FACULTY OFFICE HOURS Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    PHILOSOPHY FACULTY OFFICE HOURS Spring 2014 JOHN BOWIN: Not teaching spring 2014 A111 Cowell Annex-3600, guevara@ucsc.edu JOCELYN HOY: Not teaching spring 2014 A103 Cowell Annex, 459-1594, jbhoy@ucsc.edu MICHAEL:00-6:00 A106 Cowell Annex, 459-5723, abestone@ucsc.edu RASMUS WINTHER: Not teaching spring 2014 A104 Cowell

  4. Automobile leaf springs from composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Al-Qureshi

    2001-01-01

    The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel springs with fiberglass reinforced composite leaf springs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a general study on the analysis, design and fabrication of composite springs. From this viewpoint, the suspension spring of a compact car, “a jeep” was selected as a prototype.A single leaf, variable

  5. WORLD DATA CENTER for Oceanography, Silver Spring

    E-print Network

    0 WORLD DATA CENTER for Oceanography, Silver Spring CATALOGUE OF DATA and REPORT OF DATA EXCHANGE for Oceanography, Silver Spring 2003 World Data Center for Oceanography SilverSpring,Maryland ________ CHANGE for Oceanography, Silver Spring, during the period 1 January 2000 - 31 December 2001. It supplements the original

  6. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  7. Paradata for 'Spring ~^ Nature Sound Studio: the Sound of Spring PeepersEducation World: Springtime Lesson PlansChicago Tribune: Signs of SpringIllinois State Museum: Planting a Prairie GardeneNature.com: Spring MigrationNPR: Spring Bugs'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Spring ~^ Nature Sound Studio: the Sound of Spring PeepersEducation World: Springtime Lesson PlansChicago Tribune: Signs of SpringIllinois State Museum: Planting a Prairie GardeneNature.com: Spring MigrationNPR: Spring Bugs'

  8. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  9. Why Springs Are Valuable Natural springs are important aquatic resources.

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    vegetation along stream banks offer food and shel- ter for birds and other animals. Sculpins, blacknose dace hot weather and droughts. Spring streams and riparian lands provide critical water, food, refuge

  10. 3-Helix Micelles Stabilized by Polymer Springs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, He; Shu, Jessica Y.; Dube, Nikhil; Ma, Yufei; Tirrell, Matthew V.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing demands to employ amphiphilic micelles as nanocarriers and nanoreactors, it remains a significant challenge to simultaneously reduce the particle size and enhance the particle stability. Complementary to covalent chemical bonding and attractive intermolecular interactions, entropic repulsion can be incorporated by rational design in the headgroup of an amphiphile to generate small micelles with enhanced stability. A new family of amphiphilic peptide-polymer conjugates is presented where the hydrophilic headgroup is composed of a 3-helix coiled-coil with poly(ethylene glycol) attached to the exterior of the helix bundle. When micelles form, the PEG chains are confined in close proximity and are compressed to act as a spring to general lateral pressure. The formation of 3-helix bundles determines the location and the directionalities of the force vector of each PEG elastic spring so as to slow down amphiphile desorption. Since each component of the amphiphile can be readily tailored, these micelles provide numerous opportunities to meet current demands for organic nanocarriers with tunable stability in life science and energy science. Furthermore, present studies open new avenues to use energy arising from entropic polymer chain deformation to self-assemble energetically stable single nanoscopic objects, much like repulsion that stabilizes bulk assemblies of colloidal particles. PMID:22731391

  11. D. discoideum Integrate Chemical and Mechanical Signals to Achieve

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Jeremy

    Andrew and Jeremy Gunawardena. Arhana learned how to design and fabricate microfluidic devices in spring to chemical gradients and orthogonally directed shear stress simultaneously. Time-lapse imaging of cells Chemotaxis- movement in response to a gradient of a diffusible chemical signal Developed cells- long

  12. Fusulinid biostratigraphy of Bird Spring Formation in Spring Mountains near Mountain Springs Pass, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gamache, M.T.; Webster, G.D.

    1987-05-01

    Fusulinids from a 955.16 m thick section of Chesterian into Wolfcampian rocks of the Indian Springs and Bird Spring formations exposed near Mountain Springs Pass represent the biozones of Millerella to Pseudoschwagerina. Species of Millerella, Plectofusulina, Staffella, Schubertina, Pseudostaffella, Profusulinella, Fusulinella, Beedeina, Oketaella, Pseudofusulina, Triticites, Schwagerina, Eoparafusulina, and Cuniculinella were described. One new species of Millerella and three new species of Tricities were named. The Mountain Springs section can be correlated intraregionally with other sections in Clark County using similar cherty limestones or sandstone-dominated strata in association with biozones recognized in the southern Great Basin. The thickening of strata from the Mountain Springs section to the Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon sections demonstrated by this method reflects each section's position to the northeast-trending Las Vegas-Wasatch hinge line between thin, shallow shelf sediments and thicker sediments to the west after palinspastic reconstruction. The large diversity of fusulinid species in the Mountain Springs section relative to Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon suggests that a fusulinid diversity index may be useful in correlating similar paleoenvironments. Fusulinid biozones of the Mountain Springs section can also be correlated regionally with fusulinid subbiozones A through G of the Shasta Lake area in northern California and with fusulinid biozones of the Mid-Continent based on similar species and occurrences.

  13. Design of FSMA spring actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiu-hung; Taya, Minoru

    2004-07-01

    A new spring actuator composing of two parts: driving unit and ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) spring, is designed based on hybrid actuation mechanism. The driving unit, which is based on hybrid magnet, consists of coil, yoke, and ring shape permanent magnet (PM); the FSMA spring can be either composite material, which is made of shape memory alloy of superelastic grade, and soft ferromagnetic material, or FSMAs such as FePd. In this design, driving units are inserted in between ferromagnetic springs. This will provide the actuator with larger force and stroke. FEM analysis under axis symmetric model has been used to optimize the driving components. According to the numerical results, the iron blocks, both on the top and the bottom, can provide larger magnetic forces facing downwards and upwards respectively due to the gradient of magnetic flux density. Advantages of this design are simple, robust, and compact yet providing relatively large force (20N) and stroke (30mm).

  14. Main karstic springs of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, U.

    1996-03-01

    A series of karstic springs in Israel belongs either to the western (Mediterranean) or eastern (Rift Valley) watersheds. Most of them are presently managed or diverted. Salinities range from very fresh through brackish to very saline waters.

  15. UAA Leadership Honors Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Pantaleone, Jim

    UAA Leadership Honors Spring 2015 Purpose UAA Leadership Honors are awarded to individuals upon graduation to recognize and honor their leadership. Leadership activities and involvement must promote individual and collective growth

  16. Changes in European spring phenology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ahas; A. Aasa; A. Menzel; V. G. Fedotova; H. Scheifinger

    2002-01-01

    The European phyto-phenological database of the EU 5th Framework project POSITIVE facilitated an examination of the rate and spatial pattern of changes in spring phenology across Europe. This database was collected, evaluated and composed from different national databases of Eastern and Western Europe covering the time period 1951-1998. Results show that spring phases have advanced four weeks in Western and

  17. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  18. Earlier spring in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, E.-J.; Lee, I.; Jeong, S.-J.

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, long-term changes in the first bloom date of shrub and tree species in Seoul (126.56°E, 37.34°N), Korea were examined using historical observational data for the period 1922-2004 (83 years). The study focused on two shrub species, golden-bell (Forsythia koreana) and azalea (Rhododendron mucronulatum), and three tree species, cherry (Prunus yedoensis), peach (Prunus persica), and American locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The annual-mean temperature has increased by about 2 °C in Seoul over the 83 years analyzed. The temperature increase is significant during the winter and early spring and becomes less significant during late spring. As a result of this regional warming, all five species showed an advance in the first bloom date over this time period. The advanced date is particularly apparent in early-spring flowering species like golden-bell (-2.4 days 10-year-1), azalea (-2.4 days 10-year-1), cherry (-1.4 days 10-year-1), and peach (-1.4 days 10-year-1) as compared to late-spring flowering species like American locust (-0.5 days 10-year-1).The present results have demonstrated that the major factor for the determination of flower blooming is heat accumulation, i.e. a certain threshold of growing degree-days (GDD) index. In particular, early spring flowers were sensitive to the accumulation of warm temperature than late-spring flowers.

  19. Regional variations in the chemical and helium–carbon isotope composition of geothermal fluids across Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fourré; R. Di Napoli; A. Aiuppa; F. Parello; E. Gaubi; P. Jean-Baptiste; P. Allard; S. Calabrese; A. Ben Mamou

    2011-01-01

    Tunisia has numerous thermo-mineral springs. Previous studies have shown that their chemical composition and occurrence are strongly influenced by the regional geology. However little work has been done so far to study the isotopic composition of volatiles associated with these geothermal manifestations. Here, we report on the results of an extensive survey of both natural hot springs and production wells

  20. 1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, CO

  1. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  2. Karst hydrology and chemical contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-water flow in karst aquifers is very different from flow in granular or fractured aquifers. Chemical contamination may be fed directly to a karst aquifer via overland flow to a sinkhole with little or no attenuation and may contaminate downgradient wells, springs, and sinkholes within a few hours or a few days. Contaminants may also become temporarily stored in the epikarstic zone for eventual release to the aquifer. Flood pulses may flush the contaminants to cause transiently higher levels of contamination in the aquifer and discharge points. The convergent nature of flow in karst aquifers may result in contaminants becoming concentrated in conduits. Once contaminants have reached the subsurface conduits, they are likely to be rapidly transported to spring outlets. Traditional aquifer remediation techniques for contaminated aquifers are less applicable to karst aquifers.

  3. 77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY...HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring Plant in Weldon...

  4. Nuclear fuel assembly spacer and loop spring with enhanced flexibility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johansson

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes improvement in a loop spring for maintaining fuel rods in spaced apart relation in a fuel bundle space. The spacer including; first and second overlying spring supporting elements for supporting a spring. The spring supporting elements disposing the spring on opposite sides to and towards a ferrule for containing fuel rods. The spring elements of the type

  5. Hot Springs Metropolitan Planning Organization 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan

    E-print Network

    Hot Springs Metropolitan Planning Organization

    2005-11-03

    Hot Springs Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 100 Broadway Terrace Hot Springs, Arkansas 71901 Adopted November 3, 2005 HSA-MPO 2030 LRTPii Participating Agencies Garland County Hot... Spring County City of Hot Springs City of Mountain Pine Hot Springs Village The Greater Hot Springs Chamber of Commerce The Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department In Cooperation With United States Department of Transportation...

  6. Assessing chemical information literacy skills using the ACRL standards as a guide

    E-print Network

    Emmett, Ada; Emde, Judith

    2006-07-06

    assessment had ever been conducted. For the Spring 2004 and 2005 semester classes, a measurement tool was designed to gauge the development of chemical information literacy skills during the semester. The students were given the assessment at the beginning...

  7. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular surfaces that produce palisade and "shrub" fabrics, respectively. At finer scales, composite fabrics are seen to consist distinctive associations of microstructures formed by the encrustation of individual cells and filaments. Composite fabrics survive the diagenetic transitions from primary opaline silica to quartz and are known from subaerial thermal spring deposits as old as Lower Carboniferous. However, fossil microorganisms tend to be rare in older deposits, and are usually preserved only where cells or sheaths have been stained by iron oxides. In subaqueous mineralizing springs at lower temperatures, early infilling leads to a more rapid and complete reduction in porosity and permeability. This process, along with the slower rates of microbial degradation at lower temperatures, creates a more favorable situation for organic matter preservation. Application of this taphonomic model to the Rhynie Chert, previously interpreted as subaerial, suggest it was probably deposited in a subaqueous spring setting at lower temperatures.

