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Sample records for weldon spring chemical

  1. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Aquifer Characteristics Data Report for the Weldon Spring Site chemical plant/raffinate pits and vicinity properties for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the procedures and methods used, and presents the results of physical testing performed, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the shallow Mississippian-Devonian aquifer beneath the Weldon Spring chemical plant, raffinate pits, and vicinity properties. The aquifer of concern is composed of saturated rocks of the Burlington-Keokuk Limestone which constitutes the upper portion of the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. This aquifer is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium which can be described in terms of diffuse Darcian flow overlain by high porosity discrete flow zones and conduits. Average hydraulic conductivity for all wells tested is 9.6E-02 meters/day (3.1E-01 feet/day). High hydraulic conductivity values are representative of discrete flow in the fractured and weathered zones in the upper Burlington-Keokuk Limestone. They indicate heterogeneities within the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneity in the horizontal plane is believed to be randomly distributed and is a function of fracture spacing, solution voids, and preglacial weathering phenomena. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities in deeper portions of the aquifer are though to be due to the presence of widely spaced fractures. 44 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-10

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation.

  4. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M M; Peterson, J M

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon-Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA`s National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action.

  5. Proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    2003-08-06

    This Proposed Plan (PP) presents the preferred alternative for addressing contaminated groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site, in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located about 30 mi west of St. Louis, in St. Charles County (Figure 1). This proposed action constitutes the final remedial action for the Weldon Spring site. The residual contamination in groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area is the only remaining contamination that needs to be addressed for the site. All other contamination has been addressed by previous remedial actions. After this remedial action is implemented, long-term surveillance and maintenance activities will maintain the effectiveness of all remedial actions conducted at the Weldon Spring site, including this final remedial action for groundwater and springs that is being proposed in this plan. DOE complies with the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in conducting remedial activities at the site. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process; that is, the analysis conducted and presented in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This PP is required under CERCLA to (1) notify the public and present a brief analysis of the remedial action alternatives, (2) identify and present the rationale for the preferred remedial action alternative identified in the PP, (3) summarize key information from the RI/FS evaluations, including the Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), and (4) inform the public of its role in the remedy selection process and give the public the opportunity to participate in the process. Remediation activities at the Weldon Spring site have been coordinated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). The EPA has overall oversight and approval authority, with consultation provided by the MDNR. A range of alternatives was considered in identifying the preferred alternative. The alternatives were developed after careful analysis of geological, environmental, and human health and ecological risk data and an evaluation of the effectiveness, implementability, and cost of the various technologies available for groundwater remediation at the Chemical Plant area. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities has been selected as the preferred alternative.

  6. Chemical soil investigation report for the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report presents data and interpretations from the Phase II Chemical Soil Investigation at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits. This investigation was performed to provide data in support of the Remedial Investigation and Baseline Risk Assessment. The investigation consisted of both biased and unbiased sampling programs designed to detect contamination from previous operations. Very small amounts of nitroaromatic compound contamination were detected in former ordnance production areas. Metals and inorganic anion contamination was observed in numerous locations related to both explosives and uranium production. Small amounts of semi-volatile organic, pesticide, and PCB contamination were also detected. No volatile organic contamination was observed. The data collected in this investigation was of sufficient quality and quantity to characterize the on-site chemical soil contamination. Additional investigations may be required to support remedial design. 14 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  8. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  9. Successful decommissioning and demolition at Weldon Spring

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    B&W Nuclear Environmental Services, Inc. (B&W NESI) and OHM Corporation (OHM) formed a joint venture company, B&W/OHM Weldon Spring, Inc. (B&W/OHM WSI) to perform work at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). This joint venture company combines the hazardous and toxic waste remediation experience of OHM with the radiological decontamination and decommissioning experience of B&W NESI. Together, the two companies have over 60 yr of relevant experience and a strong record of performance in resolving problems associated with nuclear and hazardous materials contamination. The B&W/OHM WSI is under contract to MK-Ferguson, DOE`s project management contractor (PMC), at WSSRAP to provide supervision, tools, labor, and equipment to decontaminate and dismantle 11 buildings at the chemical plant site. The Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles, Missouri, was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 through 1966 as a feed material production site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates. Since the cessation of production activity at this site, the buildings and structures contained in the chemical plant have badly deteriorated, posing an immediate potential threat to workers, the general public, and the environment, prompting the DOE to initiate an Expedited Response Action to decontaminate, empty, and dismantle all the buildings and structures.

  10. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, J.G.

    1993-12-31

    Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

  11. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  12. Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

  13. Waste assessment chemical characterization of the Weldon Spring site Raffinate Pitts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    As part of the remedial investigation efforts conducted at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action project (WSSRAP), it was recognized that an assessment of the nature and extent of the types of waste in the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits (WSRP) was necessary to evaluate treatment and disposal alternatives. A sampling plan was developed, therefore, which detailed sample locations, sample parameters, and sampling techniques. The sampling effort consisted of collecting 145 samples from 42 locations. The sampling locations were evenly distributed across each of the four raffinate pits in terms of both area and depth. The samples were analyzed for nitroaromatics, metals, inorganic anions, volatiles, semi-volatiles, PCBs/pesticides, oil and grease, total organic halogens, total organic carbon, cyanides and phenols. The data were then evaluated specific to each pit. At a later date the surface waters of each pit were sampled and similarly analyzed for metals. Samples were also analyzed for radiological contaminants. Information regarding radiological characterization is available in a companion report. 5 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized.

  15. Phase 2 groundwater quality assessment for the Weldon Spring site chemical plant/raffinate pits and surrounding vicinity properties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report brings together the most current information on groundwater contamination in the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits (WSCP/WSRP) area and vicinity properties (WSVP) of the Weldon Spring Site (WSS). In 1988 the monitoring well network was extended by the addition of 33 new wells installed at two depths so they could be used for vertical and lateral characterization. The analytical categories for the study were inorganic anions, nitroaromatic compounds, radiochemical parameters, metals, and total organic carbon. Nitrate contamination in groundwater is a result of leaking raffinate pits. The apparent sources of sulfate contamination are associated with the manufacturing of TNT and DNT. Nitroaromatic compounds are present in the groundwater at the WSS as a result of operations at the WSOW during World War II. Historically, only two monitoring wells indicate uranium levels greater than 40 pCi/L which at this time seems to be the most likely drinking water standard the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will establish. Some metals concentrations in groundwater appear to be connected to the raffinate pits as a point source. Other metals are present in the groundwater, not point sources have been identified for them. The contract required detection limits (CRDLs) for some metals higher than regulatory drinking water standards. 19 refs., 24 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List (NPL).

  17. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    1993-01-01

    The geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from raffinate pits were determined at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site. Surface-water samples from the raffinate pits con- tained large concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, nitrite, lithium, moly- bdenum, strontium, vanadium, and uranium. Analyses of interstitial-water samples from raffinate pit 3 indicated that concentrations of most constituents increased with increasing depth below the water- sediment interface. Nitrate and uranium were not chemically reduced and attenuated within the raffinate pits and can be expected to migrate into the overburden. Laboratory sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH value on the sorption of several raffinate constituents by the overburden. No sorption of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, or lithium was observed. Sorption of molybdenum was dependent on solution pH and sorption of uranium was dependent on solution pH and carbonate concentration. The sorption of uranium and molybdenum was consistent with sorption controlled by oxyhydroxides. The quality of water collected in overburden lysimeters near raffinate pit 4 can be modeled as a mixture of water from raffinate pits 3 and 4, and an uncontaminated com- ponent in a system at equilibrium with ferrihydrite and calcite. Increased constituent concentrations in a perennial spring north of the site were the result of a subsurface connection between the spring and several losing stream segments receiving runoff from the site, in addition to seepage from the raffinate pits.

  18. Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures.

  19. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  20. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  1. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  2. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e.g., radium and thorium) were measured at back-ground levels and were eliminated from further consideration. Chemical contaminants identified in wells at the chemical plant area and ordnance works area include nitroaromatic compounds, metals, and inorganic anions. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2 -DCE) have been detected recently in a few wells near the raffinate pits at the chemical plant.

  3. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

  4. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the interceptor trench field study near the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy proposes to construct a groundwater interceptor trench near the Weldon Spring Quarry at the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. The trench would be located near two palustrine wetland areas. Impacts to wetland hydrology and biotic communities are expected to be negligible. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  5. Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-06

    Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat alternative in Zones 1 and 2 constitute the major component of the overall present-worth cost for Alternative 4, which indicates that the cost for Alternative 7 would be similarly high. Another observation is that although estimated times are shorter for the pump and treat approach than those for MNA, pump and treat for Zones 1 and 2 likely would take several decades (at least 30 years) to attain ARARs or bench marks. The cost estimates (in present-worth costs) for Alternatives 4 and 7 are much higher (approximately an order of magnitude higher) than those for Alternative 3.

  6. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  7. Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

  8. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the nature and extent of contamination is presented in Section 1.2, and the results of the BRA are summarized in Section 1.3. The objective of this FS is discussed in Section 1.4, and preliminary remediation goals are identified in Section 1.5. The organization of the remaining chapters of this FS is outlined in Section 1.6.

  9. Development of a model for geomorphological assessment at U.S. DOE chemical/radioactive waste disposal facilities in the central and eastern United States; Weldon spring site remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Rockaway, J.D.; Smith, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Landform development and long-term geomorphic stability is the result of a complex interaction of a number of geomorphic processes. These processes may be highly variable in intensity and duration under different physiographic settings. This limitation has influenced the applicability of previous geomorphological stability assessments conducted in the arid or semi-arid western United States to site evaluations in more temperate and humid climates. The purpose of this study was to develop a model suitable for evaluating both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes which may impact landform stability and hence the stability of disposal facilities located in the central and eastern United States. The model developed for the geomorphological stability assessment at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) near St. Louis, Missouri, included an evaluation of existing landforms and consideration of the impact of both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes. These parameters were evaluated with respect to their impact and contribution to three assessment criteria considered most important with respect to the stability analysis; evaluation of landform age, evaluation of present geomorphic process activity and ; determination of the impact of the completed facility on existing geomorphic processes. The geomorphological assessment at the Weldon Spring site indicated that the facility is located in an area of excellent geomorphic stability. The only geomorphic process determined to have a potential detrimental effect on long-term facility performance is an extension of the drainage network. A program of mitigating measures has been proposed to minimize the impact that future gully extension could have on the integrity of the facility.

  10. Multimedia assessment of health risks for the Weldon Spring site remedial action project

    SciTech Connect

    Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. The Weldon Spring site became radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The US Department of the Army used the Weldon Spring site to produce dinitrotoluene (DNT) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives from 1941 to 1946. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor of the DOE) used the site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates from 1957 to 1966. The quarry was used by the Army and the AEC for waste disposal beginning in the early 1940s; it was last used for disposal in 1969. Wastes placed in the quarry include TNT and DNT residues and radioactively contaminated materials. A summary of disposal activities at the quarry is presented. As part of the environmental compliance process at the Weldon Spring site, a baseline risk evaluation (BRE) was prepared to assess the potential risks associated with contamination present at the quarry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

  12. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  13. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Nowadly, F.K.; Knight, W.C.; Vajda, G.F.

    1988-08-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is being conducted as a Major System Acquisition under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. The Weldon Spring site is located near Weldon Spring, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It is surrounded by large tracts of land owned by the federal government and the state of Missouri. The site consists of four raffinate pits, an inactive chemical plant, and a contaminated quarry. The raffinate pits and chemical plant are on adjoining land about 3.2 km (2 mi) southwest of the junction of Missouri (State) Route 94 and US Route 40/61, with access from Route 94. The quarry is located in a comparatively remote area about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area; the quarry can also be accessed from Route 94. These areas are fenced and closed to the public. From 1941 to 1944, the US Department of the Army operated the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works, constructed on the land that is now the Weldon Spring site, for production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT). The Army used the quarry for disposal of rubble contaminated with TNT. In the mid 1950s, 83 ha (205 acres) of the ordnance works property was transferred to the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC); this is now the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. An additional 6 ha (15 acres) was later transferred to the AEC for expansion of waste storage capacity. 23 refs., 37 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. Development of the chemical stabilization and solidification process for the treatment of radioactive raffinate sludges at the DOE Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, P.M.; Kakaria, V. [Morrison Knudsen Corp., Boise, ID . Environmental Enger, J.

    1996-12-31

    Chemical Solidification and Stabilization (CSS) is the mixing of chemical reagents with waste to solidify and chemically stabilize the contaminated material. The resulting product is resistant to leaching of certain contaminants. CSS treatment using Class C fly ash and Portland cement was chosen as the most feasible method for treatment of the chemically and radioactively contaminated sludge (raffinate) contained in raffinate pits on the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) located outside of St. Louis, Missouri. Due to the uniqueness of the material, substantial bench-scale testing was performed on the raffinate to better understand its properties. Similarly, due to mixed results in the application of CSS treatment to radioactive materials, a pilot-scale testing facility was built to verify bench testing results and to establish and quantify design parameters for the full-scale CSS production facility. This paper discusses the development of the pilot-scale testing facility, the testing plan, and the results of the testing activities. Particular attention has been given to the applicability of the CSS treatment method and to the value of pilot-scale testing.

  15. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  16. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1999-12-15

    The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  17. Radiological survey report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The Weldon Spring Site (WSS) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility comprising the Raffinate Pits facility, the Quarry, and potentially contaminated vicinity properties. Radiological characterization of the WSS will be conducted in three phases: the Raffinate Pits facility, Quarry, and the vicinity properties. Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) and its radiological support subcontractor, Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), conducted a radiological characterization survey of the Raffinate Pits during 1982 and 1983 in support of on-site construction work and a technical evaluation of site geology. The survey consisted of direct beta-gamma surface readings, near-surface gamma readings, exposure level measurements, and gamma-logs of boreholes. Soil samples were also collected from the surface, shallow boreholes, and trenches on the site. This report describes the radiological characterization of the Raffinate Pits facility, the procedures used to conduct the survey, the survey results, and their significance. 5 references, 9 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Streamlined RI/FS planning for the groundwater operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M.H.; Durham, L.A.; Blunt, D.L.; Hartmann, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis and 22 km (14 mi) southwest of the City of St. Charles. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission during the 1950s and 1960s. The Army also used the chemical plant area for the production of explosives in the 1940s. The Weldon Spring Site chemical plant area was listed on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Adjacent to the chemical plant area is another NPL site known as the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works. The ordnance works area is a former explosive production facility that manufactured trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) during World War II. The ordnance works area covers 7,000 ha (17,232 acres); cleanup of this site is managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CE).

  19. Weldon Spring quarry construction staging area and water treatment plant site remedial action characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The quarry construction staging area (QCSA) and water treatment plant (WTP) are located in the areas that border the western edge of the Weldon Spring quarry (WSQ). These facilities were constructed to support bulk waste removal from the WSQ. This area was contaminated with U-238, Ra-226, and Th-230 and was remediated prior to construction in order to allow release of the area for use without radiological restrictions. This report documents the methods of characterization, the remediation activities, and the post remedial action sampling methods and analytical results. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the remediation of the southeast drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1996-08-01

    The US DOE proposes to remove contaminated sediments from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage, a natural stream near the Weldon Spring site in Missouri. Under the Preferred Alternative, approximately 1,929 m{sup 3} of sediments would be excavated from the Southeast Drainage. Aquatic communities within the stream would be temporarily disturbed, but populations of aquatic biota within the stream would be expected to recover. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

  1. Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the remediation of Vicinity Property 9 at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lonkhuyzen, R.A. Van

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to excavate contaminated soil at Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), a 0.64-ha (1.6-acre) parcel near the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. A palustrine wetland approximately 0.10 ha (0.25 acre) in size within VP9 would be excavated. Site restoration should allow palustrine wetland to become reestablished. No long-term impacts to floodplains are expected.

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE), Weldon Spring, MO. (Second remedial action), September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The 226-acre Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE) site is a former ordnance works and chemical plant near the city of Weldon Spring in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site is divided into two noncontiguous areas: a 217-acre chemical plant area, comprised of various buildings, ponds and four raffinate pits, and a 9-acre quarry, which forms a valley wall at the edge of the Missouri River floodplain. Since the early 1940s, the site has been used by various government agencies for chemical and ordnance processing with chemical and radioactive waste disposal in the quarry. From 1941 to 1946, the site was an Army ordnance works used for the production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) explosives. The selected interim remedial action for the site includes excavating an estimated 95,000 cubic yards of chemically and radioactively contaminated bulk wastes from the quarry and temporarily storing the wastes onsite in the chemical plant area; and implementing site access restrictions. The estimated total cost for the remedial action is $11,000,000.

  3. Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

  4. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  5. Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.

    2002-02-26

    The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

  7. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  8. The effect of a zero-concentration sink on contaminant transport and remedial-action designs for the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1990-04-01

    One-dimensional analytical expressions are developed to simulate two processes in a homogeneous porous medium: contaminant transport through a porous medium that has a zero-concentration sink located at a finite distance from a step-function source; and contaminant transport through a porous medium that has an initial steady-state distribution corresponding to a constant strength source and zero-concentration sink separated by a finite distance. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless form, making use of the flow system's Peclet number. Evaluation of the analytical expressions is accomplished by numerical inversion of Laplace-space concentrations using either a full Fourier series approach with acceleration, or the Stehfest algorithm. The analytical expressions are used to evaluate possible contaminant conditions at the Weldon Spring quarry near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The following results have been found: contaminant concentrations should be at or near steady-state conditions; the spatial distribution of contaminants should be a function of the flow system's Peclet number; contaminant concentrations near the Femme Osage Slough should approach zero; contaminant concentrations near the quarry during dewatering and bulk-waste removal should monotonically decrease with time; and the spatial distribution of contaminants during remedial activities should be relatively flat, especially near the dewatering pumps. Future work will entail evaluating existing radionuclide or chemical concentration data to determine the applicability of the proposed contaminant transport model and to improve the hydrogeological conceptualization of the quarry area and vicinity. 20 refs., 27 figs.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Weldon Spring Quarry/Plant/Pits (USDOE), MO, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. This operable unit addresses the various sources of contamination at the chemical plant area including soils, sludge, sediment, and materials placed in short-term storage as a result of previous response actions. The remedial action uses treatment to address the principal threat remaining at the site, (e.g., raffinate pit sludges and certain soil from the quarry).

  10. Hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St. Charles County, Missouri; 1984-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.; Barks, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrologic and water quality data were collected during an investigation of the Weldon Spring radioactive waste disposal sites and surroundings area in St. Charles County, Missouri, from 1984 to 1986. The data consists of water quality analyses of samples collected from 45 groundwater and 27 surface water sites. This includes analyses of water from four raffinate pits and from the Weldon Spring quarry. Also included in the report are the results of a seepage run on north flowing tributaries to Dardenne Creek from Kraut Run to Crooked Creek. Mean daily discharge from April 1985 to April 1986 is given for two springs located about 1.5 mi north of the chemical plant. (USGS)

  11. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fourth year (1996) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The fourth year at the Weldon Springs Site shows sustained progress as the project moves through the final design and into the remedial action phases of the Chemical Plant Operable Unit. The remedial action phase includes the Foundations Removal work package, Chemical Solidification and Stabilization, and disposal cell.

  12. Weldon Spring citizens commission overview for 1996. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Weldon Spring DOE grantee, St. Charles County, is seeking a twelve month renewal of the Weldon Spring Grant to cover calendar year 1997. This annual overview provides a brief historical account of the Weldon Spring Citizen Commission`s origins as well its` activities and accomplishments i calendar year 1996. In late January of 1995, the St. Charles County Executive appointed seven St. Charles County residents to be members of the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission, an oversite committee for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weldon Spring site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The seven appointed Commission members were selected by the three member Selection Panel/Work Group. This group consisted of one member selected by each of the following: The DOE, St. Charles County Executive, and the St. Charles County Council. The end of the first year an agreement was reached between the Citizens Commission, the County Administration and the DOE that support of the Commissions activities for the upcoming year did not require the services of a full time project director. With the contracting of part time administrative assistance in April of 1996, the communications, office management, and financial management capabilities of the Commission have seen tremendous improvements. These improvements have enabled the Commission to spend more of their energy on fulfilling their oversite responsibilities. A overview of these activities and accomplishments are presented in the next section.

  13. Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

  14. Utilizing governmental agencies and universities at mixed waste facilities - A Weldon Spring Site case study

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, K.A. Jr.; Lutz, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste remedial action project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site consists of four separate operable units - the Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits, Quarry Bulk Wastes, Quarry Residuals and Groundwater, and Chemical Plant/Raffinate Pits Groundwater. The environmental documentation processes for the quarry bulk wastes removal and the chemical plant/raffinate pits are complete with signed records of decision in place and remedial action underway. The quarry residuals and chemical plant/raffinate pits groundwater remedial investigations are in the planning stages. The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) has utilized several Federal and State agencies and local universities to support both the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process and the routine environmental monitoring required by DOE Orders. These include the U.S. Geological Survey; the Missouri Department of Natural Resources-Division of Geology and Land Survey, the University of Missouri-Rolla; St. Louis University; Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville; and Lindenwood College. Each of these entities has played a useful role, generally supplying high quality results and supporting the overall project mission while, in many cases, accomplishing independent research. The range of topics addressed includes groundwater/surface water interaction, regional hydrogeology, geochemical influences on contaminant fate and transport, ecological studies, and potential seismic affects. Benefits of extramural involvement include specialized expertise on sensitive issues, more constructive reviews of site documents, greater public trust, and development of a {open_quotes}team{close_quotes} attitude among the stakeholders. These arrangements require critical attention to ensure mutual benefit.

  15. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  16. Environmental Response to Remedial Actions at the Weldon Spring Site--An Environmental Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J. A.; Welton, T. D.

    2002-02-27

    Environmental remediation activities have been ongoing at the Weldon Spring Site for over a decade, beginning with small interim response actions and culminating in completion of surface cleanup as represented by closure of the 17 hectare (42-acre) on-site disposal cell. As remedial actions have incrementally been accomplished, the occurrence of site-related contaminants in on and off-site environmental media have effectively been reduced. The DOE-WSSRAP has demonstrated success through the effective reduction or elimination of site related water and airborne contaminants along multiple migration pathways. This paper briefly describes the remedial measures affected at Weldon Spring, and quantifies the environmental responses to those remedial measures.

  17. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  18. Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy; Starr, Ken

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site management activities necessary to ensure that the Weldon Spring Site remains protective over the long-term. The LTS and M Plan is revised periodically to ensure its applicability to changing site, regulatory, or procedural conditions. In addition to addressing such activities as long-term groundwater monitoring and disposal cell maintenance, the LTS and M Plan was developed and issued to ensure that the use restrictions identified in the ESD were properly imposed and maintained. The LTS and M Plan included a detailed IC Implementation Plan, which includes a process for evaluating and identifying specific IC mechanisms that best accomplish the objectives set out in the ESD. Consistent with EPA guidance on selecting ICs, various IC mechanisms were evaluated, including government controls, proprietary controls, enforcement tools, and informational devices. Where appropriate, redundant mechanisms were employed to increase the effectiveness of the ICs. Information in the IC Implementation Plan includes: (1) a discussion of current site conditions (reflecting post-remedial action conditions for the Chemical Plant and Quarry Areas and the risk-basis for why use restrictions are needed); (2) the objectives of, or performance expectations for, the use restrictions; (3) specific ICs already in place and additional mechanisms identified for implementation; (4) a schedule for implementing additional ICs; (5) procedures for maintaining the ICs and for conducting periodic inspections; and (6) general provisions for the implementing ICs for the site. The actual agreements and documentation of the various ICs are included in an appendix of the LTS and M Plan. These documents are also available via the internet from the authorizing agencies (County, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, EPA, etc.) The Weldon Spring Site personnel have been successful in finalizing each of the ICs that were established for the site. The planning, establishment, and implementation of the ICs was a long and detailed process with several lessons-learned that were identified along the way. (authors)

  19. A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

  20. Analysis of potential groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.Y.; Peterson, J.M.; Winters, M.C.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of the analysis of contaminant migration beneath the raffinate pits at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site indicate that during a 10,000-year time period, the maximum concentrations in the water immediately beneath the pit bottoms would be about 4600 pCi/L of radium-226 (Pit 3) and about 12,000 pCi/L of uranium-238 (Pit 1); these concentrations would occur at the centers of the pit bottoms. Based on the assumptions used in this study, the radioactive contaminants in the pits would migrate no more than 2 m (7 ft) below the pit bottoms. Because 6 to 12 m (20 to 40 ft) of silty clays underlie the raffinate pits, the radioactive contaminants would take several tens of thousands of years to reach nearby groundwater supplies. Although the results of these analyses indicate that a high degree of confinement is provided by the four raffinate pits, it should be noted that the validity of such analyses rests on the quality of the parameter values utilized. Due to a lack of current site-specific data for some physical parameters, it has been necessary to use historical and regional data for these values. The values cited are at times inconsistent and contradictory, e.g., the wide range of values indicated for the permeability of clays underlying the pits. However, these were the only data available. The analysis reported herein indicates that within the limitations of the available data, use of the Raffinate Pits site for long-term management of radioactive materials such as those currently being stored in the four pits appears to be feasible. 24 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  1. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils - Phase 2 Report: Screening of Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Nakaoka, R.K.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Bates, S.O.

    1989-11-01

    This report is intended to aid the Weldon Spring Project Management Contractor in screening two vitrification technologies developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the remediation of raffinate sludges and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. A previous report (Koegler, Oma, and Perez 1988) described the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM) and in situ vitrification (ISV) processes and their applicability to remediation of the Weldon Spring site based on existing information and previous PNL experience with similar wastes. Subsequent treatability tests and product analysis were conducted by PNL to further evaluate the JHCM and ISV processes. The treatability tests involved laboratory and bench-scale tests with actual raffinate sludge and uncontaminated soil from the Weldon Spring site. The vitrified product from the JHCM and ISV treatability tests was analyzed for a wide range of characteristics, including durability (leach resistance), strength, and toxicity. Both the process performance test and product quality were used to assess the two PNL vitrification technologies to determine their effectiveness, implementability, and cost. 11 refs., 16 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  3. Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, R B; Boback, M W

    1982-04-19

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation contains contaminated building rubble, scrap, and various residues. During 1979 and 1980 these storage locations were managed by NLO, Inc., contract operator of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center. Air and water samples were collected to provide information about the transfer of radionuclides in the offsite environment. Monitoring results show that uranium and radium concentrations in offsite surface and well water were within DOE Guide values for uncontrolled areas. At offsite locations, radon-222 concentrations in air were well within the Guide value.

  4. Comparison of surface meteorological data representativeness for the Weldon Spring transport and dispersion modeling analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.

    1989-06-01

    The US Department of Energy is conducting the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus property available for other uses to the extent possible. This report presents the results of analysis of available meteorological data from stations near the Weldon Spring site. Data that are most representative of site conditions are needed to accurately model the transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with remedial activities. Such modeling will assist the development of mitigative measures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-23

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

  6. Expediting cleanup at the Weldon Spring site under CERCLA and NEPA

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; McCracken, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action project is being conducted under the Surplus Facilities Management Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE has developed an environmental compliance strategy for this project to meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). A key element of this strategy was the development of an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process to minimize, to the extent possible, the need to prepare duplicate documentation. Additionally, the project is implementing various expedited response actions to mitigate actual or potential uncontrolled releases if radioactively or chemically hazardous substances to the environment and to minimize potential health and safety risks to on-site personnel and local human and biotic populations. These actions are being conducted concurrently with the preparation of major environmental compliance documentation. The initiation of site cleanup via these response actions has fostered a very positive relationship with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region VII, the state of Missouri, and the affected public. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary for second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-11

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the second quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented constitutes the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the database during the second quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the database and KPA data are not merged into the regular database. All data received and verified during the second quarter were within a permissible range of variability, except for those listed. Above normal occurrences are cited for groundwater, air, and NPDES data. There were no above normal occurrences for springs or surface water. The attached tables present the most recent data for air and the data merged into the database during the second quarter 1998 for groundwater, NPDES, surface water, and springs.

  8. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Waste assessment radiological characterization of the Weldon Spring Site raffinate pits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    As part of the remedial investigation efforts conducted at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), it was recognized that an assessment of the nature and extent of the types of waste in the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits (WSRP) was necessary to evaluate treatment and disposal alternatives. A sampling plan was developed, therefore, which detailed sample locations, sample parameters, and sampling techniques. The sampling effort consisted of collecting 145 samples from 42 locations. The sampling locations were evenly distributed across each of the four raffinate pits in terms of both area and depth. The samples were analyzed for long-lived radionuclides from the natural uranium and natural thorium transformation series. The average, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum were determined for the selected radionuclides for each pit. The data were then evaluated and interpreted specific to each pit and for each radionuclide. At a later date the surface waters of each pit were sampled and similarly analyzed. 11 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Weldon Spring, Missouri: Annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Radiological monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured uranium, Radium-226, and Thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; all long-lived natural series isotopes in air particulates; and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public were calculated based on assumed exposure periods and the above measurements. Radon concentrations, external gamma exposure rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water at the site were generally equivalent to previous years' levels. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSRP and WSCP area was 1 mrem, or 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSQ was 14 mrem, or about 14 percent of the standard. Thus the WSS currently complies with DOE Off-site Dose Standards. Chemical contamination monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured nitroaromatics, total organic carbon and the inorganic anions chloride, nitrate, fluoride and sulfate in surface water, groundwater and sediment. 22 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, C.F.; Levine, M.B.

