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1

WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

2

Aquifer Characteristics Data Report for the Weldon Spring Site chemical plant/raffinate pits and vicinity properties for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the procedures and methods used, and presents the results of physical testing performed, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the shallow Mississippian-Devonian aquifer beneath the Weldon Spring chemical plant, raffinate pits, and vicinity properties. The aquifer of concern is composed of saturated rocks of the Burlington-Keokuk Limestone which constitutes the upper portion of the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. This aquifer is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium which can be described in terms of diffuse Darcian flow overlain by high porosity discrete flow zones and conduits. Average hydraulic conductivity for all wells tested is 9.6E-02 meters/day (3.1E-01 feet/day). High hydraulic conductivity values are representative of discrete flow in the fractured and weathered zones in the upper Burlington-Keokuk Limestone. They indicate heterogeneities within the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneity in the horizontal plane is believed to be randomly distributed and is a function of fracture spacing, solution voids, and preglacial weathering phenomena. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities in deeper portions of the aquifer are though to be due to the presence of widely spaced fractures. 44 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01

3

Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

Not Available

1993-06-01

4

Transport of chemicals in the groundwater systems at two sites near Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

During operations at a uranium and thorium processing facility near Weldon Spring, Missouri, radioactive sludge residues (raffinates) were stored in four onsite pits. A nearby quarry was used to store other contaminated material and rubble. Two alternatives are compared to evaluate the effectiveness of waste stabilization and isolation at the raffinate pits area: (1) no action, and (2) improved containment. A 1000 year period of maintenance and monitoring is analyzed. Groundwater impacts are assessed for both the assumed 1000 year maintenance and monitoring period and the long-term period beyond 1000 years during which federal control might be lost. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs. (ACR)

Benioff, P.A.; Yang, J.Y.

1986-01-01

5

Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

Schumacher, J.G.

1993-12-31

6

Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

1992-11-01

7

Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

1992-11-01

8

Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized.

Chang, Y.S.

1994-01-01

9

Successful decommissioning and demolition at Weldon Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

B&W Nuclear Environmental Services, Inc. (B&W NESI) and OHM Corporation (OHM) formed a joint venture company, B&W\\/OHM Weldon Spring, Inc. (B&W\\/OHM WSI) to perform work at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). This joint venture company combines the hazardous and toxic waste remediation experience of OHM with the radiological decontamination and decommissioning experience

1994-01-01

10

Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from raffinate pits were determined at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site. Surface-water samples from the raffinate pits con- tained large concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, nitrite, lithium, moly- bdenum, strontium, vanadium, and uranium. Analyses of interstitial-water samples from raffinate pit 3 indicated that concentrations of most constituents increased with increasing depth below the water- sediment interface. Nitrate and uranium were not chemically reduced and attenuated within the raffinate pits and can be expected to migrate into the overburden. Laboratory sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH value on the sorption of several raffinate constituents by the overburden. No sorption of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, or lithium was observed. Sorption of molybdenum was dependent on solution pH and sorption of uranium was dependent on solution pH and carbonate concentration. The sorption of uranium and molybdenum was consistent with sorption controlled by oxyhydroxides. The quality of water collected in overburden lysimeters near raffinate pit 4 can be modeled as a mixture of water from raffinate pits 3 and 4, and an uncontaminated com- ponent in a system at equilibrium with ferrihydrite and calcite. Increased constituent concentrations in a perennial spring north of the site were the result of a subsurface connection between the spring and several losing stream segments receiving runoff from the site, in addition to seepage from the raffinate pits.

Schumacher, John G.

1993-01-01

11

Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

NONE

1996-06-01

12

Weldon Spring historical dose estimate  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

1986-07-01

13

Radiologic characterization of the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Remedial Action Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy established the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program in February 1985 to effect remedial action at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant site and the Femme Osage Slough Vicinty Property. This radiologic characterization of the Weldon Spring Site was performed at the request of the DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Weldon Spring, because additional data were needed to complete the Environmental Impact Statement in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act and because no broad data collection effort of radiologic contamination in the Chemical Plant area had been performed. The field work was conducted by UNC Geotech, operating contractor for the DOE/Grand Junction Projects Office, during the period April through July 1987. This report includes descriptions of the in-situ measurement methods, data reduction, sampling techniques, and sample analytical methods; and data summaries. The report is not meant to serve as an analysis of the information derived from the conduct of this characterization effort, but rather as a presentation of the scope of the field activity, the measurement methods, and a compendium of the sample results. 9 figs., 18 tabs.

Marutzky, S.J.; Colby, R.; Cahn, L.S.

1988-02-01

14

Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

NONE

1995-05-01

15

Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e.g., radium and thorium) were measured at back-ground levels and were eliminated from further consideration. Chemical contaminants identified in wells at the chemical plant area and ordnance works area include nitroaromatic compounds, metals, and inorganic anions. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2 -DCE) have been detected recently in a few wells near the raffinate pits at the chemical plant.

NONE

1999-07-14

16

Buildings radiological characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological characterization data on the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) buildings gathered as part of five previous investigations, and provides a consistent will be used to support future feasibility studies which will determine the best available technologies for ultimate disposition of the buildings and associated equipment. At present no structure or piece of equipment can be released from the WSCP for unrestricted use without further radiation measurements being performed. A final group of equipment and building components contains surface radioactivity levels in excess of DOE guidelines; this group, usually found in buildings housing uranium and/or thorium processing equipment, will require decontamination and comprehensive scanning in order to be considered for unrestricted use release. 9 refs., 44 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-01

17

Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

1992-09-01

18

Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the nature and extent of contamination is presented in Section 1.2, and the results of the BRA are summarized in Section 1.3. The objective of this FS is discussed in Section 1.4, and preliminary remediation goals are identified in Section 1.5. The organization of the remaining chapters of this FS is outlined in Section 1.6.

NONE

1999-07-15

19

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

NONE

1996-08-01

20

Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

NONE

1999-07-15

21

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

1999-12-15

22

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the remediation of Vicinity Property 9 at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to excavate contaminated soil at Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), a 0.64-ha (1.6-acre) parcel near the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. A palustrine wetland approximately 0.10 ha (0.25 acre) in size within VP9 would be excavated. Site restoration should allow palustrine wetland to become reestablished. No long-term impacts to floodplains are expected.

Lonkhuyzen, R.A. Van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-11-01

23

Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

1990-08-01

24

Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

NONE

1998-03-01

25

Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

NONE

1998-08-01

26

Hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St. Charles County, Missouri; 1984-1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and water quality data were collected during an investigation of the Weldon Spring radioactive waste disposal sites and surroundings area in St. Charles County, Missouri, from 1984 to 1986. The data consists of water quality analyses of samples collected from 45 groundwater and 27 surface water sites. This includes analyses of water from four raffinate pits and from the Weldon Spring quarry. Also included in the report are the results of a seepage run on north flowing tributaries to Dardenne Creek from Kraut Run to Crooked Creek. Mean daily discharge from April 1985 to April 1986 is given for two springs located about 1.5 mi north of the chemical plant. (USGS)

Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.; Barks, J.H.

1986-01-01

27

Environmental Response to Remedial Actions at the Weldon Spring Site--An Environmental Success Story  

SciTech Connect

Environmental remediation activities have been ongoing at the Weldon Spring Site for over a decade, beginning with small interim response actions and culminating in completion of surface cleanup as represented by closure of the 17 hectare (42-acre) on-site disposal cell. As remedial actions have incrementally been accomplished, the occurrence of site-related contaminants in on and off-site environmental media have effectively been reduced. The DOE-WSSRAP has demonstrated success through the effective reduction or elimination of site related water and airborne contaminants along multiple migration pathways. This paper briefly describes the remedial measures affected at Weldon Spring, and quantifies the environmental responses to those remedial measures.

Meier, J. A.; Welton, T. D.

2002-02-27

28

Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site management activities necessary to ensure that the Weldon Spring Site remains protective over the long-term. The LTS and M Plan is revised periodically to ensure its applicability to changing site, regulatory, or procedural conditions. In addition to addressing such activities as long-term groundwater monitoring and disposal cell maintenance, the LTS and M Plan was developed and issued to ensure that the use restrictions identified in the ESD were properly imposed and maintained. The LTS and M Plan included a detailed IC Implementation Plan, which includes a process for evaluating and identifying specific IC mechanisms that best accomplish the objectives set out in the ESD. Consistent with EPA guidance on selecting ICs, various IC mechanisms were evaluated, including government controls, proprietary controls, enforcement tools, and informational devices. Where appropriate, redundant mechanisms were employed to increase the effectiveness of the ICs. Information in the IC Implementation Plan includes: (1) a discussion of current site conditions (reflecting post-remedial action conditions for the Chemical Plant and Quarry Areas and the risk-basis for why use restrictions are needed); (2) the objectives of, or performance expectations for, the use restrictions; (3) specific ICs already in place and additional mechanisms identified for implementation; (4) a schedule for implementing additional ICs; (5) procedures for maintaining the ICs and for conducting periodic inspections; and (6) general provisions for the implementing ICs for the site. The actual agreements and documentation of the various ICs are included in an appendix of the LTS and M Plan. These documents are also available via the internet from the authorizing agencies (County, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, EPA, etc.) The Weldon Spring Site personnel have been successful in finalizing each of the ICs that were established for the site. The planning, establishment, and implementation of the ICs was a long and detailed process with several lessons-learned that were identified along the way. (authors)

Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy [Stoller LMS Team (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team (United States); Starr, Ken [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)] [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)

2013-07-01

29

Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation contains contaminated building rubble, scrap, and various residues. During 1979 and 1980 these storage locations were managed by NLO, Inc., contract operator of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center. Air and water samples were collected to provide information about the transfer of radionuclides in the offsite environment. Monitoring results show that uranium and radium concentrations in offsite surface and well water were within DOE Guide values for uncontrolled areas. At offsite locations, radon-222 concentrations in air were well within the Guide value.

Weidner, R B; Boback, M W

1982-04-19

30

Comparison of surface meteorological data representativeness for the Weldon Spring transport and dispersion modeling analysis  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is conducting the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus property available for other uses to the extent possible. This report presents the results of analysis of available meteorological data from stations near the Weldon Spring site. Data that are most representative of site conditions are needed to accurately model the transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with remedial activities. Such modeling will assist the development of mitigative measures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Lazaro, M.

1989-06-01

31

Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

NONE

1997-07-23

32

Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of the contaminant at the water table acts as a contaminant source for the unconfined aquifer. For simplicity, this source is assumed to be a time-shifted unit square wave having an amplitude equal to the peak breakthrough concentration at the water table and a duration equal to the full width of the breakthrough curve at the half-maximum concentration value. The effects of dilution at the water-table interface are evaluated with a simple mass-balance equation. Comparing the model results for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site near St. Louis, Missouri, and the Envirocare facility located near Salt Lake City, Utah, with those obtained from a solution formulated with the real and imaginary parts of a Fourier series in Laplace space indicates that the model provides a conservative estimate of the contaminant breakthrough curve at the receptor.

Tomasko, D.

1992-11-01

33

Public health assessment for Weldon Spring quarry/plant/pits (USDOE) St. Charles, St. Charles County, Missouri, region 7. Cerclis No. MO3210090004. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (chemical plant site), is a former uranium processing facility located in eastern Missouri on the property of the former U.S. Army Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. Surface water, soil, sludge, sediment, and groundwater within the chemical plant site contain chemical and radioactive contaminants. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reviewed on-site chemical exposure information and site conditions. ATSDR also prepared several Health Consultations on chemical and radioactive contaminants in areas on and off the DOE chemical plant site. ATSDR also reviewed on-site and off-site radiological exposure information and conditions. The exposure scenarios ATSDR evaluated include: trespassers swimming in quarry or raffinate pits; reservists performing field activities in the training area; anglers fishing, hunters haunting, and hikers hiking in the conservation areas; residents drinking from off-site private wells; staff and students attending the Francis Howell High School; and consumers of crops (e.g., corn) grown in conservation areas.

NONE

1997-06-30

34

Weldon Spring, Missouri: Annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1987  

SciTech Connect

Radiological monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured uranium, Radium-226, and Thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; all long-lived natural series isotopes in air particulates; and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public were calculated based on assumed exposure periods and the above measurements. Radon concentrations, external gamma exposure rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water at the site were generally equivalent to previous years' levels. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSRP and WSCP area was 1 mrem, or 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSQ was 14 mrem, or about 14 percent of the standard. Thus the WSS currently complies with DOE Off-site Dose Standards. Chemical contamination monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured nitroaromatics, total organic carbon and the inorganic anions chloride, nitrate, fluoride and sulfate in surface water, groundwater and sediment. 22 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

35

Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

NONE

1998-03-01

36

The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites  

SciTech Connect

At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J. [Fernald Preserve, Ohio (United States); Deyo, Y. [Weldon Spring, St. Charles, Missouri (United States)

2008-07-01

37

Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

1997-12-31

38

Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Weldon Spring Chemical Plant is located just north of the drainage divide separating the Mississippi River and the Missouri River in St. Charles County, Missouri. From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycled scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of dissolved solids and a different chemical composition compared to the native groundwater and surface water. This difference is indicated by the concentrations of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, uranium, radium, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium, all of which are greater than natural or background concentrations. Water from Burgermeister Spring, located about 1.5 miles north of the chemical plant area, contains uranium and nitrate concentrations greater than background concentrations. Groundwater in the shallow bedrock aquifer moves northward from the vicinity of the chemical plant toward Dardenne Creek. An abandoned limestone quarry several miles southwest of the chemical plant also has been used for the disposal of radioactive waste and rubble. Groundwater flow from the quarry area is southward through the alluvium, away from the quarry and toward the Missouri River. The St. Charles County well field is located in the Missouri River flood plain near the quarry and the large yield wells are open to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Water from a well 4,000 ft southeast of the quarry was analyzed; there was no indication of contamination from the quarry. Additional water quality and water level data are needed to determine if water from the quarry moves toward the well field. Observation wells need to be installed in the area between the chemical plant, pits, and Dardenne Creek. The wells would be used to provide access for measurements of depth to ground water and for the collection of water samples from the shallow bedrock aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

1986-01-01

39

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

NONE

1998-01-28

40

Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a 45-acre (.18 square kilometer) on-site engineered disposal facility. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the site were officially transferred to the DOE Office of Legacy Management in 2003. The Weldon Spring Site is located within the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area (population 3 million). DOE's close relationship with surrounding land owners created a need for innovative solutions to long-term surveillance and maintenance issues at the site. Through a Secretarial proclamation, a plan was established for development of a comprehensive public involvement and education program. This program would act as an institutional control to communicate the historical legacy of the site and would make information available about contamination present at the site to guide people in making decisions about appropriate site activities. In August 2002, the Weldon Spring Site Interpretive Center opened to the public with exhibits about the history of the area, the remediation work that was completed, and a site information repository that is available to visitors. In addition, the Hamburg Trail for hiking and biking was constructed as a joint DOE/MDC effort. The 8-mile trail travels through both DOE and MDC property; a series of historical markers posted along its length to communicate the history of the area and the remediation work that was done as part of WSSRAP activities. A ramp and viewing platform with informational plaques were constructed on the disposal cell to provide an additional mechanism for public education. With a basic marketing program, site visitor-ship has been steadily increasing. In 2005, approximately 15,400 visitors were associated with Interpretive Center operations and outreach activities. Science-oriented educational programs that directly relate to past remediation activities and present long-term surveillance and maintenance issues have been developed and are presented to St. Louis area school groups and other community-based organizations. Other innovative programs have been developed to address daily maintenance issues at the site and to promote beneficial community re-use of the property. Approximately 30,000 square feet of the former Administration Building has been transferred through a use-permit to Lindenwood University, a local institution with a total enrollment of about 12,000 students. Lindenwood is establishing a satellite college campus in the building in exchange for providing basic maintenance and payment of utilities for both the Administration Building and Interpretive Center. A volunteer program developed to address maintenance of the native plant gardens that surround the Interpretive Center has a current enrollment of approximately 25 volunteers. Another volunteer group of prairie ecosystem experts has been meeting regularly for the last 3 years to assist the site in long-term management of the established prairie surrounding the disposal cell. Public support of these community involvement activities at the site is strong. DOE has worked closely with the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission in developing the concepts for this approach and the Commission has helped promote these activities within the community. It is expected that continued public education in this manner will only serve to strengthen the institutional control commitments at the Weldon Spring Site. (authors)

Deyo, Y.E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Weldon Spring Site, 7295 Highway 94 South, St. Charles, MO 63304 (United States); Pauling, T. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, CO 81503 (United States)

2006-07-01

41

WELDON SPRING FORMER ARMY  

E-print Network

be threatened by run-off from the site. The TNT and DNT contamination on the site represent a physical hazard to eliminate any direct contact threat. Entire Site: In 1987, the DoD identified a number of contaminated areas of contamination at the site in early 1990. The study, which led to the selection of a final cleanup remedy

42

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Engineering (FYE) 2 CHEG 112 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 CHEM 111 General Chemistry 3 CHEM 112 General Chemistry and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 3 CHEG 325

Lee, Kelvin H.

43

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FALL 2010 Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 MATH 242 Analytic Geometry & Calculus B 4 MATH 243 Analytic Geometry & Calculus C 4 Critical Reading and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering

Lee, Kelvin H.

44

Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 milligramsper litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100?C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in 'granitic' terranes.

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1976-01-01

45

Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1982-01-01

46

Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1977-01-01

47

Chemical analyses of thermal and nonthermal springs in Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most thermal waters issuing in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are acidic (pH =3.5), low-Cl (concentrations =30 mg/L) hot springs which are characteristic of vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems and, as such, are not useful for liquid chemical geothermometry. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley, hot spring localities characterized by neutral pH and low Cl containing water, may have equilibrated in shallow aquifers so that temperatures estimated by both the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers approach the measured spring temperatures of 65? to 95?C. Waters rich in chloride (>2000 mg/L), such as those at Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs, situated south of LVNP, are the most appropriate springs for liquid chemical geothermometry and indicate subsurface temperatures between 220? and 230?C. The chemical and thermal characteristics of these springs may result either from boiling at depth and subsequent mixing with meteoric water or from conductive cooling during lateral flow. In either case ~220? to 230?C thermal water probably originates inside LVNP and flows south to Morgan Hot Springs.

Thompson, J.M.

1983-01-01

48

Chemical analyses for thermal and mineral springs examined in 1982-1983  

SciTech Connect

Six water samples from three different spring systems were collected and analyzed for major element concentrations. This report presents the results of those analyses, along with predicted reservoir temperatures using various geothermometers. In addition, a table of chemical analyses from the US Geological Survey for Washington springs not previously reported in state geothermal reports is included.

Korosec, M.A.

1984-01-01

49

Department of Chemical Engineering Spring 2012 Gas Buster for Underbalanced/Air Drilling  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Chemical Engineering Spring 2012 Gas Buster for Underbalanced/Air Drilling to move cuttings away from the vessel while diverting 100% of the air/combustible gas to the flare. CONSOL

Demirel, Melik C.

50

Physico-chemical Characteristics of Thermopylae Natural Hot Water Springs in Central Greece: Chemical Geothermometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the temperature of the subsurface reservoir in the Thermopylae natural hot water springs in Central Greece is estimated using chemical geothermometry. For this purpose, a novel computational methodology is proposed. This methodology is based on the selection of the minerals which might be in equilibrium with the subsurface water in the reservoir. The selection of minerals is achieved by comparing for a given tempearture the well established equilibrium constants of various minerals with the estimated values from the water chemical analysis. Finally, an optimization techique was applied to estimate the optimal temperature of the water in the reservoir by minimizing the deviation from equilibrium. The estimated temperature for the Thermopylae reservoir was in satisfactory agreement with experimental findings from geological exploration.

Verros, G. D.; Latsos, T.; Anagnostou, K. E.; Avlakiotis, P.; Chaikalis, C.; Liolios, C.; Antoniou, D.; Kotsopoulos, S.; Arsenos, P.

2007-12-01

51

Physical and chemical analysis of Onyang hot spring in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onyang hot spring has a long history back in the time of Baekje Kingdom. It has currently 38 wells active for hot spring. Geologically, it consists of Precambrian banded gneiss, Jurassic porphyritic granite, biotite granite etc., Cretaceous microgranite, dike. Fault zones exist in the ESE-WNW around Onyang hot spring. Locations of the wells indicates that the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution may exist, while geochemistry is determined by rocks. Geochemically, Onyang hot spring is primarily the type of Na-HCO3. Sometimes, with sufficient Ca it evolved to the types of Ca-HCO3, Na(Ca)-HCO3, and. Na-HCO3. Water temperature is measured in the range of 45.87 - 52.92. The highest temperature range of 48.2 - 60 was observed during the pumping test. Based on the data from 2007 to 2011, the average of water production rate is 2,600 m3/d with significant seasonal fluctuation. It seems it was a natural spring 100 years ago. Due to excess pumping, the water depth has dropped more than 100 meter. It shows clear correlation with water usage. Key words: Onyang hot spring, Natural spring, Quantity, Water depth

Lee, Cholwoo; Park, Chan-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Chan

2014-05-01

52

WELDON SPRING SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

SciTech Connect

This annual report presents a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. This report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment.

WASHINGTON GROUP INTERNATIONAL AND JACOBS ENGINEERING GROUP

2003-05-01

53

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL.

NONE

1997-11-01

54

Radionuclide and chemical concentrations in mineral waters at Saratoga Springs, New York.  

PubMed

A project to characterize the radionuclide and chemical components in natural spring waters in the vicinity of Saratoga Springs, New York (USA) has been completed. As a result of the measured radionuclide and chemical content, eight springs were labeled as mineral waters, whereas three springs contained very low concentrations of these components. The mineral waters were highly enriched in alkaline and alkaline-earth elements, as well as chloride ions. Three isotopes of radium ((224)Ra, (226)Ra, (228)Ra) were detected in the mineral waters and reached concentrations of 1, 20, and 2 Bq/L, respectively. Overall, the (226)Ra isotope constituted about 80% of the total radioactivity measured in the water samples. Dissolved uranium concentrations in the mineral waters were very low (mean approximately 50 mBq/L). PMID:15725506

Kitto, Michael E; Parekh, Pravin P; Torres, Miguel A; Schneider, Dominik

2005-01-01

55

Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Depending on where you are, spring is either wrapping up or just around the bend. From the sounds of spring peepers peeping to birds chirping, this is definitely the season of re-birth. Check out this handful of sites that look at some of the signs of spring.The first site (1), from naturesound.com, allows you to hear the chorus of a truly spring sound: spring peepers. Next, from Education World, is a good collection of lesson plans for any teachers out there hoping to bring some spring fever into the classroom, or at least try to harness it(2). The Chicago Tribune (3)has the spirit with this feature on the signs of spring in the third site. The fourth site (4), from the Illinois State Museum, will help those out there considering putting in their own prairie garden this spring -- a perfect time to plant. The fifth site (5) is from eNature.com and offers a great look at the spring migration. Lastly is a show from NPR on spring bugs (4).

56

SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

Thompson, J.M.; Grunder, A.L.; Hildreth, Wes

1983-01-01

57

HumanWildlife Interactions 4(1):112117, Spring 2010 An effective chemical deterrent for invasive  

E-print Network

). Well-known examples of invasive animals that exploit human-modified environments include black ratsHuman­Wildlife Interactions 4(1):112­117, Spring 2010 An effective chemical deterrent for invasive on ecosystems and economies, and many cause problems for humans. One such problem is the loss of electrical

58

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB  

E-print Network

, electroanalytical, and spectroscopic instrumentation. For chemistry and life science majors, as well as studentsCHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS SPRING, 2013 (10/31/12) CHEM 0001-01 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS W/LAB Atomic, and thermochemistry. Additional topics may include qualitative thermodynamics and equilibrium and chemistry

Kounaves, Samuel P.