  8. Spring 2014-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Spring 2014-Key Academic dates

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Spring 2014-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Spring 2014- Key Academic First day CMC advisors will begin meeting with students who are applying for new Co-op and Spring authorizations for new Spring Internships & Coops will begin on December 22, 2013). December 22, 2013 Earliest

  9. SPRING 2014 Urban Semester Program Timeline SPRING 2014 Activity Date Time Location

    E-print Network

    Manning, Sturt

    SPRING 2014 Urban Semester Program Timeline SPRING 2014 Activity Date Time Location Pre-Health Information Session (Fall & Spring Semesters) with Sam Beck Monday, Feb. 3, 2014 4:30 PM 153 MVR Pre-Professional Information Session (Fall & Spring Semesters) with Marianne Cocchini Monday, Feb. 10, 2014 4:30 PM 151 MVR Pre

  10. Alternative spring force law for bead-spring chain models of the worm-like chain

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Patrick S.

    Alternative spring force law for bead-spring chain models of the worm-like chain Patrick T We have developed a new spring force law which can be used in bead-spring chain models of the worm The Society of Rheology. DOI: 10.1122/1.2206713 I. INTRODUCTION The worm-like chain WLC model has been used

  11. History of Art Course Projections [tentative; subject to change] Instructor Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Devoto, Stephen H.

    History of Art Course Projections [tentative; subject to change] Instructor Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014 Aksamija, Nadja 110 Intro to Western Art Sabbatical Leave 110 Intro to Western Art 233 Art & Culture Italian Baroque 224 16C Italian Art/Architecture 221 Early Renaissance Art

  12. A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits

    PubMed Central

    Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

  13. A computational bow-spring model

    E-print Network

    Sessions, Blake A

    2011-01-01

    Bow-springs find few applications in industry. Principally, they are used in archery. In addition, they have found some use in a compression-spring mode in the field of biomechatronics, to emulate elastic human legs. The ...

  14. Mechanical energy storage in carbon nanotube springs

    E-print Network

    Hill, Frances Ann

    2011-01-01

    Energy storage in mechanical springs made of carbon nanotubes is a promising new technology. Springs made of dense, ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes have the potential to surpass both the energy density of electrochemical ...

  15. Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    Example: Stargate Spring 2006 CS 649 6 · A single board, wireless-equipped computing platform · Developed at Intel Research #12;Stargate System architecture Spring 2006 CS 649 7 #12;MCU Basics:Many flavors

  16. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of 3He\\/ 4He in hot spring gas released from Unzen volcanic area, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Notsu; S. Nakai; G. Igarashi; J. Ishibashi; T. Mori; M. Suzuki; H. Wakita

    2001-01-01

    Following the first phreatic explosion on 17 November 1990, hot spring gases were collected periodically over the next 10years for 3He\\/4He isotopic ratio and chemical analyses from three hot springs (Obanma, Unzen and Shimabara) located around Unzen volcano, Japan. The 3He\\/4He ratios, although showing some scatter at each site, show an increase from west to east (Obama

  17. Geochemical and hydrologic considerations and the use of enthalpy-chloride diagrams in the prediction of underground conditions in hot-spring systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal water ascending in a hot-spring system may cool by conduction of heat to the surrounding rock, by boiling, by mixing with cooler water, or by a combination of these processes. Complete or partial chemical reequilibration may occur as a result of this cooling. In spite of these complexities, in many places chemical compositions of hot-spring waters may be used to estimate underground conditions. A plot of enthalpy versus chloride is particularly useful for determining underground temperatures, salinities, and boiling and mixing relations. The utility of this approach is illustrated using hot-spring composition data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico, Orakeikorako, New Zealand, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. ?? 1979.

  18. Dynamic Proxy and Classic Spring AOP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Mak

    \\u000a In this chapter, you will first learn the nature of crosscutting concerns and how they can be modularized with dynamic proxies.\\u000a Then you will focus on the AOP usage in Spring version 1.x, which is referred to as classic Spring AOP. The usage of Spring\\u000a AOP has changed significantly from version 1.x to 2.x. Classic Spring AOP is introduced mainly

  19. Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego M. Guido; Kathleen A. Campbell

    2011-01-01

    The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca.

  20. The limnology of “Swetganga” — A thermal spring of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Jana; H. L. Sarkar

    1971-01-01

    The results of the limnological investigations of “Swetganga”, one of the thermal springs of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India, have formed the basis of this paper. The samples of water were collected eleven times from the month of September '67 to October '68 at regular intervals for analysis. The physical conditions like depth, temperature and chemical factors like pH, free carbon

  1. A global model study of processes controlling aerosol size distributions in the Arctic spring and summer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannele Korhonen; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Dominick V. Spracklen; David A. Ridley; Johan Ström

    2008-01-01

    We use a global chemical transport model (CTM) with size-resolved aerosol microphysics to evaluate our understanding of the processes that control Arctic aerosol, focussing on the seasonal changes in the particle size distribution during the transition from Arctic haze in spring to cleaner conditions in summer. This period presents several challenges for a global model simulation because of changes in

  2. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

  3. Chemical Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

  4. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  5. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  6. Spring 2013 Deadlines Master's Degree Candidates in

    E-print Network

    Spring 2013 Deadlines Master's Degree Candidates in Graduate College of Education Fall 2013/degree-application.htm If you plan to graduate with MA or MS degree at the end of Spring 2013 semester ­ May 2013 · File/Thesis Receipt & Graduate College Of Education Exit Survey If you plan to graduate at the end of Spring 2013 (May

  7. Three Uses for Springs in Legged Locomotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mcn. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    Running animals and robots can save energy and reduce unwanted heat production by bouncing along on springs, using the principle of the pogo stick. (The principal springs in animals are tendons.) They can make further energy savings by using return springs to halt the legs at the end of each foward or backward swing and start them swinging the other

  8. CNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2005

    E-print Network

    CNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2005 Received 138 completed surveys out of 123 students who or attending grad school vs. 50% Spring 2004 Forestry (18 completed surveys): 2 are looking for work 1 Tree Ring Research o USDA Forest Service 83% are employed or attending grad school vs. 85% Spring

  9. Bioinformatics and modeling laboratory Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    GENE4220L Bioinformatics and modeling laboratory Spring 2007 Course description: Hands-on look to Microarrays Week 9 Mar 6 Chapter 6.2 Mar 8 Discuss a paper from the literature Mar 12 Spring Break Mar 14 Spring Break Week 10 Mar 20 Chapter 7.1 Mar 22 Chapter 7.2 Week 11 Mar 27 Discuss a paper from

  10. Spring 2012 Mobile Learning Scholars Assessment Report

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Spring 2012 Mobile Learning Scholars Assessment Report Susan Shadle, Allan Heaps, Eric Orton, Doug and on student learning. During the Spring 2012 semester, two cohorts of faculty were supported. Each faculty of the Spring 2011 MLS program, which indicated that one semester was only enough to begin to climb the learning

  11. WCNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2006

    E-print Network

    WCNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2006 Received 123 completed surveys out of 127 students Conservation Commission 100% are employed or attending grad school vs. 100% Spring 2005 Forestry (16% are employed or attending grad school vs. 85% Spring, 2005 Faculty or Staff Members who were a positive

  12. RUNNING SPRINGS: SPEED AND ANIMAL SIZE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLAIRE T. FARLEY; JAMES GLASHEEN; THOMAS A. MCMAHON

    1993-01-01

    Summary Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find

  13. CNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2004

    E-print Network

    CNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2004 Received 123 completed surveys out of 185 students who or attending grad school vs. 0% Spring 2003 #12;Forestry (13 completed surveys): 1 is looking for work 1 § Vermejo Park Ranch 85% are employed or attending grad school vs. 90% Spring, 2003 Geology (7 completed

  14. Important Dates for Student Employment Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    Important Dates for Student Employment Spring 2015 NOTE: Student positions and assignments can for international graduate students requesting Spring 2015 insurance waivers based on benefits- eligible assignments (in the case of Teaching Assistants and Assistant Instructors, Spring/Summer 2015 waivers). Now ­ June

  15. WCNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2007

    E-print Network

    WCNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2007 Received 111 completed surveys. SP '07 SP '06 44 (38 school vs. 100% Spring 2006 Faculty or Staff Members who were a positive influence on you during your% Spring, 2006 Faculty or Staff Members who were a positive influence on you during your college career

  16. Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    Spring 2006 CS 649 1 CS649 Sensor Networks Lecture 27: Reliable Broadcast Andreas Terzis http://hinrg.cs.jhu.edu/wsn06/ Thanks to Jonathan Hui #12;Background Spring 2006 CS 649 2 · Retasking is essential · Often learn · A necessity in debugging and testing cycle #12;Methods for retasking Spring 2006 CS 649 3 Consider retasking

  17. MSU Departmental Assessment Report Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MSU Departmental Assessment Report Spring 2011 Department: Computer Science Department Head: John summaries for Fall Semester 2010 and Spring Semester 2011 courses. 5. The results of the Major Field Test, taken by graduating seniors in Fall Semester 2010 and Spring Semester 2011. 6. A graduating senior

  18. Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    Spring 2006 CS 649 1 CS649 Sensor Networks Lecture 23: Transport Protocols II Andreas Terzis http networks Spring 2006 CS 649 2 · Difficult to provision bandwidth in wireless networks · Unpredictable, time #12;Outline Spring 2006 CS 649 3 · Quantify the problem in a sensor network testbed · Examine

  19. MSU Departmental Assessment Report Spring 2010

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    MSU Departmental Assessment Report Spring 2010 Department: Computer Science Department Head: John summaries for Fall Semester 2009 and Spring Semester 2010 courses. 5. The results of the Major Field Test, taken by all graduating seniors in Fall Semester 2009 and Spring Semester 2010. 6. A graduating senior

  20. Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    Spring 2006 CS 649 1 CS649 Sensor Networks Lecture 20: Routing III Andreas Terzis http://hinrg.cs.jhu.edu/wsn06/ #12;Spring 2006 CS 649 2 TTDD: A Two-tier Data Dissemination Model for Large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks Haiyun Luo Fan Ye, Jerry Cheng Songwu Lu, Lixia Zhang UCLA CS Dept. #12;Outline Spring

  1. Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

    Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

  2. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  3. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s-1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 L s-1, which corresponds to about 8.2 ?? 104 kJ s-1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified. -Authors

  4. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-11-10

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 l/s. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 l/s, which corresponds to about 8.2 {times} 10{sup 4} kJ/s of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  5. ME 310 INFO SHEET SPRING 2012 ME 310 SPRING 2012

    E-print Network

    the frequency-dependent displacement of a damped mass on a spring. This will occupy roughly the final 5 weeks work done OUTSIDE and BEFORE lab. DROP DATES: Pay attention to the University's schedule of drop dates. You cannot drop this course after the last "W" date because of an impending low grade ­ you

  6. ME 310 INFO SHEET SPRING 2011 ME 310 SPRING 2011

    E-print Network

    the frequency-dependent displacement of a damped mass on a spring. This will occupy roughly the final 5 weeks work done OUTSIDE and BEFORE lab. DROP DATES: Pay attention to the University's schedule of drop dates. You cannot drop this course after the last "W" date because of an impending low grade ­ you