    1990-03-02

    This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Lessons learned integrating CERCLA and NEPA at the Weldon Spring site

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.

    1993-11-01

    Values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are being incorporated into the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process at US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration sites. This integration raises a number of issues that must be resolved during the assessment phase for a project before cleanup actions begin. These range from constraints on interim actions and the type and level of impacts evaluated to the format, content, and sign-off process for assessment and decision documents. A number of helpful lessons were learned in applying an integrated process at DOE`s Weldon Spring site. Overall, integrating CERCLA and NEPA had a positive effect on environmental compliance for this remedial action project.

  13. Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

  14. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement: Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-06

    In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the third quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined above normal Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits, and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that above normal data occur.

  15. Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

  16. The effects of a perturbed source on contaminant transport near the Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.

    1989-03-01

    The effects of a perturbed contamination source at the Weldon Spring quarry in St. Charles County, Missouri, on downstream solute concentrations were investigated using one-dimensional analytical solutions to an advection-dispersion equation developed for both constant-strength and multiple-stepped source functions. A sensitivity study using parameter base-case values and ranges consistent with the geologic conceptualization of the quarry area indicates that the parameters having the greatest effect on predicted concentrations are the distance from the quarry to the point of interest, the average linear groundwater velocity, the contaminant retardation coefficient, and the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation caused by response action activities. Use of base-case parameter value and realistic values for the amplitude and duration of the source perturbation produced a small effect on solute concentrations near the western extremity of the nearby municipal well field, as well as small uncertainties in the predicted results for the assumed model. The effect of simplifying assumptions made in deriving the analytic solution is unknown: use of a multidimensional flow and transport model and additional field work are needed to validate the model. 13 refs., 18 figs.

  17. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status to date January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fifth year (1997) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Staffing issues this year have been a challenge with the resignation of an Environmental Specialist (ES) in June 1997, and the death of Robert Stovall, an Environmental Engineer (EE) II in August 1997. Progress made during this period includes securing a contract laboratory, participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, oversight of the Feasibility Study/Proposed Plan (FS/PP), coordination between the US Department of Energy and the various State regulatory programs and interactions with the local public drinking water supply agency and health departments.

  18. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources during the third year (1995) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role at the Weldon Springs Site. The accomplishments this year include participation in several workgroup meetings, oversight of the two operable units (Groundwater and Quarry Residuals), coordination between the US DOE and the various regulatory programs, and continued independent analysis of the treated water discharges.

  19. Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri; a progress report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Chemical Plant is located just north of the drainage divide separating the Mississippi River and the Missouri River in St. Charles County, Missouri. From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycled scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of dissolved solids and a different chemical composition compared to the native groundwater and surface water. This difference is indicated by the concentrations of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, uranium, radium, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium, all of which are greater than natural or background concentrations. Water from Burgermeister Spring, located about 1.5 miles north of the chemical plant area, contains uranium and nitrate concentrations greater than background concentrations. Groundwater in the shallow bedrock aquifer moves northward from the vicinity of the chemical plant toward Dardenne Creek. An abandoned limestone quarry several miles southwest of the chemical plant also has been used for the disposal of radioactive waste and rubble. Groundwater flow from the quarry area is southward through the alluvium, away from the quarry and toward the Missouri River. The St. Charles County well field is located in the Missouri River flood plain near the quarry and the large yield wells are open to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Water from a well 4,000 ft southeast of the quarry was analyzed; there was no indication of contamination from the quarry. Additional water quality and water level data are needed to determine if water from the quarry moves toward the well field. Observation wells need to be installed in the area between the chemical plant, pits, and Dardenne Creek. The wells would be used to provide access for measurements of depth to ground water and for the collection of water samples from the shallow bedrock aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

  20. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-28

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

  1. Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status of project to date January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources during the first two years (1993, 1994) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role at the Weldon Springs Site. The accomplishments to date include participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, assignment of two permanent on-site personnel to oversee the DOE progress, coordination between the US DOE and the various regulatory programs of the state, and continued independent analysis of the treated water discharges.

  2. Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Deyo, Y.E.; Pauling, T.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a 45-acre (.18 square kilometer) on-site engineered disposal facility. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities at the site were officially transferred to the DOE Office of Legacy Management in 2003. The Weldon Spring Site is located within the St. Louis, Missouri, metropolitan area (population 3 million). DOE's close relationship with surrounding land owners created a need for innovative solutions to long-term surveillance and maintenance issues at the site. Through a Secretarial proclamation, a plan was established for development of a comprehensive public involvement and education program. This program would act as an institutional control to communicate the historical legacy of the site and would make information available about contamination present at the site to guide people in making decisions about appropriate site activities. In August 2002, the Weldon Spring Site Interpretive Center opened to the public with exhibits about the history of the area, the remediation work that was completed, and a site information repository that is available to visitors. In addition, the Hamburg Trail for hiking and biking was constructed as a joint DOE/MDC effort. The 8-mile trail travels through both DOE and MDC property; a series of historical markers posted along its length to communicate the history of the area and the remediation work that was done as part of WSSRAP activities. A ramp and viewing platform with informational plaques were constructed on the disposal cell to provide an additional mechanism for public education. With a basic marketing program, site visitor-ship has been steadily increasing. In 2005, approximately 15,400 visitors were associated with Interpretive Center operations and outreach activities. Science-oriented educational programs that directly relate to past remediation activities and present long-term surveillance and maintenance issues have been developed and are presented to St. Louis area school groups and other community-based organizations. Other innovative programs have been developed to address daily maintenance issues at the site and to promote beneficial community re-use of the property. Approximately 30,000 square feet of the former Administration Building has been transferred through a use-permit to Lindenwood University, a local institution with a total enrollment of about 12,000 students. Lindenwood is establishing a satellite college campus in the building in exchange for providing basic maintenance and payment of utilities for both the Administration Building and Interpretive Center. A volunteer program developed to address maintenance of the native plant gardens that surround the Interpretive Center has a current enrollment of approximately 25 volunteers. Another volunteer group of prairie ecosystem experts has been meeting regularly for the last 3 years to assist the site in long-term management of the established prairie surrounding the disposal cell. Public support of these community involvement activities at the site is strong. DOE has worked closely with the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission in developing the concepts for this approach and the Commission has helped promote these activities within the community. It is expected that continued public education in this manner will only serve to strengthen the institutional control commitments at the Weldon Spring Site. (authors)

  3. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Martin, Peter, (Edited By); Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of fluid and temperature flow were developed for the Agua Caliente Spring to (1) test the validity of the conceptual model that the Agua Caliente Spring enters the valley-fill deposits from fractures in the underlying basement complex and rises through more than 800 feet of valley-fill deposits by way of a washed-sand conduit and surrounding low-permeability deposits (spring chimney) of its own making, (2) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of discharging water, and (3) determine the source of thermal water in the perched aquifer. A radial-flow model was used to test the conceptual model and the effect of water-level declines. The observed spring discharge and temperature could be simulated if the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the spring orifice was about 200 feet per day and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the orifice (spring chimney) was about 0.00002 feet per day. The simulated vertical hydraulic conductivity is within the range of values reported for sand; however, the low value simulated for the horizontal hydraulic conductivity suggests that the spring chimney is cemented with increasing depth. Chemical data collected for this study indicate that the water at Agua Caliente Spring is at saturation with respect to both calcite and chalcedony, which provides a possible mechanism for cementation of the spring chimney. A simulated decline of about 100 feet in the regional aquifer had no effect on the simulated discharge of Agua Caliente Spring and resulted in a slight increase in the temperature of the spring discharge. Results from the radial-flow- and three-dimensional models of the Agua Caliente Spring area demonstrate that the distribution and temperature of thermal water in the perched water table can be explained by flow from a secondary shallow-subsurface spring orifice of the Agua Caliente Spring not contained by the steel collector tank, not by leakage from the collector tank.

  4. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 milligramsper litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100?C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in 'granitic' terranes.

  5. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  6. Antarctic O3 - Chemical mechanisms for the spring decrease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical explanations for the spring decline of Antarctic O3 involve reactions of ClO or interactions between BrO and ClO. Reaction schemes involving Br radicals have the highest efficiency for removal of O3. The chemical mechanisms require low levels of NO(x). Recent cooling of the stratosphere may have triggered formation of HNO3 monohydrate, removing NO(x) and setting the stage for enhanced loss of ozone over Antarctica.

  7. Microbial quality and physical-chemical characteristics of thermal springs.

    PubMed

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Hadi; Bagheri, Pari; Poureshg, Yusef; Rostami, Roohollah

    2016-04-01

    Microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of recreational spas were surveyed to investigate the health aspect of the spas' water. A total of 195 samples were collected from pools and springs of the spas in five sites from Ardebil Province of Iran. The effects of an independent factor defined as 'condition' and its component sub-factors (i.e., sampling point, location, and sampling date) on microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of the spas were studied by applying path analysis. The influence of physical-chemical properties on microbial quality was also considered. The percentage of samples exceeding the ISIRI (Swimming pool water microbiological specifications (vol 9412), Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran, 2007) limits for Staphylococcus (spp.) was up to 55.8 in the springs and 87.8 in the pools, 58.1 and 99.2 for HPC, 90.7 and 97.8 for total coliform and fecal coliform, and 9.3 and 34.4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. There were significant differences between the pools and springs for both physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. From the path analysis, sampling point was the most effective sub-factor of 'condition' on both the physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. Among the physical-chemical properties, water color had the most enhancing or additive influence on microbial pollution, while EC indicated a reducing or subtractive effect. PMID:26072426

  8. Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year`s survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  10. Chemical analyses of thermal and nonthermal springs in Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Most thermal waters issuing in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are acidic (pH =3.5), low-Cl (concentrations =30 mg/L) hot springs which are characteristic of vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems and, as such, are not useful for liquid chemical geothermometry. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley, hot spring localities characterized by neutral pH and low Cl containing water, may have equilibrated in shallow aquifers so that temperatures estimated by both the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers approach the measured spring temperatures of 65? to 95?C. Waters rich in chloride (>2000 mg/L), such as those at Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs, situated south of LVNP, are the most appropriate springs for liquid chemical geothermometry and indicate subsurface temperatures between 220? and 230?C. The chemical and thermal characteristics of these springs may result either from boiling at depth and subsequent mixing with meteoric water or from conductive cooling during lateral flow. In either case ~220? to 230?C thermal water probably originates inside LVNP and flows south to Morgan Hot Springs.

  11. Chemical analyses for thermal and mineral springs examined in 1982-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Six water samples from three different spring systems were collected and analyzed for major element concentrations. This report presents the results of those analyses, along with predicted reservoir temperatures using various geothermometers. In addition, a table of chemical analyses from the US Geological Survey for Washington springs not previously reported in state geothermal reports is included.

  12. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace, Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The geologic and chemical data are too preliminary to make an estimate of the potential of the hot springs as a geothermal resource. The data suggest, however, that most of the hot springs of central and western Alaska have relatively low subsurface temperatures and limited reservoir capacities in comparison with geothermal areas presently being utilized for electrical power generation.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL.

  14. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jharkhand and West Bengal thermal springs along SONATA mega lineament, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hemant K.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Vaselli, O.; Trupti, G.; Singh, B.; Lashin, Aref; Arifi, Nassir Al

    2015-03-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son-Narmada-Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31 to 89C for the thermal springs and 24 to 25C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than 130 to 150C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures (160 to 250C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132-265C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.

  16. Aqua de Ney, California, a spring of unique chemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feth, J.H.; Rogers, S.M.; Roberson, C.E.

    1961-01-01

    The chemistry of water of Aqua de Ney, a cold spring of unusual character located in Siskiyou County, Calif., has been re-examined as part of a study of the relation of water chemistry to rock environment. The water has a pH of 11??6 and a silica content of 4000 parts per million (p.p.m.), the highest values known to occur in natural ground waters. The rocks exposed nearby consist of two volcanic sequences, one predominantly basaltic in composition, the other highly siliceous. Neither these rocks nor the sedimentary and igneous rocks presumed to underlie the area at depth seem to offer explanation of the unusual mineralization which includes 240 p.p.m. of boron, 1000 p.p.m. of sulphide (as H2S), and 148 p.p.m. of ammonia nitrogen (as NH4) in a water that is predominantly sodium chloride and sodium carbonate in character. By analogy, it is assumed that water from Aqua de Ney is the product of an initial mixture of connate sea water with a calcium magnesium sulphate water. It is postulated that ion exchange has increased the content of sodium and reduced that of calcium and magnesium, and that sulphate reduction has brought about the high alkalinity, high pH, and high content of sulphide. The large silica value is explained as the result of solution of silica by water having the high pH observed. ?? 1961.

  17. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  18. SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Grunder, A.L.; Hildreth, Wes

    1983-01-01

    Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

  19. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baum, Jeffrey

    2014-03-10

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  20. Chemical composition data and calculated aquifer temperature for selected wells and springs of Honey Lake Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1976-01-01

    Major element, minor element, and gas composition data are tabulated for 15 springs and wells in Honey Lake Valley, California. Wendel and Amedee hot springs issue Na-S04-C1 waters at boiling or near boiling temperatures; the remaining springs and wells issue Na-HC03 waters at temperatures ranging from 14 to 33 deg C. Gases escaping from the hot springs are principally nitrogen with minor amounts of methane. The geothermometers calculated from the chemical data are also tabulated for each spring. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

  2. Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

    2000-01-01

    The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 °C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63°C in 1889 to 48°C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77°C in 1995 and neared boiling (98°C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3°C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition of steam discharges from the Southeast Geysers. The hot spring waters are low in ions of Cl, B, and Li, but relatively high in HCO3, SO4 and NH4. The stable-isotope compositions (deuterium and oxygen-18) of these waters plot near the global meteoric water line. Geochemical data through time reveal apparent maxima in the concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Mn in 1991 to 1992, before the cluster became hotter. The black-to-gray deposits from the new spring cluster are rich in pyrite and contain anomalous metals. About one-half mile to the east of the hot springs, mineralized water discharges intermittently from an old adit of the Schwartz (Anderson) mine, and enters a tributary of Anderson Creek. This drainage increased substantially in July 1998, and a slurry of mine water and precipitates were transported down the tributary and into Anderson Creek. In December 1998, the adit water was 22°C, and had a chemical composition that was similar to spring waters that once discharged in the ravines surrounding the old Anderson Springs resort. The cause for the abrupt changes that have occurred in thermal features at Anderson Springs is still not resolved. One possibility is that these changes are a response to withdrawal of steam from The Geysers geothermal field over more than 20 years of production. Pressure declines in the geothermal reservoir may have caused a "drying out" of the overlying condensation zone. Induced boiling in this zone and upflow of deep steam to shallower depths would cause heating and vaporization of shallow ground waters. In addition, earthquakes occurring in the vicinity of Anderson Springs have increased significantly after nearby geothermal power plants began operation. These earthquakes may have enhanced surface discharge of thermal fluids along fractures and faults.

  3. WELDON SPRING SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2002

    SciTech Connect

    WASHINGTON GROUP INTERNATIONAL AND JACOBS ENGINEERING GROUP

    2003-05-01

    This annual report presents a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. This report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment.

  4. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-07-01

    This annual report presents a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. This report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment.

  5. Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panno, S.V.; Hackley, Keith C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Kelly, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    The sources of nitrate (NO-3) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in the sinkhole plain has NO-3 concentrations in excess of the USEPA's drinking water standard of 10 mg N/1. Relative to background levels, the NO-3 concentrations in water from 52% of the wells, and probably all of the springs in the study area, are anomalously high, suggesting that sources other than naturally occurring soil organic matter have contributed additional NO-3 to groundwater in the shallow karst aquifer. This information, and the dominance of agriculture in the study area, suggest that agrichemical contributions may be significant. To test this hypothesis, water samples from 10 relatively large karst springs were collected during four different seasons and analyzed for inorganic constituents, dissolved organic carbon, atrazine, and ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ions. The isotopic data were most definitive and suggested that the sources of NO-3 in spring water are dominated by N-fertilizer with some possible influence of atmospheric NO-3 and, to a much lesser extent, human and/or animal waste. Differences in the isotopic composition of NO-3 and some of the chemical characteristics were observed during the four consecutive seasons in which spring water samples were collected. Isotopic values for ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ranged from 3.2??? to 19.1??? and from 7.2??? to 18.7???, respectively. The trend of ??15N and ??18O data for NO-3 also indicated that a significant degree of denitrification is occurring in the shallow karst hydrologic system (within the soil zone, the epikarst and the shallow karst aquifer) prior to discharging to springs. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic biologists spring into action at the 245th American Chemical Society National Meeting.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Jeff E; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2013-06-21

    As the field of synthetic biology continues to define itself, it has merged concepts from many related areas of research: molecular biology, genetics, bioengineering, and chemistry. At the 2013 Spring American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, LA, this mixture was manifested in a wealth of sessions emphasizing the use of modern synthetic biological approaches to solve many of today's biggest chemical problems. As a result of the field's diverse yet pervasive nature, synthetic biology concepts were present in several of the conferences many divisions, including Biological Chemistry, Biochemical Technology, Cellulose and Renewable Materials, and several others. Here we offer a snapshot of some of the exciting research discussed in the dedicated synthetic biology sessions throughout the week. PMID:24884108

  7. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63C in 1889, 4252C from 1974 through 1991, and 77C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During AugustOctober 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

  8. Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise Area, southwesten Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers ' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. (USGS)

  9. Hydrologic and chemical data for selected thermal-water wells and springs in the Indian Bathtub area, Owyhee County, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents data collected during January through September 1989 from 86 thermal-water wells and 5 springs in the Indian Bathtub area, southwestern Idaho. The data include well and spring locations, well-construction and water level information, hydrographs of water levels in 9 wells, hydrographs of discharges in 4 springs, and chemical and isotopic analysis of water from 33 thermal-water wells and 5 springs. These data were collected as part of a continuing study to determine the cause or causes of decreased discharge at Indian Bathtub Spring and other thermal springs along Hot Creek.

  10. Chemical trends in the Ice Springs basalt, Black Rock Desert, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, W.C.; Nash, W.P.

    1980-06-01

    The Holocene Ice Springs volcanic field of west-central Utah consists of 0.53 km/sup 3/ of tholeiitic basalts erupted as a sequence of nested cinder cones and associated lava flows. Whole rock x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption analysis of ninety-six samples of known relative age document statistically significant inter- and intra-eruption chemical variations. Elemental trends include increases in Ti, Fe, Ca, P, and Sr and decreases in Si, K, Rb, Ni, Cr, and Zr with decreasing age. Microprobe analyses of microphenocrysts of olivine, plagioclase, and Fe-Ti oxides and of groundmass olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene indicate limited chemical variation between mineral assemblages of the eruptive events. Petrographic analyses have identified the presence of minor amounts of silicic xenoliths, orthopyroxene megacrysts, and plagioclase xenocrysts. Potassium-argon determinations establish the existence of excess argon in the basaltic cinder (30.05 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) and in distal lava flows (8.29 x 10/sup -12/ moles/gm) which suggest apparent ages of 16 and 4.3 million years respectively. Strontium isotopic data (Puskar and Condie, 1973) show systematic variations from oldest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7052) to youngest eruptions (87Sr/86Sr=0.7059).

  11. Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys viewing the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys the on-time launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Weldon and other guests of NASA viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP viewing site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  12. Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

  13. Evaluating physico-chemical spring responses to identify flow components in a karst system with allogenic recharge (Lurbach, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Steffen; Oswald, Stefan; Benischke, Ralf; Leis, Albrecht; Winkler, Gerfried

    2010-05-01

    Storm responses of karst springs provide integral information about the spring catchments. However, the analysis is often limited by lack of information about the spatial and temporal distribution of the input (recharge) and its physico-chemical properties. Thus, the data interpretation usually relies on simplifying conceptual models that involve various assumptions about the contributing flow components. For instance, it is frequently assumed that the electrical conductivity of the spring water changes because the spring discharge represents a mixture of pre-event groundwater and lower mineralised rainwater or higher mineralised subcutaneous (epikarst) water. In this work, we combine artificial tracer testing with the analysis of multiple natural tracers in the Lurbach Karst System (Semriach-Peggau, Styria, Austria) to improve our knowledge about the flow components of two karst springs (Hammerbach, Schmelzbach). In addition, we characterise the quantity and quality of one allogenic recharge component (Lurbach), which further helps to constrain the conceptual model of the karst flow system. The results demonstrate that the aforementioned assumptions can be misleading. For instance, the Schmelzbach spring shows an increase of the water temperature concurrently with the increase of electrical conductivity after a rainfall and snow-melt event. This suggests that the water discharged during this time period is mobilized from the aquifer storage ("old" water) rather than from the epikarst, thus contradicting the aforementioned conceptual model. As opposed to the Schmelzbach, the Hammerbach spring shows a continuous decrease of the water temperature over a period of several days suggesting ongoing infiltration of cold water, e.g., from snow melt. At the same time the electrical conductivity of the Hammerbach exhibits variations resembling those observed in the allogenic Lurbach component. The tracer test further shows that under the prevailing hydro-meteorologic conditions the Lurbach contributes to the Hammerbach but only to a minor extent to the Schmelzbach. In conclusion, our results suggest that the karst system under investigation is significantly more complex than the common conceptual models used for the separation of flow components. The discharge at each of the two springs is composed of several flow components including input from an allogenic stream, autogenic recharge due to rainfall and snow melt, aquifer storage, and epikarst, all of which are mixed with the pre-event groundwater in varying proportions. The identification of these flow components and the quantification of their time-variant contribution to the spring discharge can only be accomplished by a combined evaluation of multiple natural and artificial tracers.

  14. Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    1989-01-01

    During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

  15. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y; Lott, Christian; Husler, Stefan; Bii?-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jrg; Glckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rdiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Strk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

  16. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea−Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

  17. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

  18. Identification of groundwater flow systems using geological mapping and chemical spring analysis in South Pare Mountains, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mul, M. L.; Mutiibwa, R. K.; Foppen, J. W. A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    Population growth on the hill slopes of the semi-arid South Pare Mountains in Northeast Tanzania has increased water usage. In this area, water availability is directly dependent on the groundwater/surface water interaction, which in turn is dependent on the hydrogeology of the catchment. In order to better understand the hydrogeology of the area, a groundwater flow system analysis was conducted for two adjacent meso-scale catchments (Makanya and Mbaga, a sub-catchment of the Mkomazi catchment; both around 300 km 2). Geological mapping and spring sampling were done. Thirty spring- and groundwater samples were collected from inside and around the catchment and analysed for all major cations and anions, including dissolved silica. Due to dipping and faulting of the geological units, a substantial amount of water drains out of the Makanya catchment into the Mbaga catchment. Springs found in the elevated parts of the catchments, contribute to base flow and are found in old debris flow deposits, consisting of weathered parent rocks. Water quality in these parts is mainly determined by silicate weathering due to oxidation of organic matter and evaporation. Concentrations of ions generally increase with decreasing altitude. Springs found in the lower parts of the catchments contain high amounts of sodium, chloride and sulphate, different from the water quality found uphill. We concluded that two distinct flow systems exist in the catchment; a local system, defined by the limited thickness of the weathered material and debris flow deposits, and a regional flow system that is most likely controlled by regional tectonics. This case-study demonstrates how geological mapping and chemical methods can be used to analyse groundwater flow systems.

  19. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal fluids from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Beckles, Denise M.

    2013-03-01

    Sulphur Springs is a vigorous, geothermal field associated with the active Soufrire Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc. The 'Sulphur Springs Park' is an important tourist attraction (touted as the 'world's only drive-through volcano') with some of the hot pools being developed into recreational pools. Some 200,000 people visit the park each year. Since 2001, the hydrothermal fluids of Sulphur Springs have been sampled as part of an integrated volcanic monitoring programme for the island. Gas and water samples were analysed to characterise the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system, and to assess the equilibrium state and subsurface temperatures of the reservoir. This has also enabled us, for the first time, to establish baseline data for future geochemical monitoring. The gases are of typical arc-type composition, with N2 excess and low He and Ar content. The dry gas composition is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 601-993 mmol/mol), with deeper magmatic sourced H2S-rich vapour undergoing boiling and redox changes in the geothermal reservoir to emerge with a hydrothermal signature in the fumarolic gases. Fluid contributions from magmatic degassing are also evident, mainly from the moderate to high contents of HCl and deeply-sourced H2S gas, respectively. Sulphur Springs hydrothermal waters have acid-sulphate type compositions (SO4 = 78-4008 mg/L; pH = 3-7), and are of primarily meteoric origin which have been affected by evaporation processes based on the enrichment in both ?18O and ?D (?18O = - 1 to 15 and ?D = - 9 to 14 respectively) in relation to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). These waters are steam-heated water typically formed by absorption of H2S-rich gases in the near surface oxygenated groundwaters. Reservoir temperatures calculated from the evaluation of gas equilibria in the CO2-CH4-H2 system reveal higher temperatures (190 to 300 C) than those derived from quartz geothermometry (95 to 169 C), which appeared to be affected by dilution with meteoric waters. Generally, no significant variations in fluid geochemistry of the hydrothermal system were observed between 2001 and 2006, and we propose that there were no changes in the state of volcanic activity during this period.

  20. The chemical and isotopic composition of fumarolic gases and spring discharges from Galeras Volcano, Colombia.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T. P.; Sturchio, N. C.; Stix, J.; Arehart, G. B.; Counce, D.; Williams, S. N.; Arizona State Univ.; Univ. de Montreal; LANL

    1997-01-01

    Galeras fumarole discharges have been collected since its reactivation, in 1988, through December 1995. The gases are dominated by H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, S (as SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) and HCl. The relative proportions of these gases classify them as 'magmatic'. Thermodynamic equilibrium temperatures of the gases range from 260 to > 600 C. The relative abundance of inert gases, N{sub 2}, Ar and He, can be used as 'tracers' to identify the source of the fumarole discharges. At Galeras the majority of the samples have a composition characteristic of gases originating from arc-related magmas, with relatively high N{sub 2} contents and minor He and Ar. During 1993, the year of frequent eruptions, the gas composition changed to basaltic or 'mantle-derived' gases, with significantly higher He contents. This is interpreted to be the result of injection of volatiles from a basaltic magma body at depth prior to and during the increased eruptive activity of 1993. The {delta}{sup 13}C values for CO{sub 2} in fumarole discharges are typical of andesitic volcanoes and may indicate addition of MORB-derived CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 15}N values for N2 may indicate significant contribution of N{sub 2} from marine sediments and only minor contribution of MORB-derived N{sub 2}. The {delta} D and {delta}{sup 18}O values of the discharging steam lie on a mixing trend between the isotopic composition of 'arc-related' magmatic water and {sup 18}O-shifted meteoric water. The most magmatic discharges have {delta} D values of -30 to -35{per_thousand}; while the most meteoric discharges have values of -70 to -75{per_thousand}, similar to Galeras thermal spring waters. Galeras thermal water discharges consist of acid sulfate and bicarbonate waters. S/Cl ratios in the acid sulfate waters are similar to fumarole ratios, suggesting direct absorption of magmatic gases into shallow ground waters. This is supported by the essentially meteoric {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values of the discharges and by elevated {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios of thermal spring waters. The absorption of acid S- and Cl-rich gases yield acid waters which are capable of dissolving rocks. The thermal waters, however, are far from equilibrium with Galeras lavas and pyroclastic rocks, providing evidence of the immaturity of the Galeras hydrothermal system. The SO{sub 4} and Cl content, as well as the O and H isotopic composition of Galeras thermal springs vary with the activity of the volcano. The 7-year sampling program at Galeras revealed intriguing results concerning the activity of Galeras, its magmatic-hydrothermal system and the origin of the volatiles. Despite decreasing outlet temperatures since 1992, deep temperatures remain high, implying continued unrest in the Galeras magmatic system.

  1. The chemical and isotopic composition of fumarolic gases and spring discharges from Galeras Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Tobias P.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Stix, John; Arehart, Greg B.; Counce, Dale; Williams, Stanley N.

    1997-05-01

    Galeras fumarole discharges have been collected since its reactivation, in 1988, through December 1995. The gases are dominated by H 2O, CO 2, S (as SO 2 and H 2S) and HCl. The relative proportions of these gases classify them as 'magmatic'. Thermodynamic equilibrium temperatures of the gases range from 260 to > 600 °C. The relative abundance of inert gases, N 2, Ar and He, can be used as 'tracers' to identify the source of the fumarole discharges. At Galeras the majority of the samples have a composition characteristic of gases originating from arc-related magmas, with relatively high N 2 contents and minor He and Ar. During 1993, the year of frequent eruptions, the gas composition changed to basaltic or 'mantle-derived' gases, with significantly higher He contents. This is interpreted to be the result of injection of volatiles from a basaltic magma body at depth prior to and during the increased eruptive activity of 1993. The δ 13C values for CO 2 in fumarole discharges are typical of andesitic volcanoes and may indicate addition of MORB-derived CO 2. The δ 15N values for N 2 may indicate significant contribution of N 2 from marine sediments and only minor contribution of MORB-derived N 2. The δ D and δ 18O values of the discharging steam lie on a mixing trend between the isotopic composition of 'arc-related' magmatic water and 18O-shifted meteoric water. The most magmatic discharges have δ D values of -30 to -35‰; while the most meteoric discharges have values of -70 to -75‰, similar to Galeras thermal spring waters. Galeras thermal water discharges consist of acid sulfate and bicarbonate waters.S/Cl ratios in the acid sulfate waters are similar to fumarole ratios, suggesting direct absorption of magmatic gases into shallow ground waters. This is supported by the essentially meteoric δD and δ 18O values of the discharges and by elevated 3He/ 4He ratios of thermal spring waters. The absorption of acid S- and Cl-rich gases yield acid waters which are capable of dissolving rocks. The thermal waters, however, are far from equilibrium with Galeras lavas and pyroclastic rocks, providing evidence of the immaturity of the Galeras hydrothermal system. The SO 4 and Cl content, as well as the O and H isotopic composition of Galeras thermal springs vary with the activity of the volcano. The 7-year sampling program at Galeras revealed intriguing results concerning the activity of Galeras, its magmatic-hydrothermal system and the origin of the volatiles. Despite decreasing outlet temperatures since 1992, deep temperatures remain high, implying continued unrest in the Galeras magmatic system.