59

Physicochemical Characteristics of Thermopylae Natural Hot Water Springs in Central Greece: Chemical Geothermometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the temperature of the subsurface reservoir in the Thermopylae natural hot water springs in Central Greece is estimated using chemical geothermometry. For this purpose, a novel computational methodology is proposed. This methodology is based on the selection of the minerals which might be in equilibrium with the subsurface water in the reservoir. The selection of minerals is

G. D. Verros; T. Latsos; K. E. Anagnostou; P. Avlakiotis; C. Chaikalis; C. Liolios; D. Antoniou; S. Kotsopoulos; P. Arsenos

2007-01-01

60

CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

Baum, Jeffrey

2014-03-10

61

Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63C in 1889 to 48C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77C in 1995 and neared boiling (98C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition of steam discharges from the Southeast Geysers. The hot spring waters are low in ions of Cl, B, and Li, but relatively high in HCO3, SO4 and NH4. The stable-isotope compositions (deuterium and oxygen-18) of these waters plot near the global meteoric water line. Geochemical data through time reveal apparent maxima in the concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Mn in 1991 to 1992, before the cluster became hotter. The black-to-gray deposits from the new spring cluster are rich in pyrite and contain anomalous metals. About one-half mile to the east of the hot springs, mineralized water discharges intermittently from an old adit of the Schwartz (Anderson) mine, and enters a tributary of Anderson Creek. This drainage increased substantially in July 1998, and a slurry of mine water and precipitates were transported down the tributary and into Anderson Creek. In December 1998, the adit water was 22C, and had a chemical composition that was similar to spring waters that once discharged in the ravines surrounding the old Anderson Springs resort. The cause for the abrupt changes that have occurred in thermal features at Anderson Springs is still not resolved. One possibility is that these changes are a response to withdrawal of steam from The Geysers geothermal field over more than 20 years of production. Pressure declines in the geothermal reservoir may have caused a "drying out" of the overlying condensation zone. Induced boiling in this zone and upflow of deep steam to shallower depths would cause heating and vaporization of shallow ground waters. In addition, earthquakes occurring in the vicinity of Anderson Springs have increased significantly after nearby geothermal power plants began operation. These earthquakes may have enhanced surface discharge of thermal fluids along fractures and faults.

Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

2000-01-01

62

Chemical composition data and calculated aquifer temperature for selected wells and springs of Honey Lake Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major element, minor element, and gas composition data are tabulated for 15 springs and wells in Honey Lake Valley, California. Wendel and Amedee hot springs issue Na-S04-C1 waters at boiling or near boiling temperatures; the remaining springs and wells issue Na-HC03 waters at temperatures ranging from 14 to 33 deg C. Gases escaping from the hot springs are principally nitrogen with minor amounts of methane. The geothermometers calculated from the chemical data are also tabulated for each spring. (Woodard-USGS)

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1976-01-01

63

Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

1980-01-01

64

Chemical transport model ozone simulations for spring 2001 over the western Pacific: Regional ozone production and its global impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial and temporal variation in ozone production over major source regions in East Asia during the NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) measurement campaign in spring 2001 is assessed using a global chemical transport model. There is a strong latitudinal gradient in ozone production in springtime, driven by regional photochemistry, which rapidly diminishes as the season

Oliver Wild; Michael J. Prather; Hajime Akimoto; Jostein K. Sundet; Ivar S. A. Isaksen; James H. Crawford; Douglas D. Davis; Melody A. Avery; Yutaka Kondo; Glen W. Sachse; Scott T. Sandholm

2004-01-01

65

Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sources of nitrate (NO-3) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in the sinkhole plain has NO-3 concentrations in excess of the USEPA's drinking water standard of 10 mg N/1. Relative to background levels, the NO-3 concentrations in water from 52% of the wells, and probably all of the springs in the study area, are anomalously high, suggesting that sources other than naturally occurring soil organic matter have contributed additional NO-3 to groundwater in the shallow karst aquifer. This information, and the dominance of agriculture in the study area, suggest that agrichemical contributions may be significant. To test this hypothesis, water samples from 10 relatively large karst springs were collected during four different seasons and analyzed for inorganic constituents, dissolved organic carbon, atrazine, and ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ions. The isotopic data were most definitive and suggested that the sources of NO-3 in spring water are dominated by N-fertilizer with some possible influence of atmospheric NO-3 and, to a much lesser extent, human and/or animal waste. Differences in the isotopic composition of NO-3 and some of the chemical characteristics were observed during the four consecutive seasons in which spring water samples were collected. Isotopic values for ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ranged from 3.2??? to 19.1??? and from 7.2??? to 18.7???, respectively. The trend of ??15N and ??18O data for NO-3 also indicated that a significant degree of denitrification is occurring in the shallow karst hydrologic system (within the soil zone, the epikarst and the shallow karst aquifer) prior to discharging to springs. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Kelly, W.R.

2001-01-01

66

Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63C in 1889, 4252C from 1974 through 1991, and 77C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During AugustOctober 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

1999-01-01

67

Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise Area, southwesten Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers ' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. (USGS)

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-01-01

68

Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-01-01

69

Hydrologic and chemical data for selected thermal-water wells and springs in the Indian Bathtub area, Owyhee County, southwestern Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data collected during January through September 1989 from 86 thermal-water wells and 5 springs in the Indian Bathtub area, southwestern Idaho. The data include well and spring locations, well-construction and water level information, hydrographs of water levels in 9 wells, hydrographs of discharges in 4 springs, and chemical and isotopic analysis of water from 33 thermal-water wells and 5 springs. These data were collected as part of a continuing study to determine the cause or causes of decreased discharge at Indian Bathtub Spring and other thermal springs along Hot Creek.

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.

1989-01-01

70

Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2012 Project Name Quaker Chemical Effects of Tool Wear In Drilling of  

E-print Network

PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2012 Project Name ­ Quaker Chemical Effects tool wear must be developed. Objectives Quaker has developed a new lubricant to reduce tool wear in the machining of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) and other cast irons. Our goal is to determine if Quakeral (new

Demirel, Melik C.

71

Chemical reactivity of microbe and mineral surfaces in hydrous ferric oxide depositing hydrothermal springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA, provide concentrated microbial biomass and associated mineral crusts from which surface functional group (FG) concentrations and pK a distributions can be determined. To evaluate the importance of substratum surface reactivity for solute adsorption in a natural setting, samples of iron-rich sediment were collected from three different springs; two of the springs were

S. V. LALONDE; L. AMSKOLD; T. R. MCDERMOTT; W. P. INSKEEP; K. O. KONHAUSER

2007-01-01

72

EDITORIAL EXPERIENCE Editorial Board, The Illustrated History of Humankind, Weldon Owen (Sydney)  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL EXPERIENCE Editorial Board, The Illustrated History of Humankind, Weldon Owen (Sydney). BOOKS 2013. Archaeology. 6th Edition, 468 pp. New York: Wadsworth Cengage Learning [by Robert L. Kelly Publishers [by Robert L. Kelly and DHT; published January, 2010]. 2010. Archaeology. 5th Edition, 483 pp. New

73

Describing our whole experience: The statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as

Charles H. Pence

2011-01-01

74

"Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.  

PubMed

There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721

Pence, Charles H

2011-12-01

75

Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, W.C.

1994-01-01

76

Phase 1 spring and seep report  

SciTech Connect

Pursuant to the overall objective of the WSSRAP to characterize the potential environmental and health impacts posed by the Weldon Spring Site, the Phase I Spring and Seep sampling effort was undertaken to evaluate the migration of site-related contaminants through conduit type groundwater flow. Samples were collected from springs during both high and low flow stages. Samples were analyzed for uranium, nitroaromatic compounds, CLP metals, and inorganic anions. Eight of the 27 springs which were sampled in a 2 mile radius of the site were found to contain levels of contaminants above calculated background levels. This report details the rationale, sampling and analytical methodologies, the analytical results, and the interpretation of transport mechanisms for each of the positive results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1989-08-01

77

Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring  

PubMed Central

Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

2011-01-01

78

Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

2005-01-01

79

Surface chemical reactivity and metal adsorptive properties of natural cyanobacterial mats from an alkaline hydrothermal spring,  

E-print Network

an alkaline hydrothermal spring, Yellowstone National Park S.V. Lalonde a,, L.A. Amskold a , L.A. Warren b , K.: +1 780 492 6532; fax: +1 780 492 2030. E-mail address: stefan.lalonde@ualberta.ca (S.V. Lalonde

Konhauser, Kurt

80

BE.104J Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical ...

Sherley, James L.

81

Chemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal fluids from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur Springs is a vigorous, geothermal field associated with the active Soufrire Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc. The 'Sulphur Springs Park' is an important tourist attraction (touted as the 'world's only drive-through volcano') with some of the hot pools being developed into recreational pools. Some 200,000 people visit the park each year. Since 2001, the hydrothermal fluids of Sulphur Springs have been sampled as part of an integrated volcanic monitoring programme for the island. Gas and water samples were analysed to characterise the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system, and to assess the equilibrium state and subsurface temperatures of the reservoir. This has also enabled us, for the first time, to establish baseline data for future geochemical monitoring. The gases are of typical arc-type composition, with N2 excess and low He and Ar content. The dry gas composition is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 601-993 mmol/mol), with deeper magmatic sourced H2S-rich vapour undergoing boiling and redox changes in the geothermal reservoir to emerge with a hydrothermal signature in the fumarolic gases. Fluid contributions from magmatic degassing are also evident, mainly from the moderate to high contents of HCl and deeply-sourced H2S gas, respectively. Sulphur Springs hydrothermal waters have acid-sulphate type compositions (SO4 = 78-4008 mg/L; pH = 3-7), and are of primarily meteoric origin which have been affected by evaporation processes based on the enrichment in both ?18O and ?D (?18O = - 1 to 15 and ?D = - 9 to 14 respectively) in relation to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). These waters are steam-heated water typically formed by absorption of H2S-rich gases in the near surface oxygenated groundwaters. Reservoir temperatures calculated from the evaluation of gas equilibria in the CO2-CH4-H2 system reveal higher temperatures (190 to 300 C) than those derived from quartz geothermometry (95 to 169 C), which appeared to be affected by dilution with meteoric waters. Generally, no significant variations in fluid geochemistry of the hydrothermal system were observed between 2001 and 2006, and we propose that there were no changes in the state of volcanic activity during this period.

Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Beckles, Denise M.

2013-03-01

82

Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

Gay, Hannah

2012-07-01

83

Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

2006-01-01

84

Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile components such as boron and ammonia. ?? 1971.

Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

1970-01-01

85

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.

2008-01-01

86

155:304 MASS & HEAT TRANSPORT Spring 2012 Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Rutgers U.  

E-print Network

and molecular diffusion. Energy and mass transfer in fluids undergoing flow, phase change and/or chemical reaction. Radiant heat transfer, Heat exchangers and mass transfer equipment. Course Objectives: Equip and solve these problems? · What are the basic modes of heat transfer? · How can heat exchangers be designed

87

Chemical Characterization and Single Scattering Albedo of Atmospheric Aerosols Measured at Amami-Oshima, Southwest Japan, During Spring Seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intensive field program was performed to measure atmospheric aerosols at Amami-Oshima, a small island located at southwest Japan, in the spring season of 2001, 2003, and 2005 under the ACE-Asia, APEX and ABC-EAREX2005 projects. Chemical analysis of the fine and coarse aerosols was made for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon, water soluble ions, and trace elements. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of aerosols was independently estimated by two methods. The one (SSAc) is by chemical compositions assuming a half internal mixture between EC and non sea-salt sulfate, and the other (SSAo) is by optical measurements of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The backward trajectory analysis showed that the aerosol concentrations in the air masses arrived at Amami, were much higher from the Asian Continent than from other regions, and two types of aerosol enhancement were observed. The one was caused by polluted air masses from the urban-industrial area of east-coast China, the other was by high mineral dusts due to large- scale dust storms in the desert regions of northwest China. The SSAc was in a range of 0.87-0.98, and in good agreement with the SSAo after some corrections for original scattering and absorption coefficients. The SSAc showed no significant difference between the air masses from the polluted area and the desert regions. The negative correlation between the SSAc and EC was divided into two groups depending on the concentration of non sea-salt sulfate, while the increase in mineral dusts did not show any correlation with the SSAc.

Tsuruta, H.; Yabuki, M.; Takamura, T.; Sudo, S.; Yonemura, S.; Shirasuna, Y.; Hirano, K.; Sera, K.; Maeda, T.; Hayasaka, T.; Nakajima, T.

2008-12-01

88

Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in rock collapse for uncased wells completed in highly fractured rock. However, the propagation of newly formed large fractures that potentially could damage well structures or result in pirating of water from production wells appears to be of limited possibility based on review of relevant studies. Characteristics of hydraulic conductivity, storage, and fracture porosity were interpreted from flow rates observed in individual wells completed in the Bigfork Chert and Stanley Shale; from hydrographs produced from continuous measurements of water levels in wells completed in the Arkansas Novaculite, the Bigfork Chert, and Stanley Shale; and from a potentiometric-surface map constructed using water levels in wells throughout the study area. Data gathered from these three separate exercises showed that fracture porosity is much greater in the Bigfork Chert relative to that in the Stanley Shale, shallow groundwater flows from elevated recharge areas with exposures of Bigfork Chert along and into streams within the valleys formed on exposures of the Stanley Shale, and there was no evidence of interbasin transfer of groundwater within the shallow flow system. Fifteen shallow wells and two cold-water springs were sampled from the various exposed formations in the study area to characterize the water quality and geochemistry for the shallow groundwater system and for comparison to the geochemistry of the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. For the quartz formations (novaculite, chert, and sandstone formations), total dissolved solids concentrations were very low with a median concentration of 23 milligrams per liter, whereas the median concentration for groundwater from the shale formations was 184 milligrams per liter. Ten hot springs in Hot Springs National Park were sampled for the study. Several chemical constituents for the hot springs, including pH, total dissolved solids, major cations and anions, and trace metals, show similarity with the shale formations

Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

2009-01-01

89

Chemical composition of the snowpack during the OASIS spring campaign 2009 at Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the seasonal snowpack was determined close to Barrow, an Arctic coastal location in northern Alaska. One hundred and twelve samples of different snow types including fresh snow, surface hoar, diamond dust, blowing snow, rounded snow grains, and depth hoar were collected and analyzed for major sea salt components, bromide, and nitrate. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and potassium are mainly introduced into the snowpack by the deposition of sea salt, while magnesium and calcium result from a combination of sea salt and dust. Sulfate was strongly depleted in most samples compared to other sea salt components. This is attributed to the precipitation of mirabilite in newly formed sea ice and frost flowers that leads to an efficient fractionation of sulfate. Uptake of volatile but soluble species from the gas phase also contributed to the observed chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in the snow. However, for chloride and sulfate the input from the marine sources was overwhelming and the uptake from the gas phase was only visible in the samples with low concentrations like fresh snow, diamond dust, and surface hoar. Nitrate concentrations in the snowpack were less variable and for aged snow nitrate was related to the specific surface area of the snow indicating the adsorption of nitric acid can be an important nitrate source in the aged snow. Bromide was also introduced into the snowpack from marine sources, but due to its high reactivity it was partly transferred back to the atmosphere in the form of reactive species. The result of these processes was evident in bromide concentrations, which were both enriched and depleted at the snowpack surface while deeper layers were mostly depleted. Blowing snow also exhibited a depleted bromide composition. For all compounds except nitrate, many depth hoar samples exhibited the greatest concentrations, probably as a result of higher input earlier in the season as well as increases due to the sublimation of water during the metamorphism of the snow.

Jacobi, H. W.; Voisin, D.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Cozic, J.; Douglas, T. A.

2012-07-01

90

A Numerical Study of Ozone Depletion and Bromine Explosion in Polar Spring Using Detailed Chemical Reaction Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1980s, it has been reported that in spring time, ozone in the polar troposphere drops from tens of ppb to a near zero value within a few days or even hours. This ozone depletion was also found to be strongly correlated to an enhancement of reactive halogen species. It is widely accepted that the reactive halogen species are involved in an auto-catalytic chemical reaction cycle, leading to the ozone depletion. Air pollution also affects ozone concentration through reactions including NOx species, in either a promotion or retardation of ozone depletion. This numerical study concerns the analysis of a detailed chemical reaction mechanism of the ozone depletion. The heterogeneous reactions of the bromine explosion are parameterized by considering an effective ice surface coverage ratio, ?, and the boundary layer height Lmix. Different values of the uptake coefficient, ?, of the BrONO2 hydrolysis reaction are investigated to study the role of nitrogen containing species. The result in Fig. 1 shows that the tropospheric ozone consumption rate depends on the boundary layer height, Lmix , and the effective surface area, ?. When the boundary layer grows from 200 to 1000 m, the ozone depletion time increases from two days to more than 20 days. If more than 10% of the ice surface act as the effective surface (? > 10%), all the curves in Fig. 1 approach the minimum limit of two days, which means the maximum ozone depletion rate caused by local chemistry is two days. During depletion, the most dominant NOx reaction cycle is related to the BrONO2 hydrolysis reaction due to the enhanced bromine in the air. A turning value of the BrONO2 uptake coefficient can be determined as ? = 0.0085 (see Fig. 2). In this situation, the ozone produced by the nitrogen cycle equals the amount of ozone destructed by the additional HOBr flux induced by nitrogen reactions. The study reveals that air pollution may influence the tropospheric ozone depletion rate, and different reaction cycles are identified, which highlights the importance of the heterogeneous reactions in ozone depletion event in tropospheric polar regions. Figure 1: Impact of effective ice surface coverage, ?, and boundary layer height, Lmix , on the ozone depletion rate Figure 2: Evolution of ozone concentration with various values of the BrONO2 uptake coefficient

Cao, L.; Gutheil, E.

2012-12-01

91

Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank.

Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J.H.

2009-01-01

92

Kamchatka's thermal hot springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kamchatka Peninsula is featured in this website including information on geography, climate, fauna, flora, volcanoes, thermal springs, Valley of Geysers, native people, and options for travel in Kamchatka. This specific page highlights a selection of Kamchatka's hot springs, presenting basic information on temperature ranges, chemical and physical characteristics, surrounding vegetation, and general location.

Kamchatka, Vision O.

93

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

1997-06-01

94

Spring carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters in the northern East China Sea: Water mixing, biological uptake of CO2, and chemical buffering capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigated sea surface total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a in the connection between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS) during April to early May 2007. In spring, Changjiang dilution water (CDW), ECS offshore water, and together with Yellow Sea water (YSW) occupied the northern ECS. Using 16 day composite satellite-derived chlorophyll-a images, several algal blooms were identified in the CDW and ECS offshore water. Correspondingly, biological DIC drawdown of 73 20 ?mol kg-1, oversaturated DO of 10-110 ?mol O2 kg-1, and low fugacity of CO2 of 181-304 ?atm were revealed in these two waters. YSW also showed CO2 uptake in spring, due to the very low temperature. However, its intrusion virtually counteracted CO2 uptake in the northern ECS. In the CDW and the ECS offshore water, Revelle factor was 9.3-11.7 and 8.9-10.6, respectively, while relatively high Revelle factor values of 11.4-13.0 were revealed in YSW. In the ECS offshore water, the observed relationship between DIC drawdown and oversaturated DO departed from the Redfield ratio, indicating an effect of chemical buffering capacity on the carbonate system during air-sea reequilibration. Given the fact that the chemical buffering capacity slows down the air-sea reequilibration of CO2, the early spring DIC drawdown may have durative effects on the sea surface carbonate system until early summer. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, these insights are fundamental to understanding sea surface carbonate chemistry dynamics in this important ocean margin.

Zhai, Wei-Dong; Chen, Jian-Fang; Jin, Hai-Yan; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Jin-Wen; He, Xian-Qiang; Bai, Yan

2014-09-01

95

Hydrology and water-quality at the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples from five monitoring wells adjacent to raffinate pits storing low-level radioactive waste contained concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen ranging from 53 to 990 milligrams per liter. Most samples also had maximum concentrations of calcium (900 milligrams per liter), sodium (340 milligrams per liter), sulfate (320 milligrams per liter), lithium (1,700 micrograms), strontium (1,900 micrograms per liter), and uranium (86 micrograms per liter). The raffinate pits also had large concentrations of these constituents. A water balance made on the raffinate pits indicated a 0.04 to 0.08 inch per day decrease in the water level that cannot be attributed to meterological conditions. These data and seismically-detected areas of saturated overburden beneath one raffinate pit and possibly adjacent to three other pits indicate leakage from the pits. (USGS)

Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

1987-01-01

96

Mercury in the Arctic spring: a tracer for physical and chemical processes linking the atmosphere to the land and sea (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic mercury story is an intriguing one: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is oxidized to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during early spring atmospheric mercury deposition events. The RGM produced is readily deposited to snow and ice surfaces. Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) are associated with mercury concentrations in surface snow and sea ice that are routinely above 100 ng/L. The GEM to RGM oxidation is driven by sunlight, halogen oxide radicals and the presence of snow and ice crystal surfaces. The most likely source of halogens (and the halogen oxides) is likely newly formed sea ice or the open water on which sea ice grows. The complex relationships between sea ice, leads, open sea water and the lower atmosphere is not well understood. However, mercury is a tracer linking atmospheric chemical and physical processes, sea ice conditions, the snow pack, and arctic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and RGM likely drive the scavenging and deposition of RGM to the snow pack. This yields insight into how mercury (and potentially other contaminants and chemical compounds) are adsorbed onto or otherwise associated with snow and ice crystals. Some of the RGM deposited to the snow pack is subsequently reduced to GEM that evades from the snow pack. This is evident during the onset of spring snow melt when GEM values increase well above ambient background values of 1.6 ng per cubic meter. However, some of the deposited RGM remains in the snow pack and becomes part of the spring melt runoff event. We have been measuring mercury in the atmosphere, in snow, in snow melt runoff and in soils near Barrow, Alaska for the past 5 years. During the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snow (OASIS) campaign in the spring of 2009 we collected snow, frost flowers and brine on the sea ice. Our results show that mercury is readily scavenged by frost flowers and snow on the sea ice. We also collected snow and melt during the 2008 and 2009 spring runoff events at a microwatershed 5 km inland from Barrow. An ionic pulse is evident in our samples whereby snow melt concentrations of mercury and major elements greatly exceed bulk snow pack concentrations. For example, the primary melt water pooling at the base of the snow pack had three times the bulk snow mercury concentration and five to ten times the bulk snow pack major element concentrations. Our results suggest there is a pulse of mercury and major elements from the snow pack during the initial stages of melt. This result points back to the interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and atmospheric chemical compounds. It also places the mercury deposition in Polar Regions within the context of a changing climate where sea ice extent is expected to continue to decrease and the timing of spring melt is migrating forward.

Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.; Steffen, A.

2009-12-01

97

Spring, 2009 ACS Process Spectroscopy/Society for Applied Spectroscopy Meeting Topic: Discussion of current research into insitu chemical sensors  

E-print Network

: Discussion of current research into insitu chemical sensors Speaker: Dr. Karl Booksh, University in chemometrics and sensor research. He was previously the codirector of Arizona Applied Nanosensors. Abstract: The theme of the Booksh research group is the development of insitu chemical sensors

Taber, Douglass

98

Investigation of Organic Chemicals Potentially Responsible for Mortality and Intersex in Fish of the North Fork of the Shenandoah River, Virginia, during Spring of 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Declining fish health, fish exhibiting external lesions, incidences of intersex, and death, have been observed recently within the Potomac River basin. The basin receives surface runoff and direct inputs from agricultural, industrial, and other human activities. Two locations on the North Fork of the Shenandoah River were selected for study in an attempt to identify chemicals that may have contributed to the declining fish health. Two passive sampling devices, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were deployed during consecutive two-month periods during the spring and early summer of 2007 to measure select organic contaminants to which fish may have been exposed. This study determined that concentrations of persistent hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (< picograms per liter), legacy pesticides (<10 picograms per liter), and polychlorinated biphenyls (<280 picograms per liter) were low and indicative of a largely agricultural area. Atrazine and simazine were the most commonly detected pesticides. Atrazine concentrations ranged from 68 to 170 nanograms per liter for the March to April study period and 320 to 650 nanograms per liter for the April to June study period. Few chemicals characteristic of wastewater treatment plant effluent or septic tank discharges were identified. In contrast, para-cresol, N,N-diethyltoluamide, and caffeine commonly were detected. Prescription pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine, venlafaxine, and 17a-ethynylestradiol were at low concentrations. Extracts from the passive samplers also were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen. An estrogenic response was observed in POCIS samples from both sites, whereas SPMD samples exhibited little to no estrogenicity. This indicates that the chemicals producing the estrogenic response have a greater water solubility and are, therefore, less likely to bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of organisms.

Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter L.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Schroeder, Vickie L.; Werner, Stephen; Furlong, Edward T.; Holmes, John

2008-01-01

99

Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005 samplings, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant was 40 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from that wastewater treatment plant was 28 percent effluent. At each site, 300 individual constituents were determined to characterize the water. Most of the inorganic constituents were detected in all of the stream and treatment-plant effluent samples, whereas detection of synthetic organic compounds was more limited and contaminants typically occurred only in wastewater treatment-plant effluents and at downstream sites. Concentrations ranged from nanograms per liter to milligrams per liter.

Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

2011-01-01

100

Correction to "Asian chemical Outflow to the Pacific in Spring: Origins, Pathways, and Budgets" by Isabelle Bey et al.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It reproduces relatively well the main features of tropospheric ozone, CO, and reactive nitrogen species observed in PEM-West B, including latitudinal and vertical gradients of the Asian pollution outflow over the western Pacific although simulated concentrations of CO tend to be too low (possibly because biogenic sources are underestimated). We use CO as a long-lived tracer to diagnose the processes contributing to the outflow. The highest concentrations in the outflow are in the boundary layer (0-2 km), but the strongest outflow fluxes are in the lower free troposphere (2-5 km) and reflect episodic lifting of pollution over central and eastern China ahead of eastward moving cold fronts. This frontal lifting, followed by westerly transport in the lower free troposphere, is the principal process responsible for export of both anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution from Asia. Anthropogenic emissions from Europe and biomass burning emissions from Africa make also major contributions to the Asian outflow over the western Pacific; European sources dominate in the lower troposphere north of 40 degrees N, while African sources are important in the upper troposphere at low latitudes. For the period of PEM-West B (February-March) we estimate that fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning make comparable contributions to the budgets of CO, ozone, and NO, in the Asian outflow. We find that 13% of NO, emitted in Asia is exported as NO, or PAN, a smaller fraction than for the United States because of higher aerosol concentrations that promote heterogeneous conversion of NOx to HNO3. Production and export of ozone from Asia in spring is much greater than from the United States because of the higher photochemical activity.

Bey, Isabelle; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.

2003-01-01

101

n 1962, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring was published, triggering public concern over chemical residues in food and the environ-  

E-print Network

of human health ­ have continuing relevance for understanding the environmental and human health effects and pesticides have been detected in the cord blood of mi- nority American infants (EWG 2009). DDT, Gender years, DDT was originally envisioned as a miracle chemical that would improve the quality of human lives

Langston, Nancy

102

Surface chemical reactivity and metal adsorptive properties of natural cyanobacterial mats from an alkaline hydrothermal spring, Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propensity for microbes to adsorb dissolved metals onto their surfaces has been well documented, to the point where predictive surface complexation models can accurately account for these reactions under experimental conditions. However, critical surface chemical parameters, such as surface functional group concentrations and proton stability constants, have only been evaluated using laboratory cultures. Whether or not natural microbes are

S. V. Lalonde; L. A. Amskold; L. A. Warren; K. O. Konhauser

2007-01-01

103

Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners use a realistic mass and spring laboratory. They hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. Learners can even slow time and transport the lab to different planets! A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. Use this activity for a lesson on Hooke's Law and Conservation of Energy. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 30 languages.

Michael Dubson

2011-01-01

104

Spring Constants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be completed before students have learned about spring constants. It should be pointed out to students that if a rubber band or spring is stretched too much, the spring constant is not constant. Graphs will vary based on the s

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

105

Spring Away!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab demonstrates Hooke's Law with the use of springs and masses. Students attempt to determine the proportionality constant, or k-value, for a spring. They do this by calculating the change in length of the spring as different masses are added to it. The concept of a spring's elastic limit is also introduced, and the students test to makes sure the spring's elastic limit has not been reached during their lab tests. After compiling their data, they attempt to find an average value of the spring's k-value by measuring the slopes between each of their data points. Then they apply what they've learned about springs to how engineers might use that knowledge in the design of a toy that enables kids to jump 2-3 feet in the air.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

106

Aquifer Susceptibility in Virginia: Data on Chemical and Isotopic Composition, Recharge Temperature, and Apparent Age of Water from Wells and Springs, 1998-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The determination of aquifer susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources by the use of ground-water dating techniques is a critical part of Virginia's Source Water Assessment Program. As part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study, water samples were collected between 1998 and 2000 from 145 wells and 6 springs in various hydrogeologic settings across the Commonwealth. Samples were analyzed to determine water chemistry?including nitrate (NO3), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and radon-222 (222Rn), major dissolved and noble gases?nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), helium (He), and neon (Ne), environmental tracers?chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), carbon isotopes?carbon-14 (14C) and carbon-13 (d13C), and stable isotopes of oxygen (d18O) and hydrogen (d2H). The chemical and isotopic composition, recharge temperatures, and apparent ages of these water samples are presented in this report. Data collected between 1999 and 2000 from 18 wells in Virginia as part of two other studies by the U.S. Geological Survey also are presented. Most of the sites sampled serve as public water supplies and are included in the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth.

Nelms, David L.; Harlow, George E.

2003-01-01

107

Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element Chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

Hobba, W.A.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

1976-01-01

108

Spring Tire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

2011-01-01

109

Warm springs of the western Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect

Springs from a 130 x 140 km area west of the Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas to the Oklahoma border were analyzed for major and trace elements and temperature was measured in situ. Six springs had anomalous surface temperatures and 13 springs had anomalous subsurface temperatures (based on the solubility of chalcedony). All of the anomalous springs are located near folded, shale-brittle rock (e.g., novaculite) contacts. The chemical variation of the anomalous springs is significant enough that a variety of sources are suggested for these springs.

Steele, K.F.; Wagner, G.H.

1981-10-01

110

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1998-12-01

111

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1999-06-01

112

Comparing pre- and post-chemical abrasion ages for Miocene Peach Springs Tuff zircon from ID-TIMS and SIMS analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miocene Peach Spring Tuff (PST) is a voluminous (>600 km3), zoned ignimbrite (trachyte to high-SiO2 rhyolite) that is exposed widely in eastern California, western Arizona, and southernmost Nevada, which was erupted from the Silver Creek caldera in the southwestern Black Mountains, AZ. PST serves as a regionally widespread marker unit and its eruption age has been determined to 18.8 to 18.9 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar methods, when corrected for systematic bias and normalized to the U-Pb system (Renne et al., 2010,). We performed ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from individual pumice clasts from PST to evaluate the growth history of zircon in the PST magma system. Sectioned, polished zircon from conventional epoxy mounts allows dating of internal growth domains (e.g. cores, interiors, and near-rim), whereas mounting unpolished zircon in indium and analyzing unpolished crystal faces provides a means to selectively sample the final increments of crystal growth (Reid and Coath, 2000). Combining U-Pb ages of unpolished zircon rims with near-rim interior analyses on sectioned grains yields a mean age of ca. 18.3 Ma, whereas ages of cores of sectioned crystals yield a mean of ca. 18.9 Ma. Several zircons have rim and/or core ages that are several hundred thousand years older or younger than these means (up to 1 m.y. total spread), although the uncertainties for individual SIMS ages are 2 to 5% (2 sigma uncertainty). Therefore, the distribution of ages is challenging to resolve. A modest number of the older grains are plausibly recycled antecrysts, but we suspect that the youngest zircons may have experienced Pb-loss. Failure to account for the possibility of inheritance and Pb-loss may lead to erroneous interpretations about crystallization in the PST system. In order to evaluate and mitigate the effects of Pb-loss, we employed the chemical abrasion (CA) technique of Mattinson (2005), which effectively eliminates domains in zircon that have suffered Pb-loss, and removes micro-inclusions that typically contain common Pb. Thermal annealing followed by CA techniques were used for ID-TIMS dating of a sub-set of zircon crystals previously analyzed by SIMS. Prior to TIMS analyses, zircon crystals were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the effects of CA on crystal domains sampled by SIMS. SEM images reveal that whole portions of crystals were removed by the CA technique, and a heterogeneous pattern of etching that was not confined to specific compositional zones visible in cathodoluminescence. Most of the SIMS sputter pits that yield spurious ages, are associated with etching and/or preferential annealing by the combined annealing and CA technique, suggesting that the young ages relative to the 40Ar/39Ar age may be due to Pb loss. ID-TIMS yields a coherent U-Pb age population of 18.8 Ma, with several older and younger crystals that might reflect xenocrysts, Pb-loss, and/or younger crystallization. In order to maintain spatial resolution and further evaluate the effects of Pb-loss in PST zircon, the annealing and CA-technique will be applied to zircon prior to SIMS dating. References: Reid and Coath, 2000, Geology 28: 443 Renne et al., 2010, GCA 78: 5349

Lidzbarski, M. I.; Mundil, R.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

113

Spring Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this would not be considered a standard lab, it does help students with projects and other labs that involve the combinations of springs or rubber bands. Even if the activity is not used elsewhere, it allows students one more chance to practice u

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

114

Spring Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

115

Water-quality data for the Missouri River and Missouri River alluvium near Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1991--92  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the water-quality data collected at two cross sections across the Missouri River and from monitoring wells in the Missouri River alluvium near Defiance, Missouri. The sampling results indicate the general water composition from the Missouri River changes with different flow conditions. During low-base flow conditions, the water generally contained about equal quantities of calcium and sodium plus potassium and similar quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate. During high-base flow conditions, water from the river predominantly was a calcium bicarbonate type. During runoff conditions, the water from the river was a calcium bicarbonate type, and sulfate concentrations were larger than during high-base flow conditions but smaller than during low-base flow conditions. The total and dissolved uranium concentrations at both the upstream and downstream cross sections, as well as from the different vertical samples across the river, were similar during each sampling event. However, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and total and dissolved uranium concentrations varied with different flow conditions. Sodium and sulfate concentrations were larger during low-base flow conditions than during high-base flow or runoff conditions, while nitrate concentrations decreased during low-base flow conditions. Both total and dissolved uranium concentrations were slightly larger during runoff events than during low-base or high-base flow conditions.

Kleeschulte, M.J.

1993-12-31

116

Homework # 3 UCLA, Spring 2004  

E-print Network

chemistry; Microelectronics; Processor; Numerical model 1. Introduction Plasma processing has becomeHomework # 3 ChE234 UCLA, Spring 2004 Chemical Engineering Principles of Plasma Processing UCLA length of the process chamber is 5 cm. 1. A gas flow of 2 sccm is introduced into a plasma chamber

Chen, Francis F.

117

77 FR 32117 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...petitions for: Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center (Winchester, MA), Weldon Spring Plant (Weldon Spring, MO), Hanford (1972-1983), Los Alamos National Laboratory, General Steel Industries (Granite City, IL), Clarksville...

2012-05-31

118

Variable stiffness torsion springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

1994-01-01

119

Variable stiffness torsion springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

1995-01-01

120

Helical spring holder assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A helically-threaded spring holder on which a helically wound spring is mounted has a groove formed in one side of the thread at the end where the spring engages the spring holder. The groove relieves the portion of the side in which it is formed from restricting the spring against axial movement during deflection of the spring. The circumferential length of this groove is chosen to establish the number of spring coils which can be deflected without contacting the side of the thread. The end of the thread is also made rigid to prevent flexing thereof during maximal elongation of the spring.

Newman, Wyatt S. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

121

A batch study on the bio-fixation of carbon dioxide in the absorbed solution from a chemical wet scrubber by hot spring and marine algae.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide mass transfer is a key factor in cultivating micro-algae except for the light limitation of photosynthesis. It is a novel idea to enhance mass transfer with the cyclic procedure of absorbing CO(2) with a high performance alkaline abosorber such as a packed tower and regenerating the alkaline solution with algal photosynthesis. Hence, the algae with high affinity for alkaline condition must be purified. In this study, a hot spring alga (HSA) was purified from an alkaline hot spring (pH 9.3, 62 degrees C) in Taiwan and grows well over pH 11.5 and 50 degrees C. For performance of HSA, CO(2) removal efficiencies in the packed tower increase about 5-fold in a suitable growth condition compared to that without adding any potassium hydroxide. But ammonia solution was not a good choice for this system with regard to carbon dioxide removal efficiency because of its toxicity on HSA. In addition, HSA also exhibits a high growth rate under the controlled pHs from 7 to 11. Besides, a well mass balance of carbon and nitrogen made sure that less other byproducts formed in the procedure of carboxylation. For analysis of some metals in HSA, such as Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, related to the photosynthesis increased by a rising cultivated pH and revealed that those metals might be accumulated under alkaline conditions but the growth rate was still limited by the ratio of bicarbonate (useful carbon source) and carbonate. Meanwhile, Nannochlopsis oculta (NAO) was also tested under different additional carbon sources. The results revealed that solutions of sodium/potassium carbonate are better carbon sources than ammonia carbonate/bicarbonate for the growth of NAO. However, pH 9.6 of growth limitation based on sodium was lower than one of HSA. The integrated system is, therefore, more feasible to treat CO(2) in the flue gases using the algae with higher alkaline affinity such as HSA in small volume bioreactors. PMID:16860839

Hsueh, H T; Chu, H; Yu, S T

2007-01-01

122

THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE REMEDIATION OF WWI CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE SPRING VALLEY SUPERFUND SITE, WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

123

Spring Dunes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

22 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dunes in the north polar region of Mars. In this scene, the dunes, and the plain on which the dunes reside, are at least in part covered by a bright carbon dioxide frost. Dark spots indicate areas where the frost has begun to change, either by subliming away to expose dark sand, changing to a coarser particle size, or both. The winds responsible for the formation of these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest) toward the upper right (northeast).

Location near: 76.3oN, 261.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

2006-01-01

124

Chemical and Physical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols (a) A Case Study in the Unique Properties of Agricultural Aerosols (b) The Role of Chemical Composition in Ice Nucleation during the Arctic Spring  

E-print Network

and the nearby community. Detailed chemical composition of aircraft-sampled particles collected during ISDAC was studied. Filter samples were collected under a variety of conditions in and out of mixed phase and ice clouds in the Arctic. Specifically, particles...

Moon, Seong-Gi

2011-08-08

125

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING  

E-print Network

2009-2010 EVEG 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING HOURS: 15 18 18 16 in summer Course taught in spring (3) BIOL 1201 Biology I (1) BIOL 1208 Biology Lab PHYS 1100 Intro to Phys) EVEG 4151 or EVEG 3272 (3) ChE 4253 Air Quality S (3) CE 3200 Hydraulics F A/H/S General Education Arts

Stephens, Jacqueline

126

Chemical of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

1997-01-01

127

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

128

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video-enhanced lesson, students will explore Floridas springs using video segments from the NATURE film Springs Eternal: Floridas Fountain of Youth and related activities and discussions. Students will learn about how the springs are formed and will explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students will also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs. At the end of the lesson, students will conduct research and give a presentation about one species that lives in and/or around the springs.

2010-01-01

129

Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.  

PubMed

Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

Castenholz, Richard W

2015-01-01

130

Spring joint with overstrain sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

131

Hot Springs Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

132

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from American Experience: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, learn how the lethal impact of the pesticide DDT on wildlife inspired biologist Rachel Carson to write Silent Spring.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-07-01

133

Spring 2012 YOGA & PILATES PROGRAM Spring 2012  

E-print Network

Rodriquez's first yoga class was at a local gym in NJ. As a stressed out nine to fiver going to classSpring 2012 YOGA & PILATES PROGRAM Spring 2012 YOGA & PILATES PROGRAM Jeffrey Duval Jeffrey Duval's first glimpse of yoga sparked as a teenager while studying modern dance. It wasn't until he started

Grishok, Alla

134

Adjustable support spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Restraining spring mechanism acting against a force has adjustable spring constant, and its performance is not affected by changes in ambient pressure. Natural frequency of device is varied by changing absolute pressures within bellows and may be tuned to prevent coupling while maintaining a given spring constant.

Hadland, W. O.

1970-01-01

135

Joshua Smith Spring 2006  

E-print Network

Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Joshua Smith Spring 2006 #12;The UGA Land Use Clinic provides in Georgia Author: Joshua Smith Editor: Jamie Baker Roskie University of Georgia Land Use Clinic Spring 2006....................................................................................................10 #12;#12;1Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Joshua Smith Spring 2006

Rosemond, Amy Daum

136

Water Treatment Technology - Springs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

137

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

Wnet

2010-11-05

138

STUDENT PULSE Spring 2013  

E-print Network

Research (air.sfsu.edu) March 2013 #12;SF State Student Pulse Survey, Spring 2013 Page 1 Table of ContentsSF STATE STUDENT PULSE SURVEY Spring 2013 Academic Planning and Development Academic Institutional State Student Pulse Survey, Spring 2013 Page 2 SF STATE ­ Student Pulse Survey Executive Summary

139

Syllabus for EK424, Spring 2014 "Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics"  

E-print Network

Syllabus for EK424, Spring 2014 "Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics" Boston University or molecules. The subject of statistical mechanics is concerned with expressing thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, therefore, are essential for explaining the forces that drive chemical and biochemical

Vajda, Sandor

140

CHEMISTRY 324W Spring 2011 ORGANIC LABORATORY  

E-print Network

1 CHEMISTRY 324W Spring 2011 ORGANIC LABORATORY Lecture: ...................Monday and Friday 2 Materials: (1) PAVIA et al. , MICROSCALE+MACROSCALE TECH.IN ORGAN.LAB , $112 new at the UAF bookstore, $84: (1) Material fee for chemicals, glassware breakage, and other supplies $120 (2) chemistry computer

Wagner, Diane

141

Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California  

SciTech Connect

This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

1991-08-01

142

Interconnected air spring model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the mathematical modelling of the spring force of three interconnected rolling diaphragm type air springs used on a 40-ton tri-axle semi-trailer. The aim of the air spring model is to obtain a validated mathematical model that can be used in full vehicle multi-body dynamic simulations. The model considers the flow effects in the pipes connecting the three

Cor-Jacques Kat; Pieter Schalk Els

2009-01-01

143

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Spring Colloquium Series  

E-print Network

for Nano-bio-technology" Microfluidic devices are instrumental to the realization or improvement implementation. Traditional electrokinetic pumping requires applying high DC voltage across the microchannel, and the electric field drives the mobile charges at the fluid/channel interface (i.e. electroosmosis) to transport

Wu, Jayne

144

Thermal Springs and the Search for Past Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ancient thermal spring sites have several features which make them significant targets in a search for past life. Chemical (including redox) reactions in hydrothermal systems possibly played a role in the origin of life on Earth and elsewhere. Spring waters frequently contain reduced species (sulfur compounds, Fe(sup +2), etc.) which can provide chemical energy for organic synthesis. Relatively cool hydrothermal systems can sustain abundant microbial life (on Earth, at temperatures greater than 110 C). A spring site on Mars perhaps might even have maintained liquid water for periods sufficiently long to sustain surface-dwelling biota had they existed. On Earth, a variety of microbial mat communities can be sampled along the wide range of temperatures surrounding the spring, thus offering an opportunity to sample a broad biological diversity. Thermal spring waters frequently deposit minerals (carbonates, silica, etc.) which can entomb and preserve both fluid inclusions and microbial communities. These deposits can be highly fossiliferous and preserve biological inclusions for geologically long periods of time. Such deposits can cover several square km on Earth, and their distinctive mineralogy (e.g., silica- and/or carbonate-rich) can contrast sharply with that of the surrounding region. As with Martian volcanoes, Martian thermal spring complexes and their deposits might typically be much larger than their counterparts on Earth. Thus Martian spring deposits are perhaps readily detectable and even accessible. Elysium Planitia is an example of a promising region where hydrothermal activity very likely remobilized ground ice and sustained springs.

DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Walter, M. R.

1995-01-01

145

Dynamic modeling of gas springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear dynamic modeling of gas springs is important for the basic design of free piston Stirling engines. The conventional gas spring model, a dashpot in parallel with an ideal spring, gives poor prediction of gas spring performance. The anelastic model consists of two parallel springs, one of which is in series with a dashpot. With proper selection of spring and damping constants it gives improved prediction of gas spring dynamics. A linear gas spring model that appears to be superior to those currently used is proposed.

Kornhauser, A. A.

146

Spring Showers Japanese Snowbell  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. Spring Showers was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

147

Masses and Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive simulation adapted from the University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology project, hang various masses from different springs and see the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy of each spring system. You can even slow time or move your demonstration to another planet.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

148

A Magnet Spring Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the

Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

2006-01-01

149

Spring 2009 Fresh Find  

E-print Network

Spring 2009 Fresh Find: Students stumble on possible long-lost freshwater mussel An Alumni, Macon, Ga. date AgSouth Farm Credit, ACA B&S Air CELLFOR International Forest Co. MetLife was a huge at the school. L Mike Clutter, Dean, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources T his year's spring

Scott, Robert A.

150

Past Events Spring 2010  

E-print Network

Past Events Spring 2010 February 26, 2010 - Graduate Student Symposium Come and spend a day with post docs and senior graduate students. Despite the slight chill in the air, the ice cream was still an exhausting class. Remember the JMBGSA is here for both your professional and social needs! Spring - Summer

Chen, Kuang-Yu

151

Sustainable Spring/Summer 2013  

E-print Network

Sustainable Behavior Issue 28 Spring/Summer 2013 The Kentucky Institute for the Environment.barnett@louisville.edu This Publication is printed on recycled paper. Issue 28 - Spring/Summer 2013 Sustainable Behavior 3 Introduction, Mousetraps, and Dissemination Ronnie Detrich #12;Spring/Summer 20132 #12;Spring/Summer 2013 3 Sustainable

152

Hydrogeology Of Slanac Spring, Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brackish karst spring Slanac is located at an unusually high altitude of 30 m a.s.l. and is 1,250 m from the Adriatic Sea. Slanac spring, the permanent brackfish karst spring Pantan, and two submarine springs (vruljes), Arbanija and Slatina, represent outflows from a single karst aquifer. Slanac spring is only active immediately after heavy rainfall greater than 50 mm\\/day.

O. Bonacci; F. Fritz; V. Deni?

1995-01-01

153

Insurance 260 Spring, 2009  

E-print Network

Insurance 260 Spring, 2009 Solutions, Assignment 1 3.9This graphic shows the JMP output from and a practical, easily interpreted value. (e) Other things that influence demand, such as advertising, shelf

Stine, Robert A.

154

Harbingers of Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

Serrao, John

1976-01-01

155

Learning From Real Springs  

E-print Network

Many springs do not obey Hooke's Law because they are constructed to have an intrinsic tension which must be overcome before normal elongation occurs. This property, well-known to engineers, is universally neglected in elementary physics courses...

Bassichis, William

2013-01-29

156

Biotechnology Laboratory Spring 2012  

E-print Network

CH369T Biotechnology Laboratory Spring 2012 Instructor: Dr. Gene McDonald Office: WEL 3.270C Phone, and at the same time to introduce you to issues associated with various biotechnology laboratory operations. After

157

University Calendar Spring 2014  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2014 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON

Suzuki, Masatsugu

158

University Calendar Spring 2015  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2015 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON.m. * Courses meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT

Suzuki, Masatsugu

159

University Calendar Spring 2017  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2017 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON

Suzuki, Masatsugu

160

University Calendar Spring 2013  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2013 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY State.m. * Courses meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT

Suzuki, Masatsugu

161

Introduction and Fundamentals Weldon Formalism  

E-print Network

and the Clifford algebra, actually? Dirac Equation: / - m = 0 Klein-Gordon Equation: 2 - m2 = 0 Stefan Lippoldt Dirac Equation and Klein-Gordon Equation (flat) other motivation: What leads to the matrices to Curved Space Vierbein Formalism Dirac Equation and Klein-Gordon Equation (curved) simplest covariant

Rossak, Wilhelm R.

162

DHS Summary Report -- Robert Weldon  

SciTech Connect

This summer I worked on benchmarking the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fission multiplicity capability used in the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX. This work involved running simulations and then comparing the simulation results with experimental experiments. Outlined in this paper is a brief description of the work completed this summer, skills and knowledge gained, and how the internship has impacted my planning for the future. Neutron multiplicity counting is a neutron detection technique that leverages the multiplicity emissions of neutrons from fission to identify various actinides in a lump of material. The identification of individual actinides in lumps of material crossing our boarders, especially U-235 and Pu-239, is a key component for maintaining the safety of the country from nuclear threats. Several multiplicity emission options from spontaneous and induced fission already existed in MCNPX 2.4.0. These options can be accessed through use of the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a physics model for the simulation of neutron and gamma ray emission from fission and photofission that was included in MCNPX 2.7.B as an undocumented feature and then was documented in MCNPX 2.7.C. The LLNL multiplicity capability provided a different means for MCNPX to simulate neutron and gamma-ray distributions for neutron induced, spontaneous and photonuclear fission reactions. The original testing on the model for implementation into MCNPX was conducted by Gregg McKinney and John Hendricks. The model is an encapsulation of measured data of neutron multiplicity distributions from Gwin, Spencer, and Ingle, along with the data from Zucker and Holden. One of the founding principles of MCNPX was that it would have several redundant capabilities, providing the means of testing and including various physics packages. Though several multiplicity sampling methodologies already existed within MCNPX, the LLNL fission multiplicity was included to provide a separate capability for computing multiplicity as well as including several new features not already included in MCNPX. These new features include: (1) prompt gamma emission/multiplicity from neutron-induced fission; (2) neutron multiplicity and gamma emission/multiplicity from photofission; and (3) an option to enforce energy correlation for gamma neutron multiplicity emission. These new capabilities allow correlated signal detection for identifying presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Therefore, these new capabilities help meet the missions of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), which is tasked with developing nuclear detection strategies for identifying potential radiological and nuclear threats, by providing new simulation capability for detection strategies that leverage the new available physics in the LLNL multiplicity capability. Two types of tests were accomplished this summer to test the default LLNL neutron multiplicity capability: neutron-induced fission tests and spontaneous fission tests. Both cases set the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card to 5 (i.e. use LLNL multiplicity). The neutron-induced fission tests utilized a simple 0.001 cm radius sphere where 0.0253 eV neutrons were released at the sphere center. Neutrons were forced to immediately collide in the sphere and release all progeny from the sphere, without further collision, using the LCA card, LCA 7j -2 (therefore density and size of the sphere were irrelevant). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific multiplicity did not exceed 0.36%. Neutron-induced fission multiplicities were computed for U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241. The spontaneous fission tests also used the same spherical geometry, except: (1) the LCA card was removed; (2) the density of the sphere was set to 0.001 g/cm3; and (3) instead of emitting a thermal neutron, the PAR keyword was set to PAR=SF. The purpose of the small density was to ensure that the spontaneous fission neutrons would not further interact and induce fissions (i.e. th

Weldon, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

163

The effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of chrome silicon steel compression springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of compression springs. Product manufacturers are constantly searching for ways to make their products last longer. This dissertation addresses three questions: (1) What is the effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of chrome silicon steel compression springs? Does the life increase, decrease, or remain the same? (2) What is the effect of cryogenic treatment on the Percent Load Loss (Stress Relaxation) of chrome silicon steel compression springs? (3) What are the possible changes in the material that cause these effects? The following tests were carried out; wire tensile test, hardness test, chemical analysis, residual stress, retained austenite, lattice parameter, force vs. deflection, percent load loss (stress relaxation), fatigue, microstructures, and eta carbides. This research produced a number of key findings: (1) The cryogenically treated springs had a longer cycle life and a higher endurance limit than the untreated springs. (2) The percent load loss (stress relaxation) of the cryogenically treated springs was similar to the untreated springs. (3) The cryogenically treated springs had a higher compressive residual stress at the surface than the untreated springs. The conclusions of this research are that the cryogenic treatment of chrome silicon steel compression springs led to an increase in compressive residual stress on the wire surface, which in turn led to an increase in fatigue life and a higher endurance limit. A recommended future study would be to compare cryogenically treated springs to shot peened springs.