  7. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  8. SPRING 2010 the balance between

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    businesses are facing for global corporate citizenship in the creation of a better and sustainable society. Iii SPRING 2010 Exploring the balance between social responsibility and economic success mmM A N A G in Debra Basil's classes. Hand-Made, Fair Trade Learning about fair trade and social responsibility

  9. Community Needs Assessment, Spring 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Rounds, Jan

    In Spring 1982, a districtwide survey was conducted by Cerritos College (CC) to assess the educational needs of the surrounding community. Residents were asked to provide demographic information and respond to questions about their awareness of the college, their perception and evaluation of various CC roles, and their preferences for courses and…

  10. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df and the tube at a rate m , and the outer surface of the tube is well insulated. Heat generation occurs within. The specific heat of water pc , and the thermal conductivity of the fuel rod fk are constants. The system

  11. Spring 2005 What Is Anger?

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Spring 2005 What Is Anger? Anger is a feeling that we all encounter from time to time). The rational expression of anger in response to these concerns can offer several benefits. Most important in responding to the danger or threat. Fear leads to flight; anger sustains fight. While rational anger can

  12. SPRING 2005 Brand usage guidelines

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    , it is crucial that all external communication from Durham University is branded consistently. This helpsISSUE 1 SPRING 2005 Brand usage guidelines #12;#12;DURHAM UNIVERSITY BRAND USAGE GUIDELINES As you with confidence and modernity. Introducing the new marque THE NEW MARQUE #12;DURHAM UNIVERSITY BRAND USAGE

  13. Comparative Legal Systems Spring, 2006

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    to be different. Thinking about those things requires that we look at how various justice systems work, but doesnSyllabus Comparative Legal Systems JUST 409 Spring, 2006 Section 01, MWF 9:30-10:20 a.m. ­ MG 3000 Systems, 4th edition. Prentice Hall. Course Description This course will deepen your understanding

  14. PAGOSA SPRINGS Conservation Action Plan

    E-print Network

    ..................................................................................................................................................... 233 Neely, B., P. Lyon, S. Panjabi, and B. Kuhn. 2011. Pagosa Springs: Conservation Action Plan 2011, 2008 and August 19, 2010 Report Date: August 25, 2011 Pagosa skyrocket roadside habitat © B. Neely Pagosa skyrocket © B. Clearwater #12;2 Table of Contents I. Introduction

  15. The Forced Hard Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, various examples of the Duffing type forced spring equation with epsilon positive, are studied. Since [epsilon] is positive, all solutions to the associated homogeneous equation are periodic and the same is true with the forcing applied. The damped equation exhibits steady state trajectories with the interesting…

  16. UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Spring Quarter 2013

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    UC DAVIS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY TOWN HALL Spring Quarter 2013 June 11, 2013 UC Davis University Library, including the Q&A portion June 11, 2013 UC Davis University Library Town Hall 2 #12;Overview Strategic Plan Steps Q&A June 11, 2013 UC Davis University Library Town Hall 3 #12;STRATEGIC PLAN UPDATE June 11, 2013

  17. Health Service Evaluation, Spring 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    Student attitudes toward the Student Health Service (SHS) at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington were assessed during spring 1985. The SHS provides general outpatient care to students with acute medical problems, referral, and health education. The sample of 358 students represented 43 percent of students seen during part of March 1985.…

  18. Introductory Chemistry Workshop Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    CHEM 212 Introductory Chemistry Workshop Spring 2014 Required Materials Martin S. Silberberg (2013) Principles of General Chemistry, 3nd edition, McGraw-Hill. CONNECT subscription Non-programmable scientific for CHEM 212. The last day to add a course without a Dean's signature is Sun. August 25th. Grading

  19. Spring 2012 PHI THETA KAPPA

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Honors College is pleased to announce a Phi Theta Kappa transfer student scholarship. The scholarship consists of a one-time, one-semester tuition waiver to be used for the Spring 2012 term. Tuition waivers are based on Illinois resident tuition and only cover an amount equal to in-state tuition. Eligible students

  20. Spring 2010 3D Photography

    E-print Network

    Stamos, Ioannis

    Spring 2010 3D Photography -------------------------------------------------------------- Project I a specified viewpoint. This range image is expressed as a two-dimensional array of 3-D points. 3-D points that are neighbors in this array are probably neighbors in the actual 3-D surface, unless the points lie on a shape

  1. Spring 2011 Prof. Hyesoon Kim

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hyesoon

    Spring 2011 Prof. Hyesoon Kim #12;· Reading assignment [LRB] · http://www.ece.neu.edu/groups/nucar · Texture unites perform virtual to physical page translation #12;http://www.ece.neu.edu/groups/nucar/GPG PU (except for HW threads) http://www.ece.neu.edu/groups/nucar/GPGPU/GPGPU-2/Seiler.pdf #12;· New Data types

  2. Spring 2010 Prof. Hyesoon Kim

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hyesoon

    Spring 2010 Prof. Hyesoon Kim #12;· Reading assignment [LRB] · http://www.ece.neu.edu/groups/nucar · Texture unites perform virtual to physical page translation #12;http://www.ece.neu.edu/groups/nucar/GPG PU (except for HW threads) http://www.ece.neu.edu/groups/nucar/GPGPU/GPGPU-2/Seiler.pdf #12;· New Data types

  3. Mesoscale Modeling Spring Semester 2014

    E-print Network

    van den Heever, Susan C.

    ATS730 Mesoscale Modeling Spring Semester 2014 Meeting Times: T/TH: 9-10:15am Room: ATS 101 is to present the development of the basic equations used in mesoscale models, as well as the various methods than on actual simulations of mesoscale phenomena or the evaluation of specific mesoscale models

  4. Mesoscale Dynamics Spring Semester 2012

    E-print Network

    Birner, Thomas

    ATS 735 Mesoscale Dynamics (3 cr) Spring Semester 2012 Instructor: Richard H. Johnson, Room ATS 305: There are no required texts. The recent book Mesoscale Meteorology in Midlatitudes by Markowski and Richardson covers with mesoscale-related research. A set of notes will be made available for the course, although we will not cover

  5. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  6. Spring 2011 Prof. Hyesoon Kim

    E-print Network

    Kim, Hyesoon

    Spring 2011 Prof. Hyesoon Kim #12;RasterizerGeometryApplication Frame Buffer #12;· Fixed pipeline ­ SIMD issue width · Memory bandwidth saving · Better optimizations to reduce the amount of computations merge ­ Merge the results using Z-buffer #12;Tomas Akenine-Mller © 2002 · The Z-buffer (aka depth buffer

  7. PCB 4683 Territo Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    PCB 4683 Territo Spring 2013 1 BY ENROLLING IN THIS CLASS YOU AGREE TO EVERY ITEM IN THIS SYLLABUS; THIS INCLUDES THE FACT THAT IT IS POSTED ON WEBCOURSES AND NOT HANDED OUT DIRECTLY. PCB 4683 Evolutionary:30 ­ 2:20pm Monday in BL, Rm 414 CREDIT: Lecture (PCB 4683A): 4 semester hrs. Lab (PCB 4683L): 1 semester

  8. for the brain SPRING 2012

    E-print Network

    Malinnikova, Eugenia

    third are awarded to women. About 40 per cent of NTNU's degrees are in technology. Internet: www.ntnu.no/gemini/englishPlug-ins for the brain SPRING · 2012 NATURE'S SOLARCELLS Learning from diatoms · 28 HANNIBAL'S HEAD Psychopaths have feelings · 20 AN ENGLISH EDITION OF GEMINI IS PUBLISHED TWICE A YEAR. THE NEXT EDITION

  9. Spring-Loaded Transducer Holder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Portable ultrasonic scanner moves transducer at constant pressure. Spring-loaded holder moves ultrasonic transducer over test sample at constant pressure. Setup used to determine rate of debond taking place in glued materials subjected to fatigue loading. Holder designed as portable field unit adapted to fatigue machine that transmits data while specimen tested.

  10. CS 5973 CRYPTOGRAPHY SPRING 2002

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Qi

    CS 5973 CRYPTOGRAPHY SPRING 2002 Instructor: Qi Cheng Class time: MWF 10:30­11:20 Topics: Recently the elliptic curve cryptography(ECC) has attracted considerable interest, be- cause it is believed that ECC can. In this course, we will study the public key cryptography with emphasis on ECC. We cover following topics

  11. Linguistics 321: Bilingualism Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Linguistics 321: Bilingualism Spring 2014 Class time and place: Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00am-12 will examine the cognitive and linguistic aspects of bilingualism. We will address questions such as: · How brain mechanisms are involved in bilingual language processing? · How do bilinguals control two

  12. Linguistics 321: Bilingualism Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    Linguistics 321: Bilingualism Spring 2011 Class time and place: Tuesday and Thursday, 9:30-10:50 am will examine the cognitive and linguistic aspects of bilingualism. We will address questions such as: · How brain mechanisms are involved in bilingual language processing? · How do bilinguals control two

  13. Spring for It: First Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  14. Beauty, Eros, Death Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Bennett

    , Eros, Death KHC XL 102 Spring 2012 Wednesdays/Fridays 9:00am­10:30am Professor William Waters Office obsession. And why do works of art so often link erotic love to tragic death? Do beauty and eros point and extinction: Thomas Mann's 1912 novella Death in Venice. Mann's story sets into counterpoint an extraordinary

  15. The Forced Soft Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, this paper studies examples of the forced Duffing type spring equation with [epsilon] negative. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, the existence is demonstrated of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions. Subharmonic boundaries are…

  16. Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    1 WIS 4443C 4 credits Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012 Course Objectives Lecture and Laboratory to identify representatives of wetland wildlife groups (birds, amphibians, mammals) Course Description, and ecological concepts associated with wetland ecology and the wildlife species that are dependant on wetlands

  17. Chemical burns

    PubMed Central

    Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

  18. Hydrochemical assessment of tropical springs--a case study from SW India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hema C; Padmalal, D; Joseph, Ammini

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs emerging from the Archaean crystalline basements at the foothills of Western Ghat mountains in the highlands and Neogene sedimentary formations in the coastal lowlands of Kerala in south west India. A total of 19 springs from two important river basins of southern Kerala such as Ithikkara and Kallada river basins were studied for 18 physico-chemical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (2-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-) , NO3 (-), SiO2, Fe(2+), and F(-) ) as well as bacteriological parameters. The discharge computations show that free-falling type of springs in the area discharge about 256.23 million liters of water a year. A comparative study between the spring water samples of highland and lowland regions reveal that the quality of spring water, except pH and bacteriological contents, satisfies the standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organization for drinking water. Spring water samples collected from the lowlands register high value of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with the highlands. Bicarbonate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) values are high in highland than lowland springs. The present study reveals that the spring water sources in the region can be developed as an alternate source for drinking water, provided pH correction and proper disinfection are done prior to its end use. PMID:25638053

  19. [Thermal springs of Kavassila/N. Ioannina/, Greece--research study].