  2. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    PubMed

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

  3. Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

  4. Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

  5. Scour at a bridge over the Weldon River, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Edward E.

    1993-01-01

    Contraction scour at the State Highway 2 bridge over the Weldon River in south-central Iowa was caused by a flood of record proportions on September 14 and 15, 1992. The peak discharge was 1, 930 cubic meters per second,which was 4 times the probable 100-year flood used to design the bridge, and resulted in road overflow. Contraction scour exposed the pier footings, but a subsurface layer of glacial clay apparently resisted additional vertical scour and caused the scouring process to move laterally. The embankment at the left abutment was eroded away, exposing 3 m of vertical abutment piling.

  6. Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1970-01-01

    Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile components such as boron and ammonia. ?? 1971.

  7. Chemical and hydrographic measurements from the equatorial Pacific during boreal spring 1992. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Lantry, T.; Lamb, M.F.; Hendee, J.C.; Wanninkhof, R.; Feely, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    From February 24 to May 19, 1992, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) Climate and Global Change Program sponsored a major cooperative effort with the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) to study the role of equatorial processes on CO2 cycling in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific during the 1991-92 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. The NOAA ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE performed four transequatorial sections in the region and the report presents hydrographic and chemical data from that cruise including tables of the following data from each station: hydrography from each CTD case at the bottle trip depths, dissolved oxygen, fCO2, DIC, pH, TAlk, nutrients, and TOC. Descriptions of the sampling techniques and analytical methods used in the collection and processing of these data are also presented.

  8. Operation safe removal: Spring Valley, Washington, DC, fact sheets on identified World War I chemical agents. Final report, January-February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, H.; Miller, L.; Olajos, E.; Reutter, S.

    1994-09-01

    In early 1993, World War I era, chemical munitions were found buried at a construction site in the Spring Valley area of Washington, DC. This site was previously the American University Campus rented by the Chemical Warfare Service Research Center. Pursuant to the safe removal of the chemical munitions and their identification, concise fact sheets were prepared on the chemical contents. This report is a compilation of the fact sheets, a bibliography of the source material reviewed, and a copy of a two page chart from the text by Waitt (1942). A Fact Sheet on CS is also included in this report.

  9. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?18O and ?2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ?18O and ?2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (?15N NO3) values above 10 in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (?15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devils Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin.

  10. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Chemical composition of the snowpack during the OASIS spring campaign 2009 at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, H. W.; Voisin, D.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Cozic, J.; Douglas, T. A.

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of the seasonal snowpack was determined close to Barrow, an Arctic coastal location in northern Alaska. One hundred and twelve samples of different snow types including fresh snow, surface hoar, diamond dust, blowing snow, rounded snow grains, and depth hoar were collected and analyzed for major sea salt components, bromide, and nitrate. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and potassium are mainly introduced into the snowpack by the deposition of sea salt, while magnesium and calcium result from a combination of sea salt and dust. Sulfate was strongly depleted in most samples compared to other sea salt components. This is attributed to the precipitation of mirabilite in newly formed sea ice and frost flowers that leads to an efficient fractionation of sulfate. Uptake of volatile but soluble species from the gas phase also contributed to the observed chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in the snow. However, for chloride and sulfate the input from the marine sources was overwhelming and the uptake from the gas phase was only visible in the samples with low concentrations like fresh snow, diamond dust, and surface hoar. Nitrate concentrations in the snowpack were less variable and for aged snow nitrate was related to the specific surface area of the snow indicating the adsorption of nitric acid can be an important nitrate source in the aged snow. Bromide was also introduced into the snowpack from marine sources, but due to its high reactivity it was partly transferred back to the atmosphere in the form of reactive species. The result of these processes was evident in bromide concentrations, which were both enriched and depleted at the snowpack surface while deeper layers were mostly depleted. Blowing snow also exhibited a depleted bromide composition. For all compounds except nitrate, many depth hoar samples exhibited the greatest concentrations, probably as a result of higher input earlier in the season as well as increases due to the sublimation of water during the metamorphism of the snow.

  12. Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water precludes an origin of the high chloride by evaporation at atmospheric pressure. One way to account for the unique chemical and isotopic composition of this highly concentrated wateris by recirculation of water that had gone through one cycle of adiabatic cooling during upflow (decompressional boiling) back down into the hydrothermal system, where it is reheated to greater than 220 C. This previously boiled water then undergoes additional cycles of decompressional boiling during subsequent upflow. Another way the unique chemical and isotopic composition of Double Bulger water might evolve is by excess boiling in the formation that results from a decrease in fluid pressure within the channels of upflow. The annual disturbance at Norris Geyser Basin generally appears to be triggered by a cyclic up and down movement of the boilingpoint curve within the hydrothermal system in response to changes in the potentiometric surface of the cold water that is adjacent to, and interconnected with, that hydrothermal system. Annual disturbance phenomena that are easily recognized at Norris Geyser Basin may not be easily recognized elsewhere in Yellowstone National Park because (1) the neutral-chloride waters at Norris ascend directly from higher-temperature and higherpressure reservoirs (270 to >300 C at Norris compared to 180-215C at Upper and Lower Geyser Basins) that are capable of producing massive amounts of high-pressure steam, and (2) the clay that makes hot spring and geyser waters become turbid at Norris, heralding the start of the disturbance, comes from acid altered rocks that are widely distributed at intermediate depths at Norris, and that are rare in other geyser basins.

  13. Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in rock collapse for uncased wells completed in highly fractured rock. However, the propagation of newly formed large fractures that potentially could damage well structures or result in pirating of water from production wells appears to be of limited possibility based on review of relevant studies. Characteristics of hydraulic conductivity, storage, and fracture porosity were interpreted from flow rates observed in individual wells completed in the Bigfork Chert and Stanley Shale; from hydrographs produced from continuous measurements of water levels in wells completed in the Arkansas Novaculite, the Bigfork Chert, and Stanley Shale; and from a potentiometric-surface map constructed using water levels in wells throughout the study area. Data gathered from these three separate exercises showed that fracture porosity is much greater in the Bigfork Chert relative to that in the Stanley Shale, shallow groundwater flows from elevated recharge areas with exposures of Bigfork Chert along and into streams within the valleys formed on exposures of the Stanley Shale, and there was no evidence of interbasin transfer of groundwater within the shallow flow system. Fifteen shallow wells and two cold-water springs were sampled from the various exposed formations in the study area to characterize the water quality and geochemistry for the shallow groundwater system and for comparison to the geochemistry of the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. For the quartz formations (novaculite, chert, and sandstone formations), total dissolved solids concentrations were very low with a median concentration of 23 milligrams per liter, whereas the median concentration for groundwater from the shale formations was 184 milligrams per liter. Ten hot springs in Hot Springs National Park were sampled for the study. Several chemical constituents for the hot springs, including pH, total dissolved solids, major cations and anions, and trace metals, show similarity with the shale formations

  14. Hydrologic and chemical data from selected wells and springs in southern Elmore County, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho, Fall 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Parliman, D.J.; Young, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrologic and chemical data were collected during September through November 1989 from 90 wells and 6 springs in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho. These data were collected to characterize the chemical quality of water in major water-yielding zones in areas near Mountain Home and Mountain Home Air Force Base. The data include well and spring locations, well-construction and water level information, and chemical analyses of water from each well and spring inventoried. Groundwater in the study area is generally suitable for most uses. In localized areas, water is highly mineralized, and pH, concentrations of dissolved sulfate, chloride, or nitrite plus nitrate and nitrogen exceed national public drinking-water limits. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria were detected in separate water samples. One or more volatile organic compounds were detected in water samples from 15 wells, and the concentration of benzene exceeded the national public drinking-water limit in a water sample from one well. 5 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank.

  16. Chemical changes in spring waters at Tacan volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: A possible precursor of the May 1986 seismic crisis and phreatic explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Armienta, M. A.; Zamora, V.; Jurez, F.

    1989-09-01

    Local seismic activity consisting of sharp earthquakes accompanied by thunderous noise was reported starting in late December 1985 around Tacan volcano (15.13N, 92.10W). Portable seismic stations were established in the area by late January 1986 and sampling of the only known thermal spring on the volcano flanks started at the same time. A marked increase in SO 42- concentration in the spring water preceded by two months the occurrence of a seismic swarm crisis and a small phreatic explosion. A model involving a crystalline basement fractured by tectonic stresses is proposed to explain the chemical and seismic anomalies, and the consequences on risk of volcanic activity are briefly discussed in terms of the observed behaviour.

  17. Chemical analyses of spring waters and factor analysis to monitor the functioning of a karstic system. The role of precipitations regimen and anthropic pressures.

    PubMed

    Capraro, Federica; Bizzotto, Alessandro; Masiol, Mauro; Pavoni, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    An approach is presented to study the functioning of a karstic massif and assess the adverse effects of the anthropogenic pressure by monitoring some water chemical and physical parameters of its main springs. The approach has been applied to the Sette Comuni Plateau (Veneto Region, Italy) hosting a well developed karstic system, whose aquifer presents high vulnerability and undergoes a relevant anthropogenic pressure. The Oliero springs, amongst the largest karstic springs in Europe, are the main water output of the plateau. Electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved O(2), hardness, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids, ionic species (NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-), PO(4)(3-), SO(4)(2-), Cl(-), F(-)), elements (Cr(III), Cr(VI), Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, Pb), and some chlorinated solvents were monitored for one year. This study presents the application of a factor analysis on the water parameters enabling the identification of the dominant chemical and biological processes and pollution sources affecting the karstic system. Results show four factors which are interpreted as karstification, photosynthesis, storm flow pollution and anions. Finally, by associating metals, chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids with the amount of rainfall in the 48 h before samplings, further detailed information to the fast response of the aquifer to precipitation events was detected and interpreted according to the factor analysis results. The proposed approach, by providing information on the functioning of the aquifer, may help the management of the karstic plateau and is easily adaptable to similar environments. PMID:21779610

  18. "Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.

    PubMed

    Pence, Charles H

    2011-12-01

    There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721

  19. Spring carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters in the northern East China Sea: Water mixing, biological uptake of CO2, and chemical buffering capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei-Dong; Chen, Jian-Fang; Jin, Hai-Yan; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Jin-Wen; He, Xian-Qiang; Bai, Yan

    2014-09-01

    We investigated sea surface total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a in the connection between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS) during April to early May 2007. In spring, Changjiang dilution water (CDW), ECS offshore water, and together with Yellow Sea water (YSW) occupied the northern ECS. Using 16 day composite satellite-derived chlorophyll-a images, several algal blooms were identified in the CDW and ECS offshore water. Correspondingly, biological DIC drawdown of 73 20 ?mol kg-1, oversaturated DO of 10-110 ?mol O2 kg-1, and low fugacity of CO2 of 181-304 ?atm were revealed in these two waters. YSW also showed CO2 uptake in spring, due to the very low temperature. However, its intrusion virtually counteracted CO2 uptake in the northern ECS. In the CDW and the ECS offshore water, Revelle factor was 9.3-11.7 and 8.9-10.6, respectively, while relatively high Revelle factor values of 11.4-13.0 were revealed in YSW. In the ECS offshore water, the observed relationship between DIC drawdown and oversaturated DO departed from the Redfield ratio, indicating an effect of chemical buffering capacity on the carbonate system during air-sea reequilibration. Given the fact that the chemical buffering capacity slows down the air-sea reequilibration of CO2, the early spring DIC drawdown may have durative effects on the sea surface carbonate system until early summer. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, these insights are fundamental to understanding sea surface carbonate chemistry dynamics in this important ocean margin.

  20. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  1. Changes in the community structure of microbial mats along chemical and temperature gradients in a Yellowstone hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E. A.; Eilers, K. G.; Ulrich, S. M.; Wenk, C.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Dawson, S.; Spear, J. R.; de la Torre, J. R.; 2010 Usc International Geobiology Course

    2010-12-01

    Environmental factors that influence the structure of microbial communities, such as pH or temperature, often occur over spatial gradients in nature; however, microbial community shifts along such gradients are not well understood. Imperial Geyser (IM) is a silica-rich hydrothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, which contains laminated microbial mats, up to 12 cm thick, that extend from the source spring down a hundred meter outflow channel. The microbial mats within the channel provide an opportunity to assess how community composition of microbial mats changes along gradients of temperature, stream chemistry, light and pH. In this study, microbial communities from each distinct layer of the mat at five sites along the outflow channel were analyzed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene tags amplified using barcoded PCR primers. The microbial mats were dominated by Chloroflexi (17%), Cyanobacteria (17%), Proteobacteria (13%), Bacteroidetes (8%) and Acidobacteria (7%). Deeper layers of the mat (below 8 cm) predominantly contained sequences related to uncultivated, deeply-branching crenarchaeal lineages (up to 30% of sequences). Aquaficales were dominant in the spring water, but rare in the mats. While the water samples clustered separately from the mats, communities within the mats clustered neither by site nor by layer. Community structure was not influenced by pH or temperature as was anticipated.. The abundance of photosynthetic taxa decreased in the lower layers at all sites, likely driven by decreasing light intensity away from the surface. Microbial diversity also decreased in the lower layers at all sites. The results of this study provide new insights into a previously uncharted ecosystem and demonstrate that multiple factors may drive bacterial community structure in thermal environments.

  2. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  3. Hydrologic and chemical data for wells, springs, and streams in Nevada, TPS. 1-21 N., and Rs. 41-57 E

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, B.P.; Thordarson, William; Beetam, W.A.

    1967-01-01

    Studies of published and unpublished geologic, hydrologic, and chemical-quality data for ground and surface water in central Nevada, Tps. 1 to 21 N. and Rs. 41 to 57 E., Mount Diablo base and meridian, reveal the following information: Rocks exposed in central Nevada are of sedimentary and igneous origin and range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Paleozoic age generally are carbonate or clastic, and rocks of Mesozoic age generally are clastic and granitic. Rocks of Tertiary age principally are volcanic, and the valley fill of Quaternary age is alluvial-fan and lake deposits. The rocks are folded, faulted, and highly fractured. Precipitation is closely related to altitude. In general, as the altitude increases the precipitation increases. Most of the streamflow in the valleys originates as snow in the nearby mountains. The streams generally flow only in response to snowmelt and to flash-flood-producing storms. Important chemical quality characteristics of the ground and surface water in central Nevada are hardness, expressed as CaCO3, generally in excess of 120 ppm, and a dissolved-solids content of less than 500 ppm. The principal chemical types of both ground and surface waters are sodium and calcium bicarbonates. The major uses of ground water in central Nevada are for irrigation and stock. Frequency of use of wells in decreasing order is: irrigation, stock, domestic, industrial, municipal, and observation. Of the 606 wells tabulated, 29 have multiple uses. Frequency of use of spring water in decreasing order is: stock, irrigation, domestic, and public facilities. Of the 135 springs tabulated, 5 have multiple uses.

  4. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

  5. Correction to "Asian chemical Outflow to the Pacific in Spring: Origins, Pathways, and Budgets" by Isabelle Bey et al.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Isabelle; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It reproduces relatively well the main features of tropospheric ozone, CO, and reactive nitrogen species observed in PEM-West B, including latitudinal and vertical gradients of the Asian pollution outflow over the western Pacific although simulated concentrations of CO tend to be too low (possibly because biogenic sources are underestimated). We use CO as a long-lived tracer to diagnose the processes contributing to the outflow. The highest concentrations in the outflow are in the boundary layer (0-2 km), but the strongest outflow fluxes are in the lower free troposphere (2-5 km) and reflect episodic lifting of pollution over central and eastern China ahead of eastward moving cold fronts. This frontal lifting, followed by westerly transport in the lower free troposphere, is the principal process responsible for export of both anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution from Asia. Anthropogenic emissions from Europe and biomass burning emissions from Africa make also major contributions to the Asian outflow over the western Pacific; European sources dominate in the lower troposphere north of 40 degrees N, while African sources are important in the upper troposphere at low latitudes. For the period of PEM-West B (February-March) we estimate that fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning make comparable contributions to the budgets of CO, ozone, and NO, in the Asian outflow. We find that 13% of NO, emitted in Asia is exported as NO, or PAN, a smaller fraction than for the United States because of higher aerosol concentrations that promote heterogeneous conversion of NOx to HNO3. Production and export of ozone from Asia in spring is much greater than from the United States because of the higher photochemical activity.

  6. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the new glass cockpit in the orbiter Atlantis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the cockpit of the orbiter Atlantis, which is in the Orbiter Processing Facility, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (right) looks at the newly installed Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS), known as the 'glass cockpit.' At left is Laural Patrick, a systems engineer with MEDS. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. He was in Palmdale, Calif., when Atlantis underwent the modification and he wanted to see the final product. The full-color, flat-panel MEDS upgrade improves crew/orbiter interaction with easy-to-read, graphic portrayals of key flight indicators like attitude display and mach speed. The installation makes Atlantis the most modern orbiter in the fleet and equals the systems on current commercial jet airliners and military aircraft. Atlantis is scheduled to fly on mission STS-101 in early December.

  7. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the new glass cockpit in the orbiter Atlantis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the cockpit of the orbiter Atlantis, which is in the Orbiter Processing Facility, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the newly installed Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS), known as the 'glass cockpit.' Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. He was in Palmdale, Calif., when Atlantis underwent the modification and he wanted to see the final product. The full-color, flat-panel MEDS upgrade improves crew/orbiter interaction with easy-to-read, graphic portrayals of key flight indicators like attitude display and mach speed. The installation makes Atlantis the most modern orbiter in the fleet and equals the systems on current commercial jet airliners and military aircraft. Atlantis is scheduled to fly on mission STS-101 in early December.

  8. Investigation of Organic Chemicals Potentially Responsible for Mortality and Intersex in Fish of the North Fork of the Shenandoah River, Virginia, during Spring of 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter L.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Schroeder, Vickie L.; Werner, Stephen; Furlong, Edward T.; Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Declining fish health, fish exhibiting external lesions, incidences of intersex, and death, have been observed recently within the Potomac River basin. The basin receives surface runoff and direct inputs from agricultural, industrial, and other human activities. Two locations on the North Fork of the Shenandoah River were selected for study in an attempt to identify chemicals that may have contributed to the declining fish health. Two passive sampling devices, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were deployed during consecutive two-month periods during the spring and early summer of 2007 to measure select organic contaminants to which fish may have been exposed. This study determined that concentrations of persistent hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (< picograms per liter), legacy pesticides (<10 picograms per liter), and polychlorinated biphenyls (<280 picograms per liter) were low and indicative of a largely agricultural area. Atrazine and simazine were the most commonly detected pesticides. Atrazine concentrations ranged from 68 to 170 nanograms per liter for the March to April study period and 320 to 650 nanograms per liter for the April to June study period. Few chemicals characteristic of wastewater treatment plant effluent or septic tank discharges were identified. In contrast, para-cresol, N,N-diethyltoluamide, and caffeine commonly were detected. Prescription pharmaceuticals including carbamazepine, venlafaxine, and 17a-ethynylestradiol were at low concentrations. Extracts from the passive samplers also were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen. An estrogenic response was observed in POCIS samples from both sites, whereas SPMD samples exhibited little to no estrogenicity. This indicates that the chemicals producing the estrogenic response have a greater water solubility and are, therefore, less likely to bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of organisms.

  9. Chemical and geological control of spring water in Eastern Guaniguanico mountain range, Pinar del Rìo, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundo-Castillo, Juan Reynerio; Carrillo-Rivera, Joel José; Antigüedad-Auzmendi, Iñaki; González-Hernández, Patricia; Peláez-Díaz, Roberto; Hernández-Díaz, Rebeca; Cáceres-Govea, Dámaso; Hernández-Santana, José Ramón; Suárez-Muñoz, Margaret; Melián-Rodríguez, Clara; Rodríguez-Piña, Mónica

    2008-07-01

    Flows of different hierarchy, which travel through limestone, schist, sandstone and ultra-basic rocks, with ages from the Paleocene to the Jurassic, at Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Río, Cuba, were characterized. The waters were sampled from 1984 until 2004 and the data were statistically processed by means of chemical equilibrium and physico-chemical models, under a flow system view of interpretation. Results demonstrate that the physico-chemical properties of the water are controlled by water rock interaction resulting from residence time since rainwater infiltrate and the path it follows to the discharge zone and the type of aquifer material the different groundwater flows are in contact with. Geochemical indices allow the definition of the different types of flow (local, intermediate, regional) to be characterized, permitting a further definition of the different flow systems and rock type involved, as well as its use for water supply and medical use. The main geochemical processes which control the chemical composition acquisitions mode are: congruent dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and halite; incongruent dissolution of plagioclase and microcline minerals; pyrite oxidation, sulphate reduction, and silica dissolution at the surface or silica precipitation at deep saturation and circulation zones.

  10. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  11. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005 samplings, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant was 40 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from that wastewater treatment plant was 28 percent effluent. At each site, 300 individual constituents were determined to characterize the water. Most of the inorganic constituents were detected in all of the stream and treatment-plant effluent samples, whereas detection of synthetic organic compounds was more limited and contaminants typically occurred only in wastewater treatment-plant effluents and at downstream sites. Concentrations ranged from nanograms per liter to milligrams per liter.

  12. An integrated chemical and stable-isotope model of the origin of Midocean Ridge Hot Spring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Teresa Suter; Taylor, Hugh P., Jr.

    1985-12-01

    Chemical and isotopic changes accompanying seawater-basalt interaction in axial midocean ridge hydrothermal systems are modeled with the aid of chemical equilibria and mass transfer computer programs, incorporating provision for addition and subtraction of a wide-range of reactant and product minerals, as well as cation and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic exchange equilibria. The models involve stepwise introduction of fresh basalt into progressively modified seawater at discrete temperature intervals from 100 to 350C, with an overall water-rock ratio of about 0.5 being constrained by an assumed ?18OH2O at 350C of +2.0 per mil (H. Craig, personal communication, 1984). This is a realistic model because: (1) the grade of hydrothermal metamorphism increases sharply downward in the oceanic crust; (2) the water-rock ratio is high (>50) at low temperatures and low (<0.5) at high temperatures; and (3) it allows for back-reaction of earlier-formed minerals during the course of reaction progress. The results closely match the major-element chemistry (Von Damm et al., 1985) and isotopic compositions (Craig et al., 1980) of the hydrothermal solutions presently emanating from vents at 21N on the East Pacific Rise. The calculated solution chemistry, for example, correctly predicts complete loss of Mg and SO4 and substantial increases in Si and Fe; however, discrepancies exist in the predicted pH (5.5 versus 3.5 measured) and state of saturation of the solution with respect to greenschist-facies minerals. The calculated ?DH2O is +2.6 per mil, in excellent agreement with analytical determinations. The calculated chemical, mineralogic, and isotopic changes in the rocks are also in good accord with observations on altered basalts dredged from midocean ridges (Humphris and Thompson, 1978; Stakes and O'Neil, 1982), as well as with data from ophiolites (Gregory and Taylor, 1981). Predicted alteration products include anhydrite and clay minerals at low temperatures and a typical albite-epidote-chlorite-tremolite (greenschist) assemblage at 350C. The models demand that the major portion of the water-rock interaction occur at temperatures of 300-350C. Interaction at temperatures below approximately 250C results in negative ?18OH2O shifts, contrary to the observed positive ?18O values of the fluids exiting at midocean ridge vents. Hydrogen isotope fractionation curves by Suzuoki and Epstein (1976), Lambert and Epstein (1980), and Liu and Epstein (1984), among others, are compatible with the model, and require ?DH2O to increase at all temperatures as a result of seawater-basalt interaction.

  13. Chemical and optical characterization of aerosols measured in spring 2002 at the ACE-Asia supersite, Zhenbeitai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, S. C.; Gomes, L.; Rajot, J. L.; Lafon, S.; Gaudichet, A.; Chatenet, B.; Maille, M.; Cautenet, G.; Lasserre, F.; Cachier, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2003-12-01

    In April 2002, aerosol characteristics have been recorded at Zhenbeitai (ZBT) near the city of Yulin (3817'N, 10943'E, Shaanxi province, China). One year earlier, ZBT had been one of the continental supersites of the ACE-Asia international experiment. In spring, this site, located on the southwestern fringe of the Mu Us desert, is at the crossing of the pathways followed by dust originating from the main Chinese dust sources. During the experiment a customized aerosol sampler has been used. It had been specially designed to ensure the best possible sampling isokineticity for all instruments and to minimize coarse particle losses. Its cutoff size (D50) has been computed to be 9 ?m. For particles smaller than this size (PM9), mass concentrations, number concentrations, size distributions, elemental composition, and scattering properties were measured at ground level. Vertically integrated characteristics such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT), or single scattering albedo (?0), were also determined by the means of a Sun-tracking photometer. During the measurement period, several dust events, one of them a major dust storm when PM9 mass concentrations became as high as 4650 ?g/m3, were observed. At this time the aerosol scattering coefficient reached 2800 Mm-1. These dust events were separated by periods when optical properties were altered, or even dominated, by anthropogenic aerosol of local origin. For these periods, PM9 was significantly less (always below 100 ?g/m3) than during dust events, mass concentration in black carbon (BC) was between 0.9 and 6.7 ?g/m3, and the aerosol scattering coefficient between 7 and 800 Mm-1. No difference in elemental composition could be detected between the various dust episodes. Measured Fe/Al (0.63 0.04) and Mg/Al (0.32 0.03) ratios are consistent with an aerosol source located in the "northwestern high desert sources." This result is also supported by the air mass back-trajectories coming from a west or northwest direction and by the fact that dust layers had generally already acquired a significant vertical extension (1500 m) when reaching the measurement site. This transported dust had already incorporated an anthropogenic carbonaceous component upon reaching the measurement site. The size distribution of this transported mixture is relatively constant and is characterized by the presence of a particle population with a number mean diameter between 1 and 2 ?m. The mass scattering efficiency of this aerosol is 1.05 0.13 m2/g, relative to PM9, and its Angstrm exponent is close to 0.19. The single scattering albedo determined by data inversion of Sun photometer measurements is found to increase from 0.89 at 441 nm to 0.95 at 873 nm. These relatively large ?0 values indicate that, though mixing of mineral dust and anthropogenic aerosols is the rule rather than the exception at ZBT, the aerosol is still not very absorbent during intense dust events. In consequence, the dust optical characteristics measured at ZBT during dust storms are probably representative of the ones of pure dust emitted from the "northwestern high desert" sources.

  14. Chemical composition of fumarolic gases and spring discharges from El Chichn volcano, Mexico: causes and implications of the changes detected over the period 1998 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Vaselli, O.; Capaccioni, B.; Macias, J. L.; Nencetti, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Magro, G.

    2003-04-01

    Since the March-April 1982 eruption of El Chichn volcano, intense hydrothermal activity has characterised the 1-km-wide summit crater. This mainly consists of mud and boiling pools, fumaroles, which are mainly located in the northwestern bank of the crater lake. During the period 1998-2000, hot springs and fumaroles discharging inside the crater and from the southeastern outer flank (Agua Caliente) were collected for chemical analyses. The observed chemical fluctuations suggest that the physico-chemical boundary conditions regulating the thermodynamic equilibria of the deep rock/fluid interactions have changed with time. The chemical composition of the lake water, characterised in the period 1983-1997 by high Na +, Cl -, Ca 2+ and SO 42- contents, experienced a dramatic change in 1998-1999, turning from a Na +-Cl -- to a Ca 2+-SO 42--rich composition. In June 2000, a relatively sharp increase in Na + and Cl - contents was observed. At the same time, SO 2/H 2S ratios and H 2 and CO contents in most gas discharges increased with respect to the previous two years of observations, suggesting either a new input of deep-seated fluids or local variations of the more surficial hydrothermal system. Migration of gas manifestations, enhanced number of emission spots and variations in both gas discharge flux and outlet temperatures of the main fluid manifestations were also recorded. The magmatic-hydrothermal system of El Chichn is probably related to interaction processes between a deep magmatic source and a surficial cold aquifer; an important role may also be played by the interaction of the deep fluids with the volcanic rocks and the sedimentary (limestone and evaporites) basement. The chemical and physical changes recorded in 1998-2000 were possibly due to variations in the permeability of the conduit system feeding the fluid discharges at surface, as testified by the migration of gas and water emanations. Two different scenarios can be put forward for the volcanic evolution of El Chichn: (1) build-up of an infra-crater dome that may imply a future eruption in terms of tens to hundreds of years; (2) minor phreatic-phreatomagmatic events whose prediction and timing is more difficult to constrain. This suggests that, unlike the diminished volcanic activity at El Chichn after the 1982 paroxistic event, the volcano-hydrothermal fluid discharges need to be more constantly monitored with regular and more frequent geochemical sampling and, at the same time, a permanent network of seismic stations should be installed.