Smith, Debra Lynn

2011-12-01

164

Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain access to these environments and cope with their extreme physicochemical characteristics may be provided with refuge from extinction. The disproportionate number of endemic crenobiotic species found in regional aquifer thermal springs, as well as in some local aquifer geothermal springs, within the Great Basin strongly suggests that these hydrothermal habitats represent important biodiversity hotspots, and efforts to conserve and restore these unique ecosystems should be a major priority to ensure that the valuable information that these species can provide is not lost forever.

Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

2013-12-01

165

Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

2008-01-01

166

Chemistry of thermal and nonthermal springs in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meaningful applications of water geothermometry to thermal springs in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are limited to Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs. Most hot springs located within LVNP are low-chloride, acid-sulfate waters associated with nearby steam vents. This type of hot-spring activity is characteristically found above vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock interaction at relatively shallow depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures close to measured spring temperatures of 65 to 95??C. Hot-spring waters located south of LVNP at Growler Hot Spring, Morgan Hot Springs, and in the south-central part of LVNP in the Walker "O" No. 1 well at Terminal Geyser are rich in chloride and yield calculated geothermometer temperatures between 220 and 230??C. These thermal waters probably originate within a zone of upflow of high-enthalpy fluid inside LVNP and cool conductively during lateral flow to the south and southeast. ?? 1985.

Thompson, J.M.

1985-01-01

167

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

168

Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spring (10) includes a tube (12) having an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension (22) extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension (24) extending vertically. A plurality of cuts (20) in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube (12) extend perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis (16) extending along the tube (12). An uncut portion (26) of the tube wall extends along the tube (12) for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom (28) of a seat cushion (30).

Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

169

Sulfur spring dermatitis.  

PubMed

Thermal sulfur baths are a form of balneotherapy promoted in many cultures for improvement of skin conditions; however, certain uncommon skin problems may occur after bathing in hot sulfur springs. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple confluent, punched-out, round ulcers with peripheral erythema on the thighs and shins after bathing in a hot sulfur spring. Histopathologic examination revealed homogeneous coagulation necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis. Tissue cultures showed no evidence of a microbial infection. The histopathologic findings and clinical course were consistent with a superficial second-degree burn. When patients present with these findings, sulfur spring dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the patient's clinical history is crucial for correct diagnosis. PMID:25474449

Lee, Chieh-Chi; Wu, Yu-Hung

2014-11-01

170

Tethered Mass and Spring Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tethered Mass and Spring model shows a mass constrained to move in the x-direction by a horizontal rod and connected to a spring of natural length L = 10. One end of the spring is connected to a movable (draggable) ceiling and the other end is connected to the mass. Users can drag the mass along the rod and users can control the height of the ceiling H by dragging which changes the stretch of the spring. The height H, the spring constant k, and the natural length of the spring L can also be adjusted using the sliders at the bottom of the position vs. time graph. The Tethered Mass and Spring model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double click the ejs_mech_lagrangian_TetheredMassAndSpring.jar file to run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-09-02

171

Light-stable-isotope studies of spring and thermal waters from the Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort/Sulphurdale Thermal areas and of clay minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area  

SciTech Connect

The isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen have been determined for spring waters and thermal fluids from the Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale thermal areas, for clay mineral separates from shallow alteration of the acid-sulfate type in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area, and for spring and well waters from the Goshen Valley area of central Utah. The water analyses in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area confirm the origin of the thermal fluids from meteoric water in the Mineral Range. The water analyses in the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale thermal area restrict recharge areas for this system to the upper elevations of the Pavant and/or Tushar Ranges. The low /sup 18/O shift observed in these thermal fluids (+0.7 permil) implies either high water/rock ratios or incomplete isotope exchange or both, and further suggests minimal interaction between the thermal fluid and marble country rock in the system. Hydrogen and oxygen-isotope data for clay mineral separates from shallow alteration zones in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal system suggest that the fluids responsible for the shallow acid-sulfate alteration were in part derived from condensed steam produced by boiling of the deep reservoir fluid. The isotope evidence supports the chemical model proposed by Parry et al. (1980) for origin of the acid-sulfate alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs. The isotope analyses of spring and well waters from the Goshen Valley area indicate only a general correlation of isotope composition, salinity and chemical temperatures.

Bowman, J.R.; Rohrs, D.T.

1981-10-01

172

Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring force present in the portion of the spring that resides in a transition region between a relatively straight condition on the path and a fully wound condition on the spool. When the distal end is released, the distal end is accelerated toward the spool by the force existing at the transition region which force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the spring.

Shillinger, G. L., Jr. (inventor)

1977-01-01

173

Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business

Dowdy, June P., Ed.

1998-01-01

174

Spring 2013 CHEMISTRY 691  

E-print Network

Spring 2013 CHEMISTRY 691 LASERS AND RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES #12;LASERS #12;3 THE WORD "LASER irradiated (A). It is a concept of central importance in laser safety. The symbol for irradiance is "E SAFETY STANDARDS The primary laser safety standard in use today is the ANSI Z- 136.5 The standard can

Rhode Island, University of

175

Early Spring Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR readers will doubtless have been observing how the mildness of the weather this winter, so far, has hastened on the spring flowers. I am inclined to think that some of the dates mentioned below have not often been paralleled. The dates in brackets, of the usual flowering times, have been taken from Babington's ``Manual of Botany'' and Johnson's ``Gardeners'

E. Armitage

1898-01-01

176

Spring Into Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maria lifts up a book from the table. Dietre eats cereal for breakfast. Akisha winds up a toy robot. Jacob puts batteries in a flashlight. These seemingly dissimilar events demonstrate various ways children experience energy daily. You can help primary students make sense of these experiences and build their conceptual understanding of energy with this series of hands-on energy activities. We've used these lessons successfully for several years and have been continually impressed with the understandings that students develop as they conduct them. The lessons focus primarily on elastic, or spring, energy and use a conceptual hook, a simple phrase that identifies the key ideas from the activities. In these lessons, the "hook" is "lift, squeeze, stretch, and twist," which summarizes some of the ways students can "put" energy in objects. We chose to emphasize spring energy because it is tangible--students can easily observe the spring (or similar objects such as a rubberband) change as they squeeze, stretch, or twist it, and they can feel the spring resist them as they change its shape.

Van Hook, Stephen; Huziak-Clark, Tracy

2007-03-01

177

Information Visualization Spring 2008  

E-print Network

1 1 Information Visualization Jing Yang Spring 2008 2 Visual Perception (1) #12;2 3 Semiotics Understanding without training Resistance to instructional bias Sensory immediacy Cross-cultural validity Capable of rapid change Most visualizations are hybrids! 4 Related Disciplines Psychophysics Applying

Yang, Jing

178

Spring 2014 Thermodynamics -1  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Thermodynamics - 1 Consider an insulated (adiabatic) piston and cylinder arrangement. Confirm this statement using the second law of thermodynamics. (b) (20) She now wants to calculate the work done by the air on the piston by using the first law of thermodynamics. Do this. Draw a T

Virginia Tech

179

Forest Mensuration Spring 2013  

E-print Network

FOR 3430C Forest Mensuration Spring 2013 PREREQUISITE FNR 3410C or equivalent INSTRUCTOR Dr WEBSITE https://lss.at.ufl.edu/ COURSE DESCRIPTION Forest resource measurements, log and tree content estimation, forest inventory techniques, and stand growth and yield. COURSE OBJECTIVES Train students

Slatton, Clint

180

Warm Springs Creek, Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

181

Fire Paradigms Spring, 2015  

E-print Network

Fire Paradigms Spring, 2015 FOR6215: 3 credits Course Description: This course focuses on an examination of paradigms related to wildland fire, whether biological, political, or social. Students students with an interest in fire ecology, and background in related coursework, are welcome. Instructors

Watson, Craig A.

182

Biochemistry 482 Spring 2009  

E-print Network

1 Biochemistry 482 Spring 2009 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Lodmell Class time/place: MWF 10:10-11:00am, to be arranged Phone: 243-6393 email: stephen.lodmell@umontana.edu Text: Garrett and Grisham Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (updated) Overview: The second semester of biochemistry builds on the foundation laid by BIOC481

Vonessen, Nikolaus

183

Nanostructured DPG Spring Meeting  

E-print Network

Bulk Nanostructured Materials DPG Spring Meeting 26 ­28 March 2012 Berlin symposium #12;Research and development in the field of bulk nano-structured materials has become a prominent topic in modern materials recently, also functional properties of bulk nanostructured materials have increasingly moved

Stummer, Wolfgang

184

SPRING SATIN PLUMCOT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hybrids between plums (Prunus salicina Lindl., P. cerasifera Ehrh. or their hybrids) and apricots (P. armeniaca L.) are referred to as plumcots. Most commercial plumcots are from California and poorly adapted to the southeastern climate. Spring Satin is a large, high-quality, early-ripening frui...

185

AGRICULTURAL SPRING 2005  

E-print Network

. The MSU Plant Transformation Center (PTC), one of nine such centers around the country, is helping to ease to insert the genes into economically important agricultural crop plants. The history of Michigan StateMICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SPRING 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 1 Plant Breeding and Genetics

186

Marketing Intelligence Spring 2009  

E-print Network

- 1 - Marketing Intelligence Syllabus Spring 2009 #12;- 2 - Course Description: The practice of marketing is changing. Due to increasing desktop computing power and companies amassing massive amounts of data, marketing decisions made by companies are becoming more and more data based. This holds in many

Jank, Wolfgang

187

Double Spring Year  

E-print Network

--and such an anomaly is practically an astrological guarantee of marital bliss. To fuel the frenzy even further, this double spring year will be followed by the ominous Year of the Widow which pretty much everyone would argue sounds like a bad time to get married...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; vonHolten, Leslie

2006-12-13

188

Lemon Project Spring Symposium  

E-print Network

2 0 11 Lemon Project Spring Symposium From Slavery Toward Reconciliation: African Americans & The College March 19, 2011 - Bruton Heights School #12;March 19, 2011 Greetings and welcome to the first Lemon Lemon Project: A Journey of Reconciliation." The BOV defined Lemon "as a long- term research project

Fashing, Norman

189

Editors' Spring Picks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It

Library Journal, 2011

2011-01-01

190

Creative Arts SPRING 2014  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF Creative Arts EVENTS SPRING 2014 SONIC ARTS FILM MUSIC DRAMA Find us on Facebook Harty Room FREE awarded a Doctorate in Music Performance from the Royal Irish Academy of Music this cycle in its entirety in Ireland. Winner of the John Field Prize at the 2009 Dublin International Piano

Paxton, Anthony T.

191

ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011  

E-print Network

: Topics in Renewable/Sustainable Energy Conversion An engineering design project will be assigned1 ENSC 461 ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Majid Bahrami 4372 Email will analyze thermal systems and energy conversion devices on the basis of the laws of thermodynamics. A main

Bahrami, Majid

192

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, SPRING, 2014 (Updated 12/05/2013)  

E-print Network

of chromatographic, electroanalytical, and spectroscopic instrumentation. For chemistry and life science majorsCHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, SPRING, 2014 (Updated 12/05/2013) CHEM 0001-01 - CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16

Kounaves, Samuel P.

193

Chemical tracing of salinity sources in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kinneret is a freshwater lake in northern Israel that receives a major part of its salt input from unmonitored springs that discharge through the lake's bottom. We attempt to characterize the nature of these springs by estimating their chemical composition. While the springs around Lake Kinneret are subject to wide spatial and temporal variations in their ionic concentrations, specific

Yehoshua Kolodny; Amitai Katz; Abraham Starinsky; Tamar Moise; Ehud Simon

1999-01-01

194

Long-term Tillage influences on soil carbon, nitrogen, physical, chemical, and biological properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (>20 yrs) tillage no-till, spring till, and fall plus spring till under continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on s...

195

Hot spring metagenomics.  

PubMed

Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities-their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

Lpez-Lpez, Olalla; Cerdn, Mara Esperanza; Gonzlez-Siso, Mara Isabel

2013-01-01

196

Karst hydrology and chemical contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-water flow in karst aquifers is very different from flow in granular or fractured aquifers. Chemical contamination may be fed directly to a karst aquifer via overland flow to a sinkhole with little or no attenuation and may contaminate downgradient wells, springs, and sinkholes within a few hours or a few days. Contaminants may also become temporarily stored in the

Malcolm S. Field

1993-01-01

197

Ginnie Springs Cavern Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a quiet forest in central Florida, a mysterious pond filled with warm clear water hides a secret at the bottom. In this video, Jonathan explores the pond to find a spring which leads into a cave. As Jonathan travels underground, he meets unexpected marine life in the dark depths and learns how water travels through an aquifer from the underground world to the surface. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2007-03-01

198

A study of spring rates of dynamically loaded helical springs  

E-print Network

. 4 28 30 33 6. Test Results for Spring No. 5 . 35 7. Test Results for Spring No. 6 38 8. Test Results for Spring No. 7 40 9. Dimensionless Values 41 10. Galvanometer Damping 42 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Overall View of Experimental... . . . . . . 11 5. Force Transducer in Position for Calibration with Loading Rod and Weights. 12 Power Supply Box for Displacement Potentiometer 13 7 ~ Principal Elements of the Loading Mechanism, not to scale 4 14 Force Transducer Circuitry. 16 9...

Whitwell, Franklin Carroll

2012-06-07

199

Missouri Springs: Blue Jewels in the Ozarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the Missouri Springs of the Ozarks, a series of large springs that occur south of the Missouri River along the Ozark Uplift. There is general information on springs, including what they are, how they form, and their connection to the groundwater system. Photographs and brief descriptions are provided for the twenty largest springs in the state. There is also a map showing the distribution of springs in Missouri, and information on visiting springs. Other information includes material about mineral springs and spas, historical uses of springs, groundwater systems and karst hydrology, and scuba diving in the springs (not generally recommended).

Schaper, Jo

200

Signs of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because Spring has officially arrived, this week's Topic In Depth focuses on events that occur with the arrival of the new season.Offered by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the first Web site (1) focuses on seasonal events like hibernation and migration, and the rhythms behind them. Next is a phenology site (2), where visitors can register to record their observations of Spring online or just learn what phenology is and why it is important. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also has a phenology Web site for kids (3). The Missouri Botanical Garden (4) keeps a record of the plants in bloom each week, with corresponding photos and a choice of either a brief or more detailed description. Plantwatch (5), a site from the University of Alberta that encourages students and volunteers to register and report observations, has recently added a downloadable teacher's guide. Operation Migration (6), the organization that has successfully led endangered Whooping Crane migration by ultralight aircraft, provides daily updates as the birds begin preparing for their journey north. Users who want to begin identifying the birds that return to their yard this spring may be interested in the Peterson online identification guide (7). The final site (8) traces the life cycle of the Bumblebee, beginning with the queen emerging from hibernation and building a nest.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

201

Experto Universitario Java Sesin 1: Spring core  

E-print Network

Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Spring core Puntos a tratar 2 #12;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA;Experto Universitario Java Enterprise Spring © 2012-2013 Depto. Ciencia de la Computación e IA Spring core

Escolano, Francisco

202

Macroinvertebrate communities of karst springs of two river catchments in the Southern Limestone Alps (the Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroinvertebrate communities of 16 karst springs in the Southern Limestone Alps (Slovenia, SE Europe), were studied from\\u000a May to September 1999, together with the major chemical parameters of the water and selected physical characteristics of the\\u000a springs. The springs are located in an area of 800km2, between 410 and 955ma.s.l., and drain into two rivers whose catchments are separated

Nataa Mori; Anton Brancelj

2006-01-01

203

Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.  

PubMed

Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

2014-01-01

204

PhET: Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation provides a realistic virtual mass-and-spring laboratory. Users can explore spring motion by manipulating stiffness of the spring and mass of the hanging weight. Concepts of Hooke's Law and elastic potential energy are further clarified through charts showing kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. This item is part of a larger collection of simulations developed by the Physics Education Technology project (PhET). The simulations are animated, interactive, and game-like environments in which students learn through exploration. All of the sims are freely available from the PhET website for incorporation into classes.

2008-07-29

205

Spatial analysis for spring locations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to create a comprehensive GIS database of spring locations across the American Southwest. To complete the assignment you will be required to locate all springs within a county of the Four Corners region and map them on a geologic map of the area. Start by finding all spring names and locations in national and state digital resources (i.e., GNIS, NHD, USFS, AGIC...) as well as from Topographic 7.5 minute Quadrangle maps and peer reviewed papers. Once a comprehensive list is formed you must determine a strategy for deleting duplicates. Note that there can be several springs with the same name; Cibola County, New Mexico, has 4 different Coyote Springs but each one is on a different mountain range, therefore all three springs would be valid. Create a detailed document of the procedures and resources you used to create your final list. You will also create a final mxd product (GIS map) that has a completed springs layer using no less than three resources, geologic map and DEM to show elevation contours. The outcomes of this activity are 1) understanding that spring orifice locations can change over time 2) to show the complexity of using digital resources 3) to create a comprehensive list of spring locations over several years of having the assignment completed

Rebecca Frus

206

Michigan Technological University Spring 2010  

E-print Network

Michigan Technological University Spring 2010 Foresight Ronald Staley, who earned an associate's degree in civil engineering technology in 1977 and a bachelor's degree in business administration in 1980

207

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2010-10-01

208

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2013-10-01

209

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2012-10-01

210

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper...springs; or (4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin. Wheels and...

2011-10-01

211

[Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].  

PubMed

Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield. PMID:23898658

Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong

2013-04-01

212

MGMT 576 2014 Spring1 2014 Spring Syllabus  

E-print Network

MGMT 576 2014 Spring1 2014 Spring Syllabus MGMT 576: New Venture Consulting Instructor: Robert Spencer, MUS Class: Pigott 105, Thursdays, 6:00 to 8:40 pm Office: Pigott TBD, Thursdays, 4:30 to 5:45 pm or by appointment Phone: 206.605.8294 Email: r.spencer@comcast.net I. Purpose and Objectives The goal of this course

Carter, John

213

Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metastable ikaite (CaCO3??6H2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2?? 5H2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method. ?? 1993.

Bischoff, J.L.; Stine, S.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Stafford, T.W., Jr.

1993-01-01

214

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

215

SPRING ISD CATEE 2014  

E-print Network

SPRING ISD CATEE 2014 ESL-KT-14-11-05 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Benchmarking results ESL-KT-14-11-05 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Annual energy... cost by facility ESL-KT-14-11-05 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 KBTU per sq ft per year ESL-KT-14-11-05 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 KBTU per sq ft per year...

Windsor, J.

2014-01-01

216

Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the

Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Snchez, Ivn

2014-01-01

217

Mammoth Hot Springs Online Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Mammoth Hot Springs. Prominent hot springs and terraces are highlighted with photos and information concerning their cycles of activity. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

218

DEAN'S LIST Spring Semester 2010  

E-print Network

DEAN'S LIST Spring Semester 2010 Chai, Jun Christopher, Joseph Thomas Chu, Clayton N. Chu, Wesley D. Bloom, John Tyler Bond-Choquette, Claire Marie Bradford, Jonathan W. Brown, Thomas C. Bruns, Jared M Spring Semester 2010 Miles, Curtis Michael Miller, John M. Milner, Lily A. E. Mirchandani, Sera D. Mogk

Wong, Pak Kin

219

Spring loaded locator pin assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

Groll, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID); White, James P. (Pocatelo, ID)

1998-01-01

220

Spring loaded locator pin assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

1998-03-03

221

Southern Mars: It's Spring!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

222

Herbicide contamination and dispersion pattern in lowland springs.  

PubMed

Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800 m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the proximity of these fragile GDE. PMID:23018054

Laini, Alex; Bartoli, Marco; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Capri, Ettore; Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco

2012-11-01

223

NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from ground-based measurements during spring 1999 in the Canadian Arctic  

E-print Network

is NO2. As the role of NO2 is strongly dependent on altitude, it is desirable to know not only the NO2 in early spring, thereby masking chemically-induced losses. However, during the 1990s, low stratospheric

Strong, Kimberly

224

Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

225

Mineralization of Fe/Mn-precipitates From Hot Springs in the Sanbe Volcanic Area, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mt. Sanbe is an active volcano located in western Japan. At southwest slope of Mt.Sanbe, hot springs are discharged with flow rate of 2000 liter per minute, which are accomapnied by iron and manganese precipitates. We studied chemical composition of hot spring waters by IC, ICP-AES and AA analysis, and of precipitates by XRF analysis. Water chemistry of the main hot spring (t= 30-39 C) is Na-Cl type and contains significant iron (= 5.6-7.5 mg/l) and manganese (= 1.1-1.6 mg/l). Around the main spring discharge, both ferrihydrites (contains 67-76% of Fe) and manganese oxides (contains 71-79% of Mn) are precipitated. About 30 to 100m east from the main hot spring, black precipitates mainly consists of manganese oxides (contains 5-83% of Mn) are distributed in the area of 90 m 45 m. Cold spring waters (t= 12-20 C) in this area also contains Mn (0.1-0.6 mg/l), but their Fe concentration was under detection limit. Relative chemical comoposition of the cold spring waters are similar to that of the main hot spring, which implies dilution with groundwater. Total bacterial count measured by DAPI staining was 16,000-37,000 cells/ml in these waters. In order to estimate microbial activity, we conducted manganese oxidizing experiments. The oxidation rate was estiamted as 4-5 nM per hour for the experiment in which 5 g of fresh manganese wad was added to 200ml of the 0.20 ?m filtered hot spring water. This rapid oxidation rate would suggest that microbial activity plays important role in manganese precipitation from the Sanbe hot/cold spring waters.

Sakamoto, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Kimura, H.

2007-12-01

226

Spring loaded thermocouple module  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

1984-03-13

227

Spring loaded thermocouple module  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

McKelvey, Thomas E. (Solana Beach, CA); Guarnieri, Joseph J. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01

228

Supplemental data from the Ennis and other thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana, 1978-1980  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogeologic data were collected principally during 1978 to 1980 in eight hot-spring areas, in the Marysville geothermal test well, in the Butte mine and in the Bitterroot and Missoula River valleys to provide a basis for evaluating the geothermal potential of the areas. Measurements are tabulated for subsurface temperatures, water levels, rates of flow, and the chemical composition of water and gas in wells and test holes. Most of the data are for the area near Ennis Hot Springs.

Leonard, R.B.; Wood,W.A.

1980-10-01

229

(January 10, 2013) Spring-Mass Oscillations  

E-print Network

) for reasonableness. EXERCISE 1--FORCE EXERTED BY A SPRING WHEN IT IS STRETCHED In this exercise, you are to plot explore the nature of the force exerted by a "real" spring when it stretches. We determine the force exerted by a spring as a function of its "stretch" (not the overall length). Suspend the spring

Collins, Gary S.