    PubMed

    Karagunis, M N

    1983-01-01

    The thermometallic springs of Kavassila, district Ioannina, are situated at a height of 410 m in a mild intermediate microclimate. They spring forth in two groups of springs near Sarantaporos river into which they pour without proper exploitation. Examinations of the water of the springs such as microbiological, microfloric blue algae and physico-chemicals have produced mainly: supply 400 m3/h, temperature 32 degrees C, electrical conductivity 1850 mS, colourless, taste of drinkable water, no emulsion, pH 7,60-8,20, sulfuric content 175,7 mg/l, strong odour of hydrogen sulphide, radon content 13-14 MACHE. Based on the above, the springs are to be characterised as hypothermic, hydrogen suplphide and sodium chloride containing mineral water, which is very suitable for drinking and bath therapy according to the principles of hydrotherapeutics: Water bath therapy and mud bath for the following diseases: skin diseases, rheumatoarthritic, chronic gynaecological, as well as vascular diseases. Inhalation therapy for troubles such as chronic troubles of the respiratory diseases, asthma, emphysema and laryngo-faryngeal pathological condition in both smokers and non-smokers. Drinking therapy for problems arising from the gastrointestinal tract, liver, bile ducts and kidneys. Similar springs in Greece, compared and mentioned are: Thermopylae, Kaiafa, Kyllini and abroad: Apenta-Springs Hungary and Piatigorsk Russia. For the correct exploitation of the thermomineral waters in Kavassila, the build-up of a modern curative hydrotherapeutic centre is proposed, due to the quality of the springs, as well as it's good and healthpromoting climate. PMID:6642199

  20. Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida's first magnitude spring waters (discharge ???2.8 m3/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg/L, and ??15N values of nitrate in spring waters ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 per mil. Most ??15N values were below 6 per mil indicating that inorganic fertilizers were the dominant source of nitrogen in these waters. Apparent ages of groundwater discharging from springs ranged from 5 to about 35 years, based on multi-tracer analyses (CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H/3He) and a piston flow assumption; however, apparent tracer ages generally were not concordant. The most reliable spring-water ages appear to be based on tritium and 3He data, because concentrations of CFCs and SF6 in several spring waters were much higher than would be expected from equilibration with modern atmospheric concentrations. Data for all tracers were most consistent with output curves for exponential and binary mixing models that represent mixtures of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer recharged since the early 1960s. Given that groundwater transit times are on the order of decades and are related to the prolonged input of nitrogen from multiple sources to the aquifer, nitrate could persist in groundwater that flows toward springs for several decades due to slow transport of solutes through the aquifer matrix.

  1. Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Willie; Cavanagh, Richard; Turk, Gregory; Winchester, Michael; Travis, John; Smith, Melody; Derose, Paul; Choquette, Steven; Kramer, Gary; Sieber, John; Greenberg, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard; Lamaze, George; Zeisler, Rolf; Schantz, Michele; Sander, Lane; Phinney, Karen; Welch, Michael; Vetter, Thomas; Pratt, Kenneth; Scott, John; Small, John; Wight, Scott; Stranick, Stephan

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and nutrition, agriculture, environmental technologies, chemicals and materials, instrumentation, electronics, forensics, energy, and transportation.

  2. Chemical Bonds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

  3. Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

  4. Exchange-spring mechanism of soft and hard ferrite nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Manjura Hoque, S., E-mail: manjura_hoque@yahoo.com [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (Bangladesh); Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Srivastava, C.; Kumar, V.; Venkatesh, N. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Das, H.N.; Saha, D.K. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (Bangladesh); Chattopadhyay, K. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Exchange-spring behaviour of soft and hard ferrites was studied. • XRD patterns indicated soft and hard ferrites as fcc and hcp structure. • Hysteresis loops indicate wide difference in coercivity of soft and hard phases. • Nanocomposites produced convex hysteresis loop characteristic of single-phase. - Abstract: The paper reports exchange-spring soft and hard ferrite nanocomposites synthesized by chemical co-precipitation with or without the application of ultrasonic vibration. The composites contained BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} as the hard phase and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the soft phase. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples in the optimum calcined condition indicated the presence of soft ferrites as face-centred cubic (fcc) and hard ferrites as hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization in the range of 20–700 °C demonstrated distinct presence of soft and hard ferrites as magnetic phases which are characterized by wide difference in magnetic anisotropy and coercivity. Exchange-spring mechanism led these nanocomposite systems to exchange-coupled, which ultimately produced convex hysteresis loops characteristic of a single-phase permanent magnet. Fairly high value of coercivity and maximum energy product were observed for the samples in the optimum calcined conditions with a maximum applied field of 1600 kA/m (2 T)

  5. Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Sesin 3: Spring MVC

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Spring Sesión 3: Spring MVC #12;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Spring MVC Indice · Procesamiento de una Computación e IA Spring MVC Procesamiento de una petición En el web.xml En el fichero de beans Código java con

  6. Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative

    E-print Network

    Spring Chinook Salmon Production in the Deschutes Basin Project Narrative Project Name Spring Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) Short Description Continue annual monitoring of natural and artificial production of spring Chinook salmon in streams on the Warm Springs Indian

  7. 1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the Springs of the South and West by Moorman) No date 'MAP OF ROUTES AND DISTANCES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS' - White Sulphur Springs, U.S. Route 60, White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, WV

  8. RECENT FINDINGS TO THE FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF HELICAL SPRINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno KAISER; Christina BERGER

    7 cycles. The test springs for this project were made out of six different spring materials, two patented cold drawn unalloed spring steel wires, two oil- hardened and tempered spring steel wires and two stainless spring steel wires. The results of these fatigue tests with different mean stresses were statistically evaluated, presented as fatigue strength diagrams according to Goodman for

  9. A multi-disciplinary investigation of Irish warm springs and their potential for geothermal energy provision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Jones, Alan G.; Henry, Tiernan

    2015-04-01

    Irish warm springs are one of a set of several target types that are being evaluated for their geothermal energy potential during the course of the island-wide assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland under the IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie). Forty-two warm springs and warm shallow groundwater occurrences have been recorded in Ireland; water temperatures in the springs (approx. 12-25 °C) are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (10-11 °C). This study focuses on warm springs in east-central Ireland found in the Carboniferous limestone of the Dublin Basin. A combination of geophysical methods (controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) and audio-magnetotellurics (AMT)) and hydrochemical analyses (including time-lapse temperature and electrical conductivity measurements) have been utilised at several of the springs to determine the source of the heated waters at depth and the nature of the geological structures that deliver the warm waters to the surface. Using the example of St. Gorman's Well, Co. Meath, we show how the combination of these different methods of investigation and the interpretation of these various data sets enables us to better understand the physical and chemical variability of the spring through time. This will provide the basis for an assessment of the source of these thermal waters as a potential geothermal energy reservoir and will allow for more precise characterisation of the groundwater resource. We present subsurface models derived from new geophysical data collected at St. Gorman's Well in 2013. This high-resolution AMT survey consisted of a grid of 40 soundings recorded at approximately 200 m intervals centred on the spring. The aim of the survey was to image directly any (electrically conductive) fluid conduit systems that may be associated with the springs and to provide an understanding of the observed association of the Irish warm springs with major structural lineaments, such as the NE-SW Caledonian structural trend which dominates Irish geology. Seasonal hydrochemical sampling of six warm spring locations commenced in July 2013. Data loggers installed at each location measured temperature and electrical conductivity (15-minute sampling intervals) throughout the sampling period (July 2013 - early 2015). The hydrochemical results and the data from the logger at St. Gorman's Well are examined here in conjunction with regional rainfall and available hydrogeological information in order to establish the nature of the relationship between the hydrological cycle and fluctuations in the hydrochemistry of the spring.

  10. Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willie May; Richard Cavanagh; Gregory Turk; Michael Winchester; John Travis; Melody Smith; Paul Derose; Steven Choquette; Gary Kramer; John Sieber; Robert Greenberg; Richard Lindstrom; George Lamaze; Rolf Zeisler; Michele Schantz; Karen Phinney; Michael Welch; Thomas Vetter; Kenneth Pratt; John Scott; John Small; Scott Wight; Stephan Stranick

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of the chemical compositions of materials and the levels of certain substances in them are vital when assessing and improving public health, safety and the environment, are necessary to ensure trade equity, and are required when monitoring and improving industrial products and services. Chemical measurements play a crucial role in most areas of the economy, including healthcare, food and

  11. Chemical geodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zindler; S. R. Hart

    1986-01-01

    Consideration is given to the following three principal boundary conditions relating to the nature and development of chemical structure in the earth's mantle: (1) inferred scale lengths for mantle chemical heterogeneities, (2) interrelationships of the various isotopic tracers, and (3) the bulk composition of the earth. These boundary conditions are integrated with geophysical constraints in order to evaluate models for

  12. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2009-05-01

    We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

  13. Autumn leaf subsidies influence spring dynamics of freshwater plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Fey, Samuel B; Mertens, Andrew N; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    While ecologists primarily focus on the immediate impact of ecological subsidies, understanding the importance of ecological subsidies requires quantifying the long-term temporal dynamics of subsidies on recipient ecosystems. Deciduous leaf litter transferred from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exerts both immediate and lasting effects on stream food webs. Recently, deciduous leaf additions have also been shown to be important subsidies for planktonic food webs in ponds during autumn; however, the inter-seasonal effects of autumn leaf subsidies on planktonic food webs have not been studied. We hypothesized that autumn leaf drop will affect the spring dynamics of freshwater pond food webs by altering the availability of resources, water transparency, and the metabolic state of ponds. We created leaf-added and no-leaf-added field mesocosms in autumn 2012, allowed mesocosms to ice-over for the winter, and began sampling the physical, chemical, and biological properties of mesocosms immediately following ice-off in spring 2013. At ice-off, leaf additions reduced dissolved oxygen, elevated total phosphorus concentrations and dissolved materials, and did not alter temperature or total nitrogen. These initial abiotic effects contributed to higher bacterial densities and lower chlorophyll concentrations, but by the end of spring, the abiotic environment, chlorophyll and bacterial densities converged. By contrast, zooplankton densities diverged between treatments during the spring, with leaf additions stimulating copepods but inhibiting cladocerans. We hypothesized that these differences between zooplankton orders resulted from resource shifts following leaf additions. These results suggest that leaf subsidies can alter both the short- and long-term dynamics of planktonic food webs, and highlight the importance of fully understanding how ecological subsidies are integrated into recipient food webs. PMID:25761444

  14. A Hypersaline Spring Analogue in Central Manitoba for Arabia Terra's Potential Ancient Spring Deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Berard; E. A. Cloutis; J. M. Stromberg; P. Mann; B. Horgan; M. Rice

    2011-01-01

    Both the concentrations of dissolved ions and molecules in the water, and the precipitation of ferric minerals and gypsum, decrease with increasing distance from the main springs, indicating that the springs are their primary source.

  15. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -2

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 Heat Transfer - 2 A thin electronic chip is in the shape of a square wafer, b = 1 cm surface of the chip with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 -K. Assume the chip has a uniform per side with a mass of m = 0.3 grams and specific heat of C = 103 J/kg-K. The chip is mounted

  16. Models of Formation and Activity of Spring Mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani System, Eastern Tunisia: Implications for the Habitability of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, Alberto G.; Chan, Marjorie A.; Yaich, Chokri

    2014-01-01

    Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet (“island”) stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars. The spring mounds further bear diagnostic mineralogic and magnetic properties, in comparison with their immediate surroundings. Consequently, remote sensing techniques can be very useful to identify similar spring mounds on Mars. The mechanisms (tectonic and/or hydraulic) of formation and evolution of spring mounds at the MCSH system are suitable for the proliferation and protection of life respectively. Similarly, life or its resulting biomarkers on Mars may have been protected or preserved under the spring mounds. PMID:25370379

  17. Models of formation and activity of spring mounds in the mechertate-chrita-sidi el hani system, eastern Tunisia: implications for the habitability of Mars.