  15. Chemical characterization of air masses transported to the Arctic during the ARCTAS-A spring deployment: biomass burning versus fossil fuel combustion signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Burkhart, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    A major research objective of the ARCTAS-A field campaign was to obtain in-situ data on the nature and the extent of atmospheric pollution in the Arctic during spring. We deployed a PTR-MS instrument aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft to measure a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including acetonitrile, methanol, acetone and benzene. The VOCs serve as tracers for mid-latitude pollution of different nature (biomass burning vs. fossil fuel combustion) and age. For air mass classification, we additionally use the DACOM dataset for carbon monoxide (CO) which is a general long-lived tracer for incomplete combustion. According to our analysis, strongly biomass-burning impacted air was encountered during the second half of the campaign at altitudes between 1.8 and 7.4 km, with the maximum impact being observed at altitudes between 3.5 and 5 km. A pronounced signature of fossil fuel combustion-derived pollution was observed at altitudes mostly above 1 km including some strongly polluted layers at high altitudes between 6 and 8.5 km. Furthermore, our markers indicate the omnipresence of aged background pollution of anthropogenic origin. In our ongoing analysis, we are comparing the experimental results with the output from the FLEXPART chemical tracer transport model which will allow us to locate the geographic source regions of the observed pollution tracers.

  16. Aquifer Susceptibility in Virginia: Data on Chemical and Isotopic Composition, Recharge Temperature, and Apparent Age of Water from Wells and Springs, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Harlow,, George E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of aquifer susceptibility to contamination from near-surface sources by the use of ground-water dating techniques is a critical part of Virginia's Source Water Assessment Program. As part of the Virginia Aquifer Susceptibility study, water samples were collected between 1998 and 2000 from 145 wells and 6 springs in various hydrogeologic settings across the Commonwealth. Samples were analyzed to determine water chemistry?including nitrate (NO3), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and radon-222 (222Rn), major dissolved and noble gases?nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), helium (He), and neon (Ne), environmental tracers?chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He), carbon isotopes?carbon-14 (14C) and carbon-13 (d13C), and stable isotopes of oxygen (d18O) and hydrogen (d2H). The chemical and isotopic composition, recharge temperatures, and apparent ages of these water samples are presented in this report. Data collected between 1999 and 2000 from 18 wells in Virginia as part of two other studies by the U.S. Geological Survey also are presented. Most of the sites sampled serve as public water supplies and are included in the comprehensive Source Water Assessment Program for the Commonwealth.

  17. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, L., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  18. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hobba, W.A.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element Chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  19. A conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization system to remediate radioactive raffinate sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.J.; Ansted, J.P.; Foldyna, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    Past operations at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Weldon Spring, Missouri, Superfund Site included the manufacture of nitroaromatic-based munitions and the production of uranium and thorium metal from ore concentrates. These operations generated a large quantity of diverse contaminated waste media including raffinate sludge, soil, sediment, and building debris. These various waste media are contaminated with varying amounts of radionuclides nitroaromatics, metals, metalloids, non-metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos. The volumes and diversity of contaminants and waste media pose significant challenges in identifying applicable remedial technologies, particularly for the excavation and treatment of the water-rich raffinate sludge. This paper presents the results of comprehensive efforts to develop a conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization (CSS) system to treat a variety of waste media. The emphasis of this paper is the treatment of a water-rich refractory raffinate sludge and site contaminated soils both radioactive and nonradioactive. The conceptual system design includes raffinate sludge excavation, dewatering, and CSS processing (reagent selection and formulation, reagent and waste storage and metering, and product mixing). Many innovations were incorporated into the design, producing a system that can process the various waste types. Additionally, the radioactive and hazardous constituents are sufficiently immobilized to allow the secured disposal in a waste cell of the treated product. The conceptual CSS system can also produce a variety of treated product types, ranging from a monolithic form to a compactible soil-like medium. The advantages of this system flexibility are also presented.

  20. 77 FR 9254 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance...); Weldon Spring Plant (Weldon Spring, MO), Sandia National Laboratories, Clinton Engineering Works...

  1. Hydrology and water-quality at the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Water samples from five monitoring wells adjacent to raffinate pits storing low-level radioactive waste contained concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen ranging from 53 to 990 milligrams per liter. Most samples also had maximum concentrations of calcium (900 milligrams per liter), sodium (340 milligrams per liter), sulfate (320 milligrams per liter), lithium (1,700 micrograms), strontium (1,900 micrograms per liter), and uranium (86 micrograms per liter). The raffinate pits also had large concentrations of these constituents. A water balance made on the raffinate pits indicated a 0.04 to 0.08 inch per day decrease in the water level that cannot be attributed to meterological conditions. These data and seismically-detected areas of saturated overburden beneath one raffinate pit and possibly adjacent to three other pits indicate leakage from the pits. (USGS)

  2. Post yield strain tests of 20 inch casing with weld-on connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blackstone, W.R.; Galate, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in permafrost regions may undergo significant subsidence due to thawing. Oil well surface casing embedded in such soils may be subjected to strains well beyond yield, whatever the casing properties might be. To deal with this, the State of Alaska has issued a specification defining the amount of axial strain that the casing, together with its connectors, must be able to withstand without parting. This paper presents full scale tension and compression test data demonstrating that a particular weight and grade of 20-inch casing with premium weld-on connectors is a system exceeding those requirements. It is shown that, in tension, the material ultimate strength is reached first in the casing. Likewise, it is shown that, in compression, the casing buckles plastically before the connector fails.

  3. Post-yield strain tests of 20-in. casing with weld-on connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blackstone, W.R.; Blose, T.L.; Galate, J.W.

    1983-12-01

    Soils in permafrost regions may undergo significant subsidence due to thawing. Oil well surface casing embedded in such soils may be subjected to strains well beyond yield, whatever the casing properties might be. To deal with this, the State of Alaska has issued a specification defining the amount of axial strain that the casing, together with its connectors, must be able to withstand without parting. This paper presents full-scale tension and compression test data demonstrating that a particular weight and grade of 20-in. casing with premium weld-on connectors is a system exceeding those requirements. It is shown that, in tension, the material ultimate strength is reached first in the casing. Similarly, it is shown that, in compression, the casing buckles plastically before the connector fails.

  4. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  5. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  6. Warm springs of the western Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, K.F.; Wagner, G.H.

    1981-10-01

    Springs from a 130 x 140 km area west of the Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas to the Oklahoma border were analyzed for major and trace elements and temperature was measured in situ. Six springs had anomalous surface temperatures and 13 springs had anomalous subsurface temperatures (based on the solubility of chalcedony). All of the anomalous springs are located near folded, shale-brittle rock (e.g., novaculite) contacts. The chemical variation of the anomalous springs is significant enough that a variety of sources are suggested for these springs.

  7. Hydrogeology of the mineral springs at Manitou Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyn, R.M.; Blomquist, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Manitou Springs, a small resort community located at the base of 14,110 foot Pikes Peak, is situated at the south end of the southward plunging Williams Canyon Anticline. This is truncated south of town by the Ute Pass Reverse Fault, with over 30,000 feet of displacement. Paleozoic limestones are exposed north of Manitou Springs in north-south trending Williams Canyon. The Mississippian age Leadville Limestone and underlying Ordovician age Manitou Limestone contain over 40 caves, including the 8500-foot long Cave of the Winds system. These limestones continue under Manitou Springs, where cave forming processes have resulted in water-filled caverns. The 28 natural springs and flowing wells in Manitou Springs source in the limestone caverns. This carbonate aquifer is bounded by the Ute Pass Fault on the west and southwest, the Rampart Range Fault to the east, and open to recharge from exposed limestone to the north. Areal extent of the aquifer is approximately 3.5 spare miles, containing an estimated 10 billion gallons. In the past 100 years, spring development has lowered the potentiometric surface 50 feet. Contemporary and historical chemical analyses of the mineral water show high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and carbon dioxide gas. This suggests prolonged exposure of the water to limestone, as confirmed by Carbon 14 age-dating values of up to 30,000 years.

  8. Comparing pre- and post-chemical abrasion ages for Miocene Peach Springs Tuff zircon from ID-TIMS and SIMS analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidzbarski, M. I.; Mundil, R.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Peach Spring Tuff (PST) is a voluminous (>600 km3), zoned ignimbrite (trachyte to high-SiO2 rhyolite) that is exposed widely in eastern California, western Arizona, and southernmost Nevada, which was erupted from the Silver Creek caldera in the southwestern Black Mountains, AZ. PST serves as a regionally widespread marker unit and its eruption age has been determined to 18.8 to 18.9 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar methods, when corrected for systematic bias and normalized to the U-Pb system (Renne et al., 2010,). We performed ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from individual pumice clasts from PST to evaluate the growth history of zircon in the PST magma system. Sectioned, polished zircon from conventional epoxy mounts allows dating of internal growth domains (e.g. cores, interiors, and near-rim), whereas mounting unpolished zircon in indium and analyzing unpolished crystal faces provides a means to selectively sample the final increments of crystal growth (Reid and Coath, 2000). Combining U-Pb ages of unpolished zircon rims with near-rim interior analyses on sectioned grains yields a mean age of ca. 18.3 Ma, whereas ages of cores of sectioned crystals yield a mean of ca. 18.9 Ma. Several zircons have rim and/or core ages that are several hundred thousand years older or younger than these means (up to 1 m.y. total spread), although the uncertainties for individual SIMS ages are 2 to 5% (2 sigma uncertainty). Therefore, the distribution of ages is challenging to resolve. A modest number of the older grains are plausibly recycled antecrysts, but we suspect that the youngest zircons may have experienced Pb-loss. Failure to account for the possibility of inheritance and Pb-loss may lead to erroneous interpretations about crystallization in the PST system. In order to evaluate and mitigate the effects of Pb-loss, we employed the chemical abrasion (CA) technique of Mattinson (2005), which effectively eliminates domains in zircon that have suffered Pb-loss, and removes micro-inclusions that typically contain common Pb. Thermal annealing followed by CA techniques were used for ID-TIMS dating of a sub-set of zircon crystals previously analyzed by SIMS. Prior to TIMS analyses, zircon crystals were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the effects of CA on crystal domains sampled by SIMS. SEM images reveal that whole portions of crystals were removed by the CA technique, and a heterogeneous pattern of etching that was not confined to specific compositional zones visible in cathodoluminescence. Most of the SIMS sputter pits that yield spurious ages, are associated with etching and/or preferential annealing by the combined annealing and CA technique, suggesting that the young ages relative to the 40Ar/39Ar age may be due to Pb loss. ID-TIMS yields a coherent U-Pb age population of 18.8 Ma, with several older and younger crystals that might reflect xenocrysts, Pb-loss, and/or younger crystallization. In order to maintain spatial resolution and further evaluate the effects of Pb-loss in PST zircon, the annealing and CA-technique will be applied to zircon prior to SIMS dating. References: Reid and Coath, 2000, Geology 28: 443 Renne et al., 2010, GCA 78: 5349

  9. Helical spring holder assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Wyatt S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A helically-threaded spring holder on which a helically wound spring is mounted has a groove formed in one side of the thread at the end where the spring engages the spring holder. The groove relieves the portion of the side in which it is formed from restricting the spring against axial movement during deflection of the spring. The circumferential length of this groove is chosen to establish the number of spring coils which can be deflected without contacting the side of the thread. The end of the thread is also made rigid to prevent flexing thereof during maximal elongation of the spring.

  10. Influence of mobile ion concentrations on the chemical composition of geothermal waters in granitic areas; Example of hot springs form Piemonte Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Michard, G.; Grimaud, D. ); D'Amore, F.; Fancelli, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The six hot springs from Vinadio and the springs from Valdieri (Piemonte, Italy) have similar emergence temperatures ({approximately}50{degrees} C), similar deep temperatures ({approximately}115{degrees} C) and their chloride content varies from 0.9 to 30 mmol/kg. Major elements and some trace elements concentrations (Li, Rb, Cs, Sr, Ba, Mn) correlate closely with Na concentrations. The correlations in a log-log diagram are linear with a slope close to the electric charge of the ion. This is explained, for major elements, by an equilibrium between a complete assemblage of minerals and a water containing varying amounts of chloride. It is suggested, from the Cl/Br ratio, that chloride originates by halite dissolution during the descent of the water.

  11. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining; L. J. Campbell

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  12. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bartholomay; L. M. Williams; L. J. Campbell

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  13. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacan Volcano (Mexico-Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, Dmitri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Varley, Nicholas; Santiago S., Jos A.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacan volcano-hydrothermal system (Mexico-Guatemala). Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500-2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacan (La Calera). The near-neutral (pH from 5.8 to 6.9) thermal ( T from 25.7C to 63.0C) HCO3-SO4 waters are thought to have formed by the absorption of a H2S/SO2-CO2-enriched steam into a Cl-rich geothermal aquifer, afterwards mixed by Na/HCO3-enriched meteoric waters originating from the higher elevations of the volcano as stated by the isotopic composition (?D and ?18O) of meteoric and spring waters. Boiling temperature fumaroles (89C at ~3,600m a.s.l. NW of the summit), formed after the May 1986 phreatic explosion, emit isotopically light vapour (?D and ?18O as low as -128 and -19.9, respectively) resulting from steam separation from the summit aquifer. Fumarolic as well as bubbling gases at five springs are CO2-dominated. The ?13CCO2 for all gases show typical magmatic values of -3.6 1.3 vs V-PDB. The large range in 3He/4He ratios for bubbling, dissolved and fumarolic gases [from 1.3 to 6.9 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)] is ascribed to a different degree of near-surface boiling processes inside a heterogeneous aquifer at the contact between the volcanic edifice and the crystalline basement (4He source). Tacan volcano offers a unique opportunity to give insight into shallow hydrothermal and deep magmatic processes affecting the CO2/3He ratio of gases: bubbling springs with lower gas/water ratios show higher 3He/4He ratios and consequently lower CO2/3He ratios (e.g. Zarco spring). Typical Central American CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios are found for the fumarolic Agua Caliente and Zarco gases (3.1 1.6 1010 and 6.0 0.9 R A, respectively). The L/ S (5.9 0.5) and ( L + S)/ M ratios (9.2 0.7) for the same gases are almost identical to the ones calculated for gases in El Salvador, suggesting an enhanced slab contribution as far as the northern extreme of the Central American Volcanic Arc, Tacan.

  14. Environmental conditions of boreal springs explained by capture zone characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Pekka M.; Marttila, Hannu; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ala-aho, Pertti; Isokangas, Elina; Muotka, Timo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Springs are unique ecosystems, but in many cases they are severely threatened and there is an urgent need for better spring management and conservation. To this end, we studied water quality and quantity in springs in Oulanka National Park, north-east Finland. Multivariate statistical methods were employed to relate spring water quality and quantity to hydrogeology and land use of the spring capture zone. This revealed that most springs studied were affected by locally atypical dolostone-limestone bedrock, resulting in high calcium, pH, and alkalinity values. Using Ward's hierarchical clustering, the springs were grouped into four clusters based on their water chemistry. One cluster consisted of springs affected by past small-scale agriculture, whereas other clusters were affected by the variable bedrock, e.g., springs only 1 km from the dolostone-limestone bedrock area were beyond its calcium-rich impact zone. According to a random forest model, the best predictors of spring water chemistry were spring altitude and the stable hydrogen isotope ratio of the water (δ2H). Thus stable water isotopes could be widely applicable for boreal spring management. They may also provide a rough estimate of groundwater flow route (i.e., whether it is mainly local or regional), which largely determines the chemical characteristics of spring water. Our approach could be applied in other boreal regions and at larger spatial scales for improved classification of springs and for better targeted spring management.

  15. Hot Springs Creek

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

  16. A batch study on the bio-fixation of carbon dioxide in the absorbed solution from a chemical wet scrubber by hot spring and marine algae.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, H T; Chu, H; Yu, S T

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dioxide mass transfer is a key factor in cultivating micro-algae except for the light limitation of photosynthesis. It is a novel idea to enhance mass transfer with the cyclic procedure of absorbing CO(2) with a high performance alkaline abosorber such as a packed tower and regenerating the alkaline solution with algal photosynthesis. Hence, the algae with high affinity for alkaline condition must be purified. In this study, a hot spring alga (HSA) was purified from an alkaline hot spring (pH 9.3, 62 degrees C) in Taiwan and grows well over pH 11.5 and 50 degrees C. For performance of HSA, CO(2) removal efficiencies in the packed tower increase about 5-fold in a suitable growth condition compared to that without adding any potassium hydroxide. But ammonia solution was not a good choice for this system with regard to carbon dioxide removal efficiency because of its toxicity on HSA. In addition, HSA also exhibits a high growth rate under the controlled pHs from 7 to 11. Besides, a well mass balance of carbon and nitrogen made sure that less other byproducts formed in the procedure of carboxylation. For analysis of some metals in HSA, such as Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, related to the photosynthesis increased by a rising cultivated pH and revealed that those metals might be accumulated under alkaline conditions but the growth rate was still limited by the ratio of bicarbonate (useful carbon source) and carbonate. Meanwhile, Nannochlopsis oculta (NAO) was also tested under different additional carbon sources. The results revealed that solutions of sodium/potassium carbonate are better carbon sources than ammonia carbonate/bicarbonate for the growth of NAO. However, pH 9.6 of growth limitation based on sodium was lower than one of HSA. The integrated system is, therefore, more feasible to treat CO(2) in the flue gases using the algae with higher alkaline affinity such as HSA in small volume bioreactors. PMID:16860839

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  18. Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  20. THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE REMEDIATION OF WWI CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE SPRING VALLEY SUPERFUND SITE, WASHINGTON, DC

    EPA Science Inventory

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  1. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11 to 8). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  2. Spring joint with overstrain sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

  3. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  4. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  5. A Magnet Spring Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the

  6. Mineral springs and miracles.

    PubMed

    Forster, M M

    1994-04-01

    Development of hot springs in the Canadian Rockies was closely linked to their reputed medicinal value. In 1885, the federal government created a small reserve around the springs at Sulphur Mountain, an area later enlarged to become Banff National Park, in recognition of the "great sanitary and curative advantage to the public." PMID:8199525

  7. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  8. Valve-spring Surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, Willy

    1937-01-01

    Test equipment is described that includes a system of three quartz indicators whereby three different pressures could be synchronized and simultaneously recorded on a single oscillogram. This equipment was used to test the reliction of waves at ends of valve spring, the dynamical stress of the valve spring for a single lift of the valve, and measurement of the curve of the cam tested. Other tests included simultaneous recording of the stress at both ends of the spring, spring oscillation during a single lift as a function of speed, computation of amplitude of oscillation for a single lift by harmonic analysis, effect of cam profile, the setting up of resonance, and forced spring oscillation with damping.

  9. Force of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  10. Thermal springs in Lake Baikal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, Wayne C., III; Callender, E.

    1992-01-01

    The ??18O values of pore wqters range from -15.2??? to -16.7???, and ??D values range from -119??? to -126??? (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water [SMOW]). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a ??18O value of -5.6??? and a ??D value of -120???. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest ??D and ??18O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites. -from Authors

  11. Thermal springs in Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, W.C. III; Callender, E. )

    1992-06-01

    Pore waters extracted from sediment cores were analyzed for their oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions and major ion chemistry to determine the source of water from a vent area for diffuse lake-bottom thermal springs or seeps in Frolikha Bay, northeastern Lake Baikal. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of pore waters range from {minus}15.2{per thousand} to {minus}16.7{per thousand}, and {delta}D values range from {minus}119{per thousand} to {minus}126{per thousand} (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW)). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a {delta}{sup 18}O value of {minus}5.6{per thousand} and a {delta}D values of {minus}120{per thousand}. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites.

  12. SPRING_TANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  13. Harbingers of Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  14. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  15. Mineral springs and miracles.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    Development of hot springs in the Canadian Rockies was closely linked to their reputed medicinal value. In 1885, the federal government created a small reserve around the springs at Sulphur Mountain, an area later enlarged to become Banff National Park, in recognition of the "great sanitary and curative advantage to the public." Images p730-a p731-a p732-a p733-a p734-a p736-a PMID:8199525

  16. Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A spring (10) includes a tube (12) having an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension (22) extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension (24) extending vertically. A plurality of cuts (20) in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube (12) extend perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis (16) extending along the tube (12). An uncut portion (26) of the tube wall extends along the tube (12) for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom (28) of a seat cushion (30).

  17. Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, L. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A spring which includes a tube with an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension extending vertically is disclosed. A plurality of cuts in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube extend perpendiculary to a longitudinal axis extending along the tube. An uncut portion of the tube wall extends along the tube for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom of a seat cushion.

  18. Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Frank B.

    2006-07-25

    A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

  19. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  20. Sulfur spring dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chieh-Chi; Wu, Yu-Hung

    2014-11-01

    Thermal sulfur baths are a form of balneotherapy promoted in many cultures for improvement of skin conditions; however, certain uncommon skin problems may occur after bathing in hot sulfur springs. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple confluent, punched-out, round ulcers with peripheral erythema on the thighs and shins after bathing in a hot sulfur spring. Histopathologic examination revealed homogeneous coagulation necrosis of the epidermis and papillary dermis. Tissue cultures showed no evidence of a microbial infection. The histopathologic findings and clinical course were consistent with a superficial second-degree burn. When patients present with these findings, sulfur spring dermatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, the patient's clinical history is crucial for correct diagnosis. PMID:25474449

  1. Roller belleville spring damper

    SciTech Connect

    Hebel, J.B.

    1981-07-07

    A double acting damper for use in rotary drilling includes a splined tubular telescopic joint and employs plural paralleled stacks of double acting series stacked roller belleville spring washers in an annular pocket between the inner and outer tubular members of the joint. The springs, spline and telescopic bearings are in an oil filled volume sealed from the outside by a pressure seal at the lower end of the damper and a floating seal at the upper end. Electric and magnetic means are provided to check on the condition and quantity of the lubricant.

  2. Recharge mixing in a complex distributary spring system in the Missouri Ozarks, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toronto Springs is a complex distributary karst spring system with 11 perennial springs in the central Missouri Ozarks, USA. Carroll Cave (CC) and Wet Glaize Creek (WG) were previously identified as principal recharge sources. This study 1) characterized physical and chemical properties of the sprin...

  3. Dynamics of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

  4. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  5. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  6. Atascocita Springs Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigaglioni, Irene; Yocham, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    With the significant amount of time invested in researching the best techniques for delivering instruction to their students, Humble ISD is always on the forefront of education. Taking the recommendations of their active and vocal community groups, the district embarked in the design of the 26th elementary school, Atascocita Springs Elementary…

  7. Atascocita Springs Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigaglioni, Irene; Yocham, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    With the significant amount of time invested in researching the best techniques for delivering instruction to their students, Humble ISD is always on the forefront of education. Taking the recommendations of their active and vocal community groups, the district embarked in the design of the 26th elementary school, Atascocita Springs Elementary

  8. Hot spring burns.

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M

    1996-03-01

    This case report describes a woman who, while visiting a hot spring, received partial- and full-thickness immersion scald burns of both ankles and heels. The prevention of such accidents is most important; efforts should be made to educate guides and tourists about the potential hazards inherent in these resorts. PMID:8634128

  9. 1981 Spring Meeting Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Approximately 2150 participants registered for the 1981 Spring Meeting. More than 1500 papers were presented.The spaciousness of the Baltimore Convention Center provided ample opportunity for attendees to exchange ideas and interact with their colleagues. Here are some candid shots.

  10. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades

  11. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]

  12. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  13. Spa, springs and safety.

    PubMed

    Sukthana, Yaowalark; Lekkla, Amorn; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Wanapongse, Paitoon; Vejjajiva, Athasit; Bovornkitti, Somchai

    2005-01-01

    Natural mineral water has long been used worldwide for bathing and health purposes. At present, Thailand is famous for health spas and natural hot springs among local people and tourists. Due to possible risks of exposure to harmful agents, we studied hazardous pollutants at 57 natural hot springs from 11 provinces in northern, central, eastern and southern Thailand. Pathogenic, free-living amebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, which can cause central nervous system infection, were found in 26.3% (15/57) and 15.8% (9/ 57), respectively. Dissolved radon, a soil gas with carcinogenic properties, was present in nearly all hot springs sites, with concentration ranging from 0.87-76,527 Becquerels/m3. There were 5 water samples in which radon concentration exceeded the safety limit for drinking. Legionella pneumoniphila (serogroups 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 10 and 13) were found in samples from 71.9% (41/57) of studied sites. Because spas and natural springs are popular tourist attractions, health authorities should be aware of possible hazards and provide tactful measures and guidelines to ensure safety without causing undue alarm to foreign and Thai tourists. PMID:16438172

  14. Planar torsion spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  15. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It

  16. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  17. Warm Springs Creek, Idaho

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

  18. 9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  19. Thermal Springs and the Search for Past Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Walter, M. R.

    1995-01-01

    Ancient thermal spring sites have several features which make them significant targets in a search for past life. Chemical (including redox) reactions in hydrothermal systems possibly played a role in the origin of life on Earth and elsewhere. Spring waters frequently contain reduced species (sulfur compounds, Fe(sup +2), etc.) which can provide chemical energy for organic synthesis. Relatively cool hydrothermal systems can sustain abundant microbial life (on Earth, at temperatures greater than 110 C). A spring site on Mars perhaps might even have maintained liquid water for periods sufficiently long to sustain surface-dwelling biota had they existed. On Earth, a variety of microbial mat communities can be sampled along the wide range of temperatures surrounding the spring, thus offering an opportunity to sample a broad biological diversity. Thermal spring waters frequently deposit minerals (carbonates, silica, etc.) which can entomb and preserve both fluid inclusions and microbial communities. These deposits can be highly fossiliferous and preserve biological inclusions for geologically long periods of time. Such deposits can cover several square km on Earth, and their distinctive mineralogy (e.g., silica- and/or carbonate-rich) can contrast sharply with that of the surrounding region. As with Martian volcanoes, Martian thermal spring complexes and their deposits might typically be much larger than their counterparts on Earth. Thus Martian spring deposits are perhaps readily detectable and even accessible. Elysium Planitia is an example of a promising region where hydrothermal activity very likely remobilized ground ice and sustained springs.

  20. Water-quality data for the Missouri River and Missouri River alluvium near Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1991--92

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the water-quality data collected at two cross sections across the Missouri River and from monitoring wells in the Missouri River alluvium near Defiance, Missouri. The sampling results indicate the general water composition from the Missouri River changes with different flow conditions. During low-base flow conditions, the water generally contained about equal quantities of calcium and sodium plus potassium and similar quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate. During high-base flow conditions, water from the river predominantly was a calcium bicarbonate type. During runoff conditions, the water from the river was a calcium bicarbonate type, and sulfate concentrations were larger than during high-base flow conditions but smaller than during low-base flow conditions. The total and dissolved uranium concentrations at both the upstream and downstream cross sections, as well as from the different vertical samples across the river, were similar during each sampling event. However, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and total and dissolved uranium concentrations varied with different flow conditions. Sodium and sulfate concentrations were larger during low-base flow conditions than during high-base flow or runoff conditions, while nitrate concentrations decreased during low-base flow conditions. Both total and dissolved uranium concentrations were slightly larger during runoff events than during low-base or high-base flow conditions.

  1. Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium, and sulfate show statistically significant differences between the median values of base-flow and stormflow samples. While variations in these constituents do not degrade water quality, the differences do provide evidence of variability in the factors controlling water quality of the hot springs and show that water quality is influenced by the locally derived, cold-water component of flow to the springs. Water temperature was measured continuously (3-minute intervals) between August 2000 and October 2002 at four hot springs. Continuous water-temperature data at the springs provide no indication of persistent long-term change in water temperature through time. Short time-scale water-temperature decreases occur in response to mixing of hot-springs water with locally derived recharge after storm events; the magnitude of these decreases varied inversely with the amount of rainfall. Maximum decreases in water temperature for specific storms had a non-linear relation with the amount of precipitation measured for the events. Response time for water temperature to begin decreasing from baseline temperature as a result of storm recharge was highly variable. Some springs began decreasing from baseline temperature as quickly as 1 hour after the beginning of a storm; one spring had an 8-hour minimum response time to show a storm-related temperature decrease. Water-quality, water-temperature, isotopic, and radiochemical data provide multiple lines of evidence supporting the importance of the contribution of cold-water recharge to hot springs. All the springs sampled indicated some measure of influence from local recharge. Binary mixing models using silica and total dissolved solids indicate that cold-water recharge from stormflow contributes an estimated 10 to 31 percent of the flow of hot springs. Models using water temperature indicate that cold-water recharge from stormflow contributes an estimated 1 to 35 percent of the flow of the various hot springs. Alth

  2. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are

  3. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Lpez-Lpez, Olalla; Cerdn, Mara Esperanza; Gonzlez-Siso, Mara Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communitiestheir diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

  4. Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillinger, G. L., Jr. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring force present in the portion of the spring that resides in a transition region between a relatively straight condition on the path and a fully wound condition on the spool. When the distal end is released, the distal end is accelerated toward the spool by the force existing at the transition region which force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the spring.