230

An Overview of the Spring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring is a highly modular, distributed, object-oriented operating system. This paper describes the goals of the Spring system and provides overviews of the Spring object model, the security model, and the naming ar chitecture. Implementation details of the Spring micr okernel, virtual memory system, file system, and UNIX emulation are sup- plied.

James G. Mitchell; Jonathan J. Gibbons; Graham Hamilton; Peter B. Kessler; Yousef Y. A. Khalidi; Panos Kougiouris; Peter W. Madany; Michael N. Nelson; Michael L. Powell; Sanjay R. Radia

1994-01-01

231

Recent Water Quality Trends in Florida's Springs  

E-print Network

of marine organisms · Calcite (CaCO3) is the mineral from which limestone is comprised · Dolostone (CaMg(CO3 supply and commerce State Archives of Florida #12;Springs and Florida History · "Mineral Springs" and early medical tourism State Archives of Florida #12;Springs and Florida History · "Mineral Springs

Jawitz, James W.

232

The Dependence of the Spring Constant in the Linear Range on Spring Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In basic physics laboratories, springs are normally used to determine both spring constants and the Earth's gravitational acceleration. Students generally do not notice that the spring constant is not a universal constant, but depends on the spring parameters. This paper shows and verifies that the spring constant in the linear range is inversely

Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani; Khairurrijal

2011-01-01

233

The Begg's uprighting spring Revisited  

PubMed Central

Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

2015-01-01

234

Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

2012-12-07

235

Chemical Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... indicate a chemical agent release. Before Before a Chemical Threat What you should do to prepare for ... and on the highest level. During During a Chemical Threat What you should do in a chemical ...

236

Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

237

Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.  

PubMed

Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na%, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality. PMID:22539220

Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

2012-10-01

238

Discharge and water quality of springs in Roan and Parachute Creek basins, northwestern Colorado, 1981-83  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a compilation and interpretation of discharge, water-quality, and radiochemical data collected at springs in the oil-shale regions of Roan and Parachute Creek basins, Colorado, from 1981 to 1983. Springs located on upland plateaus and ridges are mixed-cation bicarbonate water types with 216 to 713 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Calcite and dolomite dissolution are dominant chemical reactions in upland springs. Springs located in the canyons contain greater concentrations of sodium and sulfate and have 388 to 3,970 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Gypsum dissolution is an important chemical reaction in canyon spring water. The only trace constituents with mean concentration greater than 10 micrograms per liter in the study area were barium, boron, lithium and strontium. None of the canyon springs investigated represent discharge from the lower aquifer in the Green River Formation. Analysis of chemical and discharge data for streams in the Roan Creek drainage showed evidence of lower-aquifer discharge into the canyons. Springs located near an oil-shale mine or processing plant could be used for monitoring groundwater quality and quantity. Bicarbonate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, lithium, mercury, ammonia, and organic carbon may be chemical indicators of mine or process-water contamination of shallow aquifers near an oil-shale plant or mine. (USGS)

Butler, D.L.

1985-01-01

239

UAA Leadership Honors Spring 2015  

E-print Network

UAA Leadership Honors Spring 2015 Purpose UAA Leadership Honors are awarded to individuals upon graduation to recognize and honor their leadership. Leadership activities and involvement must promote individual and collective growth

Pantaleone, Jim

240

SPRING THING 2008: " Swamp Feast! "  

E-print Network

SPRING THING 2008: " Swamp Feast! " DATE: Saturday April 19, 2008 TIME: 1:00 PM - `til the evening; Affiliates, Partners and Friends, Plus any high level UCF administrator wanting to feast on fine food

Van Stryland, Eric

241

Spring 2013 Thursday Lunchtime Concerts  

E-print Network

Horizons Chorus Enjoy the sounds of spring with the uplifting voices of the New Horizons Chorus, led in cooperation with the First Universalist Church. For further information about the concerts or for information

Cantlon, Jessica F.

242

Geochemical characteristics of Greek thermal springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic sampling of all known thermal springs and gas emissions of continental Greece has been carried out. The main gas and water composition, and some trace elements in liquid phase (SiO 2, H 3BO 3, NH 4+ and Li +) have been determined. The chemical composition of most thermal springs analyzed is typical of deep Na-HCO 3 rising hot waters which circulate in CO 2-rich silicic formations, and which acquire progressively a Na-Cl composition by admixing of colder shallower saline connate waters housed in the rock matrix of marine post-orogenic Tertiary-Quaternary sediments. On the whole the thermal manifestations of continental Greece can be fitted in a tectonic framework where high hydraulic gradients enable waters in hot deep aquifers to reach the surface rapidly along fault systems at the boundary of N-S- and E-W-trending Tertiary basins. Equilibration temperatures of 80-120C in the main storage zone (130-150C max in the Nestos-Xanthi basin) have been assessed for most of the study area. High N 2 and low H 2 and H 2S content in gas emissions associated to water samples are consistent with temperatures assessed by using geothermometers in liquid phase.

Minissale, Angelo; Duchi, Vittorio; Kolios, Niko; Totaro, Giovanni

1989-10-01

243

Spring Small Grains Area Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

1986-01-01

244

76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Caon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...on City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride; Carbon Monoxide...Maintenance Plan Colorado Springs Attainment/ Maintenance Area...Maintenance Plan for the Pagosa Springs Attainment/Maintenance Area...INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Russ, Air Program, Mailcode...

2011-08-02

245

Earlier spring in Seoul, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, long-term changes in the first bloom date of shrub and tree species in Seoul (126.56E, 37.34N), Korea were examined using historical observational data for the period 1922-2004 (83 years). The study focused on two shrub species, golden-bell (Forsythia koreana) and azalea (Rhododendron mucronulatum), and three tree species, cherry (Prunus yedoensis), peach (Prunus persica), and American locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The annual-mean temperature has increased by about 2 C in Seoul over the 83 years analyzed. The temperature increase is significant during the winter and early spring and becomes less significant during late spring. As a result of this regional warming, all five species showed an advance in the first bloom date over this time period. The advanced date is particularly apparent in early-spring flowering species like golden-bell (-2.4 days 10-year-1), azalea (-2.4 days 10-year-1), cherry (-1.4 days 10-year-1), and peach (-1.4 days 10-year-1) as compared to late-spring flowering species like American locust (-0.5 days 10-year-1).The present results have demonstrated that the major factor for the determination of flower blooming is heat accumulation, i.e. a certain threshold of growing degree-days (GDD) index. In particular, early spring flowers were sensitive to the accumulation of warm temperature than late-spring flowers.

Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, E.-J.; Lee, I.; Jeong, S.-J.

2006-11-01

246

UC Berkeley Spring, 2011  

E-print Network

of the numerous social and technical factors that can promote or impede the adoption of Green Chemistry with chemicals regulation in the US under the Toxic Substances Control Act, as well as efforts to reform that law to critically assess methods for identifying and evaluating the environmental, social, and health impacts

247

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

and Liquids (6) 3 T, 4/3 Reaction type: Acid - Base (7) 3 T, 4/19 Reaction type: Redox (8) 3 T, 4/24 Energy related to humans and their environment, including the composition of matter, chemical reactions Shapes (4) 3 R, 2/16 The Mole and Reaction Stoichiometry (5) 3 T, 3/20 Gases and Gas Laws; Solids

Pike, Robert D.

248

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1890, the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is one of the best-known and most respected private research institutions in the United States. Over the past century, the Laboratory has supported the careers of seven Nobel Prize recipients and it is particularly well-regarded for its work in the field of genetics research. Today, there are over 400 scientists who work at the facility in Long Island, and their work ranges across the areas of cancer, neuroscience, genomics, and bioinformatics. Their website is a cornucopia of information on their activities, and first-time visitors should start by reading over the "CSHL Headlines" scrolling updates on the homepage. After that, they can look at the "Research" section. Here they will find overviews of their primary research groups and links to some of their specialized facilities, like the Dolan DNA Learning Center. Most visitors will want to visit the "Library and Archives" section. Here they can learn about CSHL authors' publications and look through the digital collections. The digital collections include tributes to Barbara McClintock, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983, and who worked at the Laboratory for four decades.

249

An evaluation of chemistry's role in the winter-spring ozone maximum found in the northern midlatitude free troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model to investigate the contribution of photochemistry to the winter-spring ozone maximum in the northern hemisphere (NH) midlatitude free troposphere (770-240 mbar; 30N-60N). Free tropospheric ozone mass slowly builds up in the winter and early spring, with net chemistry and transport playing comparable roles. Winter and early spring conditions are favorable to net ozone production for two reasons: (1) Winter conditions (cold, low Sun angle, and dry) reduce HOx and lower the level of NOx needed for chemical production to exceed destruction (balance point); and (2) throughout the winter and early spring, NOx, because of its longer chemical lifetime, increases above normally net-destructive levels in the remote atmosphere. Interestingly, net production in the midlatitude NH free troposphere maximizes in early spring because relatively high NOx and low balance point conditions are present at a time when increasing insolation is speeding up photochemistry. Conceptually, the net ozone production is associated with an annual atmospheric "spring cleaning" in which high levels of NOx are removed via OH oxidation. Further, we find that human activity has a major impact on both the levels of tropospheric ozone and the role of chemistry in the NH midlatitude, where anthropogenic NOx emissions dominate. In that region, modern ozone levels have increased by 20% in the winter and 45% in the spring, winter-spring chemistry has switched from net destructive to net productive, the winter-spring balance between transport and chemistry has switched from transport dominance in preindustrial times to the present parity, and the preindustrial February maximum has progressed to March-April. Estimated 2020 levels of NOx emissions were found to lead to even greater net production and to push the O3 spring maximum later into April-May.

Yienger, J. J.; Klonecki, A. A.; Levy, H.; Moxim, W. J.; Carmichael, G. R.

1999-02-01

250

Chlorine-36, bromide, and the origin of spring water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural ratios of chlorine-36 (36Cl) to stable chlorine (i.e., 36Cl/Cl ?? 10-15) vary in shallow groundwater of the United States from about 50 in coastal areas to about 1400 in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ratios lower than these indicate the presence of chloride (Cl-) that has been isolated from the atmosphere for hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer. Higher ratios, which can exceed 5000, usually originate from fallout from testing thermonuclear devices in the western Pacific in the 1950s. Natural mass ratios of chloride to bromide (Cl-/Br-) in precipitation vary in the United States from about 250 in coastal areas to about 50 in the north-central states. Lower ratios may suggest contamination from human sources. Higher ratios, which may exceed 2000, commonly reflect the dissolution of halite. Seawater has a Cl-/Br- ratio of 290. Both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios have been measured in 21 samples of spring water collected from springs in 10 different states. Brackish water from Saratoga Springs area in New York has low values for both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios. This indicates that a large component of the water has a very deep origin. Brackish water from Alexander Springs in Florida has a low 36Cl ratio but a high Cl-/Br- ratio similar to seawater. This suggests the addition of ancient seawater that may be trapped in the aquifer. Big Spring in Iowa discharges water with a very high Cl-/Br- ratio but a moderate 36Cl ratio. The high ratio of Cl-/Br- may be produced by dissolution of road salt or agricultural chemicals. Of the 21 springs sampled, only 10 appeared to have potable water not significantly affected by human activity. Chlorine-36 from testing of nuclear devices is still being flushed out of four of the spring systems that were sampled. Thus, more than 45 years have passed since 36Cl was introduced into the aquifers feeding the springs and the systems, as yet, have not been purged. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Davis, S.N.; Cecil, L.D.; Zreda, M.; Moysey, S.

2001-01-01

251

Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular surfaces that produce palisade and "shrub" fabrics, respectively. At finer scales, composite fabrics are seen to consist distinctive associations of microstructures formed by the encrustation of individual cells and filaments. Composite fabrics survive the diagenetic transitions from primary opaline silica to quartz and are known from subaerial thermal spring deposits as old as Lower Carboniferous. However, fossil microorganisms tend to be rare in older deposits, and are usually preserved only where cells or sheaths have been stained by iron oxides. In subaqueous mineralizing springs at lower temperatures, early infilling leads to a more rapid and complete reduction in porosity and permeability. This process, along with the slower rates of microbial degradation at lower temperatures, creates a more favorable situation for organic matter preservation. Application of this taphonomic model to the Rhynie Chert, previously interpreted as subaerial, suggest it was probably deposited in a subaqueous spring setting at lower temperatures.

Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

252

1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, CO

253

Chemical Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It discusses the process of equation writing and balancing chemical equations in perspective of the chemical changes that take place during a reaction. This module is the third in a series on chemical reactions.

Carpi, Anthony

2003-03-27

254

Geochemistry and hydrology of thermal springs in the Idaho Batholith and adjacent areas, central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of nature of thermal springs in the Idaho batholith and adjacent areas suggest a relation between structural controls and deeply circulating hot-water systems. Springs issuing from granitic rocks are associated mostly with major regional fault structures. Springs issuing from other rocks probably are related to local faulting. Individual spring flows and water temperatures are variable and range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 2,710 gallons per minute and from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. Annual spring discharge is at least 27,000 acre-feet; heat discharges convectively is estimated to be 5.0 x 107 calories per second. Thermal springs discharge relatively dilute water; dissolved solids range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. The chemical quality of the water suggests deep circulation of meteoric water. Estimated reservoir temperatures are generally less than 100 degrees Celsius, but temperatures for several springs exceed 150 degrees Celsius. Stable-isotope data suggest that most of the thermal water is not derived from current precipitation. Carbon-14 values indicate that thermal waters are old; apparent residence times range from 9,000 to more than 40,000 years.

Young, H.W.

1985-01-01

255

Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In

Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

256

Seven New Bulk Chemical Analyses of Aubrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New bulk chemical analyses are given of Aubres, Bishopville, Bustee, Khor Temiki, Norton County, Pea Blanca Spring and Shallowater. Selective attack by dry chlorine (350C) on magnetic and non-magnetic fractions was used to determine the distribution of some normally lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Ti) between silicate and sulphide groups of minerals.

Easton, A. J.

1985-09-01

257

Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita

2014-12-01

258

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01

259

Spring 2010 Student Presentations CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

Bach #12;Spring 2010 Student Presentations ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Senior ProjectSpring 2010 Student Presentations CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT CMG 4800 Sustainable Design Presentations Lawnmower Project Team Members: Tyson Bugis, Albert Genther, Tylor Rogers, Scott Yager Advisor: Joel Kimball

260

14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter or unsafe flight...

2013-01-01

261

14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter or unsafe flight...

2012-01-01

262

14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2013-01-01

263

14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter or unsafe flight...

2014-01-01

264

14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2010-01-01

265

14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2011-01-01

266

14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2012-01-01

267

14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter or unsafe flight...

2010-01-01

268

14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2011-01-01

269

14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2013-01-01

270

14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2012-01-01

271

14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter or unsafe flight...

2011-01-01

272

14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2010-01-01

273

14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2014-01-01

274

14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe characteristics must be reliable. (b) Compliance with paragraph (a) of this section must be shown...

2014-01-01

275

Alternative spring force law for bead-spring chain models of the worm-like chain  

E-print Network

Alternative spring force law for bead-spring chain models of the worm-like chain Patrick T We have developed a new spring force law which can be used in bead-spring chain models of the worm The Society of Rheology. DOI: 10.1122/1.2206713 I. INTRODUCTION The worm-like chain WLC model has been used

Doyle, Patrick S.

276

SPring-8 twin helical undulator.  

PubMed

There are several ways of producing circularly polarized light, such as using asymmetric devices, crossed undulators etc. The SPring-8 helical undulator introduces a simple way of producing both horizontal and vertical fields in one undulator. All the magnet arrays are arranged above and below the plane of the electron orbit, so there is no limitation of access from the sides of the undulator. For the SPring-8 BL25SU, two helical undulators will be installed in tandem, and the helicity of the polarization can be switched at up to 10 Hz using five kicker magnets. PMID:15263533

Hara, T; Tanaka, T; Tanabe, T; Marchal, X M; Kumagai, K; Kitamura, H

1998-05-01

277

SpringPlantSale SpringPlantSale  

E-print Network

Prices Great Purpose Matthaei Botanical Gardens 1800 N. Dixboro Rd. Ann Arbor, ½ mile south of Plymouth Free parking; convenient holding and loading area #12;#12;Matthaei Botanical Gardens 2007 Spring Plant' Verbena Verbena 'Lanai Royal Purple w/ eye' Verbena Children's Garden BotanicalName CommonName Alchemilla

Shyy, Wei

278

Spring 2012 Maxwell Perspective 21 Spring Street Presbyterian  

E-print Network

unearthed human remains. Today, the stories of Louisa Hunter and the Spring Street congregation are finally of anthropology that blends biological, historical, and cultural analysis. Part of her expertise lies in human his or her ancestors came from. Where an osteologist might look at bones strictly as medical specimens

Raina, Ramesh

279

26 10 17 SPring-8 /NEDO  

E-print Network

Edition Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 10 12 5 .PEFC: polymer electrolyte fuel cell PEFC (PEMFC:proton exchange membrane fuel cell)1992 "polymer electrolyte fuel cell" JIS PEMFC PEFC #12;7/12 / (MEA-situ XAFS XAFS . SPring-8 SPring-8 Super Photon ring-8 GeV80 X 1947 50 5 GeV 3 SPring-8

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

280

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350  

E-print Network

Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 1 Psychology 350 Abnormal Psychology Spring 2008 N-101 Tuesdays 4 psychology. By the end of the semester, students will be able to: · Discuss extant models of abnormal in Foundation II.B., Social and Behavioral Sciences required." #12;Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2008 2 Course

Gallo, Linda C.

281

Effective Mass of an Oscillating Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an experimental method to obtain the effective mass of an unloaded oscillating spring. We measure the period "T"("n") of the partial springs that result when hanging "n" of the total "N" coils of a given spring. Data are correlated with the expectation of a simple model for "T"("n") that takes into account the effective mass of the

Rodriguez, Eduardo E.; Gesnouin, Gabriel A.

2007-01-01

282

Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

283

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not be broken. An equalizer, hanger, bolt, gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the...

2012-10-01

284

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not be broken. An equalizer, hanger, bolt, gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the...

2013-10-01

285

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not be broken. An equalizer, hanger, bolt, gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the...

2011-10-01

286

4, 271287, 2008 Shifts in early spring  

E-print Network

-friendly Version Interactive Discussion Abstract Changes of the winter-to-spring switch-time of the upper air flow extending until 2007. The long-term variation of the air flow in early spring (March) exhibits multipleCPD 4, 271­287, 2008 Shifts in early spring wind regime in North-East Europe S. Keevallik and T

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are probably limited in extent, compared to geothermal fields now being used elsewhere in the world. Only the Bell Island and Bailey Bay sites now offer any potential for generation of electricity; these sites could also be used for a variety of direct uses such as space heating, wood or lumber processing, and perhaps aquaculture. The other sites have less potential but could be used locally for space heating or agriculture enhancement.

Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

1980-06-01

288

Selected data from thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data collected during 1975-77 are combined with published and unpublished data from several sources to provide a data base that can be useful for assessing the geothermal potential of 27 hot-spring areas in southwestern Montana. Parameters determined in the field were site location, flow rate, specific conductance , pH, and temperature. Laboratory determinations were concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents. The stable isotopic composition and gross alpha and gross beta activity of the waters were determined for several sites, as well as the composition of gases associated with the water. Temperatures of the thermal waters exceeded 100 F at each of the locations. Temperature profiles in water wells near several hot-spring areas are tabulated. Sources of data included in the report, and sources of related data not in the report, are identified in the Selected References. (Woodard-USGS)

Leonard, Robert B.; Brosten, Tordis M.; Midtlyng, Norman A.

1978-01-01

289

A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits.  

PubMed

The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

2005-05-01

290

A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits  

PubMed Central

The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

2005-01-01

291

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ChE 234, Spring, 2004  

E-print Network

cm-3 , what is the skin depth s for the RF field including the effect of electron-neutral collisions. Otherwise, you can find M and B of the line y = Mx + B by hand on a graph. Before making the semilog plot

Chen, Francis F.

292

Computer Aided Chemical Engineering CHEN 3600 Spring 2013 Course Outcomes  

E-print Network

subject material essential to the course is covered as well as detailing the degree of mastery expected- tions, rates of change, areas under curves, Laplace transform, Monte Carlo Simulation) en- countered

Ashurst, W. Robert

293

Identification of recharge areas and flow paths by natural tracers; The upper Jordan spring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mt. Hermon ridge, the product of a tectonic uplift along the Dead Sea transform, rises to a maximum height of 2814 meters above msl. The ridge gives rise to several large karstic springs which discharge at the foot of the Mountain in Syria, Lebanon and Israel. Geologically, the ridge is an anticlinarium, exposing mainly Jurassic limestones. Flood events are rare despite high rainfall (average of 1600 mm/yr at the summit). The annual discharge of 230 MCM of the Dan spring makes it one of the largest karstic springs in the Middle East and the main source of the upper Jordan River. Another important source of the Jordan River is the Banias spring (70 MCM/yr) which is located only a few km east of the Dan and discharges from similar Jurassic limestones. Downstream of the Banias and in its immediate vicinity, the smaller Officer's spring emerges. Despite their proximity and similar geological setting, the three springs display some significant differences. While the Dan and the Officer's springs exhibit relatively constant, though different, discharge rates, temperatures and chemical compositions throughout the year, these parameters change seasonally in the Banias. Of the three, the Officer's spring has the highest temperature and salinity. The most striking difference in composition among the Dan, Banias and Officer's springs is in their sulfate content (7, 31-57 and 115 mg/l, respectively), as opposed to relatively similar chloride concentrations (6, 10 and 11 mg/l). Sulfate also exhibits distinct different isotopic compositions (?34SSO_4 = 1.5, 19 and 21 per mil), which suggests a marine source for the excess sulfate. We propose that the Banias spring is derived by mixing of two end members best represented by the Dan and Officer's springs. While the former is the outlet of a relatively shallow and well washed karstic system, the water of the latter flow through deeper parts of the anticline structure. These water encounter and dissolve the evaporitic gypsum of the upper Triassic Muheila Fm. Their deeper circulation leads to higher temperature and stable discharge. Such a model implies that the recharge of the Dan spring occurs over the western flanks of Mt. Hermon, whereas the Officer's spring is recharged at the summit of the geological structure.

Burg, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Bein, A.

2003-04-01

294

Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012 Friday, March 16; 3:30 Seminar Hall (room 1315 Chemistry) Lost in Translation: How Regulators Use Science and How Scientists Can Help Bridge Gaps Stephanie to combine her Chemistry background with a legal education to improve the use of science in environmental

Sheridan, Jennifer

295

Scholarship Application Packet Spring 2015  

E-print Network

Scholarship Application Packet Spring 2015 Information and Application Forms Application Deadline-8000 or toll free 1-800-753-9044 FAX 207-338-8013 Scholarship applications are available to UMA students by visiting http://www.uma.edu/assets/docs/finaid/General_Scholarship_Application.pdf #12;APPLICATION CRITERIA

Thomas, Andrew

296

Registration of Faller Spring Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Faller (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

297

Spring 2014 Cracking the code  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Cracking the code Regenerating islet cells may lead to a cure for diabetes, medications, and insulin injections. But Jakub Tolar, M.D., Ph.D., director of the University of Minnesota professors James Dutton, Ph.D., and Anannya Banga, Ph.D., for example, are working to convert stem cells

Minnesota, University of

298

SPRING 2005 Brand usage guidelines  

E-print Network

ISSUE 1 SPRING 2005 Brand usage guidelines #12;#12;DURHAM UNIVERSITY BRAND USAGE GUIDELINES As you with confidence and modernity. Introducing the new marque THE NEW MARQUE #12;DURHAM UNIVERSITY BRAND USAGEmm WIDE LARGE MARQUE for use over 75mm wide #12;DURHAM UNIVERSITY BRAND USAGE GUIDELINES Depending

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

299

Spring 2011 YOGA & PILATES PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Spring 2011 YOGA & PILATES PROGRAM Jeffrey Duval Jeffrey's first glimpse of yoga sparked as a teenager while studying modern dance. It wasn't until he started teaching yoga that he developed a regular practice. In 2004 Jeffrey was certified to teach (200 hour RYT) through Sonic Yoga in NYC. Currently

Grishok, Alla

300

Information Visualization 1 Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Information Visualization 1 Spring 2014 Project 1: Information Visualization Evaluation System is a framework that produces Visualization Evaluation Task Lists based on a set of user provided data. Each team and instructions on how to use it. Documentation about the existing system will be provided. Expected Functionality

Rusu, Adrian

301

Spring-Loaded Transducer Holder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portable ultrasonic scanner moves transducer at constant pressure. Spring-loaded holder moves ultrasonic transducer over test sample at constant pressure. Setup used to determine rate of debond taking place in glued materials subjected to fatigue loading. Holder designed as portable field unit adapted to fatigue machine that transmits data while specimen tested.