    PubMed

    Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, Alberto G; Chan, Marjorie A; Yaich, Chokri

    2014-01-01

    Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet ("island") stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars. The spring mounds further bear diagnostic mineralogic and magnetic properties, in comparison with their immediate surroundings. Consequently, remote sensing techniques can be very useful to identify similar spring mounds on Mars. The mechanisms (tectonic and/or hydraulic) of formation and evolution of spring mounds at the MCSH system are suitable for the proliferation and protection of life respectively. Similarly, life or its resulting biomarkers on Mars may have been protected or preserved under the spring mounds. PMID:25370379

  18. Hydrologic data for water-table aquifers in the Colorado Springs-Castle Rock area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's investigations of the hydrology and geology in the Front Range Urban Corridor of Colorado, hydrologic data for water-table aquifers in the Colorado Springs--Castle Rock area were collected and compiled during 1976-77. These data, consisting of records for 157 wells and 47 springs and chemical analyses of water for 135 of the wells and all 47 springs, are presented in tabular form. The tables contain data that were collected during the investigation , data compiled from reports published by the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and unpublished data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. State and local officials in the Colorado Springs--Castle Rock area may find these data useful in planning for residential, commercials, and industrial development. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. The Spring Nucleus: A Microkemel for Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Hamilton; Panos Kougiouris

    1993-01-01

    The Spring system is a distributed operating system that supports a distributed, object-oriented application framework. Each individual Spring system is based around a microkernel known as the nucleus, which is structured to support fast cross-address-space object invocations. This paper discusses the deign rationale for the nucleus' IPC facilities and how they fit into the overall Spring programming model. We then

  20. Increasing the durability of automobile springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Rustem; E. A. Bolkhovitinova; N. S. Artemenko; V. I. Pustovalov

    1972-01-01

    1.Heating of leaf springs in furnaces with a carburizing controlled atmosphere increases the fatigue life.2.For heating leaf springs of silicon steel 60S2 we recommend a mixture of endothermic gas with 6% city gas (dew point minus 6–8°C) for the controlled atmosphere.3.New furnaces with a controlled atmosphere should be constructed for heat treatment of automobile springs.

  1. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  2. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  3. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  4. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe...

  5. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  6. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  7. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  8. 2. SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) CHAPEL, STORE BUILDING, SPRING HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) CHAPEL, STORE BUILDING, SPRING HOUSE, AND BATH HOUSE, SOUTHEAST FACADES (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  9. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe...

  10. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) James R. Dunlap, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, FACADE OF LODGE - Hot Springs Lodge, Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, CO

  11. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  12. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spring-powered jet injector. 872.4475...DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4475 Spring-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe...

  13. Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agronomy Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms; accepted 11 August 1993) Summary — Reductions in the yields of spring wheat (cv Bastion) caused for each of the 3 experimental years. Wheat yield losses were significantly greater on oat-infested plots

  14. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  15. Mixing hydrology and chemical equilibria in Bakreswar geothermal area, Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Nabendu; Mukherjee, Ajoy L.; Majumdar, Ranjit K.

    2009-06-01

    A group of alkaline thermal springs of Bakreswar, having varying temperatures (45-71 °C) and identical compositions emerges through a nearly N-S trending fault in the gneissic basement. The thermal springs are of Na-Cl-SO 4 type and are rich in SiO 2 and F, contrary to the local groundwaters which are mostly of Ca-HCO 3 type. The springs undergo mild to moderate dilution by local groundwater, which does not significantly affect their original compositions. Agnikund, the main spring, with the highest temperature, mild dilution, consistent composition and negligible tritium, discharges almost pure deep-seated thermal water. Original thermal water is at equilibrium with quartz in the deep reservoir and, attains surface temperature largely by conductive cooling with no significant loss of dissolved SiO 2. Certain ionic ratios coupled with very low tritium contents in the springs are indicative of prolonged subsurface circulation of the original water. XRD results of the spring site sediments and the bore hole rocks fairly corroborate the predicted saturation state of thermal water with respect to quartz, feldspar, calcite, fluorite etc., which is believed to control the major chemical compositions of the springs. A geothermal reservoir having probable temperature of about 100 ±5 °C and possibly occurring at a depth of 1 km is the source of thermal water for the springs. The present study is aimed at understanding the mixing trend between thermal springs and local groundwaters as well as the water-rock equilibria.

  16. Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Seguridad con Spring Security 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computacin e IA Spring 1

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Configuración mínima para aplicación web · Añadir las dependencias de Spring Security · Modificar el web spring-security-web 3.1.3.RELEASE Security © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Spring Configuración mínima para aplicación web

  17. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  18. Assessment of sulfurous springs in the west of Iraq for balneotherapy, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture purposes.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Salih Muhammad; Al-Ghani, Sura Abdul

    2014-06-01

    This research deals with the sulfurous spring waters flow along the course of the Euphrates River in western Iraq in the area extended between Haqlaniya and Hit within the Al-Anbar governorate. Eleven springs (3 in Haqlanya, 4 in Kubaysa and 4 in Hit) have been addressed for the purpose of water evaluation for balneology, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture (fish farming). In order to meet the objectives of this research, all springs were sampled and analyzed for the total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, major cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+)), major anions (SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-) and CO(3)(2-)), minor anions (PO(4)(3-)and NO(3)(-)) as well as the trace elements that included Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cu, Br, F, Ba, B, Sr, Al, As, Cr, Hg and Se. The International Standards of World Health Organization are used for assessing the water quality. The results revealed that the springs belong to the tepid springs of 27-30 °C and classified as hypothermal to the thermal springs. Lithochemistry and geochemical processes clearly affected the water chemistry. The hydrogeochemical processes are responsible for the element enrichment in water by the chemical dissolution of carbonate and gypsum and evaporation as well. The results of the study indicate the possibility of using spring water for therapeutic purposes, but not allowed for drinking and aquaculture (fish farming), except those free of H(2)S gas. On the other hand, it can be used for irrigation with risk. However, soil type as well as proper selection of plants should be taken into consideration. PMID:23887869

  19. Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Reece, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    Springs are naturally occurring features that convey excess ground water to the land surface; they represent a transition from ground water to surface water. Water issues through one opening, multiple openings, or numerous seeps in the rock or soil. The database of this report provides information about springs and spring flow in Texas including spring names, identification numbers, location, and, if available, water source and use. This database does not include every spring in Texas, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hard-copy data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), and Capitol Environmental Services.

  20. By Joseph M. Gambogi Titanium (Ti) is a lightweight metal well Springs, FL; E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.

    E-print Network

    of titanium minerals include Powderhorn perovskite deposit near Gunnison, ceramics, chemicals, welding rod1 TITANIUM By Joseph M. Gambogi Titanium (Ti) is a lightweight metal well Springs, FL; E. I. du mineral strength-to-weight ratio. Titanium comprises sands deposits; and P. W. Gillibrand Co., Simi about

  1. Halogen-driven low-altitude O3 and hydrocarbon losses in spring at northern high latitudes

    E-print Network

    Chance, Kelly

    chemical transport model. Surface observations of ozone at Alert and Barrow and aircraft observations of ozone and hydrocarbons during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE halogen-driven ozone loss up to 1 km was reproduced in the model because of vertical transport of ozone

  2. Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Amir, Yair

    ;What's new Spring 2006 CS 649 3 · Information Processing · New class of techniques to process: Project Presentations #12;Why Wireless Sensor Networks ? Spring 2006 CS 649 7 · Micro-sensors, on-board processing, wireless interfaces feasible at very small scale--can monitor phenomena "up close" · Enables

  3. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Bog Hot Springs, Nevada: the geothermal cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    The Bog Hot Springs are located in one of the high desert valleys of northern Nevada below the Pueblo Mountains. The flow of the springs is estimated to be 2,500 gpm. Temperatures range from 125 to 212°F. (JGB)

  5. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2008 Crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2008 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red Sp...

  6. IA Tuesday Workshop Materials, Spring 2010

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Olsen

    2010-01-19

    All Workshop Materials during Spring 2010 for printing and viewing. Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

  7. Computer OrganizationSpring 2011 Administrivia

    E-print Network

    Damon, Craig A.

    /w bits 2 #12;Computer OrganizationSpring 2011 Disk Drive access Platter spins at 7200RPM+/- Actuator.1 ms rotational latency depends on RPM average 1/2 of time to spin around once 7200 RPM = 1/2 x 60/7200 for head to settle rotational latency Wait for disk to spin around 8 #12;Computer OrganizationSpring 2011

  8. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  9. Cold Spring Harbor Asia High Throughput Biology

    E-print Network

    Smith, Adam D.

    Cold Spring Harbor Asia High Throughput Biology Suzhou, China April 19 - 23, 2011 Arranged by to announce the inaugural Cold Spring Harbor Asia conference on High Throughput Biology which will be held at the Suzhou Dushu Lake Conference Center in Suzhou, China. The conference will begin at 7:30pm on the evening

  10. Failure analysis of an automobile valve spring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. V. Sudhakar

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the failure analysis of an automobile valve spring which failed in service. The fractured surfaces as well as the surface of the spring material close to the fractured surface were examined in a scanning electron microscope at suitable magnifications. Optical microscopy was performed to evaluate the basic microstructure of the as-received material. Detailed electron microscopic studies have

  11. Instruction for Zoology TA Application Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Instruction for Zoology TA Application Spring 2013 1. IMPORTANT: This Year Kelly Layton not been a TA in Zoology in the past year: Attach a current resume. Attach copies of all of your college that upper level courses are often appointed to a zoology graduate student. Listed below are the Spring 2013

  12. Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

  13. Spring control of wire harness loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curcio, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    Negator spring control guides wire harness between movable and fixed structure. It prevents electrical wire harness loop from jamming or being severed as wire moves in response to changes in position of aircraft rudder. Spring-loaded coiled cable controls wire loop regardless of rudder movement.

  14. Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling during Spring Onset

    E-print Network

    Black, Robert X.

    1 Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling during Spring Onset Robert X. Black Brent A. McDaniel School;2 ABSTRACT The authors perform an observational study of the relation between stratospheric final warmings influence upon the large-scale circulation of the stratosphere and troposphere during the period of spring

  15. Hydro-chemical specifications of thermal waters from different geographical regions in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, D. Z.; Aydin, S.; Sivri, N.; Bitik, E.; Cakir, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In many countries thermal springs are utilized for a variety of purposes, such as the generation of power, direct space heating, industrial processes, aquaculture and many more. The optimal use of a thermal spring is largely dependent upon its physical and chemical characteristics. The physical and chemical parameters of groundwater play a significant role in classifying and assessing water quality. Major ions constitute the most significant part of the total dissolved solids present in the groundwater and the concentration of these ions in ground water depends mainly on the hydro chemical processes that place in the aquifer system. This article focuses on the thermal and chemical features of 21 thermal springs located in the overall of the Turkey. Field data and water samples were collected for analysis of physical and chemical parameters. Thermal springs and thermal wells have temperatures ranging from 35 to 95°C. The pH values of the thermal waters change between 6.3 and 9.6. A Piper trilinear diagram and Schoeller diagram show that all the thermal waters are characterized by the dominance of anion-cation. Thermal waters display various chemical compositions and high temperature waters have Na-SO4, Na-HCO3, Na-Cl, Ca-SO4, Ca-HCO3 type. The springs are associated with faults and impermeable dykes and are assumed to be of meteoric origin. The mineral composition of the thermal waters reflects the geological formations found at the depth of origin. All thermal water springs are suitable for use in terms balneology since they contain high levels of mineral content and temperature. At the same time, some samples can be consumed by humans as soda water and mineral water. However, it is important to keep such limitations in mind when determining the ultimate use of the thermal springs.