  5. Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

  6. Spring-Tab Lock Washer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Jeff; Rogers, Dylan; Rodriguez, Pete

    1993-01-01

    Improved spring-tab lock washer offers alternative to such positive-locking devices as cotter pins and lock wires and to conventional split-ring lock washers. Does not dig into fastened parts with sharp edges; less likely to inflict scratches causing cracks. Contains three winglike spring tabs and three alignment pips, pressed into mating dimples in surface of part to be fastened. Spring tabs on lock washer allow only clockwise rotation (tightening) of bolt or nut.

  7. Geochemistry of Geothermal Springs In Northern Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, S. R.; Smith, A. L.; Melchiorre, E. B.; Fryxell, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    The island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles contains eight potentially active volcanoes, many of which are associated with geothermal springs. During the period 2003-2007 most of these springs were sampled and analyzed geochemically. The data presented here are for three groups of geothermal springs located in the northern part of the island. One group, the Penville Cold Soufrire, is located within the summit area of Morne Aux Diables volcano. The second group, Picard Warm Springs, is located on the northwestern flank of Morne Diablotins volcano. The third group is located in the Portsmouth area, including the adjacent Prince Rupert Bay, and consists of both subaerial and submarine springs. It is not known with which volcano these springs may be associated. The chemistry of each sample from the geothermal springs was compared to "reference standards" including three seawater samples (standard seawater and two surface samples from Prince Rupert Bay) and three fresh water samples (Emerald Pool and two rainwater samples). Of the more than 38 elements analyzed, 21 elements were consistently two or more orders of magnitude higher when compared to the "reference" standards. When these values were plotted on chemical variation diagrams, two trend lines were consistently developed. One included seawater and the submarine hot springs; the other, the fresh water samples and all the subaerial springs. The intersection of these trend lines is interpreted to represent the composition of a possible magmatic component prior to dilution with seawater and/or meteoric water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis of the springs for the whole island have also been undertaken. VSMOW graphs of ? 18O and ?D indicate that all of the geothermal springs on Dominica lie on a trend between the meteoric water line (MWL) and a magmatic source. The compositions of the geothermal springs from northern Dominica are interpreted to represent mixing of variable amounts of freshwater or seawater with a magmatic source that appears to be constant for all these northern springs. The similarity of the isotopic results for all the geothermal springs on Dominica suggests that this magmatic source may be constant throughout the island.

  8. Springing into Spring: Reading Games for the Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    As spring arrives, more time is spent outdoors. Unfortunately, as spring fever hits, books and learning often take a backseat. The goal is for educators to find a way to re-engage learners. In this article, the author presents a seasonal story and game that can help catch students' attention by making learning both informative and entertaining.

  9. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, Thomas E. (Solana Beach, CA); Guarnieri, Joseph J. (San Diego, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  10. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

    1984-03-13

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  11. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  12. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  13. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Snchez, Ivn

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the

  14. Educational Intent Survey, Spring 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staatse, Holly

    Each semester since Spring 1978, students registering for courses at Mercer County Community College (MCCC) have been asked to respond to questions related to their primary educational goal, certainty of that goal, plans for achieving the goal, and intention to return to MCCC the following semester. In Spring 1980, 7,425 students registered for

  15. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID); White, James P. (Pocatelo, ID)

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  16. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  17. Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain access to these environments and cope with their extreme physicochemical characteristics may be provided with refuge from extinction. The disproportionate number of endemic crenobiotic species found in regional aquifer thermal springs, as well as in some local aquifer geothermal springs, within the Great Basin strongly suggests that these hydrothermal habitats represent important biodiversity hotspots, and efforts to conserve and restore these unique ecosystems should be a major priority to ensure that the valuable information that these species can provide is not lost forever.

  18. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  19. Thermal mineral water springs in Karlovy Vary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, J.

    1996-03-01

    In the western part of the Czech Republic about 130 180 km west of the capital of Prague, in an area of about 300 sq km, several dozen mineral springs occur from various origins, with water of different chemical characteristics, temperatures, and levels of carbonation and radioactive intensity. Mineral waters are widely utilized, in particular for spa treatment of a broad range of ailments as well as for bottling (curative and table waters), industrial uses of carbon dioxide, evaporation for the salts dissolved in them and, in regard to thermal waters, for local heating.

  20. Dissolved Organic Matter Concentration and Composition in Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, H.; Alexander, K.; Shock, E.; Klonowski, S.; Windman, T.

    2006-12-01

    Hot springs host dynamic ecosystems with wide ranges in temperature, pH, major and minor element content, as well as diverse microbial communities. As temperatures decrease from boiling, chemolithotrophic communities give way to phototrophic communities that include heterotrophs. As a consequence, the cycling of carbon is likely to undergo dramatic changes over fairly narrow spatial and temporal ranges. It may, therefore, not be surprising that hot springs exhibit broad ranges in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. As an example, water samples collected in July 2005 from Yellowstone National Park hot spring ecosystems have DOC concentrations that range from less than 0.5 mg C/kg to greater than 75 mg C/kg. There are no obvious relationships between pH and DOC concentration, or temperature and DOC concentration for these systems. DOC concentrations generally decrease by 10 to 90% from the source hot spring down outflow channels, presumably due to heterotrophic activity. New results using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) indicate that hot spring DOC compounds range in molecular weight from 30 up to 1500 amu, with the most abundant peaks occurring at <400 amu. The DOC in hot springs exhibits predominantly positive-mode detected (basic-type) compounds and negative-mode detected (acidic- type) compounds. ESI-MS provides a molecular-level fingerprint of the DOC from hot springs, outflow channels and surface water sources that suggest the composition of the hot spring DOC is the result of multiple organic matter sources and a variety of biogeochemical processes. ESI-MS results allow us to begin to assess which fraction (molecular weight and general chemical character) of the DOC pool is bioavailable to heterotrophs, and how the bioavailable pool of DOC varies among hot spring systems.

  1. Piston and spring powered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Samodovitz, A. J.

    1985-12-10

    The invention is an improved piston engine, either two stroke or four stroke. In one, two stroke, one cylinder embodiment, the improvement comprises two springs connecting between the piston and the base of the piston. These springs are relatively relaxed when the crank is at top dead center. Then during the power/intake stroke, some of the fuel's energy is delivered to the crankshaft and some is used to compress the springs. The stored energy in the springs is delivered to the crankshaft during the exhaust/compression stroke while the springs return to their relatively relaxed condition. As a result, energy is delivered to the crankshaft during both strokes of the cycle, and the engine runs smooth. In one, four stroke, two cylinder embodiment, each cylinder has springs as described above, the cranks of each cylinder are aligned, and the cam sets one cylinder in the power stroke while the other is in the intake stroke. As a result, the engine runs smooth because energy is delivered to the crankshaft during all four strokes of the cycle, during two of the strokes by the burning fuel and during the other two by the release of energy in the springs. In both embodiments, a heavy crankshaft is not needed because of the more uniform power delivery.

  2. Chemistry of thermal and nonthermal springs in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Meaningful applications of water geothermometry to thermal springs in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are limited to Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs. Most hot springs located within LVNP are low-chloride, acid-sulfate waters associated with nearby steam vents. This type of hot-spring activity is characteristically found above vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock interaction at relatively shallow depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures close to measured spring temperatures of 65 to 95??C. Hot-spring waters located south of LVNP at Growler Hot Spring, Morgan Hot Springs, and in the south-central part of LVNP in the Walker "O" No. 1 well at Terminal Geyser are rich in chloride and yield calculated geothermometer temperatures between 220 and 230??C. These thermal waters probably originate within a zone of upflow of high-enthalpy fluid inside LVNP and cool conductively during lateral flow to the south and southeast. ?? 1985.

  3. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

  4. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  5. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Castenholz, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  6. Silent spring revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Marco, G.G.; Hollingworth, R.M.; Durham, W.

    1986-01-01

    A landmark in environmental concerns--this extraordinary book continues the ecological revolution that Rachel Carson started 20 years ago. The risks of pesticide use remain but the issues today have become conflicts of values. How do we trade off the dangers of toxic chemicals and their cost to the environment with the benefits of higher agricultural productivity. This book presents a daring new look at these very important concerns.

  7. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  8. Fusulinid biostratigraphy of Bird Spring Formation in Spring Mountains near Mountain Springs Pass, Clark County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gamache, M.T.; Webster, G.D.

    1987-05-01

    Fusulinids from a 955.16 m thick section of Chesterian into Wolfcampian rocks of the Indian Springs and Bird Spring formations exposed near Mountain Springs Pass represent the biozones of Millerella to Pseudoschwagerina. Species of Millerella, Plectofusulina, Staffella, Schubertina, Pseudostaffella, Profusulinella, Fusulinella, Beedeina, Oketaella, Pseudofusulina, Triticites, Schwagerina, Eoparafusulina, and Cuniculinella were described. One new species of Millerella and three new species of Tricities were named. The Mountain Springs section can be correlated intraregionally with other sections in Clark County using similar cherty limestones or sandstone-dominated strata in association with biozones recognized in the southern Great Basin. The thickening of strata from the Mountain Springs section to the Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon sections demonstrated by this method reflects each section's position to the northeast-trending Las Vegas-Wasatch hinge line between thin, shallow shelf sediments and thicker sediments to the west after palinspastic reconstruction. The large diversity of fusulinid species in the Mountain Springs section relative to Arrow Canyon and Lee Canyon suggests that a fusulinid diversity index may be useful in correlating similar paleoenvironments. Fusulinid biozones of the Mountain Springs section can also be correlated regionally with fusulinid subbiozones A through G of the Shasta Lake area in northern California and with fusulinid biozones of the Mid-Continent based on similar species and occurrences.

  9. Light-stable-isotope studies of spring and thermal waters from the Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort/Sulphurdale Thermal areas and of clay minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.R.; Rohrs, D.T.

    1981-10-01

    The isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen have been determined for spring waters and thermal fluids from the Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale thermal areas, for clay mineral separates from shallow alteration of the acid-sulfate type in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area, and for spring and well waters from the Goshen Valley area of central Utah. The water analyses in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area confirm the origin of the thermal fluids from meteoric water in the Mineral Range. The water analyses in the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale thermal area restrict recharge areas for this system to the upper elevations of the Pavant and/or Tushar Ranges. The low /sup 18/O shift observed in these thermal fluids (+0.7 permil) implies either high water/rock ratios or incomplete isotope exchange or both, and further suggests minimal interaction between the thermal fluid and marble country rock in the system. Hydrogen and oxygen-isotope data for clay mineral separates from shallow alteration zones in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal system suggest that the fluids responsible for the shallow acid-sulfate alteration were in part derived from condensed steam produced by boiling of the deep reservoir fluid. The isotope evidence supports the chemical model proposed by Parry et al. (1980) for origin of the acid-sulfate alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs. The isotope analyses of spring and well waters from the Goshen Valley area indicate only a general correlation of isotope composition, salinity and chemical temperatures.

  10. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  11. Earlier spring in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Lee, E.-J.; Lee, I.; Jeong, S.-J.

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, long-term changes in the first bloom date of shrub and tree species in Seoul (126.56°E, 37.34°N), Korea were examined using historical observational data for the period 1922-2004 (83 years). The study focused on two shrub species, golden-bell (Forsythia koreana) and azalea (Rhododendron mucronulatum), and three tree species, cherry (Prunus yedoensis), peach (Prunus persica), and American locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The annual-mean temperature has increased by about 2 °C in Seoul over the 83 years analyzed. The temperature increase is significant during the winter and early spring and becomes less significant during late spring. As a result of this regional warming, all five species showed an advance in the first bloom date over this time period. The advanced date is particularly apparent in early-spring flowering species like golden-bell (-2.4 days 10-year-1), azalea (-2.4 days 10-year-1), cherry (-1.4 days 10-year-1), and peach (-1.4 days 10-year-1) as compared to late-spring flowering species like American locust (-0.5 days 10-year-1).The present results have demonstrated that the major factor for the determination of flower blooming is heat accumulation, i.e. a certain threshold of growing degree-days (GDD) index. In particular, early spring flowers were sensitive to the accumulation of warm temperature than late-spring flowers.

  12. Dumanli Spring, Turkey The largest karstic spring in the world?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanjac, J.; Gnay, G.

    1980-02-01

    The enormous Dumanli spring in the Mediterranean region of Turkey will be submerged by the year 1982 by about 120 m head produced by the Oymapinar Reservoir. The spring contributes one third to the annual discharge of the Manavgat River, that will be dammed at Oymapinar. The mean discharge of the spring is estimated at about 50 rmm 3/s; thus its total annual outflow is about 1.6 10 9 m 3. In October 1978 the authors measured the spring discharge by the dye-dilution technique. The flow rate of about 35.6 m 3/s at the very end of the dry period (at the end of the spring's discharge recession) motivated the authors to declare the Dumanli the largest karstic spring in the world, issuing from one single orifice. The results of the dye-dilution technique applied in this experiment were compared with staff-gauge readings upstream and downstream of the Dumanli spring. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first reported dye-dilution experiment that accurately measured the discharge of a river with an annual flow of about 50 m 3/s. To permit a better appreciation of the size of the aquifer drained by the Dumanli, a recession hydrograph of differences in the flow downstream and upstream of the Dumanli is presented. This hydrograph is a cumulative one of several springs between two gauging stations but the Dumanli itself contributes at least 90%. When interpreted in the sense of a standard recession-curve analysis the following can be concluded: (1) the Dumanli plus several smaller karstic springs discharge in the dry five months of the year about 630 10 6 m 3; (2) near the end of the recession period about 1370 10 6 m 3 still remain in storage; (3) the coefficient of recession is of the order of magnitude 0.0026 day -1 thus pointing to a very large drainage system, high storage volume, and slow drainage; and (4) the drainage area contributing to the Dumanli appears to be of the order of magnitude of about 1200-1500 km 2.

  13. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., except when that spring is part of a nest of three or more springs and none of the other springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not...

  14. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., except when that spring is part of a nest of three or more springs and none of the other springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not...

  15. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., except when that spring is part of a nest of three or more springs and none of the other springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not...

  16. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., except when that spring is part of a nest of three or more springs and none of the other springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not...

  17. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular surfaces that produce palisade and "shrub" fabrics, respectively. At finer scales, composite fabrics are seen to consist distinctive associations of microstructures formed by the encrustation of individual cells and filaments. Composite fabrics survive the diagenetic transitions from primary opaline silica to quartz and are known from subaerial thermal spring deposits as old as Lower Carboniferous. However, fossil microorganisms tend to be rare in older deposits, and are usually preserved only where cells or sheaths have been stained by iron oxides. In subaqueous mineralizing springs at lower temperatures, early infilling leads to a more rapid and complete reduction in porosity and permeability. This process, along with the slower rates of microbial degradation at lower temperatures, creates a more favorable situation for organic matter preservation. Application of this taphonomic model to the Rhynie Chert, previously interpreted as subaerial, suggest it was probably deposited in a subaqueous spring setting at lower temperatures.

  18. Fifty years since Silent Spring.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Rachel Carson's 1962 Silent Spring exposed both observed and potential environmental and health externalities of the increasing organochlorine and organophosphate insecticide use in the United States post-World War II. Silent Spring was a critical component in a popular movement that resulted in increased regulation and the development of safer pesticides. Most changes in pesticide use in the global north have involved pesticide substitutions, although riskier pesticides remain in use. Many ideas in Silent Spring are compatible with the theory of integrated pest management (IPM), and IPM has been broadly embraced in the United States and internationally as a strategy for achieving least-use and/or least-risk pesticide use in agriculture. IPM is a politically feasible policy that purports to reduce pesticide use and/or risk in agriculture but often does not, except in extreme cases of pesticide overuse that result in negative agricultural/economic consequences for growers. PMID:25001457

  19. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  20. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  1. Regulation of an Actin Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Barney; Shin, Jennifer; Brau, Ricardo; Lang, Matthew; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2006-03-01

    To produce motion, cells rely on the conversion of potential energy into mechanical work. One such example is the dramatic process involving the acrosome reaction of Limulus sperm, whereby a 60 ?m-long bundle of actin filaments straightens from a coiled conformation to extend out of the cell in five seconds. This cellular engine and the motion it produces represent a third type of actin-based motility fundamentally different from polymerization or myosin-driven processes. The motive force for this extension originates from stored elastic energy in the overtwisted, pre-formed coil---much like a compressed mechanical spring. When the actin bundle untwists, this energy is converted to mechanical work powering the extension. We report on experiments probing the regulation of this actin spring by extracellular calcium. We find that extracellular calcium needs to be present for the spring to activate, and that calcium regulates the velocity of the extension.

  2. Registration of Faller Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faller (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

  3. ESCRT Filaments as Spiral Springs.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Lars-Anders; Shen, Qing-Tao; Pavlin, Mark Remec; Hurley, James H

    2015-11-23

    In a recent issue of Cell, Chiaruttini etal. (2015) reveal the mechanical properties of the mysterious spiral filaments formed by the yeast ESCRT-III protein Snf7. The spirals are shown to be springs whose bending drives membrane deformation and perhaps membrane scission. PMID:26609952

  4. The Forced Hard Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, various examples of the Duffing type forced spring equation with epsilon positive, are studied. Since [epsilon] is positive, all solutions to the associated homogeneous equation are periodic and the same is true with the forcing applied. The damped equation exhibits steady state trajectories with the interesting…

  5. The Forced Soft Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, this paper studies examples of the forced Duffing type spring equation with [epsilon] negative. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, the existence is demonstrated of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions. Subharmonic boundaries are…

  6. The Forced Hard Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, various examples of the Duffing type forced spring equation with epsilon positive, are studied. Since [epsilon] is positive, all solutions to the associated homogeneous equation are periodic and the same is true with the forcing applied. The damped equation exhibits steady state trajectories with the interesting

  7. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention

  8. NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity

  9. Carnivorous arthropods after spring flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring flooding is a common practice in Wisconsin cranberries, but flooding as insect control produces variable results among marshes. This project is aimed at figuring out why it works, and why it sometimes doesn’t. We have focused on tracking arthropod populations to explain the observed patterns ...

  10. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and

  11. A Breath of Spring Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2009-01-01

    The most promising sights of spring in Nebraska this year were two conferences for women. One event, sponsored by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, was a Women's History Month Tea. A second conference was the meeting of the Nebraska Women in Higher Education. These two events suggest that there is a continuing interest in women's leadership

  12. Finding Spring on Planet X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,

  13. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  14. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of Lost Empires". It provides activity set-ups related to…

  15. Spring for It: First Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  16. Spring for It: First Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first

  17. Open-coil retraction spring.

    PubMed

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2011-01-01

    Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR)/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. "Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS)" is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.). A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement. PMID:22567437

  18. Spring above Rhoads Fork, SD

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Headwater springflow is common in the Limestone Pateau area in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Most headwater springs in the Black Hills, like this one contributing to Rhoads Fork, generally occur near the base of the Madison Limestone along the eastern edge of the Limestone Plateau area....

  19. Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

    2006-12-01

    Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

  20. Hydrogeophysical Evidence for Groundwater Mixing At Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dailey, M. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Berens, V.; Wohling, D.; Keppel, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. Current research into the Western Margin of the GAB includes investigations of spring discharge and determining aquifer flow paths. Spring water sampling at nine springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and groundwaters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Additionally, regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site and extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically. The ERI data indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models of porous and fractured media. Water chemistry indicates that water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a major fault and that the resulting spring waters maintain a strong PD signature down the elevation gradient hundreds of meters into the GAB side of the fault.

  1. Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Stine, S.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Metastable ikaite (CaCO3??6H2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2?? 5H2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method. ?? 1993.

  2. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  3. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  4. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  5. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  6. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  7. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  8. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Soda Springs in Caribou County, Idaho. The new 115-kV single-circuit BPA transmission line would extend.... Comments may also be submitted at the public scoping meeting to be held on July 29, 2010 in Soda Springs... p.m. to 7 p.m. at the Soda Springs High School, in the commons area, 300 E 1st N, Soda...

  9. Mars in Early Northern Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In April 2003, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) operations team completed the validation and archiving of MOC data acquired between February and July 2002. This was a period that included the end of northern winter and the start of spring in that hemisphere. This composite of MOC daily global images, acquired in early May 2002, shows what the planet looked like in early northern spring. The retreating north polar seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap is seen at the top of this view. Other white features in the image are clouds of water ice crystals in the martian atmosphere. The left half of this picture shows the Tharsis region, which includes several very large volcanoes. Olympus Mons, the largest martian volcano, is as wide as the Hawaiian Island chain is long; it is the dark, somewhat circular feature at the far left. Toward the lower right, the system of deep Valles Marineris chasms can be seen.

  10. FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

  11. VGP highlights of Spring Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    Two special events of interest to Union and VGP section members will take place on Tuesday afternoon, May 25, during AGU's Spring Meeting in Baltimore.R. A. Daly Lecture: Every section of AGU has an established “Bowie Lecture” named after a distinguished scientist associated with the work of the section. These lectures are delivered by special invitation during the annual AGU Spring or Fall meetings and are highlighted in the program. The VGP lecture is named for Reginald A. Daly, but it has never been given. Its inauguration at this year's Spring Meeting celebrates the distinguished career of this famous Harvard professor and author of the seminal Igneous Rocks and the Depths of the Earth (1914, 1933). Most fittingly, the inaugural lecture will be given by David Walker of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory after a day-long Union session on discontinuities in the mantle. Dave's lecture, “Errors in Earth Evolution,” will start at 4:45 P.M. We can expect to hear an original and provocative talk that features exciting, new data.

  12. Strontium isotope geochemistry and its geochemical implication from hot spring waters in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Gu; Kim, Tong-Kwon; Lee, Tae Jong

    2011-11-01

    Despite being a non-volcanic area, the southern Korean Peninsula has a number of hot water springs with temperatures more than 40 °C, most of which are commercially used for spa. The hot springs are located at the fringes of the granite body rather than the center of the Mesozoic granite. Here we report on the geochemical characteristics of the hot water springs. The hot springs in the Jurassic granite area are mainly of Na( sbnd Ca) sbnd HCO 3 type, whereas those in the Cretaceous granite area are of Na sbnd Cl ( sbnd SO 4) type. The stable isotope composition of O and H suggests a meteoric origin of the hot spring water. Further, the chemical components of the hot spring waters indicate that they were all derived from hot spring water-rock interaction rather than through anthropogenic input. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the hot spring waters in the Jurassic granite area ranges from 0.711088 to 0.729034 and that in the Cretaceous granite area ranges from 0.705652 to 0.707912. Such 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio distribution of hot spring waters corresponds with the distribution of the initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios for the emplacement age of the Jurassic and Cretaceous granites in the hot spring occurrence area. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in the hot spring waters were also divided into three groups according to their geographical location: eastern, western, and southern groups. The constant 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of hot spring water from one hot spring area during the last 6 years strongly suggests that the hot-spring-bearing aquifer system in South Korea should be separated from the upper cold shallow groundwater system. This indicates that the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio of the hot spring waters in the granite area of South Korea originates from an equilibrium because of long-term water-rock interaction rather than short-term water-rock interaction due to the input of recent meteoric water. Hence, it may be concluded that hot spring water in the granite area may be a limited deep groundwater resource that might deplete with overuse.

  13. Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies.

    Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas.

    The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together.

    The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars.

    The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy.

    The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

  14. Leaf spring assembly for wheel suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, K.; Mishima, Y.; Kuwayama, K.

    1986-09-16

    This patent describes a leaf spring assembly which consists of: a longitudinal leaf spring made of fiber reinforced plastics having a first surface to be applied with a tension force and a second surface to be applied with a compression force, the first surface of the leaf spring being a flat surface, and the second surface of the leaf spring being provided with a protrusion located substantially at the central portion of the leaf spring. The protrusion is made of a number of laminated short fibrous sheet-like materials saturated with synthetic resin, the short fibrous sheet-like materials of the protrusion being laminated independently and separately from reinforcement fibrous sheet-like materials in the leaf spring; a pair of pad members of elastic material attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring; a pair of retainer plates attached to the first and second surfaces of the leaf spring through the pad members, one of the retainer plates being formed with an indented portion coupled with the protrusion of the leaf spring through one of the pad members without any clearance to clamp the leaf spring at its central portion and being further provided with a pair of protruded portions which are arranged adjacent to the indented portion to retain the paid member in place by engagement therewith; and means for clamping the retainer plates to the leaf spring and mounting the same on an axle housing.

  15. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  16. 1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. photocopy of postcard (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF LODGE, HOT SPRINGS POOL AND ENVIRONS - Hot Springs Lodge, Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, CO

  17. Chlorine-36, bromide, and the origin of spring water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, S.N.; Cecil, L.D.; Zreda, M.; Moysey, S.

    2001-01-01

    Natural ratios of chlorine-36 (36Cl) to stable chlorine (i.e., 36Cl/Cl ?? 10-15) vary in shallow groundwater of the United States from about 50 in coastal areas to about 1400 in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ratios lower than these indicate the presence of chloride (Cl-) that has been isolated from the atmosphere for hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer. Higher ratios, which can exceed 5000, usually originate from fallout from testing thermonuclear devices in the western Pacific in the 1950s. Natural mass ratios of chloride to bromide (Cl-/Br-) in precipitation vary in the United States from about 250 in coastal areas to about 50 in the north-central states. Lower ratios may suggest contamination from human sources. Higher ratios, which may exceed 2000, commonly reflect the dissolution of halite. Seawater has a Cl-/Br- ratio of 290. Both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios have been measured in 21 samples of spring water collected from springs in 10 different states. Brackish water from Saratoga Springs area in New York has low values for both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios. This indicates that a large component of the water has a very deep origin. Brackish water from Alexander Springs in Florida has a low 36Cl ratio but a high Cl-/Br- ratio similar to seawater. This suggests the addition of ancient seawater that may be trapped in the aquifer. Big Spring in Iowa discharges water with a very high Cl-/Br- ratio but a moderate 36Cl ratio. The high ratio of Cl-/Br- may be produced by dissolution of road salt or agricultural chemicals. Of the 21 springs sampled, only 10 appeared to have potable water not significantly affected by human activity. Chlorine-36 from testing of nuclear devices is still being flushed out of four of the spring systems that were sampled. Thus, more than 45 years have passed since 36Cl was introduced into the aquifers feeding the springs and the systems, as yet, have not been purged. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Observed and modelled record ozone decline over the Arctic during winter/spring 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balis, D.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Zerefos, C.; Zyrichidou, I.; Eleftheratos, K.; Tourpali, K.; Bojkov, R.; Rognerud, B.; Stordal, F.; Svde, O. A.; Orsolini, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This work describes observational and modelling results of the ozone depletion which took place during the winter/spring of 2011 in the Arctic stratosphere. Assimilated total ozone data from GOME-2 were used to estimate the integrated ozone mass deficit at polar latitudes and the Oslo CTM2 model calculated low winter/spring ozone values over the Arctic, which compare well with the satellite observations. Model runs with and without chemistry in the Arctic during the winter/spring of 2011 show that the very low Arctic stratospheric air temperatures led to significant chemical ozone loss. The calculated winter/spring ozone mass deficit (O3MD) reached extreme high values in 2011 (2700 Mt) and the seasonal zonal mean total ozone extreme low values of 333DU. Dynamics have set up the conditions for cold temperatures in the lower stratosphere in winter/spring of 2011. Comparison of ozone columns with the previous 13 years shows record low ozone column values during winter/spring in the Arctic in 2011. A comparison is also given with similar model studies for the overall warmer winter/spring of 2010 which show higher ozone column values and significantly less chemical ozone loss. The interannual variability of column ozone over the northern polar region is, as expected, highly correlated with the corresponding year-to-year variability of the seasonally-averaged temperatures in the lower stratosphere.

  19. Archaeal and bacterial community analysis of several Yellowstone National Park hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colman, D. R.; Takacs-Vesbach, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are home to a diverse assemblage of microorganisms. Culture-independent studies have significantly expanded our understanding of the diversity of both Bacteria and Archaea present in YNP springs as well as the geochemical and ecological controls on communities. While the ecological analysis of Bacteria among the physicochemically heterogenous springs of YNP has been previously conducted, less is known about the extent of diversity of Archaeal communities and the chemical and ecological controls on their populations. Here we report a culture-independent analysis of 31 hot spring archaeal and bacterial communities of YNP springs using next generation sequencing. We found the phylogenetic diversity of Archaea to be generally comparable to that of co-occurring bacterial communities although overall, in the springs we investigated, diversity was higher for Bacteria than Archaea. Chemical and physical controls were similar for both domains with pH correlating most strongly with community composition. Community differences reflected the partitioning of taxonomic groups in low or high pH springs for both domains. Results will be discussed in a geochemical and ecological context.

  20. Hydrogeophysical evidence for ground water mixing at Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Meghan Kathleen Marie

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. As part of the Australian National Water Commission's (NWC) GAB Project, research is being conducted to understand the aquifer including studying the discharge of springs and determining flow paths of the aquifer. Water sampling at springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and waters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Nine springs were used to evaluate fluid chemistry of the Freeling Spring Group. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site. The ERI data, which extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically, indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models. Regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. The chemistry of spring water samples indicates that the water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture of waters from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing at the site. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a structural feature in the Peake and Dennison Ranges and that the spring water maintains a strong PD signature even well east of the fault zone.