Gardner, M. R.

1985-01-01

302

for the brain SPRING 2012  

E-print Network

Photo:www.psdgraphics.com Replacement parts for the brain ­ are they possible? And do we want them? · 32Plug-ins for the brain SPRING · 2012 NATURE'S SOLARCELLS Learning from diatoms · 28 HANNIBAL'S HEAD IS SCHEDULED FOR AUTUMN 2012. SINTEF is the largest independent research institution in Scandinavia

Malinnikova, Eugenia

303

CS 5973 CRYPTOGRAPHY SPRING 2002  

E-print Network

CS 5973 CRYPTOGRAPHY SPRING 2002 Instructor: Qi Cheng Class time: MWF 10:30­11:20 Topics: Recently the elliptic curve cryptography(ECC) has attracted considerable interest, be- cause it is believed that ECC can. In this course, we will study the public key cryptography with emphasis on ECC. We cover following topics

Cheng, Qi

304

Spring 2014 Device versus ice  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Device versus ice U surgeons breathe new life into the practice of lung transplantation transportation instead of the standard practice of putting them on ice. The machine pumps blood and oxygen are virtually alive until they reach their recipient. The device also may be able to rescue marginal lungs

Minnesota, University of

305

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1  

E-print Network

. The specific heat of water pc , and the thermal conductivity of the fuel rod fk are constants. The systemSpring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df and the tube at a rate m , and the outer surface of the tube is well insulated. Heat generation occurs within

Virginia Tech

306

Beauty, Eros, Death Spring 2012  

E-print Network

, Eros, Death KHC XL 102 Spring 2012 Wednesdays/Fridays 9:00am­10:30am Professor William Waters Office-0-872-20392-1. Plato. Symposium. Tr. Alexander Nehamas and Paul Woodruff. Hackett. 978-0-872-20076- 0. Gilbert Adair in Venice (film, 1971) Benjamin Britten, Death in Venice (opera, 1973) Gilbert Adair, Love and Death on Long

Goldberg, Bennett

307

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

308

OS Comprehensive Exam Spring 2007  

E-print Network

advantages and disadvantages for both. Suppose level 5 group contains n disks. 4.b.I. For r small reads per1 OS Comprehensive Exam Spring 2007 1. Both SPIN and the exokernel focused on providing safe system the processes used the Banker's Algorithm. #12;4 4.a. Compare RAID levels 1 and 5 storage schemes; discuss

Wang, Deli

309

PSY 607: Optogenetics Spring 2014  

E-print Network

PSY 607: Optogenetics Spring 2014 last updated Friday, April 4, 2014 Overview! We will review and discuss the latest research, the latest tools, and find out how optogenetics is revolutionizing questions in the application of optogenetics to systems neuroscience. Time and Place! Wednesdays 2

Lockery, Shawn

310

German Film Club Spring 2014  

E-print Network

a selection of German movies and to explore German culture and language. Movies are shown in GermanGerman Film Club Spring 2014 The German Film Club offers an opportunity for students to discover with English subtitles free of charge and all students enrolled in German language courses are welcome. Tuesday

Rohs, Remo

311

Spring 2015 Biochemistry Department Courses  

E-print Network

Spring 2015 Biochemistry Department Courses Course Number CRN Title Instructor Credits Days Time:00-10:50 5150 Elective Required GBCH-7520 24367 Human Medical Metabolic Biochemistry Franklin 5 T Th 3:30 - 5 GBCH-6110 26581 Basic Medical Biochemistry Landry 3 MWF 3:00-3:50 6065 Elective Master's Research

Vaccaro, Joe

312

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2012  

E-print Network

CHE 325 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II Spring 2012 Instructor: Professor James Kallmerten 4-014A Center: Carey and Giuliano, "Organic Chemistry" 8th Edition "Solutions Manual for Organic Chemistry" Molecular of a two-semester sequence presenting a foundational introduction to the science of organic chemistry

Raina, Ramesh

313

Finding Spring on Planet X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,

Simoson, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

314

Fortran 90 Seminar Spring 2009  

E-print Network

Fortran 90 Seminar Spring 2009 #12;Overview Presented by Mark Branson, Ross Heikes and Don Dazlich the audience??? Presentation materials and example codes will be made available at the website. (kiwi/fortran to compile it. Fortran does not have a command-line interpreter like IDL and Matlab. How do I know the name

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

315

Fortran Seminar Series Spring 2012  

E-print Network

Fortran Seminar Series Spring 2012 #12;Overview · Presented by Mark Branson, Don Dazlich and Ross Heikes · Presentation materials and sample codes available at the web site: kiwi.atmos.colostate.edu/fortran #12;Intended Audience · Some people will already know some Fortran · Some people will be programmers

316

Slavic Delights Spring Event Series  

E-print Network

Slavic Delights Spring Event Series Hosted by Slavonic Languages & Cultures Dpt, UvA March 22, 5, Central & Eastern Europe and the Balkans? The UvA's Slavonic Department hosts an events series where early to claim a seat. For our full agenda visit uva.nl/disciplines/slavisch. #12;

van Rooij, Robert

317

TEACH Evaluation, Spring 2002. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TEACH is a partnership program involving California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB), College of the Canyons (COC) and the Newhall and Hart School Districts to provide students with supervised fieldwork and specialized support services while pursuing a California teaching credential. This Spring 2002 TEACH evaluation reports on surveys of COC

Meuschke, Daylene M; Dixon, P. Scott; Gribbons, Barry C.

318

NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity

Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

319

Health Service Evaluation, Spring 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student attitudes toward the Student Health Service (SHS) at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington were assessed during spring 1985. The SHS provides general outpatient care to students with acute medical problems, referral, and health education. The sample of 358 students represented 43 percent of students seen during part of March 1985.

Allen, David F.

320

MAMMALOGY -BIO. 525 Spring, 2008  

E-print Network

MAMMALOGY - BIO. 525 Spring, 2008 As stated in the Catalog, completion of the English Placement, the higher grade will be given. Nota bene: Poor attendance indicates a lack of interest in doing well MANUAL: Martin, R. E. et al. 2001. A Manual of Mammalogy, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill. OPTIONAL BOOK: Ingles, L

Archibald, J. David

321

A Breath of Spring Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most promising sights of spring in Nebraska this year were two conferences for women. One event, sponsored by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, was a Women's History Month Tea. A second conference was the meeting of the Nebraska Women in Higher Education. These two events suggest that there is a continuing interest in women's leadership

Grady, Marilyn L.

2009-01-01

322

Annual Report CMS Spring Assembly  

E-print Network

Annual Report 2007-2008 CMS Spring Assembly & Length of Service Awards March 9, 2012 #12;Annual's Distinguished Alumni Award, Fall 2011 #12;Annual Report 2007-2008 News & Events: Faculty Dr. Robert Byrne Elected as Fellow to the American Geophysical Union (AGU), January 2012 #12;Annual Report 2007-2008 News

Meyers, Steven D.

323

Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012  

E-print Network

for the management, restoration and conservation of wetlands and the wildlife they support. #12;2 Instructor: Debbie1 WIS 4443C 4 credits Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012 Course Objectives Lecture and Laboratory of major wetland types the types of animals that use wetlands, their abundance and distribution within

Watson, Craig A.

324

The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar was used in this study to help identify ground-surface deformation and locate structures such as faults that may affect groundwater movement. Analysis of 18 interferograms representing time periods ranging from 35 to 595 days between October 2003 and September 2005 indicates that little deformation (less than 0.6 inches) occurred in the study area for the time periods repr

: Martin, Peter, (Edited By); Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

2011-01-01

325

Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

2006-12-01

326

Geostatistical Evaluation of Spring Water Quality in an Urbanizing Carbonate Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an investigation of the impacts of urbanization on the hydrology and ecology of Valley Creek watershed near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we have analyzed the chemical composition of 110 springs to assess the relative influence of geology and anthropogenic activities on water quality. The 60 km^2 watershed is underlain by productive fractured rock aquifers composed of Cambrian and Ordovician

A. McGinty; C. Welty

2003-01-01

327

The limnology of Swetganga A thermal spring of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the limnological investigations of Swetganga, one of the thermal springs of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India, have formed the basis of this paper. The samples of water were collected eleven times from the month of September '67 to October '68 at regular intervals for analysis. The physical conditions like depth, temperature and chemical factors like pH, free carbon

B. B. Jana; H. L. Sarkar

1971-01-01

328

CHEMISTRY 322 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Spring 2010 MWF 11:45-12:45 201A Reichardt Building  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY 322 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Spring 2010 MWF 11:45-12:45 201A Reichardt Building Instructor@ALASKA.EDU Required Materials 1. Organic Chemistry 7th Ed., J. McMurry, Brooks/Cole 2. Preparing for Your ACS Examination in Organic Chemistry; ACS, Division of Chemical Education Examinations Institute, Chemistry Dept

Wagner, Diane

329

National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011  

SciTech Connect

Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

Schell, D. J.

2011-04-01

330

Trans-Pacific transport of reactive nitrogen and ozone to Canada during spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret observations from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment, Phase B (INTEX-B) in spring 2006 using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to evaluate sensitivities of the free troposphere above the North Pacific Ocean and North America to Asian anthropogenic emissions. We develop a method to use satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns to provide timely estimates of trends in

T. W. Walker; R. V. Martin; A. van Donkelaar; W. R. Leaitch; A. M. MacDonald; K. G. Anlauf; R. C. Cohen; T. H. Bertram; L. G. Huey; M. A. Avery; A. J. Weinheimer; F. M. Flocke; D. W. Tarasick; A. M. Thompson; D. G. Streets; X. Liu

2010-01-01

331

A disarticulated lava cone, Burney Spring Mountain, Shasta County, USA: implications for extensional tectonics in the southern Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burney Spring Mountain is a 2556 ka lava cone situated in the northernmost part of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range. Dominated in volume by lava flows ranging from olivine basalts to augite, hypersthene andesites, Burney Spring Mountain is also comprised of localized ash fall tuffs, a pyroclastic flow, a scoria cone and a debris flow. Lavas originate from a central vent. A robust survey of the stratigraphy shows that Burney Spring Mountain is composed of at least two magma batches. A paleomagnetic survey reveals that the characteristic remanent magnetization of Burney Spring Mountain is heavily influenced by faulting and that when structural corrections are applied to the data the sampled lava flows show a uniform direction of characteristic magnetization, indicative of an eruption period of a few hundred years. Mapping reveals that two vents (Burney Spring Mountain and the scoria cone) form a linear array that parallels local normal faults suggesting that Burney Spring Mountain formed under an extensional tectonic regime. This suggest that extension was occurring in the Lassen segment of the Cascade volcanic arc as early as 2556 ka, making it the earliest known evidence of extension. Burney Spring Mountain is mineralogically and chemically similar to younger volcanoes to the south such as those of the Poison Lake chain, the Prospect Peak chain and the Sugarloaf chain. Their chemical similarity and formation under extensional tectonics suggests a common origin. Plate 1 contains maps and unit descriptions

Kersten, Kevin Robert

332

Supraglacial sulfur springs and associated biological activity in the Canadian high arctic - signs of life beneath the ice  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unique springs, discharging from the surface of an arctic glacier, release H2S and deposit native sulfur, gypsum, and calcite. The presence of sulfur in three oxidation states indicates a complex series of redox reactions. Physical and chemical conditions of the spring water and surrounding environment, as well as mineralogical and isotopic signatures, suggest biologically mediated reactions. Cell counts and DNA analyses confirm bacteria are present in the spring system, and a limited number of sequenced isolates suggests that complex communities of bacteria live within the glacial system.

Grasby, Stephen E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Longazo, Teresa G.; Lisle, John T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Beauchamp, Benoit

2003-01-01

333

Water-quantity, water-quality, soil, and sediment data collected at Goose Egg Spring, Natrona County, Wyoming, May and July 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent, apparent increases in sediment accumulation in Goose Egg Spring, southwest of Casper, Wyoming, may have been the result of natural environmental processes or quarry operations near the spring in late 1991. Goose Egg Spring is the sole source of water for the Dan Speas Fish Rearing Station. This facility is operated by the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission and produces about 77,000 kilograms of stockable fish annually. Samples of the spring water, surrounding soils, and bottom sediment were collected. Methods used in obtaining all samples are discussed. Results of chemical analyses of the spring water, stratigraphic description of core samples, particle-size distribution analysis, visual mineralogical assessment, and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize Goose Egg Spring and the immediately surrounding area in May and July 1992.

Ritz, G.F.; Bruce, B.W.

1993-01-01

334

Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.  

PubMed

Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices. PMID:23239886

Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

2013-04-01

335

Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s-1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 L s-1, which corresponds to about 8.2 ?? 104 kJ s-1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified. -Authors

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

1990-01-01

336

Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.

2003-01-01

337

SOUTHWEST CATALYSIS 2012 SPRING SYMPOSIUM  

E-print Network

Representative Kerry Dooley Cain Chemical Engineering Dept. Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803 225 Award Lynn Slaugh & Richard Mullineaux (Shell Chemical, retired) for the Development of the Shell

338

77 FR 76490 - Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Determination Concerning a Petition to Add a Class of Employees to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY...HHS gives notice of a determination concerning a petition to add a class of employees from the Weldon Spring Plant in Weldon...

2012-12-28

339

Chemical Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

0000-00-00

340

Role of the terrestrial subsurface in shaping geothermal spring microbial communities.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the possibility that dispersal from terrestrial subsurface sources 'seeds' the development of geothermal spring microbial assemblages. We combined microscopy and culture-independent molecular approaches to survey the bacterial diversity of spring source waters in Yellowstone National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park, and Russia's Kamchatka peninsula. Microscopic analysis uncovered clear evidence of microbial cells from spring sources in all three regions. Analysis of source water phylogenetic diversity identified members of all bacteria groups found previously in downstream sediments, as well as many other phylogenetic groups. Closely related or identical 16S sequences were determined from the source waters of geographically distant, chemically distinct springs, and we found no association between spring water chemistry and microbial diversity. In the source waters of two different Yellowstone springs, we also discovered a phylogenetic group of uncultured Firmicutes never before reported in geothermal habitats that were closely related to uncultured bacteria found in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert. Altogether, our results suggest geothermal features can be connected via the subsurface over long distances and that subsurface sources provide a potentially diverse source of microorganisms for downstream surface mat communities. PMID:23761312

Tin, Sara; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T

2011-08-01

341

Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru  

E-print Network

This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

2013-01-01

342

76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-C-0050] Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive...Administration (FDA) is announcing that Sun Chemical Corp. has filed a petition proposing...petition (CAP 1C0290) has been filed by Sun Chemical Corp., 5020 Spring Grove...

2011-04-14

343

Budget of tropospheric ozone during TOPSE from two chemical transport models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tropospheric ozone budget during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) campaign has been studied using two chemical transport models (CTMs): HANK and the Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2). The two models have similar chemical schemes but use different meteorological fields, with HANK using MM5 (Pennsylvania State University, National Center for Atmospheric

L. K. Emmons; P. Hess; A. Klonecki; X. Tie; L. Horowitz; J.-F. Lamarque; D. Kinnison; G. Brasseur; E. Atlas; E. Browell; C. Cantrell; F. Eisele; R. L. Mauldin; J. Merrill; B. Ridley; R. Shetter

2003-01-01

344

FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

1984-01-01

345

spring 2013 UCF Continuing Education  

E-print Network

Ly OnLinE: www.ce.ucf.edu or cALL: 407.882.0260 tABLE OF cOntEntSSErVicES cOntinuing EducAtiOn unitS (cspring 2013 UCF Continuing Education Bringing UCF to You program catalog University of Central HEALTH LIFE & LEISURE TEST PREPARATION #12;UCf ContinUing edUCation 2 spring 2013 Discover distinctive

Van Stryland, Eric

346

SPRING 2014 wind energy's impact  

E-print Network

SPRING 2014 wind energy's impact on birds, bats......... 2-3 school news........... 4-5 alumni news bird protection laws against a wind energy facility. chaRTING wINd ENERGy'S ImPacT oN bIRdS aNd baTS 2 measurable benefits reaped by the use of wind energy. But, it is a fact: all energy sources, alternative

Tullos, Desiree

347

First Results from SPRING-8  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GeV photon beam at SPring-8 is produced by backward-Compton scattering of laser photons from 8 GeV electrons. Polarization of the photon beam will be ~100 % at the maximum energy with fully polarized laser photons. We report the status of the new facility and the prospect of hadron physics study with this high quality beam. Preliminary results from the first physics run are presented.

Nakano, T.

2003-04-01

348

Himalayan metamorphic CO 2 fluxes: Quantitative constraints from hydrothermal springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot springs in the Marsyandi Valley, Nepal, vent CO 2 sourced from metamorphic fluids that mix with shallow groundwaters before degassing near the Earth's surface. The ?13C of spring waters ranges up to + 13, while that of the coexisting free gas phase is close to - 4. Empirical and thermodynamic modelling of this isotopic fractionation suggests > 97 1% CO 2 degassing. The calculated minimum total CO 2 degassing in the Marsyandi catchment is 5.4 10 9 mol/yr from a Cl-based estimate of the spring water discharge to the Marsyandi River and the fraction of CO 2 degassed. Extrapolated to the whole of the Himalayas, this implies a probable minimum metamorphic CO 2 flux of 0.9 10 12 mol/yr, or 13% of solid Earth CO 2 degassing. The calculated flux is a factor of three greater than the estimated CO 2 drawdown by silicate weathering in the Himalayas. Himalayan metamorphic degassing contributes a significant fraction of the global solid Earth CO 2 flux and implies that metamorphism may cause changes in long-term climate that oppose those resulting from the orogenic forcing of chemical weatherability.

Becker, John A.; Bickle, Mike J.; Galy, Albert; Holland, Tim J. B.

2008-01-01

349

Hydrochemical assessment of tropical springs-a case study from SW India.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs emerging from the Archaean crystalline basements at the foothills of Western Ghat mountains in the highlands and Neogene sedimentary formations in the coastal lowlands of Kerala in south west India. A total of 19 springs from two important river basins of southern Kerala such as Ithikkara and Kallada river basins were studied for 18 physico-chemical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity(EC), total dissolved solids(TDS), dissolved oxygen(DO), total hardness (TH), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (2-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-) , NO3 (-),SiO2, Fe(2+), and F(-) ) as well as bacteriological parameters. The discharge computations show that free-falling type of springs in the area discharge about 256.23 million liters of water a year. A comparative study between the spring water samples of highland and lowland regions reveal that the quality of spring water, except pH and bacteriological contents, satisfies the standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organization for drinking water. Spring water samples collected from the lowlands register high value of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with the highlands. Bicarbonate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) values are high in highland than lowland springs. The present study reveals that the spring water sources in the region can be developed as an alternate source for drinking water, provided pH correction and proper disinfection are done prior to its end use. PMID:25638053

Nair, Hema C; Padmalal, D; Joseph, Ammini

2015-02-01

350

Chemical engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do chemical engineers actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about chemical engineering as a career. Here the job of a chemical engineer is defined and described. Chemical engineers often work with industrial manufacturing processes that involve a mix of chemistry and engineering. In the rest of the resource, students can examine a specialized job title associated with chemical engineering: process engineer. Students can view a five-minute video clip of the process engineer as he works in a fertilizer plant making ammonia and urea. Students follow the engineer around the plant as he checks pressure in chemical lines. Students get a glimpse of the inside of a furnace during the chemical-making process. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

351

Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

Schoen, R.; White, D.E.; Hemley, J.J.

1974-01-01

352

Athletic Training Coordinator Hometown: Colorado Springs, CO  

E-print Network

WHO WE ARE Gaby Bell Athletic Training Coordinator Hometown: Colorado Springs, CO Certifications Athletic Training Graduate Assistant Jonathan Hodapp Student Athletic Trainer Mike Carlson Student Athletic

Van Stryland, Eric

353

Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

1953-01-01

354

Causes of fluctuations in the rate of discharge of Clear Lake Springs, Millard County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Clear Lake Springs in southeastern Millard County are the source of water for the maintenance of the Clear Lakes Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Seasonal declines in the rate of discharge were noted during 1959-60. Fluctuations in the flow of Clear Lake Springs are caused both by natural variations in the quantity of recharge and by variations in the quantity of water pumped from an increasing number of irrigation wells in the southern four districts of adjacent Pavant Valley. The springs are the principal discharge point for an aquifer in a complex of highly permeable basalt flows. Water enters the basalt aquifer as direct recharge from precipitation, as interformational leakage from a contiguous artesian aquifer in lake and alluvial sediments, and as infiltration of infrequent flood runoff and of unconsumed irrigation water in the lowlands of Pavant Valley. A hydrograph of the flow of the springs indicates that precipitation on the basalt outcrop recharges the aquifer; this conclusion is strengthened by fluctuations in the chemical quality of the spring water. The effects due to precipitation, however, are partly masked by the larger effects due to the pumping of ground water for irrigation in southern Pavant Valley. Withdrawal of ground water from wells in the southern four districts causes seasonal reductions in the flow of the springs by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wells and the springs. Statistical analysis of three parameters--the (1) October-April precipitation, (2) annual pumpage, and (3) annual lowest rate of spring discharge--shows that a departure of 1 inch from the normal October-April precipitation at Fillmore is accompanied by a change of 0.41 cubic feet per second in the low flow of Clear Lake Springs. Similarly, a departure of 1,000 acre-feet from the 1961-64 average annual pumpage causes the low flow of the springs to change by 0.23 cubic feet per second. The average annual volume of discharge from Clear Lake Springs during 1960-64 was 14,900 acre-feet. The equation derived from the statistical analysis shows that of the average annual discharge, 3,000 acre-feet of water was derived from precipitation on the basalt, 9,000 acre-feet, from underflow from Pavant Valley, and 2,900 acre-feet, from undetermined sources.

Mower, R.W.

1967-01-01

355

Chemical burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report a burn units experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

1996-01-01

356

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2013-10-01

357

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2011-10-01

358

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2010-10-01

359

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2012-10-01

360

Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

2014-09-01

361

Chemical microsensors  

DOEpatents

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

362

Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

2006-01-01

363

Snow Conditions Near Barrow in Spring 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow has a dual role in the growth and decay of Arctic sea ice. It provides insulation from colder air temperatures during the winter, which hinders sea ice formation. Snow is highly reflective and, as a result, it delays the surface ice melt during the spring. Summer snow melt influences the formation and location of melt ponds on sea ice, which further modifies heat transport into sea ice and the underlying ocean. Identifying snow thickness and extent is of key importance in understanding the surface heat budget, particularly during the early spring when the maximum snowfall has surpassed, and surface melt has not yet occurred. Regarding Arctic atmospheric chemical processes, snow may sustain or terminate halogen chemical recycling and distribution, depending on the state of the snow cover. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the snow cover state in the changing Arctic is important to identify subsequent impacts of snow change on both physical and chemical processes in the Arctic environment. In this study, we assess the springtime snow conditions near Barrow, Alaska using coordinated airborne and in situ measurements taken during the NASA Operation IceBridge and BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) field campaigns in March 2012, and compare these to climatological records. Operation IceBridge was conceived to bridge the gap between satellite retrievals ice thickness by ICESat which ceased operating in 2009 and ICESat-2 which is planned for launch in 2016. As part of the IceBridge mission, snow depth may be estimated by taking the difference between the snow/air surface and the snow/ice interface measured by University of Kansas's snow radar installed on a P-3 Orion and the measurements have an approximate spatial resolution of 40 m along-track and 16 m across-track. The in situ snow depth measurements were measured by an Automatic Snow Depth Probe (Magnaprobe), which has an accuracy of 0.5 cm. Samples were taken every one-to-two meters at two sites under the flight path of the P-3 during clear and calm conditions. The first site was located at Elson Lagoon which is representative of a flat area and light snow. It had a mean snow depth of 23.7 cm and a standard deviation of 4.2 cm over a 1000 m transect. The second site, farther east in Elson Lagoon, had a mean snow depth of 20.3 cm and standard deviation of 4.9 cm over a 500 m transect. In comparison, the measurements of IceBridge had mean snow depths of 23.7 cm and 20.7 cm with 6.2 cm and 8.5 cm standard deviations, respectively. After averaging the in situ measurements under each P-3 footprint, we found correlations of 0.65 and 0.47 for each study site. RMS differences were 5.5 cm and 8.5 cm. A snow-blowing event occurred from March 23-24, which had sustained wind speeds over 5 m/s. The second site was resampled following this event, resulting in a new mean snow depth of 21.2 cm and a 4.6 cm standard deviation. Snow depths at these sites were ~10 cm lower than the 1954-1991 climatological average for March according to Warren et al., 1999. Our preliminary results agree with those found in Farrell et al., 2012, who also found correlation values between 0.57 and 0.75. These results provide confidence in the quality of this data for studying the role of snow over the Arctic sea ice.