  16. Chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section.

  17. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide oxidizing microbes, preliminary delta 34S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO2 degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

  18. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H{sub 2}S and the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing microbes, preliminary {delta}{sub 34}S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO{sub 2} degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

  19. Polydimethylsiloxane, a photocurable rubberelastic polymer used as spring material in micromechanical sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lötters; W. Olthuis; P. H. Veltink; P. Bergveld

    1997-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commercially available physically and chemically stable photocurable silicone rubber which\\u000a has a unique flexibility (G?250?kPa) at room temperature. Further properties of PDMS are a low elasticity change versus temperature (1.1?kPa\\/°C), no\\u000a elasticity change versus frequency and a high compressibility. PDMS is an interesting polymer to be used as spring material\\u000a in micromechanical sensors such as accelerometers.

  20. The Spring kernel: a new paradigm for real-time operating systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Stankovic; Krithi Ramamritham

    1989-01-01

    Next generation real-time systems will require greater flexibility and predictability than is commonly found in today's systems. These future systems include the space station, integrated vision\\/robotics\\/AI systems, collections of humans\\/robots coordinating to achieve common objectives (usually in hazardous environments such as undersea exploration or chemical plants), and various command and control applications. The Spring kernel is a research oriented kernel

  1. Chemical geothermometers and mixing models for geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Qualitative chemical geothermometers utilize anomalous concentrations of various "indicator" elements in groundwaters, streams, soils, and soil gases to outline favorable places to explore for geothermal energy. Some of the qualitative methods, such as the delineation of mercury and helium anomalies in soil gases, do not require the presence of hot springs or fumaroles. However, these techniques may also outline fossil thermal areas that are now cold. Quantitative chemical geothermometers and mixing models can provide information about present probable minimum subsurface temperatures. Interpretation is easiest where several hot or warm springs are present in a given area. At this time the most widely used quantitative chemical geothermometers are silica, Na/K, and Na-K-Ca. ?? 1976.

  2. Relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemendra R. Acharya

    1989-01-01

    Hot springs usually are situated in the volcanic belt of a convergent zone and are utilized as indicators of geothermal potential in an area. Characteristics of hot springs in Japan have been examined in order to understand the relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields. The characteristics examined include locations of hot springs, their temperature, density of distribution, flow rate,

  3. When add, when to mutiply Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    When add, when to mutiply Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 31, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Add). Then the total number of possible outcomes for the experiment is m1m2m3 . . . mt Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Add. Then the total number of possible outcomes for the experiment is m1 + m2 + . . . + mt Math 10120 (Spring 2013

  4. Fabrication process of polymeric springs for MEMS applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Bachmann; Sttphane Kuhne; Christofer Hierold

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wafer-level fabrication technique and the characterization method for polymeric springs combined with silicon proof mass for MEMS force sensors or micromirrors. The large difference of material stiffness between spring material and proof mass material combined with the much smaller thickness of the springs gives the possibility to concentrate the entire mechanical deformation into the springs.

  5. On the problem of determination of spring stiffness parameters for

    E-print Network

    Tokyo, University of

    into the conventional spring mesh model. Keywords. Mass-spring system, Finite element method, Stiffness matrix stiffness parameters by way of minimization of the matrix norm of the stiffness matrix of a triangle meshOn the problem of determination of spring stiffness parameters for spring-mesh models Huynh QUANG

  6. Activity of bacteria in water of hot springs from Southern and Central Kamchatskaya geothermal provinces, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

    PubMed

    Belkova, Natalia L; Tazaki, Kazue; Zakharova, Juliya R; Parfenova, Valentina V

    2007-01-01

    The hot-spring waters of numerous hot springs at the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia differ in their chemical characteristics and elemental composition. Total bacterial abundance (TBA) as well as enzymatically active and respiring bacteria was enumerated in water samples collected from the Nalychevskie, Oksinskie, Apapelskie, and Dachnye hot springs. 5-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate activity was detected in all water samples and comprised 29-65% of the TBA as determined by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. The respiratory activity of iron-oxidizing bacteria was assayed by 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride reduction. Respiring cells accounted for 9-14% of the TBA, indicating a positive correlation with the number of iron-oxidizing bacteria from the hot-spring biomats. Enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria revealed a high-density bacterial population only in the water of the Apapelskie hot spring, which has a temperature of 36 degrees C. Therefore, it appears that heterotrophic and iron-oxidizing bacteria inhabiting the hot-spring waters are essential for the geochemical processes occurring in hydrothermal systems. PMID:16546359

  7. Chemical Mahjong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2011-01-01

    An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

  8. Chemical Change

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this chemistry activity, learners explore the amount of copper in a new penny. Learners use toilet bowl cleaner to hollow out the interior of a penny with zinc inside. This experiment will demonstrate how chemical changes can separate matter. Learners can also discuss how zinc is cheaper than copper, in a lesson about economics.

  9. Chemical Evolution

    E-print Network

    Francesca Matteucci

    2007-04-05

    In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

  10. Chemical Ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen H. Gross; Mass Spectrometry

    \\u000a Mass spectrometrists have ever been searching for ionization methods softer than EI, because molecular weight determination\\u000a is key for structure elucidation. Chemical ionization (CI) is the first of the so-called soft ionization methods we are going to discuss (cf. Fig. 1.2).

  11. Chemical Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prombain, Dorothy R.; And Others

    This science sourcebook was written for intermediate grade teachers to provide guidance in teaching a specially developed unit on chemical indicators. Directions and suggestions for guiding student science activities are given. Some of the activities concern soil testing, crystals, and household powders such as sugar and salt. A list of necessary…

  12. Carbon isotopic ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon in the spring water around Asama volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tase, Norio

    In order to determine the source and formation process of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in spring water and to evaluate quantitatively the contribution of volcanic gas to water chemistry of springs distributed on and around Asama volcano, the carbon isotopic ratio of DIC (?13CDIC) with major dissolved solids has been measured. The measurements of carbon isotopic ratios of volcanic and soil CO2, which are the source materials of DIC, were also carried out in Jigokudani fumarole and in the forest soil of several points of volcano flank, respectively. The spring waters in Asama volcano have been classified into nine groups (A?I) based on the physicochemical characteristics, such as water temperature, electrical conductivity and chemical compositions. As ?13CDIC increase with increasing DIC content, the origin of DIC in spring water from Asama volcano was can be assessed by mixing process between isotopically light soil CO2 (organic origin) and 13C-enriched volcanic CO2 (deep origin with mantle component), except for the springs of group B. On the basis of two components mixing, the contribution rate of volcanic CO2 to DIC in spring water was computed by using the carbon isotopic ratio of CO2 equilibrated with DIC (?13CCO2) as an indicator. Consequently, the contribution rates of volcanic CO2 were ranged from 40 to 60% in the groups C, F and H located on the flank of the mountain. In particular, the strong contribution of more than 90% was confirmed in the group I located on the higher part of the mountain, that is near the crater. These groups were correspondent with those in which influence of volcanic gases was assumed from the geochemical characteristics of spring water. By contrast, influence of volcanic CO2 was almost not found in other groups A, D, E and G. The spring waters of group B which are not plotted on the two components mixing line and located at the terminal of Onioshidashi lava flow have highest ?13CDIC in spite of low DIC content. These 13C-enriched spring waters are probably derived from dissolved CO2 degassing of thegroundwater affected by volcanic CO2 during the discharge process. Since the groundwater moves in the clinker, which is fractured zone developed in lower and upper part of the lava flow and is extremely porous, as not laminar flow but turbulent flow, the CO2 degassing would be effectively caused.

  13. The springs of Lake Pátzcuaro: chemistry, salt-balance, and implications for the water balance of the lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    2004-01-01

    Lake Pa??tzcuaro, the center of the ancient Tarascan civilization located in the Mexican altiplano west of the city of Morelia, has neither river input nor outflow. The relatively constant lake-salinity over the past centuries indicates the lake is in chemical steady state. Springs of the south shore constitute the primary visible input to the lake, so influx and discharge must be via sub-lacustrine ground water. The authors report on the chemistry and stable isotope composition of the springs, deeming them representative of ground-water input. The springs are dominated by Ca, Mg and Na, whereas the lake is dominated by Na. Combining these results with previously published precipitation/rainfall measurements on the lake, the authors calculate the chemical evolution from spring water to lake water, and also calculate a salt balance of the ground-water-lake system. Comparing Cl and ??18O compositions in the springs and lake water indicates that 75-80% of the spring water is lost evaporatively during evolution toward lake composition. During evaporation Ca and Mg are lost from the water by carbonate precipitation. Each liter of spring water discharging into the lake precipitates about 18.7 mg of CaCO3. Salt balance calculations indicate that ground water input to the lake is 85.9??106 m3/a and ground water discharge from the lake is 23.0??106 m3/a. Thus, the discharge is about 27% of the input, with the rest balanced by evaporation. A calculation of time to reach steady-state ab initio indicates that the Cl concentration of the present day lake would be reached in about 150 a. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic and transcriptomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in situ in these ecosystems. [1] Havig et al., 2010. Merging isotopes and community genomics in a siliceous sinter-depositing hot spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences (in press). [2] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3] Hall et al., 2008. Molecular characterization of the diversity and distribution of a thermal spring microbial community using rRNA and metabolic genes. AEM 74:4910-4922. [4] Steunou et al., 2006. In situ analysis of nitrogen fixation and metabolic switching in unicellular thermophilic Cyanobacteria inhabiting hot spring microbial mats. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [5] Boyd et al., 2009. CO2 uptake and fixation by a thermoacidophilic microbial community attached to precipitated sulfur in a geothermal spring. AEM 75:4289-4296.

  15. Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.

    2012-03-01

    SummaryWeathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry. Besides, when springs emerge from crystalline massifs, rock structure must be accounted in formulas describing the area of minerals exposed to the percolating fluids, for a realistic evaluation of the rates. These particular features are not included in the available approaches and for that reason a new model was developed, coined THROW model. This is a lumped approach that integrates (T)opography, (H)ydrology, (RO)ck structure and (W)eathering in a single algorithm. The study area comprises several stream watersheds and spring sites of the Vouga River basin (northern Portugal), shaped on granites. Firstly, the THROW model couples a terrain modeling analysis with hydrologic models based on discharge rates, to determine hydraulic conductivities (K), effective porosities (ne) and annual recharges (Vr) at the stream watershed scale. Subsequently, these parameters are used in a water balance model to estimate concomitant groundwater travel times (t). The mean K [(4.7 ± 3.2) × 10-7 m s-1] and ne [(2.0 ± 1.3) × 10-2] values are adopted as proxies for the spring watersheds and a firm regression equation is defined between time and stream watershed area (A). Secondly, two more runs of terrain modeling analysis are executed to extrapolate morphologic parameters for the spring watersheds. The first run hinges on scaling properties of the drainage networks, known as Horton laws, and is used to scale watershed areas across stream orders (i). The scaling function is described by another regression equation. The second run evaluates the order of a spring watershed, defined as equivalent order (ieq) and equated to the mean order of the surrounding stream watersheds. Having calculated the ieq, spring watershed areas and travel times were downscaled using the regression equations (A < 10 km2 and t = 1.4-2.8 year). Standing on the physical and hydrologic parameters of the spring watersheds, the THROW model finally calculates plagioclase weathering rates in the vicinity of the spring sites. The SiB model (Pacheco and Van der Weijden, 1996) was used before to estimate the contribution of plagioclase dissolution to the chemical composition of these springs (Van der Weijden and Pacheco, 2006). The chemical data were now coupled with K, ne and t in a rate equation to estimate chemical weathering rates of plagioclase in the basin. In the THROW model, the rate equation describes the exposed surface area as a function of fracture spacings, openings and porosities (Pacheco and Alencoão, 2006). The calculated rates (WPl = (2.5 ± 1.2) × 10-14 mol m-2 s-1) are consistent with previous reports and with results of experimental kinetic models. The SiB results predict formation of halloysite and gibbsite along the flow path, which were indeed close to equilibrium with the dissolved Al and Si activities.

  16. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, Edmund E. (Columbia, SC); Lawson, Charles N. (Columbia, SC)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

  17. UNLV SPRING FLICKS 2009 The Department of Film and the UNLV Short Film Archive are pleased to present Spring Flicks

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    1 UNLV SPRING FLICKS 2009 The Department of Film and the UNLV Short Film Archive are pleased to present Spring Flicks 2009. Spring Flicks is open to UNLV student filmmakers, UNLV ALUMNUS and other filmmakers. The Spring Flicks screenings will be held on Friday, APRIL 24 and Saturday, APRIL 25. All entry

  18. UNLV SPRING FLICKS 2010 The Department of Film and the UNLV Short Film Archive are pleased to present Spring Flicks

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    1 UNLV SPRING FLICKS 2010 The Department of Film and the UNLV Short Film Archive are pleased to present Spring Flicks 2010. Spring Flicks is open to UNLV student filmmakers, UNLV ALUMNUS and other filmmakers. The Spring Flicks screenings will be held on Friday, APRIL 23 and Saturday, APRIL 24. All entry

  19. UNLV SPRING FLICKS 2008 The Department of Film and the UNLV Short Film Archive are pleased to present Spring Flicks

    E-print Network

    Hemmers, Oliver

    1 UNLV SPRING FLICKS 2008 The Department of Film and the UNLV Short Film Archive are pleased to present Spring Flicks 2008. Spring Flicks is open to UNLV student filmmakers and other filmmakers throughout the world. The Spring Flicks screenings will be held on Friday, May 2nd and Saturday, May 3rd. All

  20. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    PubMed

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  1. Spring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    The equation of motion of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator is x(t) = Acos(wt+f) where A is the amplitude, omega is the angular frequency, and phi is the phase. Verify the correctness of these equations for the maximum speed and maximum acceleration by measuring the angular frequency of the oscillator and the amplitude of the oscillator, calculating the maximum speed and acceleration, and comparing these values to those found on the graphs.

  2. 1. Williams Shop 15 Spring St., 413-458-3605

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    1. Williams Shop 15 Spring St., 413-458-3605 2. Spice Root Modern Indian Cuisine 23 Spring St., 413 St., 413-458-3200 19. The Shops at the Library 70 Spring St., 413-458-3436 20. Saigon VietnameseCA By Design 50 Spring St., 413-652-2143 23. Images Cinema 50 Spring St., 413-458-5612 24. The Clip Shop 42

  3. 22 uncg magazine Spring 2007 Spring 2007 uncg magazine 23 B y J i l l y e s k o ,

    E-print Network

    Saidak, Filip

    22 uncg magazine ° Spring 2007 Spring 2007 ° uncg magazine 23 B y J i l l y e s k o , s t a f f w r College, UNCG's grand experiment, is still thriving after 37 years Spring 2007 ° uncg magazine 2322 uncg magazine ° Spring 2007 #12;24 uncg magazine ° Spring 2007 Spring 2007 ° uncg magazine 25 1970

  4. Application of spring tabs to elevator controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H

    1944-01-01

    Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

  5. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal River new channel and old channel sites provide data that potentially could yield more accurate real-time estimates of total Comal Springs flow than streamflow measured at the downstream Comal River site. For San Marcos Springs, the findings indicate shortcomings with ADVM installations at diversion spring and in the west and east outflow channels. However, the accuracy of streamflow measured at the San Marcos River gage as an estimate of real-time San Marcos Springs flow could potentially be increased through use of ADVM data from that site.

  6. Hydrogeochemical signatures of thermal springs compared to deep formation water of North Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Thermal springs and hot deep formation waters can be used for geothermal energy production. Depending on the chemical composition of the used waters, geothermal power plants have to deal with scaling and corrosion effects. Therefore, the understanding of the hydrogeochemical behaviour of such waters can be helpful to enhance the efficiency of the energy production. This study is comparing hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal springs in the Harz Mountains (North Germany) and deep formation water of the North German Basin. The Harz Mountains consist of uplifted Palaeozoic rocks, whereas the North German Basin consists of sedimentary layers of Permian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. Volcanic rocks are included in the Permian layers. The thickness of the sedimentary basin varies between 2 km and more than 8 km. The deep aquifers of the North German Basin are mostly not involved in the recent meteoric water cycle. Their waters have contents of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) up to about 400 g/L. Thermal springs of the Harz Mountains are situated close to the main fracture system of the region. These springs are connected to the meteoric water cycle and display lower contents of TDS (< 25 g/L). In both geological systems the TDS content is increasing with depth and temperature. The elemental ratios of the waters (e.g., Na/Cl, Cl/Br, Na/Ca) indicate similar hydrogeochemical formation processes in the Harz Mountains and the North German Basin. The concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride differ due to salt dissolution and feldspar transformation (albitisation) in the thermal springs as well as in the deep formation waters. Based on today's knowledge hydrochemical and stratigraphical data from the North German Basin can be used to elucidate the geological origin of the thermal springs in the Harz Mountains. Acknowledgements. The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the State of Lower Saxony and the company Baker Hughes.

  7. Analysis of vulnerability factors that control nitrate occurrence in natural springs (Osona Region, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Menció, Anna; Boy, Mercè; Mas-Pla, Josep

    2011-07-15

    Nitrate pollution is one of the main concerns of groundwater management in most of the world's agricultural areas. In the Osona region of NE Spain, high concentrations of nitrates have been reported in wells. This study uses the occurrence of this pollutant in natural springs as an indicator of the sub-surface dynamics of the water cycle and shows how groundwater quality is affected by crop fertilization, as an approach to determine the aquifer vulnerability. Nitrate concentration and other hydrochemical parameters based on a biannual database are reported for approximately 80 springs for the period 2004-2009. The background concentration of nitrate is first determined to distinguish polluted areas from natural nitrate occurrence. A statistical treatment using logistic regression and ANOVA is then performed to identify the significance of the effect of vulnerability factors such as the geological setting of the springs, land use in recharge areas, sampling periods, and chemical parameters like pH and EC, on groundwater nitrate pollution. The results of the analysis identify a threshold value of 7-8 mg NO(3)(-)/L for nitrate pollution in this area. Logistic regression and ANOVA results show that an increase in EC or a decrease in pH values is linked to the possibility of higher nitrate concentrations in springs. These analyses also show that nitrate pollution is more dependent on land use than the geological setting of springs or sampling periods. Indeed, the specific geological and soil features of the uppermost layers in their recharge areas do not contribute to the buffering of nitrate impacts on aquifers as measured in natural springs. Land use, and particularly fertilization practices, are major factors in groundwater vulnerability. PMID:21600631

  8. Supplementary Online Information 1. Photographs of Octopus and Mushroom Spring. See Supplementary Figure 1.

    E-print Network

    Supplementary Online Information 1. Photographs of Octopus and Mushroom Spring. See Supplementary the effluent channel of Mushroom Spring and Octopus Spring, as shown in Supplementary Figure 3. Pyrosequencing

  9. Chemical Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hicken

    2009-05-04

    We are going go over a general view of reactions to prepare us for our unit on Chemical Reactions! Have fun learning! WARNING: If you are caught looking at ANY other site, without permission, you will be sent to the ALC, and you will not participate in any other computer activities for the rest of the year. Get your worksheet and begin! Overview Take this quiz and have me come over and sign off on your worksheet when you have completed the quiz! Overview Quiz Next let's take a look at what effect the rate of a chemical reaction. Rates of Reactions Another quiz, another check off by me! Rates of Reactions Quiz Now how do we measure how fast a ...

  10. Chemical warfare

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D.O.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants’ fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves. PMID:23795235

  11. Spring Valley -- Operation Safe Removal: U.S. Army and U.S. EPA activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, K.L.; Crotteau, C.; Hirsch, S.; Read, R.; Koob, K.

    1994-12-31

    On January 5, 1993, a construction worker using a backhoe to dig a sewer line in the Spring Valley area of Washington, D.C. unearthed a World War I chemical munitions disposal pit. Historical research determined that the site was part of the American University Experiment Station, a Chemical Warfare Service research laboratory and proving ground operational from approximately 1917--1919. On January 7, 1993, the US Army Chemical and Biological Defense Agency, with assistance from the US Environmental Protection Agency and emergency personnel from the District of Columbia, conducted removal and cleanup operations at the site. The operation was designated Operation Safe Removal. A total of 144 munitions and high explosive components were recovered from the site, as well as several tons of scrap metal. Both on-site and off-site analyses determined that some of the munitions contained, or at one time had contained, chemical or toxic smoke agents.

  12. Pin joints, gears, springs, cranks, and other novel micromechanical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Long-Sheng; Tai, Yu-Chong; Muller, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    We report here the first fabrication of micrometer-scaled pin joints, gears, springs, cranks, and sliders made with silicon planar technology. These micromechanical structures are batch-fabricated in an IC-compatible process using polysilicon deposited by chemical vapor deposition from silane and the sacrificial-layer technique first described by Howe and Muller. An important feature of this new technology makes use of the high surface mobility of polysilicon during CVD growth to refill undercut regions in order to form restraining flanges. The movable mechanical elements are built on layers that are later removed to free them so that translation and rotation can take place. Although this initial demonstration of the technique for making these structures has employed polysilicon as the structural material and phosphosilicate glass (PSG) for the sacrificial layer, other materials compatible with the IC process can be substituted as appropriate.

  13. Spring Semester 2013 Report ALUMNI GATHERINGS

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Spring Semester 2013 Report ALUMNI GATHERINGS February 25th San Conference June 14th The Watson School 30th Anniversary Launch June 20th San Pi Day Celebration 80 20 Celebration for those graduating from

  14. Computer Architecture Screening Exam Spring 1988

    E-print Network

    Liblit, Ben

    Computer Architecture Screening Exam Spring 1988 Directions For the Breadth exam, answer questions (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). For the Depth exam, answer all 8 questions. (1) A "stack" is an excellent

  15. MBA 51702H: Marketing Management Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    MBA 51702H: Marketing Management Spring 2014 INSTRUCTOR: Dr. April Atwood office: Marketing Management, by Kotler, Philip and Keller, Kevin, Pearson PrenticeHall. **any recent edition COURSE OVERVIEW: Marketing is perhaps one of the most misunderstood and underappreciated aspects

  16. Spring 2006 Center for Photochemical Sciences

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    Volume 19 Issue 1 Spring 2006 © Center for Photochemical Sciences Coloring Outside of the Lines and informative resource in a format that fits perfectly with my other journal reading. On the subway ride from

  17. Intelligence Seminar Spring 2014 Instructor: Nash Unsworth

    E-print Network

    Lockery, Shawn

    PSYC 607 1 Intelligence Seminar Spring 2014 Instructor: Nash Unsworth Time: Monday 12 will examine variation in intelligence. Topics will include intelligence tests, psychometric, cognitive, and neural theories of intelligence, developmental changes in intelligence, group differences in intelligence

  18. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  19. Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    SWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry@ufl.edu 352 equations and reduction practices, government conservation programs; water conservation, irrigation students with an understanding of the interconnectedness of soil and water conservation. The course

  20. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya, E-mail: mpezgy@nus.edu.sg; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Deng, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology, and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2014-08-11

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing.

  1. SP.778 Toy Product Design, Spring 2007

    E-print Network

    Kudrowitz, Barry M. (Barry Matthew)

    Toy Product Design is a MIT Public Service Center learning design course offered in the Spring semester. This course is an introduction to the product design process with a focus on designing for play and entertainment. ...

  2. Department of Psychiatry Newsletter, Calgary Spring 2014

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    Department of Psychiatry Newsletter, Calgary Spring 2014 From the Department Head recently secured a GFT position in geriatric psychiatry and healthy brain aging. He will collaborate exams in geriatric, child and adolescent, and forensic psychiatry. Congratulations to Dr. Rob Tanguay

  3. SpringSummer 2007 1 Hello Again!

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Spring­Summer 2007 1 Hello Again! 1 Director's Message 2 In Other News: Special Announcement applications. The continued on page 2 Hello Again! We hope you have had an opportunity to read our first two e

  4. Spring 2012 Engineering Career Fair EMPLOYER PARTICIPANTS

    E-print Network

    Casavant, Tom

    #12;Spring 2012 Engineering Career Fair EMPLOYER PARTICIPANTS Acciona Windpower Aerotek Air Force Innomatix Innovative Software Engineering Integrated DNA Technologies Intermec Technologies Iowa Department of Transportation John Deere Johnson Controls Kinze Manufacturing Lumenance Marshalltown Company McClure Engineering

  5. CNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2002

    E-print Network

    CNR GRADUATION SURVEY RESULTS Spring, 2002 Received 100 completed surveys at graduation in May Lands § Peschutes Basin Land Trust § Raytheon § Solar Energy International § Steamboat Lake: $20,000) § Chicago Botanic Garden § City of Fort Collins § US Geological Survey § USDA Forest

  6. HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY ANTH 695 SPRING 2014

    E-print Network

    Auerbach, Benjamin M.

    1 HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY ANTH 695 ­ SPRING 2014 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE description: Human Gross Anatomy provides advanced graduate students with in in Anatomy Lecture Series Fridays: 12:20 PM ­ 1:10 PM * All

  7. CE 104 Civil Engineering Projects Spring 2008

    E-print Network

    Rehmann, Chris

    CE 104 Civil Engineering Projects Spring 2008 Speaker report Due two weeks after the presentation of the presentations are fair game for the final exam. Requirements Your report will consist of two parts: (1) a final

  8. The impact of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Shoji, J.; Mishima, T.; Honda, H.; Fujii, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beppu is a region with many hot springs in Japan. Some of environmental studies of the rivers in this region (e.g. Kawano et al., 1998, Ohsawa et al., 2008) show that hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flow into the coastal are, and it strongly affects the river water quality. On the other hands, several kinds of tropical fish lives in those rivers (Hiramatu et al., 1995). We can easily have watched those fish there. Although the relationship between hot spring drainage and the fish community had not been investigated in the past in this area, it is easily assumed that thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage strongly affect the ecosystem. However, the impact of the hot spring drainage on the ecosystem in river and coastal area is not clear. We investigated the river water quality and physical property of six rivers in this region. Additionally, we investigated the fish community near the estuary at two rivers which are strongly affected by the hot spring drainage and not the influence of the hot spring at all. We tried an evaluation about the influence of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.The results of chemical and physical data in these rivers are as follows. The size of influence of hot spring drainage on river is different every river. In this region, Hirata River is most strongly affected by the hot spring drainage. The water temperature of Hirata River maintains 25 degrees Celsius or more through the year and the concentrations of dissolved component is very high. On the other hand, the water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved component of Hiya Rive is low. These data are similar to data of the upper side of Hirata River. The results of investigating the fish community indicate that Oreochromis niloticus and Rhinogobius giurinus is the dominant species at Hirata River and Hiya River respectively. In addition, there is more the number of species of Hiya River than that of Hirata River. In this presentation, we will report and discuss the impact of the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.

  9. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with massive silica deposits are plausible indicators on Mars of precipitation environments and aqueous chemistry. Theoretical model calculations are in reasonable agreement with independent experimental silica concentrations, which strengthens the validity of the new CHEMCHAU model. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Present status of the SPring-8 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hideo

    1995-05-01

    The SPring-8 project is going to contract a ultrahigh-brilliance X-ray synchrotron radiation facility and commissioning of the storage ring is expected in Spring 1997. The facility will be available to scientists and engineers of universities, national laboratories and industries not only from Japan but also from abroad. 20 proposals for public beamlines are submitted to the Beamline Committee and the construction of two pilot beamlines is started.

  11. Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.

    PubMed

    Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

    2004-01-01

    Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring. PMID:15685980

  12. Noble gas geochemistry in thermal springs

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA)); Smith, S.P. (Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    The composition of noble gases in both gas and water samples collected from Horseshoe Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was found to be depth dependent. The deeper the sample collection within the spring, the greater the enrichment in Kr, Xe, radiogenic {sup 4}He, and {sup 40}Ar and the greater the depletion in Ne relative to {sup 36}Ar. The compositional variations are consistent with multi-component mixing. The dominant component consists of dissolved atmospheric gases acquired by the pool at the surface in contact with air. This component is mixed in varying degree with two other components, one each for gas and water entering the bottom of the pool. The two bottom components are not in equilibrium. In Horseshoe Spring, the bubbles entering at the bottom strip the atmospheric-derived pool gases from the surrounding water while en route to the surface. If the original bottom bubbles are noble gas, as in the case of Horseshoe, the acquired pool gases can then quickly obliterate the original bubble composition. These results are used to demonstrate that Yellowstone spring surface gas samples, and perhaps similarity sampled thermal springs from other hydrothermal systems, have gas abundances that depend more on spring morphology than processes occurring deeper in the hydrothermal system.

  13. The Science Teacher: Spring 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Steve

    2008-06-01

    This article reviews chemistry-related articles published between Summer 2007 and February 2008, in The Science Teacher ( TST ). A new TST column addresses safety-with emphases in reviewed articles on chemical hygiene plans, bloodborne pathogens, ionizing radiation, eyewash and shower stations, electrical safety, and chemical management. In addition, activities for teaching about ionic compounds, an inquiry-based lab and card sorting project on freezing point depressions, and a simulation of Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment are described. Also included is a career focus on a green product chemist. Supplementary JCE articles for these articles and topics are referenced.

  14. Hydrochemical characteristics of hot spring waters in the Kangding district related to the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.; Zhou, X.; Du, J.; Xie, C.; Liu, L.; Li, Y.; Yi, L.; Liu, H.; Cui, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of 10 hot springs in the Kangding district was investigated by analyzing cation and anion concentrations in the spring water. The water samples were collected in the 5 days after the Lushan MS = 7.0 earthquake, which occurred on 20 April 2013. The spring waters are classified into seven chemical types based on their hydrochemical compositions. Compared with hydrochemical data before the Lushan earthquake, concentrations of Ca2+, HCO3- and total dissolved solid (TDS) in water samples from the Guanding, Erdaoqiao, Gonghe, Erhaoying, Tianwanhe and Caoke springs significantly increased, which may be the result of a greater increase in groundwater from carbonate rocks, and water-carbonate rock interactions, enhanced by the increment of CO2. Concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in water samples from the Guanding, Zheduotang, Xinxing and Gonghe springs decreased, indicating a dilution of shallow waters. Concentrations of Na+ and SO42- in water samples from the Erhaoying spring water increased, which may be attributed to water-granite interactions enhanced by H2S. The results indicated that hydrochemical components of spring water could be used as an effective indicator for earthquakes.

  15. Using GIS and logistic regression to estimate agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers of the midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, other pesticides and fertilizers) in surface water may constitute a human health risk. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1-4 months following application in spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during the fall, winter and spring. Natural and anthropogenic variables of river drainage basins, such as soil permeability, the amount of agricultural chemicals applied or percentage of land planted in corn, affect agricultural chemical concentrations in rivers. Logistic regression (LGR) models are used to investigate relations between various drainage basin variables and the concentration of selected agricultural chemicals in rivers. The method is successful in contributing to the understanding of agricultural chemical concentration in rivers. Overall accuracies of the best LGR models, defined as the number of correct classifications divided by the number of attempted classifications, averaged about 66%.

  16. Gas composition and hydrochemistry of non-volcanic thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuh Terng, Lim; Tsanyao F, Yang; Hsuan-Wen, Chen; Yusoff, Ismail Bin

    2015-04-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is located on Sunda Plate which situated between two major boundaries of tectonic plates, Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate. Over sixty thermal springs have been reported in Peninsular Malaysia, a non-volcanic country, but their water and gas geochemistry characteristic have not been reported yet. The aim of this study is to identify the geochemical characteristics of water and gas samples from selected sixteen thermal springs. This is the first time to study the thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia in terms of dissolved gas. Due to the chemical inertness, the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved gas can always become a good indicators of mantle degassing, geothermal circulation and the condition of water-rock interaction. Other parameters such as pH, temperature, electric conductivity, and water radon values will be also recorded. The surface temperature of studied thermal springs range from 40.1° C to 88.7° C, the pH values range from 6.6 to 9.1, and the conductivity varies between 200 ?s/cm and 3700 ?s/cm. Meanwhile, the water radon analysis which been carried out in the field by using RAD7 Radon Detector. The water radon values of selected thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia vary from 111,866 Bq/cm3 to 200 Bq/cm3, indicating various radon sources which mainly controlled by the permeability and lithology of host rocks in studied areas. Analysed results show that the constituent of dissolved gas in thermal springs is major in nitrogen and minor in other compositions such as argon, carbon dioxides and oxygen. Isotopic composition of hydrogen (D/H) and oxygen (18O/16O) mostly fall along the MWL, indicating the meteoric water is the major fluid source for those hot springs. However, the helium isotopic ratios of most samples show consistently low value, less than 0.1 Ra (Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of the air). It implies that crust component is the major helium gas source for those hot springs.

  17. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  18. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests.

  19. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Longyear

    1980-01-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork

  20. 11:776:210 Principles of Botany (4 credits) (Spring 2012) Offered: Spring semester.

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    11:776:210 Principles of Botany (4 credits) (Spring 2012) Offered: Spring semester. Instructor January 18: Class Introductions - Syllabus, class presentation topics, What is Botany? What is a plant? Plant role in human life, scientific communication in Botany. January23: The plant cell: Structure (Cell