  1. Hydrogeochemical investigation of thermal springs in the Black Canyon - Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, W.A.; Zimmerman, D.E.

    1983-11-01

    An estimated 80 liters/sec. of spring flow discharges from both sides of the Colorado River in Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona. The spring issue primarily from the highly faulted and fractured volcanic rocks which are exposed throughout the canyon from Hoover Dam to 9.5 kilometers downstream. Chemical analysis of the spring waters, including environmental isotope and tritium results, indicate a variety of possible origins. Observed surface temperatures range from 24C to 62FC. Total dissolved solids values range from 500 mg/l to 3600 mg/l. The occasional absence of secondary mineral deposits suggests a potentially young system.

  2. Supplemental data from the Ennis and other thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana, 1978-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.B.; Wood,W.A.

    1980-10-01

    Hydrogeologic data were collected principally during 1978 to 1980 in eight hot-spring areas, in the Marysville geothermal test well, in the Butte mine and in the Bitterroot and Missoula River valleys to provide a basis for evaluating the geothermal potential of the areas. Measurements are tabulated for subsurface temperatures, water levels, rates of flow, and the chemical composition of water and gas in wells and test holes. Most of the data are for the area near Ennis Hot Springs.

  3. Recharge mixing in a complex distributary spring system in the Missouri Ozarks, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Benjamin V.; Lerch, Robert N.; Groves, Christopher G.; Polk, Jason S.

    2015-05-01

    Toronto Springs is a complex distributary karst spring system with 11 perennial springs in the Missouri Ozarks, USA. Carroll Cave (CC) and Wet Glaize Creek (WG) were previously identified as principal recharge sources. This study (1) characterized physical and chemical properties of springs and recharge sources; (2) developed end-member mixing models to estimate contributing proportions of CC and WG; and (3) created a conceptual model for the system. Samples analyzed for major ions and specific conductivity, in conjunction with a rotating continuous monitoring program to identify statistically comparable baseflow conditions, were used to assess differences among the sites. Monitoring data showed that the springs differed depending upon recharge proportions. Cluster analysis of average ion concentrations supported the choice of CC and WG as mixing model end members. Results showed a range in the proportions of the recharge sources, from surface-water to groundwater dominated. A conceptual model suggests that a system of distinct conduits beneath the WG flood plain transmits water to the individual springs. These conduits controlled the end-member recharge contributions and water chemistry of the springs. Interpretation of relative proportions of recharge contributions extends existing knowledge of karst hydrologic geometry beyond that of point-to-point connections to revealing complex surface-water/groundwater mixing in heterogeneous distributary spring systems.

  4. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  5. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  6. Spring, 1980, DECUS symposium review

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.; Duffy, J.M.; McDonald, W.M.; Oppenheimer, J.L.; Brandt, J.J.; Grant, C.W.; O'Brien, D.W.; VanLehn, A.L.

    1980-10-24

    The Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (DECUS) holds biannual symposia where its membership and the host company can exchange ideas, problems, and solutions. This report by the newly formed DECUS Local User Group at LLL collects information gathered at the Spring '80 symposium in Chicago on April 22-25. Information is presented for the following special interest groups (SIGs): RSX/IAS SIG, VAX/VSM SIG, PASCAL (languages) SIG, networks SIG, TECO SIG, LSI-11 SIG, RT-11 SIG, site manager SIG, and database SIG. (RWR)

  7. Water resources of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Laenen, Antonius

    1976-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1,000-square-mile Warm Springs Indian Reservation in north-central Oregon were obtained and evaluated. The area is bounded on the west by the crest of the Cascade Range and on the south and east by the Metolius and Deschutes Rivers. The mountainous western part is underlain by young volcanic rocks, and the plateaus and valleys of the eastern part are underlain by basalt, tuff, sand, and gravel of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. There are numerous springs, some developed for stock use, and about 50 domestic and community wells; yields are small, ranging from less than 1 to as much as 25 gallons per minute. Chemical quality of most ground water is suitable for stock or human consumption and for irrigation. Average flows of the Warm Springs River, Metolius River, and Deschutes River are 440, 1,400, and 4,040 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively. Shitike Creek, which has an average flow of 108 cfs had a peak of 4,000 cfs in January 1974. Most streams have fewer than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/liter) of dissolved solids. Chemical and biological quality of the mountain lakes is also good; of 10 lakes studied, all had fewer than 50 mg/liter of dissolved solids and none had measurable fecal coliform bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. On the problem of determination of spring stiffness parameters for spring-mesh models.

    PubMed

    Quang Huy Viet, Huynh; Hirai, Shinichi; Shirai, Yoshiaki; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hiromi T; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Kawai, Yukiko

    2008-01-01

    On account of having real-time behavior and being easy to implement, spring meshes have been used for modeling deformable objects. Determining spring stiffness parameters for simulation of soft objects with high accuracy still remains a challenge. Allen Van Gelder derived an approximate formula for determining spring stiffness parameters based on strain analysis. Even though the experimental result showed the effectiveness, the method has not been investigated from a quantitative point of view. In this paper we propose a quantitative method for determining spring stiffness parameters. Moreover we propose a method to improve the accuracy by way of introducing torsional spring into the conventional spring mesh model. PMID:18391282

  9. A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits

    PubMed Central

    Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

  10. A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits.

    PubMed

    Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

    2005-05-01

    The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

  11. EXPLORATION STRATEGY FOR HOT-SPRING PRECIOUS-METAL DEPOSITS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Adams, Samuel S.

    1984-01-01

    The discovery of economic precious-metal deposits related to physical-chemical processes in the near-surface portions of high-temperature hot-spring systems has led to intensive exploration efforts for this deposit type. To increase the probability of success, these exploration programs should (1) be based on the most important visually recognizable or readily measurable deposit-model criteria; (2) be able to identify specific targets within the best search areas; and (3) be able to rank the order of priority among the targets. We propose a process-recognition exploration strategy for hot-spring deposits that has been developed from data from precious-metal occurrences at several localities in the western United States. The exploration model is based on the degree to which recognizable geologic and geochemical criteria are favorable or unfavorable to the occurrence of an economic deposit, either through their presence or absence.

  12. Hydrological property measurements of Topopah Spring Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.J.; Lin, W.

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the progress made during FY 1994 on hydrological property measurements of samples from Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These measurements were performed in the laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This report contains descriptions of experimental designs and procedures, data, observations, and preliminary analyses, and also describes planned future work. The report is organized into three sections: (1) permeability of fractured Topopah Spring tuff as a function of temperature and confining pressure; (2) electrical properties of Topopah Spring tuff as a function of temperature and of saturation; and (3) moisture retention measurements of Topopah Spring tuff as a function of temperature.

  13. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  14. Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits: developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Walter, M R; Des Marais, D J

    1993-01-01

    Current interpretations of the early history of Mars suggest many similarities with the early Earth and therefore raise the possibility that the Archean and Proterozoic history of life on Earth could have a counterpart on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including thermal springs, could well yield important information. By delivering water and various dissolved species to the sunlit surface of Mars, springs very likely created an environment suitable for life, which could have been difficult, if not impossible, to attain elsewhere. The chemical and temperature gradients associated with thermal springs sort organisms into sharply delineated, distinctive and different communities, and so diverse organisms are concentrated into relatively small areas in a predictable and informative fashion. A wide range of metabolic strategies are concentrated into small areas, thus furnishing a useful and representative sampling of the existing biota. Mineral-charged springwaters frequently deposit chemical precipitates of silica and/or carbonate which incorporate microorganisms and preserve them as fossils. The juxtaposition of stream valley headwaters with volcanoes and impact craters on Mars strongly implies that subsurface heating of groundwater created thermal springs. On Earth, thermal springs create distinctive geomorphic features and chemical signatures which can be detected by remote sensing. Spring deposits can be quite different chemically from adjacent rocks. Individual springs can be hundreds of meters wide, and complexes of springs occupy areas up to several kilometers wide. Benthic microbial mats and the resultant stromatolites occupy a large fraction of the available area. The relatively high densities of fossils and microbial mat fabrics within these deposits make them highly prospective in any search for morphological evidence of life, and there are examples of microbial fossils in spring deposits as old as 300 Myr. PMID:11536937

  15. Discharge and water quality of springs in Roan and Parachute Creek basins, northwestern Colorado, 1981-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation and interpretation of discharge, water-quality, and radiochemical data collected at springs in the oil-shale regions of Roan and Parachute Creek basins, Colorado, from 1981 to 1983. Springs located on upland plateaus and ridges are mixed-cation bicarbonate water types with 216 to 713 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Calcite and dolomite dissolution are dominant chemical reactions in upland springs. Springs located in the canyons contain greater concentrations of sodium and sulfate and have 388 to 3,970 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Gypsum dissolution is an important chemical reaction in canyon spring water. The only trace constituents with mean concentration greater than 10 micrograms per liter in the study area were barium, boron, lithium and strontium. None of the canyon springs investigated represent discharge from the lower aquifer in the Green River Formation. Analysis of chemical and discharge data for streams in the Roan Creek drainage showed evidence of lower-aquifer discharge into the canyons. Springs located near an oil-shale mine or processing plant could be used for monitoring groundwater quality and quantity. Bicarbonate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, lithium, mercury, ammonia, and organic carbon may be chemical indicators of mine or process-water contamination of shallow aquifers near an oil-shale plant or mine. (USGS)

  16. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin. PMID:26733417

  17. Geochemistry and hydrology of thermal springs in the Idaho Batholith and adjacent areas, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of nature of thermal springs in the Idaho batholith and adjacent areas suggest a relation between structural controls and deeply circulating hot-water systems. Springs issuing from granitic rocks are associated mostly with major regional fault structures. Springs issuing from other rocks probably are related to local faulting. Individual spring flows and water temperatures are variable and range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 2,710 gallons per minute and from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. Annual spring discharge is at least 27,000 acre-feet; heat discharges convectively is estimated to be 5.0 x 107 calories per second. Thermal springs discharge relatively dilute water; dissolved solids range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. The chemical quality of the water suggests deep circulation of meteoric water. Estimated reservoir temperatures are generally less than 100 degrees Celsius, but temperatures for several springs exceed 150 degrees Celsius. Stable-isotope data suggest that most of the thermal water is not derived from current precipitation. Carbon-14 values indicate that thermal waters are old; apparent residence times range from 9,000 to more than 40,000 years.

  18. Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that parents…

  19. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT - 2001 CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA/ARS Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory evaluated 16 cultivars of hard red spring (HRS) wheat from the 2001 crop for kernel and milling properties, and subsequently shipped flour (and/or wheat) to overseas cooperators through arrangements made by US Wheat Associates (USW) for...

  20. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2008 Crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2008 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red Sp...

  1. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian

  2. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  3. Oscillation Damper With Two Spring Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevilla, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic damping used in device developed to stabilize vibrating structure in space. Damping mechanism stops oscillation of attached boom. Two bellows provide fluid damping. Springs are engaged when extra spring force required. Otherwise they retract. Mechanism especially useful for arresting oscillatory motion of slender boom with large mass. On Earth, such configurations arise in design of masts and cranes.

  4. Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  5. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

  6. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were

  8. Anomalously Soft Non-Euclidean Springs.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ido; Sharon, Eran

    2016-01-22

    In this work we study the mechanical properties of a frustrated elastic ribbon spring-the non-Euclidean minimal spring. This spring belongs to the family of non-Euclidean plates: it has no spontaneous curvature, but its lateral intrinsic geometry is described by a non-Euclidean reference metric. The reference metric of the minimal spring is hyperbolic, and can be embedded as a minimal surface. We argue that the existence of a continuous set of such isometric minimal surfaces with different extensions leads to a complete degeneracy of the bulk elastic energy of the minimal spring under elongation. This degeneracy is removed only by boundary layer effects. As a result, the mechanical properties of the minimal spring are unusual: the spring is ultrasoft with a rigidity that depends on the thickness t as t^{7/2} and does not explicitly depend on the ribbon's width. Moreover, we show that as the ribbon is widened, the rigidity may even decrease. These predictions are confirmed by a numerical study of a constrained spring. This work is the first to address the unusual mechanical properties of constrained non-Euclidean elastic objects. PMID:26849602

  9. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  10. Development of silicon microforce sensors integrated with double meander springs for standard hardness test instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Doering, Lutz; Daus, Alwin; Brand, Uwe; Frank, Thomas; Peiner, Erwin

    2015-05-01

    Silicon microforce sensors, to be used as a transferable standard for micro force and depth scale calibrations of hardness testing instruments, are developed using silicon bulk micromachining technologies. Instead of wet chemical etching, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is employed in the sensor fabrication process leading to more precise control of 300 μm deep structures with smooth sidewall profiles. Double meander springs are designed flanking to the boss replacing the conventional rectangular springs and thereby improving the system linearity. Two full p-SOI piezoresistive Wheatstone bridges are added on both clamped ends of the active sensors. To realize passive force sensors two spring-mass elements are stacked using glue and photoresist as joining materials. Correspondingly, although plastic deformation seems to occur when the second spring is contacted, the kink effect (i.e., abrupt increase of stiffness) is obviously observed from the first test of the passive stack sensor.

  11. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring water with low [Ca2+] and [HCO3-] precipitated smaller quantities of calcite and required longer flow distances to achieve CaCO3 supersaturation (e.g. Hot Creek). Spring water discharge volumes were controlled mainly by seasonal to millennial fluctuations in meteoric precipitation. Modern spring systems are characterized by reduced discharge volumes, channeled flow, and minimal calcite precipitation. Currently, spring water does not precipitate calcite where it flows into streams prior to achieving critical CaCO 3 supersaturation (e.g. Fall Creek).

  12. Juvenile Spring Eruption: A Variant of Perniosis?

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Rosman, Ilana S; Sturza, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile spring eruption (JSE) is a unique condition that typically affects the helices of the ears of boys and young men. The classical clinical picture of JSE includes the abrupt onset of lesions after spending time outdoors in the early spring. Because of the papulovesicular nature of the rash and the history of sun exposure, JSE is considered a variant of polymorphous light eruption. In addition to the term "juvenile spring eruption," this entity has also been described under other less common terms such as "perniosis juvenilis vernalis aurium" or "spring perniosis," which emphasizes the onset in the spring and the possible pathogenic role of cold weather. We present a case of likely JSE with histopathologic features more consistent with perniosis than polymorphous light eruption and present a review the literature. PMID:26291421

  13. 1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the Springs of the South and West by Moorman) No date 'MAP OF ROUTES AND DISTANCES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS' - White Sulphur Springs, U.S. Route 60, White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, WV

  14. Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Reece, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    Springs are naturally occurring features that convey excess ground water to the land surface; they represent a transition from ground water to surface water. Water issues through one opening, multiple openings, or numerous seeps in the rock or soil. The database of this report provides information about springs and spring flow in Texas including spring names, identification numbers, location, and, if available, water source and use. This database does not include every spring in Texas, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hard-copy data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), and Capitol Environmental Services.

  15. Exchange-spring mechanism of soft and hard ferrite nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Manjura Hoque, S.; Srivastava, C.; Kumar, V.; Venkatesh, N.; Das, H.N.; Saha, D.K.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Exchange-spring behaviour of soft and hard ferrites was studied. • XRD patterns indicated soft and hard ferrites as fcc and hcp structure. • Hysteresis loops indicate wide difference in coercivity of soft and hard phases. • Nanocomposites produced convex hysteresis loop characteristic of single-phase. - Abstract: The paper reports exchange-spring soft and hard ferrite nanocomposites synthesized by chemical co-precipitation with or without the application of ultrasonic vibration. The composites contained BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} as the hard phase and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the soft phase. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples in the optimum calcined condition indicated the presence of soft ferrites as face-centred cubic (fcc) and hard ferrites as hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization in the range of 20–700 °C demonstrated distinct presence of soft and hard ferrites as magnetic phases which are characterized by wide difference in magnetic anisotropy and coercivity. Exchange-spring mechanism led these nanocomposite systems to exchange-coupled, which ultimately produced convex hysteresis loops characteristic of a single-phase permanent magnet. Fairly high value of coercivity and maximum energy product were observed for the samples in the optimum calcined conditions with a maximum applied field of 1600 kA/m (2 T)

  16. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  17. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-10-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season-long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  18. 77 FR 32117 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance... petitions for: Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center (Winchester, MA), Weldon Spring Plant...

  19. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  20. Cross-shaped torsional spring

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Matthew M. (Boston, MA); Pratt, Gill A. (Lexington, MA)

    1999-06-08

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section.

  1. Cross-shaped torsional spring

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, M.M.; Pratt, G.A.

    1999-06-08

    The invention provides an elastic actuator consisting of a motor and a motor drive transmission connected at an output of the motor. An elastic element is connected in series with the motor drive transmission, and this elastic element is positioned to alone support the full weight of any load connected at an output of the actuator. A single force transducer is positioned at a point between a mount for the motor and an output of the actuator. This force transducer generates a force signal, based on deflection of the elastic element, that indicates force applied by the elastic element to an output of the actuator. An active feedback force control loop is connected between the force transducer and the motor for controlling the motor. This motor control is based on the force signal to deflect the elastic element an amount that produces a desired actuator output force. The produced output force is substantially independent of load motion. The invention also provides a torsional spring consisting of a flexible structure having at least three flat sections each connected integrally with and extending radially from a central section. Each flat section extends axially along the central section from a distal end of the central section to a proximal end of the central section. 30 figs.

  2. Autumn leaf subsidies influence spring dynamics of freshwater plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Fey, Samuel B; Mertens, Andrew N; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    While ecologists primarily focus on the immediate impact of ecological subsidies, understanding the importance of ecological subsidies requires quantifying the long-term temporal dynamics of subsidies on recipient ecosystems. Deciduous leaf litter transferred from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exerts both immediate and lasting effects on stream food webs. Recently, deciduous leaf additions have also been shown to be important subsidies for planktonic food webs in ponds during autumn; however, the inter-seasonal effects of autumn leaf subsidies on planktonic food webs have not been studied. We hypothesized that autumn leaf drop will affect the spring dynamics of freshwater pond food webs by altering the availability of resources, water transparency, and the metabolic state of ponds. We created leaf-added and no-leaf-added field mesocosms in autumn 2012, allowed mesocosms to ice-over for the winter, and began sampling the physical, chemical, and biological properties of mesocosms immediately following ice-off in spring 2013. At ice-off, leaf additions reduced dissolved oxygen, elevated total phosphorus concentrations and dissolved materials, and did not alter temperature or total nitrogen. These initial abiotic effects contributed to higher bacterial densities and lower chlorophyll concentrations, but by the end of spring, the abiotic environment, chlorophyll and bacterial densities converged. By contrast, zooplankton densities diverged between treatments during the spring, with leaf additions stimulating copepods but inhibiting cladocerans. We hypothesized that these differences between zooplankton orders resulted from resource shifts following leaf additions. These results suggest that leaf subsidies can alter both the short- and long-term dynamics of planktonic food webs, and highlight the importance of fully understanding how ecological subsidies are integrated into recipient food webs. PMID:25761444

  3. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoen, R.; White, D.E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

  4. Anomalously Soft Non-Euclidean Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Ido; Sharon, Eran

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the mechanical properties of a frustrated elastic ribbon spring—the non-Euclidean minimal spring. This spring belongs to the family of non-Euclidean plates: it has no spontaneous curvature, but its lateral intrinsic geometry is described by a non-Euclidean reference metric. The reference metric of the minimal spring is hyperbolic, and can be embedded as a minimal surface. We argue that the existence of a continuous set of such isometric minimal surfaces with different extensions leads to a complete degeneracy of the bulk elastic energy of the minimal spring under elongation. This degeneracy is removed only by boundary layer effects. As a result, the mechanical properties of the minimal spring are unusual: the spring is ultrasoft with a rigidity that depends on the thickness t as t7 /2 and does not explicitly depend on the ribbon's width. Moreover, we show that as the ribbon is widened, the rigidity may even decrease. These predictions are confirmed by a numerical study of a constrained spring. This work is the first to address the unusual mechanical properties of constrained non-Euclidean elastic objects.

  5. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, Edmund E.; Lawson, Charles N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

  6. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    DOEpatents

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-11-23

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

  7. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  8. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  9. 2. SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) CHAPEL, STORE BUILDING, SPRING HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SHOWING (LEFT TO RIGHT) CHAPEL, STORE BUILDING, SPRING HOUSE, AND BATH HOUSE, SOUTHEAST FACADES (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  10. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  11. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  12. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Glenwood Springs Lodge & Pool, Inc., Date unknown) James R. Dunlap, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, FACADE OF LODGE - Hot Springs Lodge, Glenwood Springs, Garfield County, CO

  13. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  14. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  15. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  16. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  17. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs

    PubMed Central

    Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-01-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  18. Lengthening Spring Season in Southwestern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzler, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate is changing rapidly in southwestern North America during the Spring season, a critically important transition season in terms of hydrology, ecosystem dynamics, and water resource management. Major rivers are snow-fed in mountainous headwaters but then flow through a monsoonal region with a Summer precipitation maximum; Spring is the dry season in between snowmelt and monsoon onset and is the principal wildfire season in the Southwest. Evaporation during the warm, dry Spring represents a major hydrologic loss in the surface water budget and is a principal cause of projections of significant decreases in post-snowmelt streamflow, during the first half of the growing season when demand for surface water for irrigated agriculture is highest. As temperatures increase, snowpack is expected to decrease and melt earlier, leading to a smaller and earlier peak in snowmelt runoff. Recent climate model projections suggest that monsoon onset should occur later in the year, delaying the summer rainy season. Each of these effects contributes to projections of a lengthening Spring season, at both the beginning and end of Spring. A longer, warmer Spring season is associated with significant surface drying and increased wildfire risk in the 21st Century across the Southwest. So far changes are observed at the beginning of spring in terms of temperature (increasing) and snowpack (decreasing). Detection of other changes, including metrics of the end of spring, has not been easy, in part due to the huge natural variability of precipitation that affects hydrologic variables in conjunction with temperature. This presentation describes efforts to diagnose and document observed changes in the transitions into and out of the Spring dry season in the Southwest, in variables such as temperature, snowmelt date, timing and magnitude of streamflow, and monsoon onset date.

  19. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    PubMed

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. PMID:26002893

  20. Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

    1980-06-01

    Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are probably limited in extent, compared to geothermal fields now being used elsewhere in the world. Only the Bell Island and Bailey Bay sites now offer any potential for generation of electricity; these sites could also be used for a variety of direct uses such as space heating, wood or lumber processing, and perhaps aquaculture. The other sites have less potential but could be used locally for space heating or agriculture enhancement.

  1. Long-term Tillage influences on soil carbon, nitrogen, physical, chemical, and biological properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (>20 yrs) tillage no-till, spring till, and fall plus spring till under continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on s...

  2. Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?

    PubMed

    Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem. PMID:17723097

  3. Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Springs Supporting a Mid-Continent Marine Ecosystem: An Analogue for Martian Springs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem.

  4. Introduction to the Spring 2014 ConfChem on the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Chris; Muzyka, Jennifer; Belford, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Students' active engagement is one of the most critical challenges to any successful learning environment. The blending of active engagement along with rich, meaningful content is necessary for chemical educators to re-examine the purpose of the chemistry classroom. The Spring 2014 ConfChem conference, Flipped Classroom, was held from May 9 to…

  5. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

  6. Introduction to the Spring 2014 ConfChem on the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Chris; Muzyka, Jennifer; Belford, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Students' active engagement is one of the most critical challenges to any successful learning environment. The blending of active engagement along with rich, meaningful content is necessary for chemical educators to re-examine the purpose of the chemistry classroom. The Spring 2014 ConfChem conference, Flipped Classroom, was held from May 9 to

  7. [Air Quality Characteristics in Beijing During Spring Festival in 2015].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yun-ting; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Jia-lin; Liu, Bao-xian; Sun, Rui-wen

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the impacts of emissions from fireworks on the air quality, monitoring data of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 chemical compositions of PM2.5 of automatic air quality stations in Beijing during Spring Festival(February 18th-24th) in 2015 were investigated. Moreover, we also estimated the fireworks on the New Year's Eve produced based on the ratio of PM.5 to CO. Analysis results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 during 2015 Spring Festival was 116. 85, 184.71, 22. 14, and 36. 27 µg.m-3 respectively, which raised 52. 61%, 92. 41%, - 40. 15%, - 0.46% respectively compared to the same period in 2014; the concentration peaks of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 at 1 : 00 am on 19th was 412. 69, 541. 63, 152. 73, 51. 09 µg.m-3, respectively, which was increased 19. 02%, 14. 37%, 76. 57%, 11. 35% compared to that of 2014; the concentration peaks at dense population area were significantly higher than that in other districts; fireworks had great influence on the chemical compositions of PM2.5 especially on the concentrations of chloride ion, potassium ion, magnesian ion, which were 18. 85, 66. 72, and 70. 10 times than that in 2013-2014; fireworks resulted in severe air pollution in a short time and the estimated fireworks on the New Year's Eve was approximately 2. 13 x 10(5) kg of PM2.5. Reduction of pollutants during Spring Festival had a positive significant impact on air quality in Beijing. PMID:26717673

  8. Featured Scientific Meetings- OCCAM Newsletter, Spring 2010

    Cancer.gov

    Spring 2010, Vol. 5 Issue 1 Skip navigation Home Feature A Conversation with News from the Field Funding Opportunities Research Resources Research Highlights CAM Information Meetings Featured Scientific Meetings Back to OCCAM Featured Scientific Meetings Date Meeting Location OCCAM

  9. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  10. Phenology: Spring greening in a warming world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor F.

    2015-10-01

    Warmer temperatures have been associated with an earlier emergence of spring leaves each year. New data, however, suggest that leaf emergence is becoming less sensitive to temperature as global temperatures rise. See Letter p.104

  11. Phage Community Dynamics in Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, Mya; Wegley, Linda; Leeds, Steven; Schoenfeld, Tom; Rohwer, Forest

    2004-01-01

    In extreme thermal environments such as hot springs, phages are the only known microbial predators. Here we present the first study of prokaryotic and phage community dynamics in these environments. Phages were abundant in hot springs, reaching concentrations of a million viruses per milliliter. Hot spring phage particles were resistant to shifts to lower temperatures, possibly facilitating DNA transfer out of these extreme environments. The phages were actively produced, with a population turnover time of 1 to 2 days. Phage-mediated microbial mortality was significant, making phage lysis an important component of hot spring microbial food webs. Together, these results show that phages exert an important influence on microbial community structure and energy flow in extreme thermal environments. PMID:15006788

  12. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-08-11

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing.

  13. OCCAM monthley lecture series- Newsletter Spring 2009

    Cancer.gov

    Spring 2009, Vol. 4 Issue 1 Skip navigation Home Feature A Conversation with News from the Field Funding Opportunities Research Resources Research Highlights CAM Information Meetings OCCAM's Monthly Lecture Series Featured Scientific Meetings Back to

  14. Water-Quality Sampling at Willow Spring

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Hydrologist Brad Garner of the USGS Arizona Water Science Center prepares for water-quality sampling at Willow Spring, a Bureau of Land Management Wilderness Area in the Kanab Creek drainage of the Grand Canyon....

  15. The Nonlinear Spring and Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherfinski, John

    1989-01-01

    Describes an air track experiment demonstrating the transfer of mechanical energy from elastic potential to kinetic. Discusses four methods for calculating energy stored in the spring. Included are pictures, typical data, and graphs. (YP)

  16. Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.A.; Behnke, S.; Slack, K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Burr, M.D.; Striegl, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking Hg speciation with microbial processes. Molecular methods (amplification of environmental DNA using 16S rDNA primers, cloning, denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screening of clone libraries, and sequencing of representative clones) were used to examine the dominant members of microbial communities in hot springs. Total Hg (THg), monomethylated Hg (MeHg), pH, temperature, and other parameters influential to Hg speciation and microbial ecology are reported for hot springs water and associated microbial mats. Several hot springs indicate the presence of MeHg in microbial mats with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 ng g-1 (dry weight). Concentrations of THg in mats ranged from 4.9 to 120,000 ng g-1 (dry weight). Combined data from surveys of geothermal water, lakes, and streams show that aqueous THg concentrations range from l to 600 ng L-1. Species and concentrations of THg in mats and water vary significantly between hot springs, as do the microorganisms found at each site. ?? 2006.

  17. Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

  18. Pumping tests of well Campbell et al. No. 2, Gila Hot Springs, Grant County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, G.E.; Summers, W.K.; Colpitts, R.M. Jr.; Teuten, C.E.; Young, W.K.

    1982-03-01

    Well Campbell et al. No. 2 near Gila Hot Springs in southwestern New Mexico (Section 5, Township 13 South, Range 13 West) was pumped for a five-step test and a 48-hour constant-rate test during October 1981. Measurements included depth to water in the pumping well and two observation wells, and discharge rates at the pumping well and two springs. The water level in the pumping well responded during both tests. However, water-level changes in the observation wells were too small for analytical use and discharge rates from the springs showed no change. Chemical analyses of water samples collected from two springs and the pumping well show very similar water chemistries. Estimates of hydraulic properties show transmissivity from 12,000 to 14,000 gpd/ft and a storativity of 0.05. Combining these parameters with well data gives the first-year optimum discharge rate as 50 gpm with 20 feet of drawdown. Pumping this well at 50 gpm for forty years should produce only small water-level changes in wells a few hundred feet away. It would diminish the flow of the springs, and for planning purposes the combined discharge of the springs and well should be considered constant.