Webster, M.; Rigor, I.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sturm, M.; Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Gleason, E.; Lieb-Lappen, R.; Saiet, E.

2012-12-01

364

CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

365

Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in theexploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocho?owski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocho?owski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. PMID:21168942

Zelazny, Miros?aw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Ma?ek, Stanis?aw

2011-05-01

366

ISRP Retrospective Report LSRCP spring Chinook Program  

E-print Network

, LSRCP Roll-up Hatchery Full Life Cycle Advantage #12;Conservation Objectives Prevent Extinction Improve Authorization Mitigate for Salmon Losses from 4 Lower Snake River Dams 15% loss per dam, 48% cumulative loss spring/summer Chinook fall Chinook steelhead Sampling Juvenile Salmon, Tucannon River #12;LSRCP spring

367

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience  

E-print Network

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

Thomas, David D.

368

Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

369

Digital manufacturing technology for spring coiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the numerically controlled manufacturing process of the spring, there are some problems such as lower automation and inconvenient operation. In view of this situation, the paper presents the approach of digital manufacturing for spring. The composition and the key technology of the digital manufacturing system are revealed, and an example is given to illustrate the system application. The digital

Xiangchen Ku; Yujun Xue; Jishun Li; Wei Ma

2009-01-01

370

IA Tuesday Workshop Materials, Spring 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All Workshop Materials during Spring 2010 for printing and viewing. Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

Mr. Olsen

2010-01-19

371

Squeeze-Film-Damped Spring for Turbopumps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New use for squeeze-film damping proposed for turbopump bearings. Damping of axial shaft vibrations improved with properly-designed squeeze-film spring. Capillary-squeeze-film springs damp turbopump shaft axial vibrations. Disks deflect to left and right as pump bearing vibrates. Fluid fills and empties from spaces between disks to damp vibration.

Rothe, K.

1982-01-01

372

UNM Alternative Spring Break Participant Application  

E-print Network

in the Alternative Spring Break program. In order to be eligible, applicants must be full time students be paid by Money Order or Cashier's Check. Your payment will cover the cost of air fare, meals AND ILLEGAL DRUGS POLICY Alternative Spring Break is a unique experience that allows participants to immerse

New Mexico, University of

373

Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that parents

Edwards, Jennifer

2012-01-01

374

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

375

Instruction for Zoology TA Application Spring 2013  

E-print Network

Instruction for Zoology TA Application Spring 2013 1. IMPORTANT: This Year Kelly Layton not been a TA in Zoology in the past year: Attach a current resume. Attach copies of all of your college that upper level courses are often appointed to a zoology graduate student. Listed below are the Spring 2013

Turner, Monica G.

376

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 3, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS Oops! We missed putting this issue up on the web. We should get it up by the end of February 2001. Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet the PLCO

377

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 3, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 2000 Cancer Information Services If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a toll-free

378

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 1, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office What is the PLCO Trial?Why volunteer?Screening testsWhy two study groups? From Lab to Life

379

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 Cancer Information Services If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a toll-free

380

The Arab Spring: Implications for Israeli Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular uprising that started in Tunisia in December 2010 quickly spread across the Arab world, culminating in a historic regional realignment with far-reaching implications. This essay details the implications of the Arab Spring for Israeli security. After highlighting the history of Israel’s defense strategy and reviewing the Arab Spring revolts, the authors find that the recent uprisings exacerbate several

Jeffrey S. Morton; Nicole Shortt

2012-01-01

381

ARAB SPRING: GEOPOLITICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR IRAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sets out to examine the geopolitical implications of the Arab Spring for Iran. It hypothesizes that in spite of the initial short-term benefits of the Arab Spring, in the long-term it has transformed into an acute challenge for Iran. Developments in Bahrain, Egypt, and Syria-- thanks to their prominent positions in Iran's foreign policy apparatus-- have contributed to

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Mohammad Agus Yusoff; Fakhreddin Soltani

2012-01-01

382

Alumni by New Jersey County Spring 2011  

E-print Network

Alumni by New Jersey County Spring 2011 COUNTY Atlantic 3,221 Bergen 19,263 Burlington 13,001 - 20,000 Over 20,000 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 61 STUDENTS: Alumni #12;Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 62 STUDENTS: Alumni Alumni by State Spring 2011 Alabama 419 Nebraska 168

Delgado, Mauricio

383

Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Kimbro Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation Spring 2014 1 ACCT/FIN 538 FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS AND FIRM VALUATION PIGT 103 SPRING 2014 KIMBRO INSTRUCTOR AND CLASS INFORMATION Instructor to recast financial statements. To learn how to disaggregate and analyze: profitability, utilization

Carter, John

384

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet Amy SubarMeet Richard Hayes From Lab to Life Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Clinical Trials

385

Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

in Sensor Networks? Spring 2006 CS 649 3 · Significant uncertainties in sensor networks · Environment knowledge in information processing · Sensor models (e.g. accuracy of a temperature sensor) · PriorSpring 2006 CS 649 1 CS649 Sensor Networks IP Track Lecture 1: Basic Probability and Statistics I

Amir, Yair

386

Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were

Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

2012-01-01

387

PAID INTERNSHIP OPPORTUNITIES SPRING AND SUMMER 2014  

E-print Network

PAID INTERNSHIP OPPORTUNITIES SPRING AND SUMMER 2014 ABOUT THE PROGRAM: The Virginia Space Grant colleges are offering the Commonwealth STEM Industry Internship Program (CSIIP). CSIIP is a free resource for finding paid spring, summer, and fall internships. CSIIP provides an online system where undergraduate

Buehrer, R. Michael

388

Brushless Motor Controller Report Spring 2010  

E-print Network

Brushless Motor Controller Report Spring 2010 May 15, 2010 Brian Clementi MAE of 2010 322 Bogert semesters Spring 2010 Biorobotics and Locomotion Lab Cornell University #12;2 Table of Contents I. Pneumatic systems require large, heavy storage tanks for compressed air, necessitating large air compressors

Ruina, Andy L.

389

Spring 2011 LogLogTheThe  

E-print Network

Spring 2011 LogLogTheThe Claud Brown wins Distinguished Alum · Warnell remembers Reid Parker, along with Rick Holley and his team in Seattle, for such a great event." Sponsors: B & S Air, Inc. Cell Wells Timberland Special Thanks to our Tournament Co-hosts: A `Plum' of a tournament #12;Spring 2011 1

Prestegard, James H.

390

76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical...Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Airspace reconfiguration is...

2011-11-16

391

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND MANUFACTURING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Objective Chemical Engineers of chemicals. This lesson introduces students to one component of chemical engineering: food processing, and a chemical engineer 2. How chemical engineers are involved in food production 3. That chemical engineers need

Provancher, William

392

Models of formation and activity of spring mounds in the mechertate-chrita-sidi el hani system, eastern Tunisia: implications for the habitability of Mars.  

PubMed

Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet ("island") stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars. The spring mounds further bear diagnostic mineralogic and magnetic properties, in comparison with their immediate surroundings. Consequently, remote sensing techniques can be very useful to identify similar spring mounds on Mars. The mechanisms (tectonic and/or hydraulic) of formation and evolution of spring mounds at the MCSH system are suitable for the proliferation and protection of life respectively. Similarly, life or its resulting biomarkers on Mars may have been protected or preserved under the spring mounds. PMID:25370379

Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairn, Alberto G; Chan, Marjorie A; Yaich, Chokri

2014-01-01

393

Chemical Name  

Cancer.gov

Attachment III Chemical Quick Reference Chart for Minors Chemical Name Select Carcinogen Reproductive Toxin LD50 < 50 mg/kg (oral rat) LD50 < 200 mg/kg for 24 hours or less (dermal rabbit) LC50 < 200 ppm or 2 mg/L for one hour (inhalation rat)

394

Chemical sensors  

DOEpatents

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

Lowell, Jr., James R. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Rayfield, George W. (Bend, OR)

1991-01-01

395

Chemical sensors  

DOEpatents

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

1991-07-02

396

Chemical geodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the following three principal boundary conditions relating to the nature and development of chemical structure in the earth's mantle: (1) inferred scale lengths for mantle chemical heterogeneities, (2) interrelationships of the various isotopic tracers, and (3) the bulk composition of the earth. These boundary conditions are integrated with geophysical constraints in order to evaluate models for

A. Zindler; S. R. Hart

1986-01-01

397

Chemical Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-05-01

398

Chemical preconcentrator  

DOEpatents

A chemical preconcentrator is disclosed with applications to chemical sensing and analysis. The preconcentrator can be formed by depositing a resistive heating element (e.g. platinum) over a membrane (e.g. silicon nitride) suspended above a substrate. A coating of a sorptive material (e.g. a microporous hydrophobic sol-gel coating or a polymer coating) is formed on the suspended membrane proximate to the heating element to selective sorb one or more chemical species of interest over a time period, thereby concentrating the chemical species in the sorptive material. Upon heating the sorptive material with the resistive heating element, the sorbed chemical species are released for detection and analysis in a relatively high concentration and over a relatively short time period. The sorptive material can be made to selectively sorb particular chemical species of interest while not substantially sorbing other chemical species not of interest. The present invention has applications for use in forming high-sensitivity, rapid-response miniaturized chemical analysis systems (e.g. a "chem lab on a chip").

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2001-01-01

399

Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The equation of motion of a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator is x(t) = Acos(wt+f) where A is the amplitude, omega is the angular frequency, and phi is the phase. Verify the correctness of these equations for the maximum speed and maximum acceleration by measuring the angular frequency of the oscillator and the amplitude of the oscillator, calculating the maximum speed and acceleration, and comparing these values to those found on the graphs.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

400

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

401

Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.  

PubMed

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ? D and ?(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

402

Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

403

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

1993-11-23

404

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

DeMario, Edmund E. (Columbia, SC); Lawson, Charles N. (Columbia, SC)

1993-01-01

405

Chemical lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental properties of chemical lasers are presented and principal systems described in the nonclassified literature are reviewed. The fundamentals of the production of inversion in molecular gases by chemical processes are discussed. Iodine, HF, and DF lasers are described. The chemical reaction in the pulsed chemical HF and DF lasers is introduced by a transverse electrical discharge. In spite of the high dissociation energy and the electronegative properties which are unfavorable for a stable discharge regime, SF6 is used as fluorine source for safety reasons. The pulse energies reach 26 J in agreement with estimated values. The advantage of the present system is that is can also operate as CO2 laser in the TEA mode. The radiation of DF lasers is particularly interesting for military near-Earth applications because of its good transmission properties in the atmosphere.

Hugenschmidt, M.; Wey, J.

1985-05-01

406

Chemical Peeling  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin heals can cause unwanted side effects ranging from infection to scarring. If you have any ... Tanzi EL and Alster TS. Skin Resurfacing: Ablative Lasers, Chemical Peels, and Dermabrasion. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith ...

407

Chemical Emergency  

MedlinePLUS

... can be recycled, which is better for our environment. If you have questions about how to dispose of a chemical, call the facility or the environmental or recycling agency to learn the proper method of disposal. ...

408

Unnecessary Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

Johnson, Anita

1978-01-01

409

Chemical sensors  

DOEpatents

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

1992-06-09

410

Chemical sensors  

DOEpatents

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

Lowell, Jr., James R. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Rayfield, George W. (Eugene, OR)

1992-01-01

411

Halogen-driven low-altitude O3 and hydrocarbon losses in spring at northern high latitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogen-driven ozone and hydrocarbon losses in springtime Arctic boundary layer are investigated using a regional chemical transport model. Surface observations of ozone at Alert and Barrow and aircraft observations of ozone and hydrocarbons during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) experiment from February to May in 2000 are analyzed. We prescribe halogen radical distributions on the basis

Tao Zeng; Yuhang Wang; Kelly Chance; Nicola Blake; Donald Blake; Brian Ridley

2006-01-01

412

Halogen-driven low-altitude O3 and hydrocarbon losses in spring at northern high latitudes  

E-print Network

chemical transport model. Surface observations of ozone at Alert and Barrow and aircraft observations of ozone and hydrocarbons during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE halogen-driven ozone loss up to 1 km was reproduced in the model because of vertical transport of ozone

Chance, Kelly

413

NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005  

E-print Network

NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005 Dr. Jennifer Sepez, Alaska Fisheries Science Center #12;NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005 #12;NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22 Communities #12;NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005 · Compiling Data · Data in the Profiles · Data

414

Now accepting applications forNow accepting applications forNow accepting applications forNow accepting applications for spring and summer 2013spring and summer 2013spring and summer 2013spring and summer 2013 AdministrationAdministrationAdministrationAdm  

E-print Network

Now accepting applications for spring and summer 2013spring and summer 2013spring and summer 2013spring and summer 2013 AdministrationAdministrationAdministrationAdministration/Marketing/Marketing/Marketing/Marketing IIIInternshipsnternshipsnternshipsnternships Union Avenue Opera is seeking two Administrative/Marketing Interns, reporting to the UAO

Taylor, Jerry

415

Study on damping of air spring with additional chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanical model of the air spring with an additional chamber was built with considering the temperature influence. The static and dynamic external characteristics of the air spring were also studied by comparing the results of the simulation with the experiment. The research shows the larger the additional volume is ,the smaller the spring stiffness , the air spring inherent

Zhongxing Li; Jiwei Guo; Mei Li; Xufeng Shen; Weijuan Jiang; Yue Wu

2011-01-01

416

Flow rates in the East Pacific rise (21/sup 0/N) hot springs, and numerical investigations of two regimes of hydrothermal circulation  

SciTech Connect

Flow rates of 0.7 to 2.4 m/s were measured in the hot springs on the East Pacific Rise (21/sup 0/N). We estimate that the Southwest, National Geographic, and the OBS vents collectively discharge 2 x 10/sup 8/ watts and 150 kg H/sub 2/O/S. The lifetimes of hot springs can not exceed 40,000 years because of the limited heat supply. Mechanical or chemical clogging of the flow routes may shorten these lifetime significantly. We predict that less than 3% of the sulfide particles debouched by the hot springs settle near the vents.

Converse, D.R.

1985-01-01

417

Illinois PER Interactive Examples: Box and Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive homework problem for introductory physics students relating to oscillation. It involves a box of known mass sliding across a frictionless surface into a relaxed spring. Given spring constant and initial speed, the student must determine how long the box is in contact with the spring before it is released at the equilibrium point. A user-activated "help" sequence is provided for each step of the problem-solving, from conceptual analysis through quantitative calculation. To promote critical thinking, immediate feedback is received for both correct and incorrect responses. This item is part of a larger collection of interactive homework problems for introductory physics.

Gladding, Gary

2008-09-10

418

Application of spring tabs to elevator controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

Phillips, William H

1944-01-01

419

Wet season reconnaissance report on Seeps and Springs in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE, 1993), seep and spring identification at WAG 6 is required. The Environmental Monitoring Plan requires the determination and monitoring of contaminant flux into and out of WAG 6. Part of the monitoring is accomplished through surface water monitoring stations and groundwater monitoring wells; however, these monitoring locations do not completely monitor all areas in WAG 6. Seeps and springs are known to exist within and around WAG 6. These seeps and springs can be used to provide; (1) additional monitoring data for near surface water/groundwater monitoring locations and (2) monitoring data for seep/spring locations where surface water/groundwater monitoring is not feasible. The identification and location of seeps and springs in and around the WAG 6 area were required to provide these data points. The location and identification of seeps and springs is referred to as a seep and spring reconnaissance. The reconnaissance for the WAG 6 area was conducted in accordance with Seep and Spring Reconnaissance Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6, (ECE, 1993). The plan required two reconnaissance efforts in order to compare and contrast seasonal effects on the seeps and springs. Both a dry season (August through October) and a wet season (November through mid-April) reconnaissance were performed. The plan required the identification of seep/spring locations under antecedent conditions of less than 0.1 inch of rainfall in the preceding 72 hours. The reconnaissance plan required that groundwater discharge (seeps and springs) locations be: visually identified, photographed, marked and numbered, and described. In addition, surface radiologic, volatile organic chemical measurements and estimated flow rate measurements were determined at each identified seep.

NONE

1995-02-01

420

The Spring kernel: a new paradigm for real-time operating systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation real-time systems will require greater flexibility and predictability than is commonly found in today's systems. These future systems include the space station, integrated vision\\/robotics\\/AI systems, collections of humans\\/robots coordinating to achieve common objectives (usually in hazardous environments such as undersea exploration or chemical plants), and various command and control applications. The Spring kernel is a research oriented kernel

John A. Stankovic; Krithi Ramamritham

1989-01-01

421

The chemistry of bottled mineral and spring waters from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two bottled mineral and spring waters from Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland have been analysed for 71 inorganic chemical parameters with low detection limits as a subset of a large European survey of bottled groundwater chemistry (N=884). The Nordic bottled groundwaters comprise mainly CaNaHCO3Cl water types, but more distinct CaHCO3, Na HCO3 and NaCl water types are also offered. The

Bjrn S. Frengstad; Kaj Lax; Timo Tarvainen; ystein Jger; Brge J. Wigum

2010-01-01

422

Streptomyces thermogriseus, a new species of the genus Streptomyces from soil, lake and hot-spring.  

PubMed

Many thermophilic actinomycetes were isolated from samples collected from a hot-spring, lake and soil in Yunnan, China. Chemical and molecular classification of four selected strains of thermophilic Streptomyces with an upper limited growth temperature of 65-68 degrees C and autolytic characteristics was carried out. A new species, Streptomyces thermogriseus sp. nov. is described. The type strain is Y-14046T (= CCTCC AA97014T). PMID:9828410

Xu, L H; Tiang, Y Q; Zhang, Y F; Zhao, L X; Jiang, C L

1998-10-01

423

Cold Spring Harbor study shows how bookmarking genes before cell division accelerates their subsequent reactivation:  

Cancer.gov

In order for cells of different types to maintain their identities even after repeated rounds of cell division, each cell must remember which genes were active before division and pass along that memory to its daughter cells. Cells deal with this challenge by deploying a bookmarking process... This bookmark, the [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory] scientists show, is a histone molecule that has undergone a chemical modification called acetylation, which alters its interactions with DNA as well as with proteins that bind to it.

424

Comparison of Spring Models for Dynamic Analysis of a High Voltage Circuit Breaker with a Spring Operating Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the performance of a circuit breaker mainly depends on the spring operating mechanism, an analysis of the spring operating mechanism is required for advanced designs. The spring, especially the closing spring, stores deformation energy from compression and then accelerates the load rapidly within the circuit breaker. To carry out a kinematic and dynamic analysis of circuit breakers, an accurate

Jeong-Hyun Sohn; Seung-Kyu Lee; Seung-Oh Kim; Wan-Suk Yoo

2008-01-01

425

Hot Springs Metropolitan Planning Organization 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan  

E-print Network

Spring County City of Hot Springs City of Mountain Pine Hot Springs Village The Greater Hot Springs Chamber of Commerce The Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department In Cooperation With United States Department of Transportation... Federal Highway Administration Federal Transit Administration 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan for the Hot Springs Area Metropolitan Planning Organization This LRTP has been funded with federal Metropolitan Planning (PL) funds through...

Hot Springs Metropolitan Planning Organization

2005-11-03

426

Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal River new channel and old channel sites provide data that potentially could yield more accurate real-time estimates of total Comal Springs flow than streamflow measured at the downstream Comal River site. For San Marcos Springs, the findings indicate shortcomings with ADVM installations at diversion spring and in the west and east outflow channels. However, the accuracy of streamflow measured at the San Marcos River gage as an estimate of real-time San Marcos Springs flow could potentially be increased through use of ADVM data from that site.

Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

2008-01-01

427

APS Forum on Education Newsletter - Spring 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The spring 2009 edition of the newsletter includes articles on the new solicitation for the Noyce Scholarship program and a discussion of the funding provided by Toyota for teacher training at James Madison University.

2009-02-22

428

Bead-spring rings with hydrodynamic interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to the kinetic theory of a dilute solution of bead-spring rings with hydrodynamic interaction is outlined. When the cyclic symmetry of the ring is exploited, the analysis of Hookean-spring rings is greatly simplified. Exact expressions for the time constants of a Hookean-spring ring with an arbitrary number of beads are obtained. The only effect of ring closure is to alter the spectrum of time constants. The form of the constitutive equation for a dilute solution of rings is the same as that for a dilute solution of Rouse chains. The results of Wiest et al. for Hookean-spring rings without hydrodynamic interaction, which were obtained by using a different approach, are recovered as a special case.

Liu, Tony W.; ttinger, Hans Christian

1987-09-01

429

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...gib, or pin may not be cracked or broken. A coil spring may not be fully compressed when the locomotive is at rest. (c) A shock absorber may not be broken or leaking clearly formed droplets of oil or other...

2010-10-01

430

Featured Scientific Meetings- OCCAM Newsletter, Spring 2010  

Cancer.gov

Spring 2010, Vol. 5 Issue 1 Skip navigation Home Feature A Conversation with News from the Field Funding Opportunities Research Resources Research Highlights CAM Information Meetings Featured Scientific Meetings Back to OCCAM Featured Scientific Meetings Date Meeting Location OCCAM

431

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

EIA Publications

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

2008-01-01

432

HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY ANTH 695 SPRING 2014  

E-print Network

1 HUMAN GROSS ANATOMY ANTH 695 ­ SPRING 2014 THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE description: Human Gross Anatomy provides advanced graduate students with in in Anatomy Lecture Series Fridays: 12:20 PM ­ 1:10 PM * All

Auerbach, Benjamin M.

433

OCCAM monthley lecture series- Newsletter Spring 2009  

Cancer.gov

Spring 2009, Vol. 4 Issue 1 Skip navigation Home Feature A Conversation with News from the Field Funding Opportunities Research Resources Research Highlights CAM Information Meetings OCCAM's Monthly Lecture Series Featured Scientific Meetings Back to

434

Physics 216 Spring 2012 The Optical Theorem  

E-print Network

Physics 216 Spring 2012 The Optical Theorem 1. The probability currents In the quantum theory of scattering, the optical theorem is a consequence of the conser- vation of probability. As usual, we define (x

California at Santa Cruz, University of

435

Physics 216 Spring 2012 The Optical Theorem  

E-print Network

Physics 216 Spring 2012 The Optical Theorem 1. The probability currents In the quantum theory of scattering, the optical theorem is a consequence of the conser­ vation of probability. As usual, we define

California at Santa Cruz, University of

436

Water-Quality Sampling at Willow Spring  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Hydrologist Brad Garner of the USGS Arizona Water Science Center prepares for water-quality sampling at Willow Spring, a Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Area in the Kanab Creek drainage of the Grand Canyon....

437

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN AIR QUALITY Spring 2010  

E-print Network

) Troposheric Ozone 6) Measurement of Ozone Gas-phase Meas. Techniques 15-16 Ambient Air Quality ExperimentEAS 6430 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN AIR QUALITY Spring 2010 Prof. Mike Bergin, Prof. Rodney Weber

Weber, Rodney

438

Department of Psychiatry Newsletter, Calgary Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Department of Psychiatry Newsletter, Calgary Spring 2014 From the Department Head recently secured a GFT position in geriatric psychiatry and healthy brain aging. He will collaborate exams in geriatric, child and adolescent, and forensic psychiatry. Congratulations to Dr. Rob Tanguay

Habib, Ayman

439

Spring 2014 GET TO KNOW OUR  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 GET TO KNOW OUR GSS LEADERS! #12;Hobbies: Hiking Kayaking Horseback riding Camping Reading magazines Playing Mario Kart AMANDA HOM BSCI 202 #12;Hobbies: Running Hiking Spending time with my

Gruner, Daniel S.

440

Ejs Intro SpringLab Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Introductory Spring Lab model asks students to develop a model for a mass on a spring. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_intro_SpringLab.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to modify this simulation (and see how it is designed), if you have Ejs installed, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: . The Intro Spring Lab program is one of a suite of Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used in Introductory Physics Labs. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, and is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. Additional models can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-05-30

441

The Nonlinear Spring and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an air track experiment demonstrating the transfer of mechanical energy from elastic potential to kinetic. Discusses four methods for calculating energy stored in the spring. Included are pictures, typical data, and graphs. (YP)

Sherfinski, John

1989-01-01

442

SP.778 Toy Product Design, Spring 2007  

E-print Network

Toy Product Design is a MIT Public Service Center learning design course offered in the Spring semester. This course is an introduction to the product design process with a focus on designing for play and entertainment. ...

Kudrowitz, Barry M. (Barry Matthew)

443

Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the "optical spring." The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing.

Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

2014-08-01

444

Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWeathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry. Besides, when springs emerge from crystalline massifs, rock structure must be accounted in formulas describing the area of minerals exposed to the percolating fluids, for a realistic evaluation of the rates. These particular features are not included in the available approaches and for that reason a new model was developed, coined THROW model. This is a lumped approach that integrates (T)opography, (H)ydrology, (RO)ck structure and (W)eathering in a single algorithm. The study area comprises several stream watersheds and spring sites of the Vouga River basin (northern Portugal), shaped on granites. Firstly, the THROW model couples a terrain modeling analysis with hydrologic models based on discharge rates, to determine hydraulic conductivities (K), effective porosities (ne) and annual recharges (Vr) at the stream watershed scale. Subsequently, these parameters are used in a water balance model to estimate concomitant groundwater travel times (t). The mean K [(4.7 3.2) 10-7 m s-1] and ne [(2.0 1.3) 10-2] values are adopted as proxies for the spring watersheds and a firm regression equation is defined between time and stream watershed area (A). Secondly, two more runs of terrain modeling analysis are executed to extrapolate morphologic parameters for the spring watersheds. The first run hinges on scaling properties of the drainage networks, known as Horton laws, and is used to scale watershed areas across stream orders (i). The scaling function is described by another regression equation. The second run evaluates the order of a spring watershed, defined as equivalent order (ieq) and equated to the mean order of the surrounding stream watersheds. Having calculated the ieq, spring watershed areas and travel times were downscaled using the regression equations (A < 10 km2 and t = 1.4-2.8 year). Standing on the physical and hydrologic parameters of the spring watersheds, the THROW model finally calculates plagioclase weathering rates in the vicinity of the spring sites. The SiB model (Pacheco and Van der Weijden, 1996) was used before to estimate the contribution of plagioclase dissolution to the chemical composition of these springs (Van der Weijden and Pacheco, 2006). The chemical data were now coupled with K, ne and t in a rate equation to estimate chemical weathering rates of plagioclase in the basin. In the THROW model, the rate equation describes the exposed surface area as a function of fracture spacings, openings and porosities (Pacheco and Alencoo, 2006). The calculated rates (WPl = (2.5 1.2) 10-14 mol m-2 s-1) are consistent with previous reports and with results of experimental kinetic models. The SiB results predict formation of halloysite and gibbsite along the flow path, which were indeed close to equilibrium with the dissolved Al and Si activities.

Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.

2012-03-01

445

ISOTOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NITRATE SOURCES IN KARSTIC SPRINGS IN THE BASIN OF PARIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Karst springs are widely used in drinking water supply because of their big productivity. However, water quality is very sensible because of rapid transport of water and contaminant through karst channels. Three groups of springs located in two neighboring watersheds, the Lunain and the Loing watershed contribute in Paris supply of drinking water. Villemer and Villeron springs are situated in the Lunain watershed (important agricultural activity), and Bourron springs is in the Loing watershed (big part of its surface covered by forests). Hydrochemical and geochemical characteristics of the springs are very different although they are close geographically. In Villemer spring, a high turbidity sometimes with specific bacterial contamination and phytosanitary products are observed. Nitrate concentrations vary between 30 and 50 mg/l. In the Villeron group of springs, the inter-annual and seasonal variability of nitrates is less important than Villemer, but it is much more enriched in nitrate with mean values of 50 mg/L which can reach 55mg/L. Phytosanitary substances are present. In Bourron site, nitrate concentrations are the lowest (~ 28 mg/L) and produces the largest daily discharge (phytosanitary products are not present). The Lunain watershed rests upon arising chalk formation. In the Loing watershed, the chalk formation is covered by Limestone formations, where several aquifers take place. Many previous hydrogeologic studies, especially artificial tracing, have shown that waters of the Lunain river are connected with all the three springs. The objective of the present study is 1) to understand nitrate origins in the studied springs, 2) to characterize different end-members of nitrate suitable to supply the springs, using d15N-NO3- and d18O-NO3- analyses and 3) to understand the effect of seasonal variations on the springs water supply. Isotopic and chemical characterizations of surface water, aquifers (chalk and limestone) and several environmental end-members (domestic effluents and agricultural derived water) were carried out. It enabled demonstrating that the seasonal fluctuations seem to have an effect on water mixing proportions in the springs. Both Villemer and Villeron are mainly supplied by the chalk groundwater and by an additional supply of the surface water (Lunain stream). The differences observed are that Villemer receives domestic effluents, directly or through the losses zone of the Lunain stream, and agricultural leaching water during the high flow season. Villeron site seems to be more connected with surface water and the isotopic signature (low ~ 2) and chemical results show fertilizers-derived water influence. The agricultural water contribution is more observed during the high flow season. In Bourron site, the isotopic signature shows a mixing of the chalk and limestone water in the high flow season and a more important contribution of limestone aquifer during the low flow period. Seasonal variations have an effect on the mixing proportions in this site.

El Gaouzi, F. J.; Sebilo, M.; Plagnes, V.; Ribstein, P.; Valds Lao, D.; Zakeossian, M.

2009-12-01

446

Geochemical controls on a calcite precipitating spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small spring fed stream was found to precipitate calcite by mainly inorganic processes and in a nonuniform manner. The spring water originated by rainwater falling in a 0.8 km2 basin, infiltrating, and dissolving calcite and dolomite followed by dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite. The Ca2+\\/Mg2+ indicates that calcite is probably precipitated in the subsurface from a supersaturated solution. This

Roger L. Jacobson; Eberhard Usdowski

1975-01-01

447

Two-slab all-optical spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is demonstrated that a waveguide consisting of two dielectric slabs may become an all-optical spring when guiding a superposition of two transverse evanescent modes. Both slabs are transversally trapped in stable equilibrium due to the optical forces developed. A condition for stable equilibrium on the wavenumbers of the two modes is expressed analytically. The spring constant characterizing the system is shown to have a maximal value as a function of the equilibrium distance between the slabs and their width.

Mizrahi, Amit; Schchter, Levi

2007-03-01

448

The deposition of silica in hot springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural hot spring waters ascending rapidly to the surface become supersaturated with respect to quartz because of rapid cooling,\\u000a separation of steam and sluggish deposition of quartz and other crystallineSiO\\u000a 2 phases. Large amounts of silica are likely to be deposited in hot spring systems only after the solubility of amorphous silica\\u000a has been exceeded. Cristobalite and chaleedony probably form

R. O. Fournier; J. J. Rowe

1966-01-01

449

Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.  

PubMed

Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring. PMID:15685980

Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

2004-01-01

450

Hydrogeochemical signatures of thermal springs compared to deep formation water of North Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal springs and hot deep formation waters can be used for geothermal energy production. Depending on the chemical composition of the used waters, geothermal power plants have to deal with scaling and corrosion effects. Therefore, the understanding of the hydrogeochemical behaviour of such waters can be helpful to enhance the efficiency of the energy production. This study is comparing hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal springs in the Harz Mountains (North Germany) and deep formation water of the North German Basin. The Harz Mountains consist of uplifted Palaeozoic rocks, whereas the North German Basin consists of sedimentary layers of Permian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. Volcanic rocks are included in the Permian layers. The thickness of the sedimentary basin varies between 2 km and more than 8 km. The deep aquifers of the North German Basin are mostly not involved in the recent meteoric water cycle. Their waters have contents of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) up to about 400 g/L. Thermal springs of the Harz Mountains are situated close to the main fracture system of the region. These springs are connected to the meteoric water cycle and display lower contents of TDS (< 25 g/L). In both geological systems the TDS content is increasing with depth and temperature. The elemental ratios of the waters (e.g., Na/Cl, Cl/Br, Na/Ca) indicate similar hydrogeochemical formation processes in the Harz Mountains and the North German Basin. The concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride differ due to salt dissolution and feldspar transformation (albitisation) in the thermal springs as well as in the deep formation waters. Based on today's knowledge hydrochemical and stratigraphical data from the North German Basin can be used to elucidate the geological origin of the thermal springs in the Harz Mountains. Acknowledgements. The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the State of Lower Saxony and the company Baker Hughes.

Bozau, Elke; van Berk, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

451

Spring Break-Weathering Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to photograph something that shows either physical or chemical weathering. They must be in the photograph for purposes of scale. They must then write up their description of the weathering feature and explain the actual weathering processes. This assignment can also be expanded to include mass wasting and mass wasting prevention.

Farthing, Dori

452

Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with massive silica deposits are plausible indicators on Mars of precipitation environments and aqueous chemistry. Theoretical model calculations are in reasonable agreement with independent experimental silica concentrations, which strengthens the validity of the new CHEMCHAU model. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

2011-01-01

453

Interbasin flow revisited: The contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs in the Furnace Creek area (Texas, Travertine, and Nevares Springs) of Death Valley National Park exhibit high discharge rates and depleted ?18O VSMOW (-13) and ?D VSMOW (-102) values. Isotopic depletion of this magnitude and large spring fluxes (10,000 L/min) suggests that modern local recharge in the arid Furnace Creek drainage cannot be responsible for spring fluxes. An alternate explanation, interbasin flow, is difficult to envisage due to the stratigraphic and structural relationships of bedrock in intervening ranges, although it is the most common conceptual model for Furnace Creek spring flows. High-flux springs at Furnace Creek nonetheless respond modestly to modern climate in terms of discharge rate and isotopic composition. Hydrographs show a climate response and variations in time-series stable isotope data of widely spaced springs track one another. Small, but measurable quantities of tritium (<0.2 TU) were found at Nevares Spring, also suggesting a component of modern recharge. Thus, whatever the main source of water for these springs may be, there appears to be a subtle, but recent climatic influence. Estimates of flow at nearby mountain springs produce discharge rates per square kilometer of catchment that, by analogy, could support from 20 to 300% of the flow at large Death Valley springs under the current climate. Yet, 14C model ages suggest valley-bottom springs at Furnace Creek (5500-14,500 yr) contain a large component of older water, suggesting that much of the water was recharged during a pluvial period (Younger Dryas?) when net infiltration would have been much higher and isotopically depleted. 14C model ages are also of similar age, or younger, than many 'up gradient' waters, rather than being older as would be expected for interbasin flow. Chemical evolution models of solutes are consistent with both local recharge and interbasin transfer from Ash Meadows. However, when considered with isotopic constraints, interbasin flow becomes obviously untenable. Estimates of the thickness of alluvium and semi-consolidated Tertiary units in the Furnace Creek drainage seem to provide adequate storage, confinement, and upward leakage to accommodate current discharge. Thus, although Death Valley is the ultimate discharge location for regional groundwaters in terms of potential, careful study of these springs suggests that most of their flux is supported by local pluvial recharge, suggesting that a careful re-evaluation of the interbasin transfers be conducted on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, regional flow models that are built on the concept of interbasin flow provide boundary flux conditions for site-scale models for the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Thus, site-scale models may over-predict the potential transport of waste from the Yucca Mountain facility.

Anderson, Katherine; Nelson, Stephen; Mayo, Alan; Tingey, David

2006-05-01

454

Cross-shaped torsional spring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.

Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.

1999-06-08

455

Cross-shaped torsional spring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

Williamson, Matthew M. (Boston, MA); Pratt, Gill A. (Lexington, MA)

1999-06-08

456

[SPring-8 structural biology beamline].  

PubMed

Nowadays, three-dimensional structure of protein becomes important to understanding and application of molecular mechanisms in enzyme reaction, signal transduction and other various biochemical processes. The amount of the information is now growing quantitatively and qualitatively, supported in part by the technical development of macromolecular crystallography. In the development, brilliant synchrotron radiation greatly contributes to enhance the accuracy and precision of diffraction data and the throughput of data collection. At SPring-8, JASRI and RIKEN collaborate to utilize the macromolecular crystallography beamlines and actualize these improvements. High throughput and routine analysis of protein structures is achieved by the development of automation system composed of sample exchange robotics and control software. The remote data collection system using the automation system and internet technology enhances efficiency and convenience of the beamlines. Moreover, the development of a rapid-readout complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) detector will improve throughput in data collection. On the other hand, data collection with high accuracy and precision is achieved by the utilization of brilliant X-ray produced from the in-vacuum undulator. Its brightest and stable beam enables high resolution data collection and 10 mum microbeam for microcrystals. Although the high brilliance severely damages protein samples, the users can estimate the degree of the damage and plan best data collection strategy. PMID:20460859

Kumasaka, Takashi; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Baba, Seiki; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki

2010-05-01

457

Delicious Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an approach to chemistry and nutrition that focuses on food items that people consider delicious. Information is organized according to three categories of food chemicals that provide energy to the human body: (1) fats and oils; (2) carbohydrates; and (3) proteins. Minerals, vitamins, and additives are also discussed along with

Barry, Dana M.

458

Chemical Mahjong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric

Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

2011-01-01

459

Chemical Evolution  

E-print Network

In this series of lectures we first describe the basic ingredients of galactic chemical evolution and discuss both analytical and numerical models. Then we compare model results for the Milky Way, Dwarf Irregulars, Quasars and the Intra-Cluster- Medium with abundances derived from emission lines. These comparisons allow us to put strong constraints on the stellar nucleosynthesis and the mechanisms of galaxy formation.

Francesca Matteucci

2007-04-05

460

Spring Term 2010 Assessment Report Page 1 Spring Term 2010: Assessment of the Learning Outcomes  

E-print Network

for the Spring Term: to enhance our students' critical and creative thinking skills. This is at the very heart Term experience affects students' abilities in critical and creative thinking. As we state in the Quality Enhancement Plan proposal, "Revitalizing the Spring Term," "Critical and creative thinking

Marsh, David

461

Spring 2015 Early Checkout Dates to Avoid Spring Registration Degree Audit/Admission to Candidacy  

E-print Network

Spring 2015 Early Checkout Dates to Avoid Spring Registration Degree Audit/Admission to Candidacy ·Complete the Graduation Application by Census Day of the Semester you intend to graduate. Checkout Card:30 Procession March begins. Check your Degree Evaluation ·This can be checked 1 to 2 weeks after you have turned

462

Spring 2014-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Spring 2014-Key Academic dates  

E-print Network

Spring 2014-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Spring 2014- Key Academic Internships December 13, 2013 Last day to turn in forms into the International Center to guarantee January 13, 2014 start date December 21, 2013 The last date to work the Fall Co-op & Internship (Work

Heller, Barbara

463

CS450E Capstone Project in CS Rivier College Spring 2007 Spring 2007  

E-print Network

CS450E Capstone Project in CS Rivier College Spring 2007 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Spring 2007 Rivier College Syllabus CS450E Capstone Project 1. Course number and title: CS450E Capstone. Riabov, Associate Professor, MA/CS Department Office: STH-312; Tel: (603) 897-8613; E-mail: vriabov

Riabov, Vladimir V.

464

1 Introduccin a Spring................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Qu es Spring?....................................................................................................... 4  

E-print Network

validación básica de datos (1 punto)..................................... 61 7 Aplicaciones AJAX y REST con Spring MVC..........................................................63 7.1 AJAX con Spring.............................................................................................. 67 7.3 Tratamiento de errores en aplicaciones AJAX y REST.........................................72

Escolano, Francisco

465

Chemical geothermometers and mixing models for geothermal systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Qualitative chemical geothermometers utilize anomalous concentrations of various "indicator" elements in groundwaters, streams, soils, and soil gases to outline favorable places to explore for geothermal energy. Some of the qualitative methods, such as the delineation of mercury and helium anomalies in soil gases, do not require the presence of hot springs or fumaroles. However, these techniques may also outline fossil thermal areas that are now cold. Quantitative chemical geothermometers and mixing models can provide information about present probable minimum subsurface temperatures. Interpretation is easiest where several hot or warm springs are present in a given area. At this time the most widely used quantitative chemical geothermometers are silica, Na/K, and Na-K-Ca. ?? 1976.

Fournier, R.O.

1977-01-01

466

Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.

2001-01-01

467

Zn isotope compositions of the thermal spring waters of La Soufrire volcano, Guadeloupe Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To trace the sources and pathways of Zn in hydrothermal systems, the Zn isotope compositions of seventeen water samples from eight thermal springs and six gas samples from two fumaroles from La Soufrire, an active volcano on Guadeloupe Island (French West Indies, FWI), were analyzed using a method adapted for purifying Zn from Fe- and SO4-enriched thermal solutions. The fumaroles are enriched in Zn 100 to 8000 times compared to the local bedrock and have isotopic compositions (?66Zn values from +0.21 to +0.35) similar to or slightly higher than fresh andesite (+0.21). The enrichment of Zn in the thermal springs compared with the surface waters shows that Zn behaves as a soluble element during hydrothermal alteration but is significantly less mobile than Na. The ?66Zn values of most of the spring waters are relatively constant (approximately 0.70), indicating that the thermal springs from La Soufrire are enriched in heavy isotopes (i.e., 66Zn) compared to the host rocks (from -0.14 to +0.42). Only three thermal springs have lower ?66Zn values (as low as -0.43%). While the Zn in the fumaroles is essentially derived from magma degassing, which is consistent with a previous study on Merapi volcano (Toutain et al., 2008), we show that the Zn in the thermal springs is mainly derived from water-rock interactions. The 66Zn-enriched isotopic signature in most of the spring waters can be explained qualitatively by the precipitation at depth of sulfide minerals that preferentially incorporate the light isotopes. This agrees with the isotopic fractionation that was recently calculated for aqueous complexes of Zn. The few thermal springs with lower ?66Zn values also have low Zn concentrations, indicating the preferential scavenging of heavy Zn isotopes in the hydrothermal conduits. This study shows that unlike chemical weathering under surface conditions, hydrothermal alteration at high temperatures significantly fractionates Zn isotopes and enriches thermal waters in heavy Zn isotopes (e.g., 66Zn). Continental hydrothermal systems therefore constitute a source of heavy Zn isotopes to the oceans; this should be taken into account in the global oceanic budget of Zn.

Chen, Jiu-Bin; Gaillardet, Jrme; Dessert, Cline; Villemant, Benoit; Louvat, Pascale; Crispi, Olivier; Birck, Jean-Louis; Wang, Yi-Na

2014-02-01

468

Self-Deployable Spring-Strip Booms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Booms and other structures consisting mainly of thin spring strips are undergoing development. These structures are designed to be lightweight, to be compactly stowable, and to be capable of springing to stable configurations at full extension once released from stowage. Conceived for use as self-deploying structures in outer space, portable structures of this type may also be useful on Earth in applications in which there are requirements for light weight and small transportation volume. The elements common to these structures are spring strips with curved cross sections -- similar to spring strips of the type commonly used as compactly stowable carpenters' measuring tapes. These structures exploit the nonlinear mechanical properties of such tapes, namely (1) strong resistance to axial buckling while they are straight and (2) ease with which they can be wound into compact rolls once they have been initially bent. For a structure that contains multiple such strips, the net effect of the combined nonlinear characteristics is the following: (1) When at full extension, the structure is in a stable state, in which it is rigid and strong. (2) When stowed compactly, the structure is in a state that is semistable in the sense that only a small force is needed to restrain the structure against deployment. (3) The strain energy stored in the spring strips during compaction is sufficient to deploy the structure to full extension when the restraint is removed.

Fang, Houfei; Lou, Michael; Palmer, Nathan

2003-01-01

469

Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

2008-01-01

470

77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical...controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties...

2012-02-21

471

Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

Hinke, Patrick Thomas (inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (inventor)

1993-01-01

472

Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

Hinke, Patrick Thomas (inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (inventor)

1995-01-01

473

Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

2009-01-01

474

The line spring model for surface flaws.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is discussed for the analysis of long part-through surface cracks in the walls of plate or shell structures. Such problems are formulated within the context of two dimensional plate and shell theory with the part-cracked section represented as a line-spring in the middle surface. The spring allows relative separations and rotations of the middle surface, and constitutive laws relating these discontinuities to the prevailing force and moment per unit length at any point are taken from the plane strain solution for a strip in combined tension and bending, which contains an edge crack of a corresponding depth. Prior work is reviewed and further line spring constitutive laws are discussed as appropriate to elastic analysis with thermal or residual stresses and to elastic-plastic analysis, with yielding in the ligament between the crack front and far wall in the latter case.

Rice, J. R.

1972-01-01

475

Spring Deposits and Mud Volcanoes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report evidence for spring deposits in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra. The Vernal structures are low mounds, each approximately 250 m by 500 m in extent, with terraced flanks, apical depressions, river-like channels, concentric fractures, and elliptical tonal anomalies. All of these features are common in terrestrial springs such as the Dalhousie complex in Australia. The structures occur in an apparent unit of interdune, water-laid sediment and are associated with evidence of subsurface fluid flow in sets of aligned outcrops. The Vernal springs may be part of a larger complex of spring deposits and lineations, suggesting that fluid flow in this region was relatively extensive. The structures in Vernal Crater are coated with a thin layer of dust, which prevents mineral identification from orbit. In an attempt to find evidence for additional spring mounds, we conducted a survey of nearly 2,000 locations for which CRISM spectral images are available. We used CRISM data to identify dust-free, hydrated areas and HiRISE, CTX, and MOC images to evaluate morphology. This study covered all longitudes and latitudes from 50N to 70S, except near Tharsis where data were analyzed south of 15S. No location exhibited morphological features that closely resembled those in Vernal Crater, suggesting that these putative spring mounds are not common in the highlands of Mars. Our search led us to concentrate on a dust-free area, centered at 41.8N, 332.5E in Acidalia Planitia where Farrand et al. (2005) identified features resembling spring mounds or mud volcanoes. Tanaka et al. (2005) mapped this region as part of the Early Amazonian Vastitas Borealis Unit, interpreted as reworked sediments from outflow channels and highland sources. We mapped over 20 high-albedo pitted domes in the area covered by one HiRISE frame, with dome diameters ranging from 350 m to 1 km. Nearby, similar domes have measured heights ranging from 36 to 65 m. The dome material is darker in THEMIS nighttime IR than the surrounding plains, indicating that the domes have relatively lower thermal inertia. The dome material is also very smooth, and appears smeared across the textured plains and in local depressions as if it were emplaced by low viscosity flows. CRISM spectral data (Leah Roach, Brown Univ.) were used to assess the mineralogy of selected features. Dome spectra exhibit a steep shoulder from 0.4 to 0.6 microns and are generally featureless in the near IR, overall resembling the spectra of bright Martian soil. The steep shoulder is due to the oxidization of iron to Fe3+. Dome spectra do not exhibit evidence for hydrated minerals or precipitates such as carbonates or silica. While a range of origins has been suggested for the Acidalia domes, we believe that they are most consistent with a mud volcano analog. A volcano or pseudocrater origin is unlikely, as no lava flows or volcanic features are observed in the vicinity. A spring mound origin is also unlikely, due to the absence of hydrated or spring precipitate mineral signatures in the CRISM spectral data as well as the absence of terracing, channels, and circumferential faults that typify the Vernal springs. In addition to the Vernal springs and the Acidalia mud volcanoes, several other recent studies have pointed to evidence of subsurface fluid flow. These include the large spring deposits proposed by Rossi et al. (2008), the resistant knobs in Candor Chasma (Chan, 2008), and the bleached zones along faults in Valles Marineris (Treiman, 2008). Together, these features are changing our understanding of the hydrologic history of Mars. class="ab'>

Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Baker, D. M.

2008-12-01

476

Contact-spring forming machine for flat conductor cable receptacles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine tool produces beryllium-copper contact springs for FCC /flat conductor cable/ feed-through receptacles. The springs are heat-treated and plated to impart the required electrical contact properties.

Angele, W.; Martineck, H. G.

1968-01-01

477

DETAIL OF THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

478

THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

479

5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

480

Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction  

DOEpatents

An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

McIntyre, Peter M. (611 Montclair, College Station, TX 77840); Soika, Rainer H. (1 Hensel, #X4C, College Station, TX 77840)

2002-01-01

481

SBA Field Studies: Business in Mexico Spring 2010  

E-print Network

SBA Field Studies: Business in Mexico Spring 2010 Education Abroad Application Packet SBA Field Studies: Business in Mexico Spring 2011 International Component: Application deadline: Friday, January 14 managerial training and executive programs in England, Italy, Mexico, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia

482

6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

483

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN | Spring 2012Undergraduate Recruitment Magazine  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN | Spring 2012Undergraduate Recruitment Magazine Adventuresin Australia of Saskatchewan Undergraduate Recruitment Magazine SPRING 2012 MANAGER OF UNDERGRADUATE RECRUITMENT Dan Seneker: Student and Enrolment Services Division University of Saskatchewan 38 College Building Saskatoon, SK S7N 5

Peak, Derek

484

9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

485

5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

486

1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

487

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

488

COMP 365 Computer Graphics Spring 2014 COMP 365 Computer Graphics  

E-print Network

COMP 365 Computer Graphics Spring 2014 § COMP 365 Computer Graphics § M-W Lecture (SC 1315) ­ 2 of style. #12;COMP 365 Computer Graphics Spring 2014 Grading: There will be a midterm and a final exam

Gousie, Michael B.

489

2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

490

6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

491

Southern Spring in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

492

Northern Polar Spring in IR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 12 March 2004

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

493