  19. Warming spring air temperatures, but delayed spring streamflow in an Arctic headwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaogang; Marsh, Philip; Yang, Daqing

    2015-06-01

    This study will use the Mann-Kendall (MK) non-parametric trend test to examine timing changes in spring (early May to the end of June) streamflow records observed by the Water Survey of Canada during 1985-2011 in an Arctic headwater basin in the Western Canadian Arctic. The MK test shows a general delay in the five timing measures of springtime streamflow, which are based on the 5 percentile (Q5), 10 percentile (Q10), 50 percentile (Q50), 90 percentile (Q90), and 95 percentile (Q95) dates of spring runoff, respectively. However, much stronger trend signals were clearly noted for the high percentiles than that for the low and middle percentiles, indicating different effects of hydroclimate processes working on the timing of springtime streamflow. In contrast, the earlier snowmelt onset derived from daily mean temperatures was found over the 27-year study period. In addition, multiple relationships were correlated between these five timing measures of spring runoff and five hydroclimate indicators (total snowfall, snowmelt onset, spring temperature fluctuation, spring rainfall, and spring rainfall timing) in order to identify possible causes on the changes of springtime streamflow timing. The results indicate that the differences are due to the contradictory effects of winter-spring air temperature changes, temperature fluctuation during the melting period, and spring rainfall to spring runoff. The earlier snowmelt onset, which is attributed to the winter-spring warming, and spring temperature fluctuation that works in the opposite way, result in the minor timing changes of Q5, Q10, and Q50. The increase in spring rainfall and its delayed timing have a significant impact on the dates of Q90 and Q95. Moreover, the decreased total snow accumulation over the winter season only has a minor influence on the timing of springtime streamflow.

  20. Noble gas geochemistry in thermal springs

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H. ); Smith, S.P. )

    1988-07-01

    The composition of noble gases in both gas and water samples collected from Horseshoe Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was found to be depth dependent. The deeper the sample collection within the spring, the greater the enrichment in Kr, Xe, radiogenic {sup 4}He, and {sup 40}Ar and the greater the depletion in Ne relative to {sup 36}Ar. The compositional variations are consistent with multi-component mixing. The dominant component consists of dissolved atmospheric gases acquired by the pool at the surface in contact with air. This component is mixed in varying degree with two other components, one each for gas and water entering the bottom of the pool. The two bottom components are not in equilibrium. In Horseshoe Spring, the bubbles entering at the bottom strip the atmospheric-derived pool gases from the surrounding water while en route to the surface. If the original bottom bubbles are noble gas, as in the case of Horseshoe, the acquired pool gases can then quickly obliterate the original bubble composition. These results are used to demonstrate that Yellowstone spring surface gas samples, and perhaps similarity sampled thermal springs from other hydrothermal systems, have gas abundances that depend more on spring morphology than processes occurring deeper in the hydrothermal system.

  1. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. A disarticulated lava cone, Burney Spring Mountain, Shasta County, USA: implications for extensional tectonics in the southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersten, Kevin Robert

    Burney Spring Mountain is a 2556 ka lava cone situated in the northernmost part of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range. Dominated in volume by lava flows ranging from olivine basalts to augite, hypersthene andesites, Burney Spring Mountain is also comprised of localized ash fall tuffs, a pyroclastic flow, a scoria cone and a debris flow. Lavas originate from a central vent. A robust survey of the stratigraphy shows that Burney Spring Mountain is composed of at least two magma batches. A paleomagnetic survey reveals that the characteristic remanent magnetization of Burney Spring Mountain is heavily influenced by faulting and that when structural corrections are applied to the data the sampled lava flows show a uniform direction of characteristic magnetization, indicative of an eruption period of a few hundred years. Mapping reveals that two vents (Burney Spring Mountain and the scoria cone) form a linear array that parallels local normal faults suggesting that Burney Spring Mountain formed under an extensional tectonic regime. This suggest that extension was occurring in the Lassen segment of the Cascade volcanic arc as early as 2556 ka, making it the earliest known evidence of extension. Burney Spring Mountain is mineralogically and chemically similar to younger volcanoes to the south such as those of the Poison Lake chain, the Prospect Peak chain and the Sugarloaf chain. Their chemical similarity and formation under extensional tectonics suggests a common origin. Plate 1 contains maps and unit descriptions

  4. The influence of local spring temperature variance on temperature sensitivity of spring phenology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ottlé, Catherine; Peng, Shushi; Janssens, Ivan A; Lin, Xin; Poulter, Benjamin; Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate warming on the advancement of plant spring phenology has been heavily investigated over the last decade and there exists great variability among plants in their phenological sensitivity to temperature. However, few studies have explicitly linked phenological sensitivity to local climate variance. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the strength of phenological sensitivity declines with increased local spring temperature variance, by synthesizing results across ground observations. We assemble ground-based long-term (20-50 years) spring phenology database (PEP725 database) and the corresponding climate dataset. We find a prevalent decline in the strength of phenological sensitivity with increasing local spring temperature variance at the species level from ground observations. It suggests that plants might be less likely to track climatic warming at locations with larger local spring temperature variance. This might be related to the possibility that the frost risk could be higher in a larger local spring temperature variance and plants adapt to avoid this risk by relying more on other cues (e.g., high chill requirements, photoperiod) for spring phenology, thus suppressing phenological responses to spring warming. This study illuminates that local spring temperature variance is an understudied source in the study of phenological sensitivity and highlight the necessity of incorporating this factor to improve the predictability of plant responses to anthropogenic climate change in future studies. PMID:24357518

  5. Supraglacial sulfur springs and associated biological activity in the Canadian high arctic - signs of life beneath the ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Longazo, Teresa G.; Lisle, John T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Beauchamp, Benoit

    2003-01-01

    Unique springs, discharging from the surface of an arctic glacier, release H2S and deposit native sulfur, gypsum, and calcite. The presence of sulfur in three oxidation states indicates a complex series of redox reactions. Physical and chemical conditions of the spring water and surrounding environment, as well as mineralogical and isotopic signatures, suggest biologically mediated reactions. Cell counts and DNA analyses confirm bacteria are present in the spring system, and a limited number of sequenced isolates suggests that complex communities of bacteria live within the glacial system.

  6. Hydrochemical assessment of tropical springs--a case study from SW India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hema C; Padmalal, D; Joseph, Ammini

    2015-02-01

    The paper deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs emerging from the Archaean crystalline basements at the foothills of Western Ghat mountains in the highlands and Neogene sedimentary formations in the coastal lowlands of Kerala in south west India. A total of 19 springs from two important river basins of southern Kerala such as Ithikkara and Kallada river basins were studied for 18 physico-chemical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (2-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-) , NO3 (-), SiO2, Fe(2+), and F(-) ) as well as bacteriological parameters. The discharge computations show that free-falling type of springs in the area discharge about 256.23 million liters of water a year. A comparative study between the spring water samples of highland and lowland regions reveal that the quality of spring water, except pH and bacteriological contents, satisfies the standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organization for drinking water. Spring water samples collected from the lowlands register high value of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with the highlands. Bicarbonate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) values are high in highland than lowland springs. The present study reveals that the spring water sources in the region can be developed as an alternate source for drinking water, provided pH correction and proper disinfection are done prior to its end use. PMID:25638053

  7. Overland flow caused by groundwater springs in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpold, A. A.; Steenhuis, T.

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater springs have been shown to be important for baseflow maintenance, ecological diversity, and biogeochemical transport in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. A study was undertaken to evaluate the importance of groundwater springs to stream flow response, spatial distribution of saturated areas, and chemical transport on a 2 km2 watershed. Discharge and water chemistry were monitored at five upland springs and the watershed outlet during three storm events and weekly for one year. The spatiotemporal connectivity of groundwater springs to the stream was evaluated using the isotopes, conservative geochemical tracers, groundwater heights, temperature probes, and soil moisture measurements. The data indicates that spring discharge is capable of maintaining isolated areas of saturation and overland flow that provide hydrologic connections between upland hillslopes and the stream. Thus, upslope springs can be important sources of solutes and nutrients, especially during baseflow periods. The response of the individual springs was correlated to the upslope contributing area during large rain events. However, terrain indices were not capable of predicting relative spring discharge during moderate to dry conditions. The results suggest that two geomorphologic wetness states exist for this Catskill watershed: 1. during wet antecedent conditions surface topography is a first- order control on water table heights and overland flow, 2. during dry to average antecedent wetness conditions geomorphologic heterogeneities (e.g. bedrock fractures and confining layers) control locations and extent of saturated areas and overland flow. The two-state wetness system hypothesis has important ramifications for developing watershed-scale parameters (i.e. drainage density) and spatial modeling in heterogeneous landscapes.

  8. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s-1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 L s-1, which corresponds to about 8.2 ?? 104 kJ s-1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified. -Authors

  9. Increase in thermal groundwater due to a flowing well near the Songshan hot spring in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Zhou; Juan, Li; Haiyan, Zhou; Bin, Fang; Lan, Yu; Shijun, Li

    2008-02-01

    The Songshan hot spring occurs in granite in Yanqing County in northwestern Beijing, China. TDS of the hot water ranges from 459 to 475 mg/L and pH varies between 8.6 and 9.13. The water is of Na SO4 type. Isotopic analyses indicate that the hot spring is meteoric in origin and receives recharge from precipitation in the northern and northwestern granite mountain with elevation of about 1,600 1,800 m. The depth of circulation of the thermal groundwater is estimated to be 2,240 m below the springs threshold and the temperature of the geothermal reservoir, 76C. The residence time of the thermal groundwater is estimated to be about 52 years. A flowing well near the spring has chemical compositions and formation conditions similar to the spring. The discharge of the flowing well is approximately eighteen times larger than that of the spring and the residence time of the former (about 15.4 years) is about three times smaller than that of the latter. Although the well and spring are close to each other, the wells larger flow rates, indicated residence time and high hydraulic head suggest that the well taps a separate, but genetically similar flow system.

  10. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W. )

    1990-11-10

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 l/s. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 l/s, which corresponds to about 8.2 {times} 10{sup 4} kJ/s of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  11. Pollution of protected springs in relation to high and low density settlements in KampalaUganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsubuga, F. B.; Kansiime, F.; Okot-Okumu, J.

    In Kampala City like most towns in Uganda, provision of treated piped water has been concentrated in high-income zones with very little improvement in the high-density, low-income areas where the majority of the urban population lives. This has left protected springs as a major source of domestic water. These springs are protected during construction by providing provisions in two parts; a permeable section of gravel and sand into which the source waters enter, and a dam which prevents the water from bypassing the catchment or reservoir. A perforated supply pipe leads the water out of the reservoir. Very few studies have been carried out to determine the extent of pollution of protected springs and none on the comparison of protected springs in high- and low-density settlements. This study, carried out both in the dry and wet seasons, was aimed at establishing the water quality of protected springs in Kampala and contributory pollution factors. Both high- and low-density settlement areas were studied. Survey using questionnaires and field observations were done to identify sources of pollutants and to relate them to human activities and explain the possible causes and sources of pollution of the springs. Pollution (chemical and biological) levels were higher in protected springs located in high-density settlement areas and this was attributed to poor waste-management practices. Human activities like construction of pit latrines, some located less than 5 m upstream of protected springs, animal husbandry and indiscriminate dumping of wastes contributed to the presence of high levels of chemical and biological pollutants in the protected springs. Average concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen (49.5 mg/l) and ammonium-nitrogen (7.3 mg/l) and faecal coliforms (1.8 10 4 no./100 ml) were recorded. Pollution levels were higher in the rainy season and this was attributed to storm water runoff and its infiltration into the ground water. The results indicate that water from protected springs poses a health risk to the communities using it.

  12. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Karstic Springs in Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demiroglu, M.; Aktuna, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A hydrogeochemical approach using recharge, circulate, and discharge data from different carbonate rocks with varying ages were collected and analyzed from several springs in Western Turkey to better understand Karstic aquifers. Samples were collected from the Paleozoic-Mesozoic marbles (K1, K3, K9, Sakarbasi and Kaymaz), the Jura-Cretaceous limestones (Sagalasus, Nardin, Deliktas, Kayaa?zi, and Adaky Springs), and the Neocene limestones (K7 and K8). In situ measurements in wet and dry seasons were compared in order to explain aquifer characteristics and how they would be affected by varying types of precipitation resulting from changes in climate. The groundwaters have pH values ranging from 6 to 8.9, temperatures (T) vary from 6 to 35C, and electrical conductivity (EC) values go from 140 to 985 ?S/cm. EC results show that variations depended on not only circulation depth but also on lithology. The EC-Temperature and DO (Dissolved oxygen) relationships indicate the existence of waters with different origins. The groups that have high EC, high T, and low DO values represent the deep circulating water (K7, K1, and Hitit Pinari). Low EC, low T and high DO values represent the shallow circulating waters (K3, K8, K9, Pinargz, Sagalasus, Yesilky, Narli, and Adaky Springs). Low variations of the measurements in both the wet and dry seasons (all nearly at constant temperature with low chemical composition variations) reveal that fracture permeability is dominated by diffused-flow-controlled groundwater flow (K1, K7, K3, K8 and K9). High variations of the measurements (temperature and chemical composition) in both the wet and dry seasons show focused infiltration from karstic structures (sinkholes, fractures, and joints) and dominated by conduit permeability. Climate change data shows that the number of heavy precipitation days has been increasing, especially in western Turkey, and usually cause extreme flood events. Despite a year in which cumulative precipitation may increase, the total amount of recharge may be less in aquifers dominated by diffused flow. This research reinforces the hypothesis that aquifers controlled by conduit permeability have rapid recharge and discharge rates after flood events, developed karst sinkholes allow fast percolation into the aquifer, up to 80 % of heavy rainfalls, and rapid recharge causes rapid discharge rates from springs, which have been observed after storms. So it can be said that the recharge of aquifers (shallow and dominated by conduit permeability) can increase, but at the same time this situation can cause extreme flood events.

  13. A multi-disciplinary investigation of Irish warm springs and their potential for geothermal energy provision.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Jones, Alan G.; Henry, Tiernan

    2015-04-01

    Irish warm springs are one of a set of several target types that are being evaluated for their geothermal energy potential during the course of the island-wide assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland under the IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie). Forty-two warm springs and warm shallow groundwater occurrences have been recorded in Ireland; water temperatures in the springs (approx. 12-25 °C) are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (10-11 °C). This study focuses on warm springs in east-central Ireland found in the Carboniferous limestone of the Dublin Basin. A combination of geophysical methods (controlled source electromagnetics (CSEM) and audio-magnetotellurics (AMT)) and hydrochemical analyses (including time-lapse temperature and electrical conductivity measurements) have been utilised at several of the springs to determine the source of the heated waters at depth and the nature of the geological structures that deliver the warm waters to the surface. Using the example of St. Gorman's Well, Co. Meath, we show how the combination of these different methods of investigation and the interpretation of these various data sets enables us to better understand the physical and chemical variability of the spring through time. This will provide the basis for an assessment of the source of these thermal waters as a potential geothermal energy reservoir and will allow for more precise characterisation of the groundwater resource. We present subsurface models derived from new geophysical data collected at St. Gorman's Well in 2013. This high-resolution AMT survey consisted of a grid of 40 soundings recorded at approximately 200 m intervals centred on the spring. The aim of the survey was to image directly any (electrically conductive) fluid conduit systems that may be associated with the springs and to provide an understanding of the observed association of the Irish warm springs with major structural lineaments, such as the NE-SW Caledonian structural trend which dominates Irish geology. Seasonal hydrochemical sampling of six warm spring locations commenced in July 2013. Data loggers installed at each location measured temperature and electrical conductivity (15-minute sampling intervals) throughout the sampling period (July 2013 - early 2015). The hydrochemical results and the data from the logger at St. Gorman's Well are examined here in conjunction with regional rainfall and available hydrogeological information in order to establish the nature of the relationship between the hydrological cycle and fluctuations in the hydrochemistry of the spring.

  14. Microbial Ecology and Resultant Biomarkers Preserved in a Terrestrial Analog of a Martian Spring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giska, J. R.; Moreau, J.; Rowland, J.; Cervini-Silva, J.; Manga, M.; Banfield, J.

    2005-12-01

    On Mars, groundwater discharge, heated by geological processes at depth, represents a likely late-stage reservoir of liquid water available for biological activity. Photo-geological observations of the Martian surface support geologically, relatively young groundwater discharge via sapping and/or fault-controlled springs. Our approach to the investigation of the possible biological potential of such reservoirs has been to characterize analogous, terrestrial spring systems. Our study site is a fault-driven, mesophilic, sulfur spring system between the Hayward and Calaveras faults in California. We have examined hydro-geological variables, nutrient availability for microbial metabolism, differences in extant community structure, and the seasonal changes associated with these variables. The springs under study also precipitate calcite and form large mounds, offering the potential to evaluate the preservation of biosignatures. The geochemistry and isotopic composition (2H/18O) of spring waters indicate that the various springs discharge waters represent differing amounts of mixing between deeper, connate water with shallow meteoric inputs. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments suggest that oxidation of sulfur compounds by Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria is a significant process occurring in the springs, and lipid analyses support these observations. While the studied springs undergo seasonal shifts in their respective geochemistries, only the microbial community at one of the springs elicits a commensurate seasonal variation. During the dry season, the community at this spring shifts to a red, plaque-like biofilm and iron-cycling organisms from the Alphaproteobacteria class increase significantly in their relative abundance within the community. Preliminary chemical analysis of the calcite accretions indicates abundant organic carbon, and thus, suggests a possible record of prior microbial ecosystems. On-going investigations of recalcitrant lipid species such as bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs), in both extant biology as well as the accreted calcite, is underway and should provide insight to the taphonomic processes affecting the viability of lipid biosignatures. Results emphasize the role of local geophysical history in spring microbial community structure and productivity.

  15. Nonpersisting Student Analysis for Fall 1977-Spring 1978. Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Mary Kathryne

    This research note reviews an analysis of Moraine Valley Community College nonpersisting students for fall 1977 and spring 1978. Information is provided on trends in transfer and occupational student retention by semester from spring 1970 through fall/spring 1977-78, and on fall 1977 and spring 1978 persister and nonpersister characteristics. Of…

  16. Radioactive springs geochemical data related to uranium exploration: basic data and use of multivariate factor scores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, Robert Allen; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive springs and wells at 33 localities in the States of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico have been studied and sampled to obtain geochemical data to determine whether such data are useful in a uranium exploration program. Most samples were collected from mineral-rich springs probably related to hydrothermal systems of various ages. Two sets of data were obtained, the first based on the chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of spring and ground water, and the second based on the chemical composition of mineral precipitates deposited by radioactive springs. Multivariate statistical analysis of the water data suggests four major geochemical factors affecting the 23 parameters measured. These factors were labeled as total dissolved solids, alkalinity, temperature, and Fe-U concentration. Multivariate statistical analysis of the precipitate data suggests five factors affecting the 32 element values measured. These factors were labeled as mineral contamination, Mn precipitation, Fe-As-Be precipitation, heavy metals precipitation, and Ba-Ra precipitation. Relative intensities of the geochemical processes represented by the factors were computed using factor scores. Sample localities were ranked on the basis of relative intensities, and the five localities with the highest intensities were selected as being the most favorable for more intensive exploration for uranium. Immediate use of such selection would be experimental because of the lack of industry experience at this time in the exploration of active hydrothermal systems for uranium.

  17. SPRING GERMINATING JOINTED GOATGRASS CAN PRODUCE VIABLE SPIKELETS IN SPRING SEEDED WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most common strategy recommended for management of jointed goatgrass infestations is to rotate from winter wheat to a spring crop for several years. A field study was conducted at three locations in 1998 and 1999 to determine the effects of spring establishment timing on the ability of jointed ...

  18. Emission control valve with internal spring

    SciTech Connect

    Betterton, J.T.; Glover, A.H.; McKee, T.S.; Romanczuk, C.S.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describe, with an internal combustion engine, a crankcase gas flow control device located between the engine crankcase and the engine fuel-air induction. It comprises: a hollow housing defining an inlet at one end, a cylindrical flow passage, a diverging orifice passage and an outlet passage; a slender rod extending coaxially through the cylindrical flow passage and the diverging orifice passage; a tubular valve element within the housing and supported about the slender rod thereby allowing axial movement of the valve element along the rod; a coil-type compression spring extending about the rod and within the tubular valve element, one end of the spring fixedly connected to the rod, the other end of the spring bearing against the tubular valve element tending to move it along the rod toward the housing inlet and away from the diverging orifice passage whereby a gas pressure differential produced between the crankcase and the fuel-air induction causes the valve element to move against the spring force and resultantly the gas flows over the exterior of the valve element without interference by the spring thereby preventing turbulence. The housing has a walled elbow portion between the diverging orifice passage and the outlet whereby the downstream end of the rod is supported by the elbow wall.

  19. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  20. Environmental consequences of geochemical change in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems provide a natural laboratory for studying the effects of geochemical change over time, and for testing predictions of how geochemical change will affect microbial ecology. Hot springs in hydrothermal areas that express the results of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid phase and vapor phase constituents can fluctuate in temperature and composition. Since 1999 we have sampled several fluctuating hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, and those hat experience large geochemical changes provide opportunities to quantify the effects of fluctuations on chemical energy supplies. Annual samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area) showed that pH increased from 6.5 (in 1999) to 6.8 (00), steadily decreased to 4.2 (06), and then increased to 5.2 (09), with temperature ranging from 76.4 to 85.3C. Simultaneously the chloride concentration increased by 65% (from 18.5 ppm in 1999 to 30.7 ppm in 2009), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by over 300% (from 50.0 ppm in 2000 to 203.8 ppm in 2009), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. Several energy yielding reactions at a pH of 6.5 no longer yield energy at pH of 4.2. This suggests that microorganisms that use those pathways had a negative selection pressure with the drop in pH. As an example, the chemical affinity for sulfur reduction to pyrite coupled to iron oxidation to goethite changed from 7.1 (pH = 6.5) to -1.3 kcal/mol e- (pH = 4.2), and once again had a positive value at pH = 5.2. This means that microorganisms using this pathway may once again inhabit the hot spring while many others from when the pH was 6.5 still have a negative selection pressure. The pH of another hot spring in the Sylvan Springs Area steadily increased from 3.7 (04) to 7.6 (08) while the temp. decreased from 52.9 to 41.9C, chloride concentration increased by 32% (from 464 to 614 ppm), and the sulfate concentration decreased by 36 % (from 255 to 166 ppm). The changes suggest an increased liquid-phase hydrothermal input (increasing Cl) coupled with a decreased gas-phase input (sulfide, oxidized to sulfate). Many reactions that do not yield energy at pH = 3.7 become energy yielding at pH = 7.6, including methanogenesis from CO or CO2 coupled with H2S oxidation to pyrite. These examples from the geochemistry of fluctuating hot spring systems illustrate how predictions can be made about dynamic changes in microbial ecosystems that can be tested by molecular methods.

  1. Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic and transcriptomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in situ in these ecosystems. [1] Havig et al., 2010. Merging isotopes and community genomics in a siliceous sinter-depositing hot spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences (in press). [2] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3] Hall et al., 2008. Molecular characterization of the diversity and distribution of a thermal spring microbial community using rRNA and metabolic genes. AEM 74:4910-4922. [4] Steunou et al., 2006. In situ analysis of nitrogen fixation and metabolic switching in unicellular thermophilic Cyanobacteria inhabiting hot spring microbial mats. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [5] Boyd et al., 2009. CO2 uptake and fixation by a thermoacidophilic microbial community attached to precipitated sulfur in a geothermal spring. AEM 75:4289-4296.

  2. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal River new channel and old channel sites provide data that potentially could yield more accurate real-time estimates of total Comal Springs flow than streamflow measured at the downstream Comal River site. For San Marcos Springs, the findings indicate shortcomings with ADVM installations at diversion spring and in the west and east outflow channels. However, the accuracy of streamflow measured at the San Marcos River gage as an estimate of real-time San Marcos Springs flow could potentially be increased through use of ADVM data from that site.

  3. Geochemical and hydrologic considerations and the use of enthalpy-chloride diagrams in the prediction of underground conditions in hot-spring systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal water ascending in a hot-spring system may cool by conduction of heat to the surrounding rock, by boiling, by mixing with cooler water, or by a combination of these processes. Complete or partial chemical reequilibration may occur as a result of this cooling. In spite of these complexities, in many places chemical compositions of hot-spring waters may be used to estimate underground conditions. A plot of enthalpy versus chloride is particularly useful for determining underground temperatures, salinities, and boiling and mixing relations. The utility of this approach is illustrated using hot-spring composition data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico, Orakeikorako, New Zealand, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. ?? 1979.

  4. Heavy metals in bottled natural spring water.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael J; Leavey, Shannon

    2011-06-01

    New regulations regarding the presence of contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in January 2009. These requirements include testing, reporting, and notification to regulate the presence of heavy metals in bottled natural spring water sold in California. In the study described in this article, six sources of bottled natural spring water were purchased and analyzed for silver, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. All of these metals except beryllium, mercury, and thallium were detected in at least one of the bottled natural spring water sources. No concentrations were above either federal or California maximum contaminant levels but arsenic concentrations exceeded California public health goals in all six sources. Improving the California notification requirements for bottled water contaminants would result in a process more similar to the notification process for tap water and would result in better-informed consumers. PMID:21667718

  5. Town of Pagosa Springs geothermal heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The Town of Pagosa Springs has owned and operated a geothermal heating system since December 1982 to provide geothermal heating during the fall, winter and spring to customers in this small mountain town. Pagosa Springs is located in Archuleta County, Colorado in the southwestern corner of the State. The Town, nestled in majestic mountains, including the Continental Divide to the north and east, has an elevation of 7,150 feet. The use of geothermal water in the immediate area, however, dates back to the 1800`s, with the use of Ute Bands and the Navajo Nation and later by the U.S. Calvery in the 1880`s (Lieutenant McCauley, 1878). The Pagosa area geothermal water has been reported to have healing and therapeutic qualities.

  6. Bistable springs for wideband microelectromechanical energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Son D.; Halvorsen, Einar; Paprotny, Igor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on a microelectromechanical energy harvester with curved springs that demonstrates an extremely wide bandwidth. The springs display an asymmetrical bistable behavior obtained purely through their geometrical design. The frequency down-sweep shows that the harvester 3-dB bandwidth is about 587 Hz at 0.208-g acceleration amplitude. For white noise excitation at 410-3 g2/Hz, we found that the bandwidth reaches 715 Hz, which is more than 250 times wider than in the linear-spring regime. By varying the bias voltage, an output power of 3.4 ?W is obtained for frequency down-sweep at 1-g amplitude and 150-V bias.

  7. Convective heat discharge of Wood River group of springs in the vicinity of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.; Thompson, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Data sets for spring and stream chemistry are combined to estimate convective heat discharge and discharge anomalous amounts of sodium and chloride for the Wood River group of springs south of Crater Lake. The best estimate of heat discharge is 87 MWt based on chloride inventory; this value is 3-5 times the heat input to Crater Lake itself. Anomalous discharges of sodium and chloride are also larger that into Crater Lake. Difference between the chemical and thermal characteristics of the discharge into Crater Lake and those from the Wood River group of springs suggest that the heat sources for the two systems may be different, although both ultimately related to the volcanic system.

  8. ["Gating-Spring" model and molecular basis of mechanotransduction in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin

    2016-02-25

    The sense of mechanical stimuli (e.g. force or deformation) in the environment underlies several important physiological processes, for example the perception of sound, touch, pain and acceleration. The key step in mechanosensation is to convert the extracellular mechanical stimuli into cellular electrical or chemical signals. This process is termed as mechanotransduction. Based on mechanical and electrophysiological measurements, "Gating-Spring" theory was proposed as a general model to describe the cell biological mechanism of mechanotransduction. However, despite efforts made in several model organisms, the molecular basis of the "Gating-Spring" model remains elusive. In recent years, several key progresses have been made using the mechanoreceptors of Drosophila melanogaster as the models. This article introduces the "Gating-Spring" theory and reviews the recent research progresses on the fly mechanotransduction. PMID:26915326

  9. Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs and La Abra Plain area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carruth, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Quitobaquito Springs, in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the south end of the northwestward-trending Quitobaquito Hills, are less than 0.25 mile north of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. The National Park Service is concerned that the natural flow from Quitobaquito Springs might be reduced by ground-water withdrawals in the adjacent State of Sonora, Mexico. Quitobaquito and other nearby springs flow from a highly fractured granite that forms the Quitobaquito Hills. Fractures in the granitic intrusive rocks provide conduits for ground water to flow from an alluvial flow system along Aguajita Wash to a line of springs on the southwest side of Quitobaquito Hills. The chemical composition of water from all the springs is similar. Carbon-14 analysis of water from Quitobaquito Springs indicates that the spring water probably is between 500 and several thousand years old. Discharge at Quitobaquito Springs averaged 28 gallons per minute and ranged from 15 to 40 gallons per minute for 1981-92. Rainfall at two gages in the area of recharge to the northeast of Quitobaquito Hills averaged 6.6 inches per year during the 11-year monitoring program ending in September 1992. The lack of correlation between spring discharge and local rainfall indicates that local annual recharge may be small relative to the total quantity of ground water in storage. Surface-geophysical data indicate that a thin alluvial aquifer overlies the shallow crystalline rocks northeast of Quitobaquito Hills along Aguajita Wash. Results of the study indicate that the ground-water flow system along Aguajita Wash provides a source of water to the springs and may be hydraulically connected to the ground-water system that is pumped for agricultural purposes in Mexico. The altitude and low permeability of the granite bedrock near the international boundary, however, may provide a barrier to and (or) delay the effect of a northwestward propagation of water- level declines caused by pumping near the Rio Sonoyta in Mexico.

  10. Hydrogeological characterization of peculiar Apenninic springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervi, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Petronici, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2014-09-01

    In the northern Apennines of Italy, springs are quite widespread over the slopes. Due to the outcropping of low-permeability geologic units, they are generally characterized by low-yield capacities and high discharge variability during the hydrologic year. In addition, low-flow periods (discharge lower than 1 Ls-1) reflect rainfall and snowmelt distribution and generally occur in summer seasons. These features strongly condition the management for water-supply purposes, making it particularly complex. The "Mulino delle Vene" springs (420 m a.s.l., Reggio Emilia Province, Italy) are one of the largest in the Apennines for mean annual discharge and dynamic storage and are considered as the main water resource in the area. They flow out from several joints and fractures at the bottom of an arenite rock mass outcrop in the vicinity of the Tresinaro River. To date, these springs have not yet been exploited, as the knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer and their hydrological behaviour is not fully achieved. This study aims to describe the recharge processes and to define the hydrogeological boundaries of the aquifer. It is based on river and spring discharge monitoring and groundwater balance assessment carried out during the period 2012-2013. Results confirm the effectiveness of the approach, as it allowed the total aliquot of discharge of the springs to be assessed. Moreover, by comparing the observed discharge volume with the one calculated with the groundwater balance, the aquifer has been identified with the arenite slab (mean altitude of 580 m a.s.l.), extended about 5.5 km2 and located 1 km west of the monitored springs.

  11. Peatland Structural Controls on Spring Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Hackman, A. M.; Davenport, G.

    2013-12-01

    The species richness of wetland ecosystems' are sustained by the presence of discrete groundwater discharge, or springs. Springs provide thermal refugia and a source of fresh water inflow crucial for survival of many wetland species. The subsurface drivers that control the spatial distribution of surficial springs throughout peatland complexes are poorly understood due to the many challenges peatlands pose for hydrologic characterization, such as the internal heterogeneities, soft, dynamic substrate, and low gradient of peat drainage. This has previously made it difficult to collect spatial data required for restoration projects that seek to support spring obligate and thermally stressed species such as trout. Tidmarsh Farms is a 577-acre site in Southeastern Massachusetts where 100+ years of cranberry farming has significantly altered the original peatland hydrodynamics and ecology. Farming practices such as the regular application of sand, straightening of the main channel, and addition of drainage ditches has strongly degraded this peatland ecosystem. Our research has overlain non-invasive geophysical, thermal, and water isotopic data from the Tidmarsh Farms peatland to provide a detailed visualization of how subsurface peat structure and spring patterns correlate. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has proven particularly useful in characterizing internal peat structure and the mineral soil interface beneath peatlands, we interpolate the peatland basin at a large scale (1 km2) and compare this 3-D surface to the locations of springs on the peat platform. Springs, expressed as cold anomalies in summer and warm anomalies in winter, were specifically located by combining fiber-optic and infrared thermal surveys, utilizing the numerous relic agricultural drainage ditches as a sampling advantage. Isotopic signatures of the spring locations are used to distinguish local and regional discharge, differences that can be explained in part by the peat basin structure delineated with GPR. The study expands our understanding of complex peat systems and will be used to inform wetland restoration based on hydrodynamic processes; yielding a more successful, resilient restoration and desired ecologic function. Our research demonstrates how the use of GPR in combination with thermal imagery and isotopic analysis can help characterize degraded peatlands, informing a process-based approach to ecological restoration of the site with the ability to monitor changes through time.

  12. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  13. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Improved design reduces clogging and maintains constant pressure drop as flow rate varies. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve pressure drop regulated by spring pushing stainless-steel ball against soft brass seat. Pressure drop remains nearly constant, regardless of helium flow rate and of any gas contaminants frozen on valve seat. Because springloaded J-T valve maintains constant pressure drop, upstream roomtemperature throttle valve adjusts flow rate precisely for any given upstream pressure. In addition, new valve relatively invulnerable to frozen gas contaminants, which clog fixed-orifice J-T valves.

  14. Hydrogeology, water quality, and geochemistry of the Rush Springs aquifer, western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, M.F.; Runkle, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Rush Springs aquifer, in western Oklahoma, is equivalent to the Permian-age Rush Springs Formation. It is composed of very fine-grained to fine-grained sandstone that is massive to highly cross-bedded and is underlain by less-permeable Marlow Formation. Reported irrigation well yields exceed 1,000 gallons per minute; yields reported on 89 drillers' logs ranged from 11 to 850 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 670 to 1,870 feet squared per day. Specific yields for core samples range from 0.13 to 0.34. Estimates of hydraulic conductivities at one site ranged from 1.05 to 5.62 feet per day. The Rush Springs aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation, ranging from 0.2 to more than 2 inches per year. Discharge is primarily to streams and rivers where the Rush Springs aquifer crops. Estimated total withdrawal was 54.7 million gallons per day in 1990. Over 42 million gallons per day, or 77.8 percent of water withdrawn, was used for irrigation of crops. Thirty-five of the 64 wells sampled produced nitrate concentration that equaled or exceeded drinking water standards. Sulfate concentration also exceeds the drinking water standards in some areas. Two major water types occur in the aquifer, a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type and a calcium sulfate type. Dissolved solids concentrations in water samples from the aquifer ranged from 52 to 1,840 milligrams per liter. The chemical composition of ground water in the Rush Springs aquifer is the result of chemical reactions between the recharge waters and minerals in the overlying soils and rocks in the Rush Springs and Marlow Formations. Saturation indices of minerals were calculated for 64 water-quality analyses using the geochemical computer model WATEQF. Mass transfer rates were calculated using the mass-balance model NETPATH.

  15. Microbiology and geochemistry of Little Hot Creek, a hot spring environment in the Long Valley Caldera.

    PubMed

    Vick, T J; Dodsworth, J A; Costa, K C; Shock, E L; Hedlund, B P

    2010-03-01

    A culture-independent community census was combined with chemical and thermodynamic analyses of three springs located within the Long Valley Caldera, Little Hot Creek (LHC) 1, 3, and 4. All three springs were approximately 80 degrees C, circumneutral, apparently anaerobic and had similar water chemistries. 16S rRNA gene libraries constructed from DNA isolated from spring sediment revealed moderately diverse but highly novel microbial communities. Over half of the phylotypes could not be grouped into known taxonomic classes. Bacterial libraries from LHC1 and LHC3 were predominantly species within the phyla Aquificae and Thermodesulfobacteria, while those from LHC4 were dominated by candidate phyla, including OP1 and OP9. Archaeal libraries from LHC3 contained large numbers of Archaeoglobales and Desulfurococcales, while LHC1 and LHC4 were dominated by Crenarchaeota unaffiliated with known orders. The heterogeneity in microbial populations could not easily be attributed to measurable differences in water chemistry, but may be determined by availability of trace amounts of oxygen to the spring sediments. Thermodynamic modeling predicted the most favorable reactions to be sulfur and nitrate respirations, yielding 40-70 kJ mol(-1) e(-) transferred; however, levels of oxygen at or below our detection limit could result in aerobic respirations yielding up to 100 kJ mol(-1) e(-) transferred. Important electron donors are predicted to be H(2), H(2)S, S(0), Fe(2+) and CH(4), all of which yield similar energies when coupled to a given electron acceptor. The results indicate that springs associated with the Long Valley Caldera contain microbial populations that show some similarities both to springs in Yellowstone and springs in the Great Basin. PMID:20002204

  16. Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Marshall; Fortner, Allison M

    2012-05-01

    On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

  17. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with massive silica deposits are plausible indicators on Mars of precipitation environments and aqueous chemistry. Theoretical model calculations are in reasonable agreement with independent experimental silica concentrations, which strengthens the validity of the new CHEMCHAU model. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Interlayer diffusion studies of a Laves phase exchange spring superlattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Kohn, A; Wang, S G; Ward, R C C

    2011-03-23

    Rare earth Laves phase (RFe(2)) superlattice structures grown at different temperatures are studied using x-ray reflectivity (XRR), x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The optimized molecular beam epitaxy growth condition is matched with the XRR simulation, showing minimum diffusion/roughness at the interfaces. Electron microscopy characterization reveals that the epitaxial growth develops from initial 3D islands to a high quality superlattice structure. Under this optimum growth condition, chemical analysis by electron energy loss spectroscopy with high spatial resolution is used to study the interface. The analysis shows that the interface roughness is between 0.6 and 0.8 nm and there is no significant interlayer diffusion. The locally sharp interface found in this work explains the success of simple structural models in predicting the magnetic reversal behavior of Laves exchange spring superlattices. PMID:21358021

  19. HARD SPRING WHEAT TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 2007 CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2007 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA Hard Red Spri...

  20. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2006 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders experimental lines of wheat are evaluated for overall quality before being released for commercial production. The Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee provides milling and baking quality data on breeders experimental lines of wheat that are annually submitted to the Wheat Quality Counc...

  1. RELEASE OF NINETEEN WAXY SPRING WHEATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen spring waxy (amylose-free) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm lines were developed and released by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Nor...

  2. Evaluation of Campus Pipeline, Spring 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This document is a report on the Santa Barbara City College (California) Campus Pipeline, an online portal system that provides a single Web entry point to relevant academic and institutional information for students and faculty. Introduced in spring 2001, the pipeline initially involved 22 courses, 30 sections, and 14 instructors who agreed to

  3. Spring uses in exoskeleton actuation design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiqian; van Dijk, Wietse; van der Kooij, Herman

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton has to be lightweight, compliant, yet powerful to fulfill the demanding task of walking. This imposes a great challenge for the actuator design. Electric motors, by far the most common actuator in robotic, orthotic, and prosthetic devices, cannot provide sufficiently high peak and average power and force/torque output, and they normally require high-ratio, heavy reducer to produce the speeds and high torques needed for human locomotion. Studies on the human muscle-tendon system have shown that muscles (including tendons and ligaments) function as a spring, and by storing energy and releasing it at a proper moment, locomotion becomes more energy efficient. Inspired by the muscle behavior, we propose a novel actuation strategy for exoskeleton design. In this paper, the collected gait data are analyzed to identify the spring property of the human muscle-tendon system. Theoretical optimization results show that adding parallel springs can reduce the peak torque by 66%, 53%, and 48% for hip flexion/extension (F/E), hip abduction/adduction (A/A), and ankle dorsi/plantar flexion (D/PF), respectively, and the rms power by 50%, 45%, and 61%, respectively. Adding a series spring (forming a Series Elastic Actuator, SEA) reduces the peak power by 79% for ankle D/PF, and by 60% for hip A/A. A SEA does not reduce the peak power demand at other joints. The optimization approach can be used for designing other wearable robots as well. PMID:22275669

  4. SUNY Spring 1991 Student Opinion Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Marcia M.

    In spring 1991, students attending Westchester Community College in New York were surveyed regarding their sense of belonging at the campus. Students' responses, broken down into sub-groups on the basis of ethnic background, alien status, and sex, indicate the following: (1) the question receiving the highest percentage of "very satisfied" and

  5. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  6. Registration of 'UI Stone' spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) is an important wheat class being used in domestic and international markets, especially in Idaho and Pacific Northwest (PNW). The objective of this study was to develop a SWS wheat cultivar with high grain yield, desirable end-use quality, and resistanc...

  7. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Volume 55 of the Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology is dedicated to the study of the brain. The symposium was subdivided into four major sections. Papers were presented in Molecular Mechanisms for Signalling; Neural Development; Sensory and Motor Systems; and Cognitive Neuroscience. Individual papers from the symposium are abstracted separately. (MHB)

  8. Campus Climate Student Survey, Spring 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    A study was conducted at the San Diego Community College District (SDCCD) in California to assess students' perceptions of the campus climate and their college experience. A 65-item questionnaire was administered in-class to a 10% random sample of the spring 1994 student population, and a shorter version of the survey instrument had been included…

  9. Tool Releases Optical Elements From Spring Brackets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gum, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Threaded hooks retract bracket arms holding element. Tool uses three hooks with threaded shanks mounted in ring-shaped holder to pull on tabs to release optical element. One person can easily insert or remove optical element (such as prism or lens) from spring holder or bracket with minimal risk of damage.

  10. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications.

  11. Parameters affecting sag resistance in spring steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefpour-Dezfuly, M.; Brownrigg, A.

    1989-10-01

    Recent trends toward reducing the weight of automobile suspension springs have led to the development of a number of microalloyed steels and a variety of processing treatments which have claimed to improve the sag resistance of springs while increasing their operating stresses. More often than not, however, the subtle effects of varying levels of hardness and prior austenite grain size, as well as small but significant differences in critical elements such as Si, are over-looked in comparing these new steels with the conventional grades. Hysteresis loops measured in tension (related to the Bauschinger effect) were used to determine the relaxation behavior of a number of microalloyed and standard grade spring steels. The effects of hardness level, austenitizing temperature, prior austenite grain size, and warm prestressing on the Bauschinger hysteresis loops were also established. Silicon was found to be the most important factor influencing the size of the hysteresis loops; the greater the Si content of the steel (up to 2.2 pct), the larger the loops at a given strength level and the greater the expected relaxation resistance of the spring. The standard AISI 9261 steel containing 2.2 pct Si showed the same Bauschinger loops as the microalloyed grades containing Nb and V at the same hardness of 50 HRC.

  12. PACE Survey Results, Spring 1987. Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaksen, Leonard W.

    In spring 1987, a self-study was conducted of the Los Angeles Community College District's Project for Adult College Education (PACE) to determine what current and former PACE students, faculty, and administrators felt were the strengths and weaknesses of the program. Using an integrated course approach, PACE permits students to complete an

  13. REGISTRATION OF ID0602 SPRING WHEAT GERMPLASM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IDO602 (Reg. no. GP-776, PI 620628) is a short stature, medium maturity hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Stations and released in February 2003 for use in research and crop improvement programs. In 9 site-years of irrigated and rain-fed tri...

  14. Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the boundary in the frequency-amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation x[umlaut] + x + [epsilon]x[cubed] = F cos[omega]t. For fixed initial conditions and for representative fixed values of the parameter [epsilon], the results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation…

  15. Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of…

  16. Lightcurve Analysis for 2343 Siding Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Lanoue, Scott; Waugh, Phillip; Hanks, Brannon; Gil, Leron; Gehres, Joshua; Zendman, Christina; Harman, Emily; Tran-Dac, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Photometric observations over the course of three nights in 2015 October and November were collected for asteroid 2343 Siding Spring. The asteroid is most likely a fast rotator. For our data set, we find a rotation period of 2.405 ± 0.0003 h provides a reasonable fit.

  17. Registration of 'Advance' Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grower and end-user acceptance of new hard red spring wheat (HRSW; Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is largely contingent on satisfactory agronomic performance, end-use quality potential, and disease resistance levels. Additional characteristics, such as desirable plant height, can also help to maxi...

  18. Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2006-01-01

    This note discusses the boundary in the frequency--amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation. For fixed initial conditions and fixed parameter [epsilon] results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of solutions to the initial value problem as the parameters F and

  19. Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses the boundary in the frequency-amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation x[umlaut] + x + [epsilon]x[cubed] = F cos[omega]t. For fixed initial conditions and for representative fixed values of the parameter [epsilon], the results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation

  20. Recurrence Effects in the Parametric Spring Pendulum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Lars

    1978-01-01

    Gives a perturbation analysis to recurrence effects of the spring pendulum. The recurrence depends on two conservation laws which determine the motion in an intermediate region; oscillations outside this region are unstable and must return. Gives the relation to Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem together with the explicit solution. (Author/GA)

  1. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

  2. OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, Jim, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the following

  3. Circulator. Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board of Young Men's Christian Associations, New York, NY. Urban Action Commission.

    This publication, issued twice a year -- Spring and Fall -- is designed for professional YMCA staff around the country. However, non-YMCA people and organizations might also be interested in the programs which may be applicable to their needs. The objective of the newsletter is to provide readers with information about types of specific innovative

  4. Detachable steel spring coils for vessel occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lund, G; Rysavy, J; Kotula, F; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Amplatz, K

    1985-05-01

    Spring coils for vessel occlusion were modified to include a screw-on attachment for delivery wire, which permitted safe and accurate placement of the coils. We successfully implanted coils in a dog and a lamb. They were easily retrieved from within the delivery catheters and the vessels, which is not possible with conventional coils. Coil design is described. PMID:3983407

  5. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System ...

  6. Spring into Art: 87 Eclectic Titles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roncevic, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    Although fall has always been "the" season of art books, spring catalogs--which for most art publishers stretch between January and June--are replete with intriguing and, in some cases, even groundbreaking new publications. The quality of the reproductions and scholarship continues to impress, but so does the growing diversity of subjects, as more

  7. Assessment of Campus Climate, Spring 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpp, Edward R.

    In an effort to gauge student perceptions of campus climate, the 1995 Spring Student Survey at Glendale Community College (GCC), in California, included a section requesting student feedback on the college. The section consisted of 14 sets of paired words, such as inexpensive and expensive, and students were requested to indicate the extent that

  8. Persistence-Retention. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This snapshot report provides information on student persistence and retention rates for Spring 2014. Data is presented in tabular format on the following: (1) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Starting Enrollment Intensity (all institutional sectors); (2) First-Year Persistence and Retention Rates by Age at College Entry (all…

  9. Registration of Merem spring malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Merem is a two-rowed spring malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Merem has been tested in USDA-ARS, and all other cooperative trials as 02Ab17271. 02Ab17271 is a selection fro...

  10. Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of

  11. Spring Temperatures Alter Reproductive Development in Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate variation contributes to fluctuations in reproductive output, and spring temperature is thought to influence flower production in grapevines. We studied the influence of temperature near budburst on reproductive development in field-grown Cabernet Sauvignon while minimizing the influence of ...

  12. Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

    2010-01-01

    A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of

  13. The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstetter, Ned

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan examining Rachel Carson's call to arms concerning the harmful consequences of pesticides. Students view a video documentary on Carson's work and read a synopsis of her book, "Silent Spring." Assessment is provided by various activities including writing assignments, creating posters, and editorial cartoons. (MJP)

  14. Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2006-01-01

    This note discusses the boundary in the frequency--amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation. For fixed initial conditions and fixed parameter [epsilon] results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of solutions to the initial value problem as the parameters F and…

  15. Tried and True: Springing into Linear Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In eighth grade, students usually learn about forces in science class and linear relationships in math class, crucial topics that form the foundation for further study in science and engineering. An activity that links these two fundamental concepts involves measuring the distance a spring stretches as a function of how much weight is suspended

  16. Indian Springs School, Big Bend, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Indian Springs School building, which was constructed in three phases beginning in the early 1950's, is heated entirely by electric resistance unitary equipment. In addition, a swimming pool is also heated with an electrical resistance device. The construction is characterized by large glass areas (single glaze) and relatively low insulation levels. Together, these facts result in substantial costs for electrical demand and consumption. Two hot springs are located in the Big Bend area exhibiting temperatures of 136 and 180/sup 0/F. In addition to the springs, the domestic water well at the school produces 72/sup 0/F water. As a result of their high utility costs and the local geothermal manifestations, the feasibility of geothermal use at Indian Springs School was explored. In the course of this study, it was determined that the mechanical systems at the school currently have little control. It is strongly recommended that the school investigate the possibility of having an energy audit performed. This should be done prior to the consideration of any alternative heating system. This study examined primarily a ground water heat pump system for the school, based on the available 72/sup 0/F water at the site.

  17. Proceedings of the geosciences workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

  18. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H{sub 2}S and the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing microbes, preliminary {delta}{sub 34}S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO{sub 2} degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

  19. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide oxidizing microbes, preliminary delta 34S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO2 degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

  20. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.).

    PubMed

    Fouke, B W; Farmer, J D; Des Marais, D J; Pratt, L; Sturchio, N C; Burns, P C; Discipulo, M K

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide oxidizing microbes, preliminary delta 34S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO2 degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry. PMID:11543518

  1. DHS Summary Report -- Robert Weldon

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, Robert A.

    2012-07-31

    This summer I worked on benchmarking the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fission multiplicity capability used in the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX. This work involved running simulations and then comparing the simulation results with experimental experiments. Outlined in this paper is a brief description of the work completed this summer, skills and knowledge gained, and how the internship has impacted my planning for the future. Neutron multiplicity counting is a neutron detection technique that leverages the multiplicity emissions of neutrons from fission to identify various actinides in a lump of material. The identification of individual actinides in lumps of material crossing our boarders, especially U-235 and Pu-239, is a key component for maintaining the safety of the country from nuclear threats. Several multiplicity emission options from spontaneous and induced fission already existed in MCNPX 2.4.0. These options can be accessed through use of the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a physics model for the simulation of neutron and gamma ray emission from fission and photofission that was included in MCNPX 2.7.B as an undocumented feature and then was documented in MCNPX 2.7.C. The LLNL multiplicity capability provided a different means for MCNPX to simulate neutron and gamma-ray distributions for neutron induced, spontaneous and photonuclear fission reactions. The original testing on the model for implementation into MCNPX was conducted by Gregg McKinney and John Hendricks. The model is an encapsulation of measured data of neutron multiplicity distributions from Gwin, Spencer, and Ingle, along with the data from Zucker and Holden. One of the founding principles of MCNPX was that it would have several redundant capabilities, providing the means of testing and including various physics packages. Though several multiplicity sampling methodologies already existed within MCNPX, the LLNL fission multiplicity was included to provide a separate capability for computing multiplicity as well as including several new features not already included in MCNPX. These new features include: (1) prompt gamma emission/multiplicity from neutron-induced fission; (2) neutron multiplicity and gamma emission/multiplicity from photofission; and (3) an option to enforce energy correlation for gamma neutron multiplicity emission. These new capabilities allow correlated signal detection for identifying presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Therefore, these new capabilities help meet the missions of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), which is tasked with developing nuclear detection strategies for identifying potential radiological and nuclear threats, by providing new simulation capability for detection strategies that leverage the new available physics in the LLNL multiplicity capability. Two types of tests were accomplished this summer to test the default LLNL neutron multiplicity capability: neutron-induced fission tests and spontaneous fission tests. Both cases set the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card to 5 (i.e. use LLNL multiplicity). The neutron-induced fission tests utilized a simple 0.001 cm radius sphere where 0.0253 eV neutrons were released at the sphere center. Neutrons were forced to immediately collide in the sphere and release all progeny from the sphere, without further collision, using the LCA card, LCA 7j -2 (therefore density and size of the sphere were irrelevant). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific multiplicity did not exceed 0.36%. Neutron-induced fission multiplicities were computed for U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241. The spontaneous fission tests also used the same spherical geometry, except: (1) the LCA card was removed; (2) the density of the sphere was set to 0.001 g/cm3; and (3) instead of emitting a thermal neutron, the PAR keyword was set to PAR=SF. The purpose of the small density was to ensure that the spontaneous fission neutrons would not further interact and induce fissions (i.e. the mean free path greatly exceeded the size of the sphere). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific spontaneous multiplicity did not exceed 0.23%. Spontaneous fission multiplicities were computed for U-238, Pu-238, Pu-240, Pu-242, Cm-242, and Cm-244. All of the computed results were compared against experimental results compiled by Holden at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  2. Hydrogeochemical inventory and analysis of thermal springs in the Black Canyon-Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, W.A.

    1981-10-01

    An estimated 70 liters/sec. of spring flow discharges from both sides of the Colorado River in Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona. Observed springs issue primarily from the highly faulted and fractured volcanic rocks which are exposed throughout the canyon from Hoover Dam to 7.5 kilometers downstream. Chemical analyses of the spring waters, including stable isotope and tritium results, indicate a variety of possible origins and mixing scenarios. Observed surface temperatures range from 32/sup 0/C to 62/sup 0/C. Dissolved solid values range from 500 mg/l to 3600 mg/l. Tritium concentrations range from 10 T.U. to 116 T.U. While thermodynamic calculations indicate oversaturation of these waters with respect to several silicate and carbonate minerals, the general absence of secondary mineral deposits close to spring orifices suggests a potentially young system.

  3. Hydrologic data for water-table aquifers in the Colorado Springs-Castle Rock area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, E. Carter; Hillier, Donald E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's investigations of the hydrology and geology in the Front Range Urban Corridor of Colorado, hydrologic data for water-table aquifers in the Colorado Springs--Castle Rock area were collected and compiled during 1976-77. These data, consisting of records for 157 wells and 47 springs and chemical analyses of water for 135 of the wells and all 47 springs, are presented in tabular form. The tables contain data that were collected during the investigation , data compiled from reports published by the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and unpublished data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey. State and local officials in the Colorado Springs--Castle Rock area may find these data useful in planning for residential, commercials, and industrial development. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Spring-mediated mandibular distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mofid, Mehrdad M; Inoue, Nozomu; Tufaro, Anthony P; Vander Kolk, Craig A; Manson, Paul N

    2003-09-01

    Successful performance of distraction osteogenesis requires rigorous patient compliance with a daily activation regimen of a percutaneous screw. Previous clinical studies have found that failure of patient compliance with this regimen is the most common complication leading to technical failure of the distraction process. The authors have developed an internalized spring-mediated device for mandibular distraction osteogenesis that can potentially abrogate the risks associated with patient compliance by allowing for automated distraction across an osteotomy. Twenty adult New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral mandibular osteotomy. A segment of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy reinforced at both ends with a pinball was fashioned into an inferiorly based arc and secured to the mandible with stainless steel wire. On postoperative day 12, spring activation commenced by cutting a wire binding the two pinballs to one another. Animals were observed for 6 weeks before they were killed. Radiographic studies and decalcified histologic analysis were performed on extracted mandibles. Temperature- and displacement-dependent properties of the shape memory alloy were also examined. Five animals were excluded from the study due to infection, nonunion, or device failure. A mean distraction of 1.2 mm in the distracted hemimandible relative to the nonoperated hemimandible was found (P <.001, two-tailed paired t test). The maximum distraction achieved in an experimental specimen using the spring distractor was 3.7 mm. There were no other histologic or radiographic differences found between study specimens and specimens subjected to traditional distraction methods. Biomechanical testing of the shape memory alloy revealed a temperature-dependent increase in force at body temperature compared with room temperature and a reduction in force with increased displacement of the spring. This study demonstrates the feasibility of spring-mediated distraction osteogenesis across an osteotomy. As the field of distraction osteogenesis matures, the next level of sophistication in the clinical development of devices will incorporate technology that permits fully internalized and automated distraction to occur. PMID:14501343

  5. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  6. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you ... the cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice ...

  7. Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

    2014-09-01

    Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

  8. Carbamazepine breakthrough as indicator for specific vulnerability of karst springs: application on the Jeita spring, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doummar, J.; Geyer, T.; Noedler, K.; Sauter, M.

    2014-12-01

    The pharmaceutical drug carbamazepine is considered an effective wastewater marker. The varying concentration of this drug was analyzed in a mature karst spring following a precipitation event. The results show that carbamazepine is an indicator of wastewater entering the system through a fast flow pathway, leading to an increase of the drug concentrations in spring water shortly after a strong rainfall event. The analysis of the breakthrough curve of carbamazepine along with the electrical conductivity signal and major ions chemograph allowed the development of a conceptual model for precipitation event-based flow and transport in the investigated karst system. Furthermore the amount of newly recharged water and the mass of carbamazepine reaching the aquifer system during the event could be estimated using a simple mixing approach. The distance between the karst spring and the potential carbamazepine source was estimated by the combination of results from artificial tracer tests and the carbamazepine breakthrough curve. The assessment of spring responses to precipitation event using persistent drugs like carbamazepine helps assess the effect of waste water contamination at a spring and gives therefore insights to the specific vulnerability of a karst spring.

  9. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  11. 1. INDUSTRIAL IRON (WORKING SIDE). Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INDUSTRIAL IRON (WORKING SIDE). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INDUSTRIAL IRON (LAUNDRY AREA IN BACKGROUND). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. 4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. 11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. COOLING TOWER FROM ROOF. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLOWER MOTOR & DRIVE WHEEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  1. 8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. HUBBARD TUB IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. 11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GENERAL VIEW OF MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. 1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BLOWER (EXTERIOR CONFIGURATION). - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  5. 2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  6. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  7. 13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Hale Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. 7. BOILERS (MARINE TYPE). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BOILERS (MARINE TYPE). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  11. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN WOMEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TYPICAL BATH IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. 1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEMPERING COILS IN WIND TUNNEL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. 2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. 2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PADDLE FAN IN PLENUM INTERIOR. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VAPOR STALL IN MEN'S BATH HALL. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 5. DISCONNECTED COMPRESSOR MOTOR. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DISCONNECTED COMPRESSOR MOTOR. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Quapaw Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 3. BLOWER FAN, MOTOR AND DRIVE. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BLOWER FAN, MOTOR AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Buckstaff Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 Mile North of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  19. 5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  20. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR