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1

WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

2

Supporting evaluation for the proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the technical information developed since the interim record of decision (IROD) was issued in September 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] 2000). The information was incorporated into the evaluation that was performed in selecting the preferred alternative for the Chemical Plant groundwater operable unit (GWOU) of the Weldon Spring site. The contaminants of concern (COCs) in groundwater and springs are trichloroethylene (TCE), nitrate, uranium, and nitroaromatic compounds. The preferred alternative of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities is described in the ''Proposed Plan (PP) for Final Remedial Action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri'' (DOE 2003b).

NONE

2003-08-06

3

Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation.

NONE

1999-08-10

4

Proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.  

SciTech Connect

This Proposed Plan (PP) presents the preferred alternative for addressing contaminated groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site, in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located about 30 mi west of St. Louis, in St. Charles County (Figure 1). This proposed action constitutes the final remedial action for the Weldon Spring site. The residual contamination in groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area is the only remaining contamination that needs to be addressed for the site. All other contamination has been addressed by previous remedial actions. After this remedial action is implemented, long-term surveillance and maintenance activities will maintain the effectiveness of all remedial actions conducted at the Weldon Spring site, including this final remedial action for groundwater and springs that is being proposed in this plan. DOE complies with the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in conducting remedial activities at the site. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process; that is, the analysis conducted and presented in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This PP is required under CERCLA to (1) notify the public and present a brief analysis of the remedial action alternatives, (2) identify and present the rationale for the preferred remedial action alternative identified in the PP, (3) summarize key information from the RI/FS evaluations, including the Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), and (4) inform the public of its role in the remedy selection process and give the public the opportunity to participate in the process. Remediation activities at the Weldon Spring site have been coordinated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). The EPA has overall oversight and approval authority, with consultation provided by the MDNR. A range of alternatives was considered in identifying the preferred alternative. The alternatives were developed after careful analysis of geological, environmental, and human health and ecological risk data and an evaluation of the effectiveness, implementability, and cost of the various technologies available for groundwater remediation at the Chemical Plant area. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities has been selected as the preferred alternative.

NONE

2003-08-06

5

Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

Not Available

1990-11-01

6

Baseline assessment for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Weldon Spring site is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site became contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s, and it is listed on ...

1992-01-01

7

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Joya, I.E. (MK-Environmental Services, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-07-01

8

The role of risk assessment in project planning at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the methodology used to prepare a baseline risk evaluation of the bulk wastes at the quarry. The DOE is proposing to remove these bulk wastes and transport them approximately 6.4 km (4 mi) to a temporary storage facility at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site. The DOE has responsibility for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). A baseline risk evaluation is an evaluation of the potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from a site in the absence of site remediation. This evaluation is a key component of the remedial investigation (RI) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List (NPL).

Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.

1989-01-01

9

Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures.

none,

1984-10-01

10

Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from raffinate pits were determined at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site. Surface-water samples from the raffinate pits con- tained large concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, nitrite, lithium, moly- bdenum, strontium, vanadium, and uranium. Analyses of interstitial-water samples from raffinate pit 3 indicated that concentrations of most constituents increased with increasing depth below the water- sediment interface. Nitrate and uranium were not chemically reduced and attenuated within the raffinate pits and can be expected to migrate into the overburden. Laboratory sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH value on the sorption of several raffinate constituents by the overburden. No sorption of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, or lithium was observed. Sorption of molybdenum was dependent on solution pH and sorption of uranium was dependent on solution pH and carbonate concentration. The sorption of uranium and molybdenum was consistent with sorption controlled by oxyhydroxides. The quality of water collected in overburden lysimeters near raffinate pit 4 can be modeled as a mixture of water from raffinate pits 3 and 4, and an uncontaminated com- ponent in a system at equilibrium with ferrihydrite and calcite. Increased constituent concentrations in a perennial spring north of the site were the result of a subsurface connection between the spring and several losing stream segments receiving runoff from the site, in addition to seepage from the raffinate pits.

Schumacher, John G.

1993-01-01

11

Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

NONE

1996-06-01

12

Baseline risk evaluation for exposure to bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and a quarry. This baseline risk evaluation has been prepared to support a proposed response action for management of contaminated bulk wastes in the quarry. The quarry became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of various wastes that were disposed of there between 1942 and 1969. This risk evaluation assesses potential impacts on human health and the environment that may result from exposure to releases of contaminants from the quarry under current site conditions. Risk assessment is a key component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process, as identified in guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); this process addresses sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Response actions at the Weldon Spring quarry are subject to CERCLA requirements because the quarry is listed on the EPA's National Priorities List. The DOE is also responsible for complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, which requires federal agencies to consider the environmental consequences of a proposed action as part of the decision-making process for that action. Although this document has not been prepared to fulfill specific NEPA requirements, the analyses contained herein --- along with the analyses provided in the remedial investigation, feasibility study, and other supporting documents --- are intended to meet the environmental assessment requirements of NEPA.

Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Hlohowskyj, I.

1990-01-01

13

Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

NONE

1995-05-01

14

Shallow groundwater investigations at Weldon Spring, Missouri. Final report for fiscal years 1988-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (MDNR-DGLS) conducted investigations of the upper aquifer in the vicinity of the abandoned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant in southwest St. Charles County, Missouri. The object...

1991-01-01

15

Buildings radiological characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological characterization data on the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) buildings gathered as part of five previous investigations, and provides a consistent will be used to support future feasibility studies which will determine the best available technologies for ultimate disposition of the buildings and associated equipment. At present no structure or piece of equipment can be released from the WSCP for unrestricted use without further radiation measurements being performed. A final group of equipment and building components contains surface radioactivity levels in excess of DOE guidelines; this group, usually found in buildings housing uranium and/or thorium processing equipment, will require decontamination and comprehensive scanning in order to be considered for unrestricted use release. 9 refs., 44 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-01

16

Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

Not Available

1994-05-01

17

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the interceptor trench field study near the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy proposes to construct a groundwater interceptor trench near the Weldon Spring Quarry at the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. The trench would be located near two palustrine wetland areas. Impacts to wetland hydrology and biotic communities are expected to be negligible. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

1999-12-15

18

Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat alternative in Zones 1 and 2 constitute the major component of the overall present-worth cost for Alternative 4, which indicates that the cost for Alternative 7 would be similarly high. Another observation is that although estimated times are shorter for the pump and treat approach than those for MNA, pump and treat for Zones 1 and 2 likely would take several decades (at least 30 years) to attain ARARs or bench marks. The cost estimates (in present-worth costs) for Alternatives 4 and 7 are much higher (approximately an order of magnitude higher) than those for Alternative 3.

NONE

1999-08-06

19

Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the nature and extent of contamination is presented in Section 1.2, and the results of the BRA are summarized in Section 1.3. The objective of this FS is discussed in Section 1.4, and preliminary remediation goals are identified in Section 1.5. The organization of the remaining chapters of this FS is outlined in Section 1.6.

NONE

1999-07-15

20

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

NONE

1996-08-01

21

Multimedia assessment of health risks for the Weldon Spring site remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. The Weldon Spring site became radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1960s. The US Department of the Army used the Weldon Spring site to produce dinitrotoluene (DNT) and trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosives from 1941 to 1946. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC, predecessor of the DOE) used the site to process uranium and thorium ore concentrates from 1957 to 1966. The quarry was used by the Army and the AEC for waste disposal beginning in the early 1940s; it was last used for disposal in 1969. Wastes placed in the quarry include TNT and DNT residues and radioactively contaminated materials. A summary of disposal activities at the quarry is presented. As part of the environmental compliance process at the Weldon Spring site, a baseline risk evaluation (BRE) was prepared to assess the potential risks associated with contamination present at the quarry. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Fingleton, D.J.

1990-01-01

22

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is being conducted as a Major System Acquisition under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. The Weldon Spring site is located near Weldon Spring, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It is surrounded by large tracts of land owned by the federal government and the state of Missouri. The site consists of four raffinate pits, an inactive chemical plant, and a contaminated quarry. The raffinate pits and chemical plant are on adjoining land about 3.2 km (2 mi) southwest of the junction of Missouri (State) Route 94 and US Route 40/61, with access from Route 94. The quarry is located in a comparatively remote area about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area; the quarry can also be accessed from Route 94. These areas are fenced and closed to the public. From 1941 to 1944, the US Department of the Army operated the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works, constructed on the land that is now the Weldon Spring site, for production of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT). The Army used the quarry for disposal of rubble contaminated with TNT. In the mid 1950s, 83 ha (205 acres) of the ordnance works property was transferred to the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC); this is now the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. An additional 6 ha (15 acres) was later transferred to the AEC for expansion of waste storage capacity. 23 refs., 37 figs., 21 tabs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Nowadly, F.K.; Knight, W.C.; Vajda, G.F.

1988-08-01

23

Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

NONE

1999-07-15

24

Radiological survey report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Site (WSS) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facility comprising the Raffinate Pits facility, the Quarry, and potentially contaminated vicinity properties. Radiological characterization of the WSS will be conducted in three phases: the Raffinate Pits facility, Quarry, and the vicinity properties. Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) and its radiological support subcontractor, Eberline Instrument Corporation (EIC), conducted a radiological characterization survey of the Raffinate Pits during 1982 and 1983 in support of on-site construction work and a technical evaluation of site geology. The survey consisted of direct beta-gamma surface readings, near-surface gamma readings, exposure level measurements, and gamma-logs of boreholes. Soil samples were also collected from the surface, shallow boreholes, and trenches on the site. This report describes the radiological characterization of the Raffinate Pits facility, the procedures used to conduct the survey, the survey results, and their significance. 5 references, 9 figures, 8 tables.

Not Available

1984-08-01

25

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

1999-12-15

26

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a

2002-01-01

27

The evolution of risk communication at the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

Clear risk communication is one of the keys to establishing a positive relationship with the public at an environmental restoration site. This effort has been evolving at the Weldon Spring site over the past few years, with considerable input from the local community. The recent signing of the major cleanup decision for this site, which identifies on-site disposal as the remedy reflects the strength of the communication program that has evolved for the project.

McCracken, S. [USDOE Weldon Spring Site, St. Charles, MO (United States); Sizemore, M.; Meyer, L. [MK-Ferguson Co., Weldon Spring, MO (United States)]|[Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Weldon Spring, MO (United States); MacDonell, M.; Haroun, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-11-01

28

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the remediation of Vicinity Property 9 at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to excavate contaminated soil at Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), a 0.64-ha (1.6-acre) parcel near the Weldon Spring Site in Missouri. A palustrine wetland approximately 0.10 ha (0.25 acre) in size within VP9 would be excavated. Site restoration should allow palustrine wetland to become reestablished. No long-term impacts to floodplains are expected.

Lonkhuyzen, R.A. Van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

1995-11-01

29

Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

1990-08-01

30

Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

NONE

1998-03-01

31

Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

NONE

1998-08-01

32

Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01

33

Work plan for the remedial investigation\\/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project is being conducted as a Major System Acquisition under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property

J. M. Peterson; M. M. MacDonell; L. A. Haroun; F. K. Nowadly; W. C. Knight; G. F. Vajda

1988-01-01

34

Analysis of potential groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Results of the analysis of contaminant migration beneath the raffinate pits at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits site indicate that during a 10,000-year time period, the maximum concentrations in the water immediately beneath the pit bottoms would be about 4600 pCi/L of radium-226 (Pit 3) and about 12,000 pCi/L of uranium-238 (Pit 1); these concentrations would occur at the centers of the pit bottoms. Based on the assumptions used in this study, the radioactive contaminants in the pits would migrate no more than 2 m (7 ft) below the pit bottoms. Because 6 to 12 m (20 to 40 ft) of silty clays underlie the raffinate pits, the radioactive contaminants would take several tens of thousands of years to reach nearby groundwater supplies. Although the results of these analyses indicate that a high degree of confinement is provided by the four raffinate pits, it should be noted that the validity of such analyses rests on the quality of the parameter values utilized. Due to a lack of current site-specific data for some physical parameters, it has been necessary to use historical and regional data for these values. The values cited are at times inconsistent and contradictory, e.g., the wide range of values indicated for the permeability of clays underlying the pits. However, these were the only data available. The analysis reported herein indicates that within the limitations of the available data, use of the Raffinate Pits site for long-term management of radioactive materials such as those currently being stored in the four pits appears to be feasible. 24 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

Tsai, S.Y.; Peterson, J.M.; Winters, M.C.B.

1984-08-01

35

Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site management activities necessary to ensure that the Weldon Spring Site remains protective over the long-term. The LTS and M Plan is revised periodically to ensure its applicability to changing site, regulatory, or procedural conditions. In addition to addressing such activities as long-term groundwater monitoring and disposal cell maintenance, the LTS and M Plan was developed and issued to ensure that the use restrictions identified in the ESD were properly imposed and maintained. The LTS and M Plan included a detailed IC Implementation Plan, which includes a process for evaluating and identifying specific IC mechanisms that best accomplish the objectives set out in the ESD. Consistent with EPA guidance on selecting ICs, various IC mechanisms were evaluated, including government controls, proprietary controls, enforcement tools, and informational devices. Where appropriate, redundant mechanisms were employed to increase the effectiveness of the ICs. Information in the IC Implementation Plan includes: (1) a discussion of current site conditions (reflecting post-remedial action conditions for the Chemical Plant and Quarry Areas and the risk-basis for why use restrictions are needed); (2) the objectives of, or performance expectations for, the use restrictions; (3) specific ICs already in place and additional mechanisms identified for implementation; (4) a schedule for implementing additional ICs; (5) procedures for maintaining the ICs and for conducting periodic inspections; and (6) general provisions for the implementing ICs for the site. The actual agreements and documentation of the various ICs are included in an appendix of the LTS and M Plan. These documents are also available via the internet from the authorizing agencies (County, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, EPA, etc.) The Weldon Spring Site personnel have been successful in finalizing each of the ICs that were established for the site. The planning, establishment, and implementation of the ICs was a long and detailed process with several lessons-learned that were identified along the way. (authors)

Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy [Stoller LMS Team (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team (United States); Starr, Ken [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)] [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)

2013-07-01

36

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

37

Comparison of surface meteorological data representativeness for the Weldon Spring transport and dispersion modeling analysis  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is conducting the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project under the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of the SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment that associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus property available for other uses to the extent possible. This report presents the results of analysis of available meteorological data from stations near the Weldon Spring site. Data that are most representative of site conditions are needed to accurately model the transport and dispersion of air pollutants associated with remedial activities. Such modeling will assist the development of mitigative measures. 17 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Lazaro, M.

1989-06-01

38

Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

NONE

1997-07-23

39

Expediting cleanup at the Weldon Spring site under CERCLA and NEPA  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action project is being conducted under the Surplus Facilities Management Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The DOE has developed an environmental compliance strategy for this project to meet the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). A key element of this strategy was the development of an integrated CERCLA/NEPA process to minimize, to the extent possible, the need to prepare duplicate documentation. Additionally, the project is implementing various expedited response actions to mitigate actual or potential uncontrolled releases if radioactively or chemically hazardous substances to the environment and to minimize potential health and safety risks to on-site personnel and local human and biotic populations. These actions are being conducted concurrently with the preparation of major environmental compliance documentation. The initiation of site cleanup via these response actions has fostered a very positive relationship with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region VII, the state of Missouri, and the affected public. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; McCracken, S.H.

1989-01-01

40

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-02-01

41

Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

1988-12-01

42

Weldon Spring, Missouri: Annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1987  

SciTech Connect

Radiological monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured uranium, Radium-226, and Thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; all long-lived natural series isotopes in air particulates; and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public were calculated based on assumed exposure periods and the above measurements. Radon concentrations, external gamma exposure rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water at the site were generally equivalent to previous years' levels. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSRP and WSCP area was 1 mrem, or 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSQ was 14 mrem, or about 14 percent of the standard. Thus the WSS currently complies with DOE Off-site Dose Standards. Chemical contamination monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured nitroaromatics, total organic carbon and the inorganic anions chloride, nitrate, fluoride and sulfate in surface water, groundwater and sediment. 22 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

43

Critical (public) masses: a case study of a radioactive waste site. [Weldon Springs  

SciTech Connect

Increasing public sensitivity to radioactive and other hazardous waste issues often results in opposition that ranges from presentations by individuals at various public meetings to organizations initiating legal action in the courts. Organized opposition to proposed plans by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a Surplus Facilities Management Program site near Weldon Spring, Missouri, has emerged during the two years that DOE has been involved in developing plans for this waste management site. An important aspect in the development of the major interest group in this case was the reliance on extra-local expertise at both the state and national levels. The group received organizational strategies, information on radioactive waste, legal advice, and direction from state and local environmental interest groups and various state agencies. In this paper, we present the historical development of organized public response and agency response to DOE's plans for the Weldon Spring site. The role of the interest group has emerged as one of a watchdog, scrutinizing and evaluating data, publications, and plans. Other organizations now rely on the group as a clearinghouse for information. This case is of particular importance to other waste management projects because it demonstrates the effective use of networking between various interest groups and agencies from the local to the national level. We believe that the emergence of such groups and their ties with a variety of extra-local organizations will be the rule rather than the exception in future waste projects. Agency personnel and project sponsors will find that an interactive, cooperative approach with such groups is an effective way to resolve waste issues.

Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

1985-01-01

44

Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

1997-12-31

45

Community Involvement as an Effective Institutional Control at the Weldon Spring Site, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) was conducted for the purpose of remediating a portion of a former trinitrotoluene and dinitrotoluene production plant that was operational from 1941 to 1945 and a former uranium refinery that was operational from 1957 to 1966. Surface remediation activities concluded in 2001 with the completion of a

Y. E. Deyo; T. Pauling

2006-01-01

46

Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St. Charles County, Missouri - A progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycles scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of

M. J. Kleeschulte; L. F. Emmett

1986-01-01

47

Chemical analyses of selected thermal springs and wells in Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Basic chemical data for 27 selected thermal well and springs in Wyoming are presented. The samples were gathered from 1979 through 1982 in an effort to define geothermal resources in Wyoming. The basic data for the 27 analyzed samples generally include location, temperature, flow, date analyzed, and a description of what the sample is from. The chemical analyses for the sample are listed.

Heasler, H.P.

1984-06-01

48

Chemical similarities among physically distinct spring types in a karst terrain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In karst regions where correlations between physical characteristics of springs and temporal variations in spring water chemistry have been found, spring water chemistry has been used to infer physical attributes of karst systems. Possible correlations between chemical and physical characteristics of springs were tested in the Inner Bluegrass Karst Region of central Kentucky where previous dye-tracing studies have identified two physically distinct spring types: local high-level springs discharging from shallow flow paths and major low-level springs discharging from a deep integrated conduit system. Representative high-level and major springs were sampled over a 16-month period and analyzed for major dissolved components. Both spring types showed similar variations in temperature, calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and hardness. No systematic differences in ionic concentrations or in saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite were apparent between the two spring types. Chemical similarities between high-level and major springs during low flow are attributed to recharge of major springs by percolation and by high-level springs and to the occurrence of most chemical reactions near the recharge zone rather than in the deep conduit system. During high discharge, however, most recharge to the major springs is surface runoff which produces low ionic concentrations. Similarly low ionic concentrations in the high-level springs are thought to result from rapid flow through the soil-rock zone and short flow distances. These relationships indicate that spring water chemistry is not only a function of conduit size but also an indicator of recharge type and amount and flow path length. Differing flow path lengths to major and high-level springs counteract the effect of varying conduit size between the two spring types and result in similar ionic concentrations. These data indicate that spring water chemistry cannot be used to predict physical characteristics of karst aquifers in the Inner Bluegrass Region. The physical and chemical attributes of springs in the Inner Bluegrass were compared to those of springs in the Nittany Valley of Pennsylvania. A reported high correlation between physical and chemical characteristics of springs in the Pennsylvania karst system reflects geological and structural controls not present in the Inner Bluegrass Region.

Scanlon, B. R.; Thrailkill, J.

1987-01-01

49

Chemical evolution of shallow groundwater as recorded by springs, Sagehen basin; Nevada County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springs in Sagehen basin, California, were used to document the effect of chemical weathering on the chemical evolution and composition of groundwater in a high elevation catchment. Geochemical tracer ages were determined with chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and tritium\\/3He dating techniques. The spring water ages range from less than 5 years to almost 40 years. Mass balance calculations performed by NETPATH were

Laura K. Rademacher; Jordan F. Clark; G. Bryant Hudson; Don C. Erman; Nancy A. Erman

2001-01-01

50

Physical and chemical analysis of Onyang hot spring in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onyang hot spring has a long history back in the time of Baekje Kingdom. It has currently 38 wells active for hot spring. Geologically, it consists of Precambrian banded gneiss, Jurassic porphyritic granite, biotite granite etc., Cretaceous microgranite, dike. Fault zones exist in the ESE-WNW around Onyang hot spring. Locations of the wells indicates that the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution may exist, while geochemistry is determined by rocks. Geochemically, Onyang hot spring is primarily the type of Na-HCO3. Sometimes, with sufficient Ca it evolved to the types of Ca-HCO3, Na(Ca)-HCO3, and. Na-HCO3. Water temperature is measured in the range of 45.87 - 52.92. The highest temperature range of 48.2 - 60 was observed during the pumping test. Based on the data from 2007 to 2011, the average of water production rate is 2,600 m3/d with significant seasonal fluctuation. It seems it was a natural spring 100 years ago. Due to excess pumping, the water depth has dropped more than 100 meter. It shows clear correlation with water usage. Key words: Onyang hot spring, Natural spring, Quantity, Water depth

Lee, Cholwoo; Park, Chan-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Chan

2014-05-01

51

Chemical analyses of thermal and nonthermal springs in Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most thermal waters issuing in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are acidic (pH =3.5), low-Cl (concentrations =30 mg/L) hot springs which are characteristic of vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems and, as such, are not useful for liquid chemical geothermometry. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley, hot spring localities characterized by neutral pH and low Cl containing water, may have equilibrated in shallow aquifers so that temperatures estimated by both the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers approach the measured spring temperatures of 65? to 95?C. Waters rich in chloride (>2000 mg/L), such as those at Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs, situated south of LVNP, are the most appropriate springs for liquid chemical geothermometry and indicate subsurface temperatures between 220? and 230?C. The chemical and thermal characteristics of these springs may result either from boiling at depth and subsequent mixing with meteoric water or from conductive cooling during lateral flow. In either case ~220? to 230?C thermal water probably originates inside LVNP and flows south to Morgan Hot Springs.

Thompson, J. M.

1983-01-01

52

Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1981-01-01

53

WELDON SPRING SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

SciTech Connect

This annual report presents a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. This report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment.

WASHINGTON GROUP INTERNATIONAL AND JACOBS ENGINEERING GROUP

2003-05-01

54

Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 °C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63°C in 1889 to 48°C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77°C in 1995 and neared boiling (98°C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3°C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition of steam discharges from the Southeast Geysers. The hot spring waters are low in ions of Cl, B, and Li, but relatively high in HCO3, SO4 and NH4. The stable-isotope compositions (deuterium and oxygen-18) of these waters plot near the global meteoric water line. Geochemical data through time reveal apparent maxima in the concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Mn in 1991 to 1992, before the cluster became hotter. The black-to-gray deposits from the new spring cluster are rich in pyrite and contain anomalous metals. About one-half mile to the east of the hot springs, mineralized water discharges intermittently from an old adit of the Schwartz (Anderson) mine, and enters a tributary of Anderson Creek. This drainage increased substantially in July 1998, and a slurry of mine water and precipitates were transported down the tributary and into Anderson Creek. In December 1998, the adit water was 22°C, and had a chemical composition that was similar to spring waters that once discharged in the ravines surrounding the old Anderson Springs resort. The cause for the abrupt changes that have occurred in thermal features at Anderson Springs is still not resolved. One possibility is that these changes are a response to withdrawal of steam from The Geysers geothermal field over more than 20 years of production. Pressure declines in the geothermal reservoir may have caused a "drying out" of the overlying condensation zone. Induced boiling in this zone and upflow of deep steam to shallower depths would cause heating and vaporization of shallow ground waters. In addition, earthquakes occurring in the vicinity of Anderson Springs have increased significantly after nearby geothermal power plants began operation. These earthquakes may have enhanced surface discharge of thermal fluids along fractures and faults.

Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

2000-01-01

55

Watercress and amphipods Potential chemical defense in a spring stream macrophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the potential role of defensive chemicals in the avoidance of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) by the cooccurring amphipod,Gammarus pseudolimnaeus at two spring brooks: Carp Creek, Michigan and Squabble Brook, Connecticut. We conducted observations and laboratory experiments on the consumption of watercress, the toxicity of damaged (frozen) watercress, and the toxicity of damage-released secondary chemicals. Field-collected yellowed watercress typically lacked

Raymond M. Newman; W. Charles Kerfoot; Zac Hanscom

1990-01-01

56

Chemical composition and radioactivity in hokutolite (plumbian barite) collected at Peito hot spring, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition and radionuclide concentrations were determined for hokutolite, plumbian barite, collected at Peito hot spring, Taiwan. The hokutolite, precipitated on the surface of the base rock, was scraped into 20 layers from the surface. Barium and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and 228Ra, 226Ra and 210Pb were determined by ?-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the 228Ra226Ra

Noriyuki Momoshima; Junichi Nita; Yonezo Maeda; Sinji Sugihara; Isamu Shinno; Nobuaki Matsuoka; Chin-Wang Huang

1997-01-01

57

Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

1980-01-01

58

Stable isotope and chemical investigation of CO2-rich springs in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Carpathian Mts. (Romania) have the highest concentration of CO2-rich cold springs in Europe, related mostly to post volcanic CO2 degassing along both point sources, and through several deep faults. To investigate the source and circulation of waters in the region, we have analyzed the chemical and stable isotopic composition of surface and ground waters in the area. Chemically, the ground waters are rich in Li, Ca, Na, Mg and sulfates, as a result of long flow paths through alkali-mafic magmatic rocks. Stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in cold springs show variations that generally follow those in surface waters and precipitation, while thermal springs seem to be disconnected from the seasonal variability. A slight shift towards lighter ?18O is noticeable, indicating mixing with CO2 from deeper sources. Both chemical and stable isotope data seem to indicate a meteoric origin of the waters; however, in some cases, its underground residence time is long enough to mask this surface origin, pointing towards a deep circulation along faults, resulting in equilibration with CO2 possibly originating from local magma reservoirs.

Per?oiu, Aurel; Fekete, Sándor

2013-04-01

59

Seasonal variation in nature and chemical compositions of spring water in Cuihua Mountain, Shaanxi Province, central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two springs (Cuihua Spring, Shuiqiuchi Spring) in Cuihua Mountain of the Qinling Mountains were observed and sampled monthly during 2004 and 2005 to trace their physical properties and chemical compositions with seasons. Although both pH values and cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+) contents of Cuihua Spring are higher than those of Shuiqiuchi Spring, seasonal variations in both springs are obvious. The pH values of both spring waters are between 5.69 and 6.98, lower than that of rainwater during summer and autumn. From January to November, the pH values of both springs similarly vary from high to low and then to high again. Variations in electric conductivities of two spring waters are contrary, although their electric conductivities are positively correlative with the cation content respectively. This can be attributed to different water sources of the two springs or different acidic rocks they passed. The contents of HCO3 -, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ are low, indicating a low silicate weathering that the strata in this district are mainly composed of granite and schist of quartz and mica. Differing from change in spring water in karst regions of South China where abundant precipitation and dilution of rainwater cause low pH and electric conductivity in summer and autumn, the seasonal variations in the pH values and the electric conductivities of two springs in Qinling Mountains are attributed to seasonal changes in CO2 produced by microorganisms’ activity in soil within respective year, rather than rainfall. The microorganisms’ activity in soil produces more CO2 during summer and autumn. Therefore, the water nature of springs in silicate regions chiefly reflects the seasonal changes of CO2 produced by the microorganisms in soil.

Zhao, Jingbo; Wang, Changyan; Jin, Zhangdong; Sun, Guizhen; Xiao, Jun

2009-06-01

60

Chemical composition and its origin in spring rainwater over Taihu Lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical compositions of rainwater collected in three stations in Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, China between March and May 2003 were analyzed through numerical simulations and field observation data. In terms of average ion deposition rate in spring at the air/water interface, of all anions, that of SO{4/2-} was the largest followed by NO{3/-}, whereas among all cations, Ca2+ concentration and the rate was the largest, and then NH{4/+} was the next. The correlation of ion concentration indicated that the catchment of the lake has been artificially polluted considerably. Using backward trajectory analysis, the raining water in the stations in Taihu Lake was classified. In spring, marine-originated rain is the main contribution to this area, counting for 92.7% of the total precipitation, in which SO{4/2-}, NO{3/-} and NH{4/-} contributed 89.2%, 88.1%, and 88.3% respectively to the total spring-rain chemicals, whereas land-originated rains contributed in a small amount. However, the ion concentration in the land-originated rain was higher and acidic, causing considerable harm to local ecosystem. The analysis of backward trajectory analysis shows that three types of air masses influenced the chemical composition of the lake water, namely, air mass from NE direction, air mass from SW direction, and local air mass. Although the local air masses often produced small rainfall amount, but the nature of high ion concentration and high acidity impacted the local ecosystem rmmarkably. The ion concentration and rainfall from long-distance boreal air mass are clearly greater than those in austral air.

Wang, Xuemei; Yang, Longyuan; Qin, Boqiang; Ji, Lingling

2006-12-01

61

Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During August–October 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

Janik, C. J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M. L.; Rytuba, J. J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E. M.; Huebner, M.; White, L. D.; Foster, A.

1999-01-01

62

Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-01-01

63

Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise Area, southwesten Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers ' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. (USGS)

Young, H. W.; Parliman, D. J.; Mariner, R. H.

1988-01-01

64

Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska. [Subsurface temperature of 100°C to 160°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. Preliminary chemical and isotopic analyses suggest

T. P. Miller; I. Barnes; W. W. Jr. Patton

1973-01-01

65

Chemical reactivity of microbe and mineral surfaces in hydrous ferric oxide depositing hydrothermal springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, USA, provide concentrated microbial biomass and associated mineral crusts from which surface functional group (FG) concentrations and pK a distributions can be determined. To evaluate the importance of substratum surface reactivity for solute adsorption in a natural setting, samples of iron-rich sediment were collected from three different springs; two of the springs were

S. V. LALONDE; L. AMSKOLD; T. R. MCDERMOTT; W. P. INSKEEP; K. O. KONHAUSER

2007-01-01

66

Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of

Jeffrey M. Dick; Everett L. Shock

2011-01-01

67

Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

Mariner, R. H.; Young, H. W.; Evans, W. C.

1994-01-01

68

Chemical and Isotopic Data for Water from Thermal Springs and Wells of Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO sub 3 waters to moderately saline CO sub 2 -charged NaCl-NaHCO sub 3 waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Or...

R. H. Mariner J. R. Swanson G. J. Orris T. S. Presser W. C. Evans

1981-01-01

69

The distribution of cyanobacteria across physical and chemical gradients in hot springs in northern Thailand.  

PubMed

We mapped the distribution of mat forming cyanobacteria along the thermal gradient from 30 to 80 degrees C, in nine hot spring districts in northern Thailand. Nineteen genera and 36 species were identified by morphometric analysis. Water temperature was the predominant determinant of community structure in the springs. The diversity of cyanobacterial morphotypes fell as temperature increased. Water chemistry (pH, alkalinity and ammonia concentration) was a much weaker descriptor of the floral similarity between the springs. The morphotypes which dominated all springs were Synechococcus lividus and Synechococcus sp. (>40 and <80 degrees C) and Phormidium boryanum (>30 and <60 degrees C). The occurrence of Synechococcus lividus and Synechococcus sp. in every spring at 70 degrees C or more, implied there was no regional barrier to the distribution of these highly thermophilic taxa. Conversely, there were regional differences in the diversity of mat communities growing below 60 degrees C. The most depauperate flora were in the northernmost springs (SKP, TPN, PD, JS) and the springs further south around Chiang Mai had more diverse flora, suggestive of barriers to the dispersal of some taxa. More discriminating analyses using molecular tools will be required to determine whether the ubiquitous distribution Synechoccoccus morphotypes above 60 degrees C masks a genotypic diversity, comparable to the morphotype diversity observed below 60 degrees C. PMID:16329921

Sompong, Udomluk; Hawkins, Peter R; Besley, Colin; Peerapornpisal, Yuwadee

2005-05-01

70

Chemical composition of aquatic dissolved organic matter in five boreal forest catchments sampled in spring and fall seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments\\u000a in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The\\u000a DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS 13C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes

Marc Schumacher; Iso Christl; Rolf D. Vogt; Kurt Barmettler; Chris Jacobsen; Ruben Kretzschmar

2006-01-01

71

Chemical characteristics of precipitation at Nanping Mangdang Mountain in eastern China during spring.  

PubMed

To study the characteristics of precipitation in eastern China, an automatic sampler was used to collect rainwater samples from 19 precipitation events at Mangdang Mountain, Nanping City, Fujiang Province, in the spring of 2009. We used ion chromatography to analyze the ionic components and concentrations, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to analyze element compositions and contents. The results demonstrated remarkable acidic characteristics: in more than 80% of precipitation events the pH was less than 5.6, with an average of 4.81. Mass concentration results showed SO4(2-) was the main anionic component (36.2% of the total anion mass), while NH4+ was the main cationic component (47.7% of the total cation mass) and main ion for acidity neutralization in the rainwater. Organic acid content accounted for 30.9% of total anion mass. The main trace metals were Ca, K, and Na. The SO4(2-)/NO3- ratio was 1.4, indicating that precipitation in this region was influenced by complex air pollution - the product of individual coal-burning combined with vehicle exhaust pollution. Correlation analysis of the chemical composition of the precipitation indicated that acidity in this region was determined by a combination of all acidic and neutralization ions rather than any single ion component. The results also showed that Na+ and Cl- contributions were mainly by seawater; Mg2+ by seawater and crustal materials; the NH4+, K+, Ca2+, NO3- and SO42- by anthropogenic sources; the trace metals were from the Earth's crust; and organic acids were potentially from combustion of biomass. PMID:22128543

Cheng, Yanli; Liu, Ying; Huo, Mingqun; Sun, Qian; Wang, Huixiang; Chen, Zhongming; Bai, Yuhua

2011-01-01

72

Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea  

PubMed Central

Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea?Dead Sea water conduit.

Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Hausler, Stefan; Bizic-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jorg; Glockner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rodiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stark, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

2012-01-01

73

Asian chemical outflow to the Pacific in spring: Origins, pathways, and budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx ) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-d imensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Explor atory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA G oddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It

Isabelle Bey; Daniel J. Jacob; Jennifer. A. Logan; Robert M. Yantosca

2001-01-01

74

Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

Gay, Hannah

2012-07-01

75

Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

2006-01-01

76

Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile components such as boron and ammonia. ?? 1971.

Fournier, R. O.; Truesdell, A. H.

1970-01-01

77

Optical and chemical properties of aerosols transported to Mount Bachelor during spring 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on springtime 2010 observations of aerosol optical properties and size-resolved elemental composition from Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO; 2763 meters above sea level). Observations included multiwavelength aerosol scattering and absorption, made with a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer, and size-resolved composition, made using a rotating DRUM impactor with substrates analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Our main tool for investigating variability in composition was empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. In April, dust and sulfate explained 96% of the variance in the observed fine composition and accounted for the majority of the fine mode scattering. Three coincident Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation overpasses also identified aerosol layers classified as dust or polluted dust over MBO. Later in the spring, we deduce that organics and nitrate comprised more than 50% of the submicrometer aerosol mass. We used the EOF analysis to identify systematic relationships between composition and optical properties. We observed dust accompanied by anthropogenic pollutants including sulfate. When present, dust aerosol controlled ˜30% of the variability in the wavelength dependence of fine mode scattering. Many of the samples containing sulfate had absorption Ångstrom exponents near 1, suggesting black carbon was also present. Most of the sulfate was in the fine mode, but sulfate was also observed on coarse aerosols, and we inferred that much of the coarse sulfur was coated on the dust or had formed CaSO4 during transport. The relationships between Fe, Ca, Al, and Si observed at MBO were consistent with previous observations of Asian dust transported to North America.

Fischer, E. V.; Perry, K. D.; Jaffe, D. A.

2011-09-01

78

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures

Brian G. Katz; Dale W. Griffin

2008-01-01

79

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Katz, B. G.; Griffin, D. W.

2008-01-01

80

Chemical composition of the snowpack during the OASIS spring campaign 2009 at Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of the seasonal snowpack was determined close to Barrow, an Arctic coastal location in northern Alaska. One hundred and twelve samples of different snow types including fresh snow, surface hoar, diamond dust, blowing snow, rounded snow grains, and depth hoar were collected and analyzed for major sea salt components, bromide, and nitrate. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and potassium are mainly introduced into the snowpack by the deposition of sea salt, while magnesium and calcium result from a combination of sea salt and dust. Sulfate was strongly depleted in most samples compared to other sea salt components. This is attributed to the precipitation of mirabilite in newly formed sea ice and frost flowers that leads to an efficient fractionation of sulfate. Uptake of volatile but soluble species from the gas phase also contributed to the observed chloride, sulfate, and nitrate in the snow. However, for chloride and sulfate the input from the marine sources was overwhelming and the uptake from the gas phase was only visible in the samples with low concentrations like fresh snow, diamond dust, and surface hoar. Nitrate concentrations in the snowpack were less variable and for aged snow nitrate was related to the specific surface area of the snow indicating the adsorption of nitric acid can be an important nitrate source in the aged snow. Bromide was also introduced into the snowpack from marine sources, but due to its high reactivity it was partly transferred back to the atmosphere in the form of reactive species. The result of these processes was evident in bromide concentrations, which were both enriched and depleted at the snowpack surface while deeper layers were mostly depleted. Blowing snow also exhibited a depleted bromide composition. For all compounds except nitrate, many depth hoar samples exhibited the greatest concentrations, probably as a result of higher input earlier in the season as well as increases due to the sublimation of water during the metamorphism of the snow.

Jacobi, H. W.; Voisin, D.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Cozic, J.; Douglas, T. A.

2012-07-01

81

Recharge processes in karstic systems investigated through the correlation of chemical and isotopic composition of rain and spring-waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four karstic springs in southern France, along with rainwater in the same area, were monitored during two hydrological cycles. Stable isotopic ratios (?18O and ?D) allow the contribution of the rain waters from the previous periods (discretised as winter or summer period) to the spring water to be estimated. These computations indicate that heavy rainfall events during the autumn season

L. Aquilina; B. Ladouche; N. Dörfliger

2005-01-01

82

Chemical evolution of thermal springs at Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica: Effect of volcanic activity, precipitation, seismic activity, and Earth tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arenal Volcano in NW Costa Rica, Central America has been active during the last 37 years. However, only relatively low temperature springs have been identified on its slopes with temperatures less than around 60 °C. The springs are clustered on the NE and NW slopes of the volcano, close to contacts between the recent and older volcanic products or at faults

D. L. López; J. Bundschuh; G. J. Soto; J. F. Fernández; G. E. Alvarado

2006-01-01

83

Kamchatka's thermal hot springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kamchatka Peninsula is featured in this website including information on geography, climate, fauna, flora, volcanoes, thermal springs, Valley of Geysers, native people, and options for travel in Kamchatka. This specific page highlights a selection of Kamchatka's hot springs, presenting basic information on temperature ranges, chemical and physical characteristics, surrounding vegetation, and general location.

Kamchatka, Vision O.

84

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical\\u000a compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application\\u000a of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures

Brian G. Katz; Dale W. Griffin

2008-01-01

85

Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank.

Katz, B. G.; Griffin, D. W.; Davis, J. H.

2009-01-01

86

Note on the effects of winter and spring waterlogging on growth, chemical composition and yield of rapeseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regions where climatic conditions are adequate for rapeseed production soils may suffer waterlogging of varying duration. A pot trial was conducted to determine the effects of waterlogging on the growth, nutrient absorption and yield of rapeseed. As the effect of anoxia is known to depend on temperature the study was carried with winter or spring floods of 3, 7

Flavio H. Gutierrez Boem; Raúl S. Lavado; Claudia A. Porcelli

1996-01-01

87

U.S. Congressmen from Florida Tom Feeney and Dave Weldon at the STS-113 launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - U.S. Congressmen from Florida Tom Feeney (left) and Dave Weldon wait in the VIP viewing site for the STS-113 launch. The launch will carry the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return the Expedition 5 crew to Earth. The major objective of the mission is delivery of the Port 1 (P1) Integrated Truss Assembly, which will be attached to the port side of the S0 truss. Three spacewalks are planned to install and activate the truss and its associated equipment. Launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-113 is now scheduled for Nov. 23 at 7:50 p.m. EST.

2002-01-01

88

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

1997-06-01

89

Mercury in the Arctic spring: a tracer for physical and chemical processes linking the atmosphere to the land and sea (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic mercury story is an intriguing one: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is oxidized to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during early spring atmospheric mercury deposition events. The RGM produced is readily deposited to snow and ice surfaces. Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) are associated with mercury concentrations in surface snow and sea ice that are routinely above 100 ng/L. The GEM to RGM oxidation is driven by sunlight, halogen oxide radicals and the presence of snow and ice crystal surfaces. The most likely source of halogens (and the halogen oxides) is likely newly formed sea ice or the open water on which sea ice grows. The complex relationships between sea ice, leads, open sea water and the lower atmosphere is not well understood. However, mercury is a tracer linking atmospheric chemical and physical processes, sea ice conditions, the snow pack, and arctic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and RGM likely drive the scavenging and deposition of RGM to the snow pack. This yields insight into how mercury (and potentially other contaminants and chemical compounds) are adsorbed onto or otherwise associated with snow and ice crystals. Some of the RGM deposited to the snow pack is subsequently reduced to GEM that evades from the snow pack. This is evident during the onset of spring snow melt when GEM values increase well above ambient background values of 1.6 ng per cubic meter. However, some of the deposited RGM remains in the snow pack and becomes part of the spring melt runoff event. We have been measuring mercury in the atmosphere, in snow, in snow melt runoff and in soils near Barrow, Alaska for the past 5 years. During the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snow (OASIS) campaign in the spring of 2009 we collected snow, frost flowers and brine on the sea ice. Our results show that mercury is readily scavenged by frost flowers and snow on the sea ice. We also collected snow and melt during the 2008 and 2009 spring runoff events at a microwatershed 5 km inland from Barrow. An “ionic pulse” is evident in our samples whereby snow melt concentrations of mercury and major elements greatly exceed bulk snow pack concentrations. For example, the primary melt water pooling at the base of the snow pack had three times the bulk snow mercury concentration and five to ten times the bulk snow pack major element concentrations. Our results suggest there is a pulse of mercury and major elements from the snow pack during the initial stages of melt. This result points back to the interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and atmospheric chemical compounds. It also places the mercury deposition in Polar Regions within the context of a changing climate where sea ice extent is expected to continue to decrease and the timing of spring melt is migrating forward.

Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.; Steffen, A.

2009-12-01

90

Changes in the community structure of microbial mats along chemical and temperature gradients in a Yellowstone hot spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental factors that influence the structure of microbial communities, such as pH or temperature, often occur over spatial gradients in nature; however, microbial community shifts along such gradients are not well understood. Imperial Geyser (IM) is a silica-rich hydrothermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA, which contains laminated microbial mats, up to 12 cm thick, that extend from the source spring down a hundred meter outflow channel. The microbial mats within the channel provide an opportunity to assess how community composition of microbial mats changes along gradients of temperature, stream chemistry, light and pH. In this study, microbial communities from each distinct layer of the mat at five sites along the outflow channel were analyzed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA gene tags amplified using barcoded PCR primers. The microbial mats were dominated by Chloroflexi (17%), Cyanobacteria (17%), Proteobacteria (13%), Bacteroidetes (8%) and Acidobacteria (7%). Deeper layers of the mat (below 8 cm) predominantly contained sequences related to uncultivated, deeply-branching crenarchaeal lineages (up to 30% of sequences). Aquaficales were dominant in the spring water, but rare in the mats. While the water samples clustered separately from the mats, communities within the mats clustered neither by site nor by layer. Community structure was not influenced by pH or temperature as was anticipated.. The abundance of photosynthetic taxa decreased in the lower layers at all sites, likely driven by decreasing light intensity away from the surface. Microbial diversity also decreased in the lower layers at all sites. The results of this study provide new insights into a previously uncharted ecosystem and demonstrate that multiple factors may drive bacterial community structure in thermal environments.

Walsh, E. A.; Eilers, K. G.; Ulrich, S. M.; Wenk, C.; MacKenzie, L. A.; Dawson, S.; Spear, J. R.; de la Torre, J. R.; 2010 Usc International Geobiology Course

2010-12-01

91

Spring Tire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

2011-01-01

92

Hydrologic and chemical data for wells, springs, and streams in Nevada, TPS. 1-21 N., and Rs. 41-57 E  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of published and unpublished geologic, hydrologic, and chemical-quality data for ground and surface water in central Nevada, Tps. 1 to 21 N. and Rs. 41 to 57 E., Mount Diablo base and meridian, reveal the following information: Rocks exposed in central Nevada are of sedimentary and igneous origin and range in age from Cambrian to Recent. Rocks of Paleozoic age generally are carbonate or clastic, and rocks of Mesozoic age generally are clastic and granitic. Rocks of Tertiary age principally are volcanic, and the valley fill of Quaternary age is alluvial-fan and lake deposits. The rocks are folded, faulted, and highly fractured. Precipitation is closely related to altitude. In general, as the altitude increases the precipitation increases. Most of the streamflow in the valleys originates as snow in the nearby mountains. The streams generally flow only in response to snowmelt and to flash-flood-producing storms. Important chemical quality characteristics of the ground and surface water in central Nevada are hardness, expressed as CaCO3, generally in excess of 120 ppm, and a dissolved-solids content of less than 500 ppm. The principal chemical types of both ground and surface waters are sodium and calcium bicarbonates. The major uses of ground water in central Nevada are for irrigation and stock. Frequency of use of wells in decreasing order is: irrigation, stock, domestic, industrial, municipal, and observation. Of the 606 wells tabulated, 29 have multiple uses. Frequency of use of spring water in decreasing order is: stock, irrigation, domestic, and public facilities. Of the 135 springs tabulated, 5 have multiple uses.

Robinson, B. P.; Thordarson, William; Beetam, W. A.

1967-01-01

93

Correction to "Asian chemical Outflow to the Pacific in Spring: Origins, Pathways, and Budgets" by Isabelle Bey et al.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyze the Asian outflow of CO, ozone, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the Pacific in spring by using the GEOS-CHEM global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and simulating the Pacific Exploratory Mission-West (PEM-West B) aircraft mission in February-March 1994. The GEOS-CHEM model uses assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS). It reproduces relatively well the main features of tropospheric ozone, CO, and reactive nitrogen species observed in PEM-West B, including latitudinal and vertical gradients of the Asian pollution outflow over the western Pacific although simulated concentrations of CO tend to be too low (possibly because biogenic sources are underestimated). We use CO as a long-lived tracer to diagnose the processes contributing to the outflow. The highest concentrations in the outflow are in the boundary layer (0-2 km), but the strongest outflow fluxes are in the lower free troposphere (2-5 km) and reflect episodic lifting of pollution over central and eastern China ahead of eastward moving cold fronts. This frontal lifting, followed by westerly transport in the lower free troposphere, is the principal process responsible for export of both anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution from Asia. Anthropogenic emissions from Europe and biomass burning emissions from Africa make also major contributions to the Asian outflow over the western Pacific; European sources dominate in the lower troposphere north of 40 degrees N, while African sources are important in the upper troposphere at low latitudes. For the period of PEM-West B (February-March) we estimate that fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning make comparable contributions to the budgets of CO, ozone, and NO, in the Asian outflow. We find that 13% of NO, emitted in Asia is exported as NO, or PAN, a smaller fraction than for the United States because of higher aerosol concentrations that promote heterogeneous conversion of NOx to HNO3. Production and export of ozone from Asia in spring is much greater than from the United States because of the higher photochemical activity.

Bey, Isabelle; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.

2003-01-01

94

Hydrology and water-quality at the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples from five monitoring wells adjacent to raffinate pits storing low-level radioactive waste contained concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen ranging from 53 to 990 milligrams per liter. Most samples also had maximum concentrations of calcium (900 milligrams per liter), sodium (340 milligrams per liter), sulfate (320 milligrams per liter), lithium (1,700 micrograms), strontium (1,900 micrograms per liter), and uranium (86 micrograms per liter). The raffinate pits also had large concentrations of these constituents. A water balance made on the raffinate pits indicated a 0.04 to 0.08 inch per day decrease in the water level that cannot be attributed to meterological conditions. These data and seismically-detected areas of saturated overburden beneath one raffinate pit and possibly adjacent to three other pits indicate leakage from the pits. (USGS)

Kleeschulte, M. J.; Emmett, L. F.

1987-01-01

95

Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005 samplings, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant was 40 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from that wastewater treatment plant was 28 percent effluent. At each site, 300 individual constituents were determined to characterize the water. Most of the inorganic constituents were detected in all of the stream and treatment-plant effluent samples, whereas detection of synthetic organic compounds was more limited and contaminants typically occurred only in wastewater treatment-plant effluents and at downstream sites. Concentrations ranged from nanograms per liter to milligrams per liter.

Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

2011-01-01

96

Spring Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-06-09

97

Global chemical model analysis of biomass burning and lightning influences over the South Pacific in austral spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry driven by reanalyzed European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts meteorological data is used to examine the sources of O3, CO, and nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the South Pacific troposphere during the NASA Pacific Exploratory Mission to the Tropics (PEM-Tropics A) in September-October 1996. Aircraft observations up to 12 km during that mission revealed considerable biomass burning influence on O3 and CO in terms of elevated pollution layers and regional enhancements. The model reproduces the long-range transport of biomass burning effluents from southern Africa and South America in the westerly subtropical flow over the South Pacific. Meteorological conditions in 1996 were particularly favorable for this transport. Africa and South America make comparable contributions to the biomass burning pollution over the South Pacific; the contribution from Australia and Indonesia is much less. Biomass burning dominates the supply of NOx in the lower troposphere over the South Pacific (through long-range transport and decomposition of peroxyacetylnitrate), but lightning dominates in the upper troposphere. Observations in PEM-Tropics A and elsewhere indicate low HNO3/NOx concentration ratios and an imbalance in the chemical budget of NOx in the upper troposphere. We reproduce these observations in our model and show that they reflect the subsidence of primary NOx injected by lightning into the uppermost troposphere, rather than any fast chemistry recycling HNO3 to NOx. We find that biomass burning and lightning made similar contributions to O3 production over the South Pacific during PEM-Tropics A. Biomass burning plumes sampled in PEM-Tropics A contained little NOx, and the O3 enhancements observed in these plumes originated from production over the source continents rather than over the South Pacific.

Staudt, Amanda C.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bachiochi, David; Krishnamurti, T. N.; Poisson, Nathalie

2002-07-01

98

Tidally oscillating bisulfide fluxes and fluid flow rates observed with in situ chemical sensors at a warm spring in Monterey Bay, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An In Situ Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ISUS) was coupled to a benthic chamber to characterize the bisulfide flux emanating from a warm spring at the Extrovert Cliff locality within Monterey Bay, California. The chamber was periodically flushed with bottom seawater to reset chemical concentrations, which enabled deployments over multiple days. Data from several deployments, each lasting at least 10 days, were used to calculate flow rates, fluid concentrations, and fluxes over time. The bisulfide concentration of the fluid entering the chamber varied from 75 to 4500 ?mol l -1. Positive temperature anomalies up to 3.5° were associated with these elevated concentrations. Linear flow rates ranged from 2 to >17 m day -1, while the bisulfide fluxes varied from 0.2 to 80 mol m -2 day -1. The bisulfide originated at depth and was not produced in the surface sediments via an anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Tides modulated the flow as well as the composition of the fluid entering the chamber. It appeared that a deep sourced fluid, which supplied the bisulfide, was mixed with a second, ambient seawater-like fluid before entering the flux chamber. At low tides, flow rates were at their highest and the contribution of the deep sourced fluid to the fluid entering the chamber was at a maximum.

Plant, Josh N.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Fitzwater, Steve E.; Sakamoto, Carole M.; Coletti, Luke J.; Jannasch, Hans W.

2010-12-01

99

Chemical soil properties and bromegrass hay composition as affected by 23 annual fall and spring applications of ammonium nitrate and urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization on grass forage yield and quality as well as soil properties may vary with type of N fertilizer and time of application. The effects of 23 annual applications (from 1974 to 1996) of ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea (112 kg N ha) applied in early fall, late fall, early spring and late spring on

J. T. Harapiak; S. S. Malhi; K. S. Gill

2000-01-01

100

Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element Chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

Hobba, W. A.; Chemerys, J. C.; Fisher, D. W.; Pearson Jr., F. J.

1976-01-01

101

Spring Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The new Spring Migration site from eNature.com and the National Wildlife Federation provides an online reference for bird enthusiasts that shows the dates that each species can be expected to return to its summer habitat. Site visitors can choose from a large number of species found in their range. Maps show summer and winter habitat ranges and migration patterns. The site also provides photos, field guide information, and bird call audio for each species.

2002-01-01

102

Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

Knowles, Jr. , L.; Katz, B. G.; Toth, D. J.

2010-01-01

103

Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ?15N and ?18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

2010-12-01

104

PREDICTING SPRING LAKE CHEMISTRY FROM FALL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between fall and spring lake chemistry was investigated for five chemical variables of 103 lakes in seven regions of the United States. Strong linear relationships were found between preceding springs and fall values for acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), pH, sulf...

105

Helical spring holder assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A helically-threaded spring holder on which a helically wound spring is mounted has a groove formed in one side of the thread at the end where the spring engages the spring holder. The groove relieves the portion of the side in which it is formed from restricting the spring against axial movement during deflection of the spring. The circumferential length of this groove is chosen to establish the number of spring coils which can be deflected without contacting the side of the thread. The end of the thread is also made rigid to prevent flexing thereof during maximal elongation of the spring.

Newman, Wyatt S. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

106

Comparing pre- and post-chemical abrasion ages for Miocene Peach Springs Tuff zircon from ID-TIMS and SIMS analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miocene Peach Spring Tuff (PST) is a voluminous (>600 km3), zoned ignimbrite (trachyte to high-SiO2 rhyolite) that is exposed widely in eastern California, western Arizona, and southernmost Nevada, which was erupted from the Silver Creek caldera in the southwestern Black Mountains, AZ. PST serves as a regionally widespread marker unit and its eruption age has been determined to 18.8 to 18.9 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar methods, when corrected for systematic bias and normalized to the U-Pb system (Renne et al., 2010,). We performed ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from individual pumice clasts from PST to evaluate the growth history of zircon in the PST magma system. Sectioned, polished zircon from conventional epoxy mounts allows dating of internal growth domains (e.g. cores, interiors, and near-rim), whereas mounting unpolished zircon in indium and analyzing unpolished crystal faces provides a means to selectively sample the final increments of crystal growth (Reid and Coath, 2000). Combining U-Pb ages of unpolished zircon rims with near-rim interior analyses on sectioned grains yields a mean age of ca. 18.3 Ma, whereas ages of cores of sectioned crystals yield a mean of ca. 18.9 Ma. Several zircons have rim and/or core ages that are several hundred thousand years older or younger than these means (up to 1 m.y. total spread), although the uncertainties for individual SIMS ages are 2 to 5% (2 sigma uncertainty). Therefore, the distribution of ages is challenging to resolve. A modest number of the older grains are plausibly recycled antecrysts, but we suspect that the youngest zircons may have experienced Pb-loss. Failure to account for the possibility of inheritance and Pb-loss may lead to erroneous interpretations about crystallization in the PST system. In order to evaluate and mitigate the effects of Pb-loss, we employed the chemical abrasion (CA) technique of Mattinson (2005), which effectively eliminates domains in zircon that have suffered Pb-loss, and removes micro-inclusions that typically contain common Pb. Thermal annealing followed by CA techniques were used for ID-TIMS dating of a sub-set of zircon crystals previously analyzed by SIMS. Prior to TIMS analyses, zircon crystals were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the effects of CA on crystal domains sampled by SIMS. SEM images reveal that whole portions of crystals were removed by the CA technique, and a heterogeneous pattern of etching that was not confined to specific compositional zones visible in cathodoluminescence. Most of the SIMS sputter pits that yield spurious ages, are associated with etching and/or preferential annealing by the combined annealing and CA technique, suggesting that the young ages relative to the 40Ar/39Ar age may be due to Pb loss. ID-TIMS yields a coherent U-Pb age population of 18.8 Ma, with several older and younger crystals that might reflect xenocrysts, Pb-loss, and/or younger crystallization. In order to maintain spatial resolution and further evaluate the effects of Pb-loss in PST zircon, the annealing and CA-technique will be applied to zircon prior to SIMS dating. References: Reid and Coath, 2000, Geology 28: 443 Renne et al., 2010, GCA 78: 5349

Lidzbarski, M. I.; Mundil, R.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

107

Spatial dominance and inorganic carbon assimilation by conspicuous autotrophic biofilms in a physical and chemical gradient of a cold sulfurous spring: the role of differential ecological strategies.  

PubMed

The community composition and ecophysiological features of microbial autotrophic biofilms were studied in Fuente Podrida, a cold sulfur spring located in East Spain. We demonstrated how different ecophysiological strategies, such as resistance and/or utilization of sulfide and oxygen, light adaptation, or resistance to high water flow, allow each of the microorganisms described to efficiently colonize several areas within the environmental gradient. In the zone of the spring constantly influenced by sulfide-rich waters, biofilms were formed by purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and filamentous colorless sulfur bacteria. Purple bacteria showed higher photosynthetic efficiency per pigment unit than cyanobacteria, although they were dominant only in anoxic areas. Two filamentous cyanobacteria, strain UVFP1 and strain UVFP2, were also abundant in the sulfide-rich area. Whereas the cyanobacterial strain UVFP2 shows a strategy based on the resistance to sulfide of oxygenic photosynthesis, strain UVFP1, additionally, has the capacity for sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses cluster the benthic strain UVFP1 with genus Planktothrix, but with no particular species, whereas UVFP2 does not closely cluster with any known cyanobacterial species. The colorless sulfur bacterium Thiothrix sp. extended throughout the zone in which both sulfide and oxygen were present, exhibiting its capacity for chemolithoautotrophic dark carbon fixation. Downstream from the source, where springwater mixes with well-oxygenated stream water and sulfide disappears, autotrophic biofilms were dominated by diatoms showing higher photosynthetic rates than cyanobacteria and, by a lesser extent, by a sulfide-sensitive cyanobacterium (strain UVFP3) well adapted to low light availability, although in the areas of higher water velocity far from the river shore, the dominance shifted to crust-forming cyanobacteria. Both types of microorganisms were highly sensitive to sulfide impeding them from occupying sulfide-rich areas of the spring. Sulfide, oxygen, light availability, and water velocity appear as the main factors structuring the autotrophic community of Fuente Podrida spring. PMID:16211325

Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Silvestre, Juan José; Vicente, Eduardo; Hahn, Martin W

2005-08-01

108

Chemical characterization of air masses transported to the Arctic during the ARCTAS-A spring deployment: biomass burning versus fossil fuel combustion signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major research objective of the ARCTAS-A field campaign was to obtain in-situ data on the nature and the extent of atmospheric pollution in the Arctic during spring. We deployed a PTR-MS instrument aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft to measure a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including acetonitrile, methanol, acetone and benzene. The VOCs serve as tracers for

A. Wisthaler; T. Mikoviny; G. S. Diskin; G. W. Sachse; J. F. Burkhart

2009-01-01

109

Chemical composition of fumarolic gases and spring discharges from El Chichòn volcano, Mexico: causes and implications of the changes detected over the period 1998–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the March–April 1982 eruption of El Chichòn volcano, intense hydrothermal activity has characterised the 1-km-wide summit crater. This mainly consists of mud and boiling pools, fumaroles, which are mainly located in the northwestern bank of the crater lake. During the period 1998–2000, hot springs and fumaroles discharging inside the crater and from the southeastern outer flank (Agua Caliente) were

F. Tassi; O. Vaselli; B. Capaccioni; J. L. Macias; A. Nencetti; G. Montegrossi; G. Magro

2003-01-01

110

Chemical and physical characteristics of springs discharging from regional flow systems of the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin, western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regional carbonate aquifer in the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin, USA, covers thousands of square kilometers.\\u000a It is a significant potential source of water for growth in this arid area. Few wells penetrate the carbonate aquifer, so\\u000a information on water quantity and quality is derived in large part from ‘regional springs’ that discharge from regional interbasin\\u000a flow systems.

Ronald L. Hershey; Steve A. Mizell; Sam Earman

2010-01-01

111

Spring orthotic device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A spring orthotic device comprising a cradle for contacting the foot of a user, a spring plate underneath the cradle, a ventral pivot beneath the spring plate, and a dorsal pivot above the spring plate and below the cradle located proximally of the ventral pivot.

2013-01-15

112

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1998-12-01

113

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1999-06-01

114

Chemical Characteristics of Air Masses Transported in the Boundary Layer to the South China Coast During Spring: Results from TRACE-P in 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a cooperative effort in support of the TRACE-P and ACE-Asia intensive in spring 2001, trace gases and aerosols have been measured at a relatively remote coastal site in southeastern Hong Kong. The main objective of the measurement program was to provide continuous ground-base data in the subtropical region of eastern Asia and to characterize the southward outflow of continental pollution that prevailed in the lower atmosphere during early spring. In this paper, we present the results for ozone, CO, NO, NOy, SO2, Radon-222, methane and C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), C1-C4 haloncarbons, and C1-C2 alkyl nitrates obtained during February 21 to April 30, 2001. The averaged concentration of O3, CO, SO2, and NOy was 45 ppbv, 404 ppbv, 2.1 ppbv, and 10.4 ppbv, respectively. The levels of trace gases were strongly influenced by the outflow of continental air masses following the passage of a cold front. The data were segregated according to the levels of Rn. Ozone and CO showed strong positive correlation in perturbed marine air indicated by low levels of Rn-222 and CO. Most NMHC species correlated well with CO. The concentrations of O3 and SO2 during TRACE-P were higher than those measured during PEM-WEST B in spring 1994 at the same site, whereas the CO and NOy levels were comparable. The possible reasons will be presented. The comparison with the data obtained at a rural site in eastern China showed contrasting emission characteristics in the two regions, with eastern China having more abundant CO and SO2 relative to NOy. The surface measurement will be compared with the result from the TRACE-P aircraft.

Wang, T.; Ding, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Zahorowski, W.; Poon, C. N.; Li, Y. S.

2002-12-01

115

Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico–Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano–hydrothermal system (Mexico–Guatemala).\\u000a Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW\\/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge\\u000a at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500–2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral\\u000a (pH from 5.8 to 6.9)

Dmitri Rouwet; Salvatore Inguaggiato; Yuri Taran; Nicholas Varley

2009-01-01

116

Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico-Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano-hydrothermal system (Mexico-Guatemala). Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500-2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral (pH from 5.8 to 6.9) thermal ( T from 25.7°C to 63.0°C) HCO3-SO4 waters are thought to have formed by the absorption of a H2S/SO2-CO2-enriched steam into a Cl-rich geothermal aquifer, afterwards mixed by Na/HCO3-enriched meteoric waters originating from the higher elevations of the volcano as stated by the isotopic composition (?D and ?18O) of meteoric and spring waters. Boiling temperature fumaroles (89°C at ~3,600m a.s.l. NW of the summit), formed after the May 1986 phreatic explosion, emit isotopically light vapour (?D and ?18O as low as -128 and -19.9‰, respectively) resulting from steam separation from the summit aquifer. Fumarolic as well as bubbling gases at five springs are CO2-dominated. The ?13CCO2 for all gases show typical magmatic values of -3.6 ± 1.3‰ vs V-PDB. The large range in 3He/4He ratios for bubbling, dissolved and fumarolic gases [from 1.3 to 6.9 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)] is ascribed to a different degree of near-surface boiling processes inside a heterogeneous aquifer at the contact between the volcanic edifice and the crystalline basement (4He source). Tacaná volcano offers a unique opportunity to give insight into shallow hydrothermal and deep magmatic processes affecting the CO2/3He ratio of gases: bubbling springs with lower gas/water ratios show higher 3He/4He ratios and consequently lower CO2/3He ratios (e.g. Zarco spring). Typical Central American CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios are found for the fumarolic Agua Caliente and Zarco gases (3.1 ± 1.6 × 1010 and 6.0 ± 0.9 R A, respectively). The L/ S (5.9 ± 0.5) and ( L + S)/ M ratios (9.2 ± 0.7) for the same gases are almost identical to the ones calculated for gases in El Salvador, suggesting an enhanced slab contribution as far as the northern extreme of the Central American Volcanic Arc, Tacaná.

Rouwet, Dmitri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Varley, Nicholas; Santiago S., José A.

2009-04-01

117

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from American Experience: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, learn how the lethal impact of the pesticide DDT on wildlife inspired biologist Rachel Carson to write Silent Spring.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-07-01

118

Springs of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous springs in Japan. The largest and most famous ones are volcanic and karstic springs. Springs in the areas of Mount Fuji, Mount Aso, and Akiyoshidai are discussed here as sources of water used for drinking, irrigation, fish cultivation, industrial water, and sightseeing.

S. Yamamoto

1996-01-01

119

Springs of Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous springs in Japan. The largest and most famous ones are volcanic and karstic springs. Springs in the areas of Mount Fuji, Mount Aso, and Akiyoshidai are discussed here as sources of water used for drinking, irrigation, fish cultivation, industrial water, and sightseeing.

Yamamoto, S.

1996-03-01

120

Springs of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first comprehensive report of Florida's springs, which contains both a story of the springs and a collection of facts about them, was published thirty years ago (Ferguson and others, 1947). Since then, much additional data on springs have been gathered and the current report, Springs of Florida, makes a wealth of information on springs available to the public. Springs of Florida, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, publishers, and the Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, is intended to provide sufficient background information for a lucid understanding of the nature and occurrence of the springs in the State.

Rosenau, Jack C.; Faulkner, Glen L.; Hendry, Charles W., Jr.; Hull, Robert W.

1977-01-01

121

Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T. F.

1976-01-01

122

Spring-based actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept of a spring actuator based on the ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) is presented. The coil spring made by a FSMA is activated by the attractive magnetic force produced by electromagnets, which is usually not uniform. When the magnetic field is applied, each turn of the spring comes into contact with the neighboring turns one by one, stacking from the turn closer to the yoke of the electromagnet. As a result, entire shrinkage of the spring accompanied by large liner stroke is achieved. This actuator is energy-efficient, since almost all magnet flux originated from electromagnet discharges into the ferromagnetic spring. The performance of the spring actuator, i.e. the output force and stroke, depends on many factors, such as the diameter and the pitch of the spring or the dimension of the cross section of the spring wire, and so on. We processed successfully a spring actuator driven by a hybrid magnet based on the above principle by using polycrystalline FePd alloy. Since the stiffness of the FePd coil spring become softer due to the martensite phase transformation, the movement of the actuator is accelerated during actuation.

Wada, Taishi; Taya, Minoru

2002-07-01

123

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

2004-01-01

124

Springs On and In the Vicinity of Mount Hood Volcano, Oregon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical and isotopic data are presented for nonthermal, thermal, and slightly thermal springs and drill holes and fumaroles on Mount Hood, Oregon. Temperatures of nonthermal springs on Mount Hood decrease with elevation and are similar to air temperature...

M. Nathenson

2004-01-01

125

Student Profile: Spring 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first in a series of annual student profiles, this report provides data on student demographics and enrollment trends from spring 1994 through spring 1997 at the three colleges of California's Los Rios Community College District: American River College, Cosumnes River College, and Sacramento City College. Following a brief introduction, data…

Glyer-Culver, Betty M.

126

Spring Scale Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how spring scales work and how they are used for non-exact weight measurement. Learners work in teams to develop their own working spring scale out of ordinary items. They test their scale, present their designs to the group, compare their designs with those of other teams, and reflect on the experience.

Ieee

2013-07-08

127

A Magnet Spring Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the…

Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

2006-01-01

128

Controls on the genesis of a high-fluoride thermal spring: Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the source, evolution, reactions and environmental impacts of F-rich thermal water at Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland. Thermal water of the Innot Hot Springs has a surface temperature of 71°C, alkaline pH (8.1), low dissolved oxygen (0.61 mg\\/L) and low total dissolved solids (652 mg\\/L). The main chemical composition is Na – Cl, with F concentrations (16 mg\\/L) being comparatively high.

B. G. Lottermoser; J. S. Cleverley

2007-01-01

129

Valve-spring surge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test equipment is described that includes a system of three quartz indicators whereby three different pressures could be synchronized and simultaneously recorded on a single oscillogram. This equipment was used to test the reliction of waves at ends of valve spring, the dynamical stress of the valve spring for a single lift of the valve, and measurement of the curve of the cam tested. Other tests included simultaneous recording of the stress at both ends of the spring, spring oscillation during a single lift as a function of speed, computation of amplitude of oscillation for a single lift by harmonic analysis, effect of cam profile, the setting up of resonance, and forced spring oscillation with damping.

Marti, Willy

1937-01-01

130

Valve-spring Surge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test equipment is described that includes a system of three quartz indicators whereby three different pressures could be synchronized and simultaneously recorded on a single oscillogram. This equipment was used to test the reliction of waves at ends of valve spring, the dynamical stress of the valve spring for a single lift of the valve, and measurement of the curve of the cam tested. Other tests included simultaneous recording of the stress at both ends of the spring, spring oscillation during a single lift as a function of speed, computation of amplitude of oscillation for a single lift by harmonic analysis, effect of cam profile, the setting up of resonance, and forced spring oscillation with damping.

Marti, Willy

1937-01-01

131

Force of an actin spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

2003-03-01

132

Thermal springs in Lake Baikal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ??18O values of pore wqters range from -15.2??? to -16.7???, and ??D values range from -119??? to -126??? (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water [SMOW]). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a ??18O value of -5.6??? and a ??D value of -120???. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest ??D and ??18O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites. -from Authors

Shanks, III, W. C.; Callender, E.

1992-01-01

133

Thermal springs in Lake Baikal  

SciTech Connect

Pore waters extracted from sediment cores were analyzed for their oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions and major ion chemistry to determine the source of water from a vent area for diffuse lake-bottom thermal springs or seeps in Frolikha Bay, northeastern Lake Baikal. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of pore waters range from {minus}15.2{per thousand} to {minus}16.7{per thousand}, and {delta}D values range from {minus}119{per thousand} to {minus}126{per thousand} (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW)). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a {delta}{sup 18}O value of {minus}5.6{per thousand} and a {delta}D values of {minus}120{per thousand}. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites.

Shanks, W.C. III; Callender, E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1992-06-01

134

SPRING_TANK  

EPA Science Inventory

This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. ...

135

Harbingers of Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

Serrao, John

1976-01-01

136

Nitrate Movement in Soil Under Early Spring Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physical transport mechanisms and chemical transformations of nitrogen were investigated and a quantitative mathematical model was developed of manure nitrogen movement through soil profiles under typical early spring conditions. Nitrogen transformation s...

M. F. Walter

1974-01-01

137

Silver Springs Spring Vent Documentation and Geochemical Characterization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The topic of this report is the phase 1 documentation, flow discharge measurement, and water quality sampling of all of the spring vents in the Silver Springs spring group. During phase 1, numerous vents at Silver Springs were sketched, photographed, samp...

A. Aly P. Butt

2008-01-01

138

Springs of Great Britain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictably, in a country such as Britain, with its preponderance of consolidated, sedimentary, mainly fissure-flow aquifers, there is a very large number of springs, many of which are, or have been, used for public supply. Migratory springs are a feature of the British (Ur. Cretaceous) Chalk, the most important British aquifer. The Chalk's low specific yield and high capillary moisture retention together give rise to very considerable fluctuations (more than 33 m in some areas) of the unconfined water table. Along the gentle dip slopes of the Chalk (North and South Downs of southern and southeastern England) springs may migrate laterally for several miles, giving rise to seasonal streams locally known as “bournes” or “lavants”. However, springs such as at Duncton, West Sussex, at the base of the much steeper scarp slopes of the Chalk, form point sources, the flows from which tend to be relatively steady; such springs commonly supply and are the original reason for the existence of many of the small towns and villages which nestle along the bases of the chalk scarps of Sussex and Kent. Where the Chalk forms coastal cliffs, a number of springs break out at the base of the cliff between high and low tide levels; there are major chalk coastal springs, for instance, at St. Margaret's Bay (Kent) and at Arish Mells, east of Lulworth Cove, Dorset. Such springs are not used for direct supply (their salinity is usually too high) but are indicators of the presence of local reserves of groundwater for possible future development.

Day, J. B. W.

1996-03-01

139

Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spring which includes a tube with an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension extending vertically is disclosed. A plurality of cuts in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube extend perpendiculary to a longitudinal axis extending along the tube. An uncut portion of the tube wall extends along the tube for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom of a seat cushion.

Haslim, L. A. (inventor)

1985-01-01

140

Damper Spring For Omega Seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

1993-01-01

141

Spring Pendulum Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ejs Spring Pendulum model displays the model of a hollow mass that moves along a rigid rod that is also connected to a spring. The mass, therefore, undergoes a combination of spring and pendulum oscillations. The initial position and velocities, as well as the spring constant can be changed via textboxes. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs Spring Pendulum model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ehu_oscillations_elastic.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for classical mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Aguirregabiria, Juan

2008-11-11

142

Spring polar ozone behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding of the springtime behavior of polar stratospheric ozone as of mid 1990 is summarized. Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds as hypothesis for ozone loss are considered and a simplified description of the behavior of Antarctic ozone in winter and spring is given. Evidence that the situation is more complicated than described by the theory is produced. Many unresolved scientific issues remain and some of the most important problems are identified. Ozone changes each spring since 1979 have clearly established for the first time that man made chlorine compounds influence stratospheric ozone. Long before important advances in satellite and in situ investigations, it was Dobson's decision to place a total ozone measuring spectrometer at Halley Bay in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year and subsequent continuous monitoring which led to the discovery that ozone was being destroyed each spring by chlorine processed by polar stratospheric clouds.

Aikin, Arthur C.

1992-01-01

143

Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics of Spring Water in Beijing and Their Environmental Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information of springs has important indicating implications on groundwater environment. Field testing for T, DO, EC, ORP, pH and TDS of spring water was carried out, and chemical and isotopic components were also tested in labs. Results indicate most of the 2nd class springs and 60% of the 1st class springs exist in early 1980s have disappeared, runoffs from

Yuanzheng Zhai; Jinsheng Wang; Yuanyuan Bai; Huan Huan; Yanguo Teng

2011-01-01

144

Data on ground-water resources of the Spring Mountains area, Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report lists data on ground-water levels for 16 wells and discharge for 18 springs in the Spring Mountain area of the Tolyabe National Forest. Water levels in wells ranged from 325 to 519 feet below land surface. The highest spring discharge listed is 107 gallons per minute. In addition, data on the chemical quality of the water from selected wells and springs are listed.

Nichols, William D.; Davis, Louise E.

1979-01-01

145

Thermal Springs and the Search for Past Life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ancient thermal spring sites have several features which make them significant targets in a search for past life. Chemical (including redox) reactions in hydrothermal systems possibly played a role in the origin of life on Earth and elsewhere. Spring waters frequently contain reduced species (sulfur compounds, Fe(sup +2), etc.) which can provide chemical energy for organic synthesis. Relatively cool hydrothermal systems can sustain abundant microbial life (on Earth, at temperatures greater than 110 C). A spring site on Mars perhaps might even have maintained liquid water for periods sufficiently long to sustain surface-dwelling biota had they existed. On Earth, a variety of microbial mat communities can be sampled along the wide range of temperatures surrounding the spring, thus offering an opportunity to sample a broad biological diversity. Thermal spring waters frequently deposit minerals (carbonates, silica, etc.) which can entomb and preserve both fluid inclusions and microbial communities. These deposits can be highly fossiliferous and preserve biological inclusions for geologically long periods of time. Such deposits can cover several square km on Earth, and their distinctive mineralogy (e.g., silica- and/or carbonate-rich) can contrast sharply with that of the surrounding region. As with Martian volcanoes, Martian thermal spring complexes and their deposits might typically be much larger than their counterparts on Earth. Thus Martian spring deposits are perhaps readily detectable and even accessible. Elysium Planitia is an example of a promising region where hydrothermal activity very likely remobilized ground ice and sustained springs.

DesMarais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Walter, M. R.

1995-01-01

146

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

147

Spring Into Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maria lifts up a book from the table. Dietre eats cereal for breakfast. Akisha winds up a toy robot. Jacob puts batteries in a flashlight. These seemingly dissimilar events demonstrate various ways children experience energy daily. You can help primary students make sense of these experiences and build their conceptual understanding of energy with this series of hands-on energy activities. We've used these lessons successfully for several years and have been continually impressed with the understandings that students develop as they conduct them. The lessons focus primarily on elastic, or spring, energy and use a conceptual hook, a simple phrase that identifies the key ideas from the activities. In these lessons, the "hook" is "lift, squeeze, stretch, and twist," which summarizes some of the ways students can "put" energy in objects. We chose to emphasize spring energy because it is tangible--students can easily observe the spring (or similar objects such as a rubberband) change as they squeeze, stretch, or twist it, and they can feel the spring resist them as they change its shape.

Van Hook, Stephen; Huziak-Clark, Tracy

2007-03-01

148

Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

Dowdy, June P., Ed.

1998-01-01

149

Spa, springs and safety.  

PubMed

Natural mineral water has long been used worldwide for bathing and health purposes. At present, Thailand is famous for health spas and natural hot springs among local people and tourists. Due to possible risks of exposure to harmful agents, we studied hazardous pollutants at 57 natural hot springs from 11 provinces in northern, central, eastern and southern Thailand. Pathogenic, free-living amebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba, which can cause central nervous system infection, were found in 26.3% (15/57) and 15.8% (9/ 57), respectively. Dissolved radon, a soil gas with carcinogenic properties, was present in nearly all hot springs sites, with concentration ranging from 0.87-76,527 Becquerels/m3. There were 5 water samples in which radon concentration exceeded the safety limit for drinking. Legionella pneumoniphila (serogroups 1, 3, 5, 6, 7 10 and 13) were found in samples from 71.9% (41/57) of studied sites. Because spas and natural springs are popular tourist attractions, health authorities should be aware of possible hazards and provide tactful measures and guidelines to ensure safety without causing undue alarm to foreign and Thai tourists. PMID:16438172

Sukthana, Yaowalark; Lekkla, Amorn; Sutthikornchai, Chantira; Wanapongse, Paitoon; Vejjajiva, Athasit; Bovornkitti, Somchai

2005-01-01

150

Echoes of Spring Valley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

Boyken, J. Clarine J.

151

A Quadratic Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

Fay, Temple H.

2010-01-01

152

Editors' Spring Picks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

Library Journal, 2011

2011-01-01

153

Allergy Season Springs into Bloom  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Allergy Season Springs Into Bloom Allergist outlines ways to ... this long, cold winter, but those with pollen allergies might not greet spring with open arms. There ...

154

First Magnitude Springs of Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2001 Florida Legislature funded the Florida Springs Initiative to investigate the first order magnitude springs in the State. In response to the initiative's mandate, the Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Depar...

T. M. Scott G. H. Means R. C. Means R. P. Meegan

2002-01-01

155

Prepare for Unpredictable Spring Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... flooding. Whenever warm, moist air collides with cool, dry air, thunderstorms can occur. For much of the world, this happens in spring and summer. Because spring weather is so unpredictable, you may be unprepared when ...

156

Spheres of discharge of springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of

Abraham E. Springer; Lawrence E. Stevens

2009-01-01

157

Signs of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because Spring has officially arrived, this week's Topic In Depth focuses on events that occur with the arrival of the new season.Offered by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the first Web site (1) focuses on seasonal events like hibernation and migration, and the rhythms behind them. Next is a phenology site (2), where visitors can register to record their observations of Spring online or just learn what phenology is and why it is important. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also has a phenology Web site for kids (3). The Missouri Botanical Garden (4) keeps a record of the plants in bloom each week, with corresponding photos and a choice of either a brief or more detailed description. Plantwatch (5), a site from the University of Alberta that encourages students and volunteers to register and report observations, has recently added a downloadable teacher's guide. Operation Migration (6), the organization that has successfully led endangered Whooping Crane migration by ultralight aircraft, provides daily updates as the birds begin preparing for their journey north. Users who want to begin identifying the birds that return to their yard this spring may be interested in the Peterson online identification guide (7). The final site (8) traces the life cycle of the Bumblebee, beginning with the queen emerging from hibernation and building a nest.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

158

Spring magnet films.  

SciTech Connect

The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

1999-03-29

159

Spring and springbrook fauna of the Piceance Basin, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic macroinvertebrates of Willow Creek, Piceance Creek, Stewart Gulch, and spring sources surrounding Tract C-b in the Piceance Basin were sampled from July 1978 through August 1980 as part of a baseline monitoring program prior to oil-shale development. Macroinvertebrate species lists are included in this report. The spring sources exhibited a somewhat different and more constant physical and chemical environment compared to the streams.

Martinson, R.J.; Bergey, E.A.; Ward, J.V.

1982-06-01

160

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111 Transportation...Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers...permissible. (b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or...

2009-10-01

161

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111 Transportation...Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers...permissible. (b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or...

2010-10-01

162

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111 Transportation...Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers...permissible. (b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or...

2013-10-01

163

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

164

Spheres of discharge of springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent\\u000a and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are\\u000a defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats\\u000a and ecosystems they support. A few of

Abraham E. Springer; Lawrence E. Stevens

2009-01-01

165

Spring-Tab Lock Washer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved spring-tab lock washer offers alternative to such positive-locking devices as cotter pins and lock wires and to conventional split-ring lock washers. Does not dig into fastened parts with sharp edges; less likely to inflict scratches causing cracks. Contains three winglike spring tabs and three alignment pips, pressed into mating dimples in surface of part to be fastened. Spring tabs on lock washer allow only clockwise rotation (tightening) of bolt or nut.

Finckenor, Jeff; Rogers, Dylan; Rodriguez, Pete

1993-01-01

166

Spatial analysis for spring locations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to create a comprehensive GIS database of spring locations across the American Southwest. To complete the assignment you will be required to locate all springs within a county of the Four Corners region and map them on a geologic map of the area. Start by finding all spring names and locations in national and state digital resources (i.e., GNIS, NHD, USFS, AGIC...) as well as from Topographic 7.5 minute Quadrangle maps and peer reviewed papers. Once a comprehensive list is formed you must determine a strategy for deleting duplicates. Note that there can be several springs with the same name; Cibola County, New Mexico, has 4 different Coyote Springs but each one is on a different mountain range, therefore all three springs would be valid. Create a detailed document of the procedures and resources you used to create your final list. You will also create a final mxd product (GIS map) that has a completed springs layer using no less than three resources, geologic map and DEM to show elevation contours. The outcomes of this activity are 1) understanding that spring orifice locations can change over time 2) to show the complexity of using digital resources 3) to create a comprehensive list of spring locations over several years of having the assignment completed

Frus, Rebecca

167

Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al.,1 aimed at studying the dependence of the elastic constant with the length of the spring. The proposal by Menezes et al.1 consists of determining the springs elastic constant K (defined as the ratio of the elongation ? and the magnitude of applied force F) using the usual method of suspending a mass m and studying the dependence of K on the springs unstretched length L. The authors vary the length of a spring by cutting pieces off the end and obtain an experimental relation K =?L-1, with ? a constant depending on the spring materials and geometrical factors. In our teaching practice we have been using the experience in Ref. 1 as an opportunity for advanced students to earn extra credit after the ordinary laboratory experience. The results we have obtained so far confirm the work of Menezes et al.1 and inevitably motivate a discussion on the dependence of the elastic constant K with some other spring parameters. The present work originates from the quest of a couple of students to determine the role of the spring coil diameter D on the value of K and ?.

Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

2014-05-01

168

The effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of chrome silicon steel compression springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of compression springs. Product manufacturers are constantly searching for ways to make their products last longer. This dissertation addresses three questions: (1) What is the effect of cryogenic treatment on the fatigue life of chrome silicon steel compression springs? Does the life increase, decrease, or remain the same? (2) What is the effect of cryogenic treatment on the Percent Load Loss (Stress Relaxation) of chrome silicon steel compression springs? (3) What are the possible changes in the material that cause these effects? The following tests were carried out; wire tensile test, hardness test, chemical analysis, residual stress, retained austenite, lattice parameter, force vs. deflection, percent load loss (stress relaxation), fatigue, microstructures, and eta carbides. This research produced a number of key findings: (1) The cryogenically treated springs had a longer cycle life and a higher endurance limit than the untreated springs. (2) The percent load loss (stress relaxation) of the cryogenically treated springs was similar to the untreated springs. (3) The cryogenically treated springs had a higher compressive residual stress at the surface than the untreated springs. The conclusions of this research are that the cryogenic treatment of chrome silicon steel compression springs led to an increase in compressive residual stress on the wire surface, which in turn led to an increase in fatigue life and a higher endurance limit. A recommended future study would be to compare cryogenically treated springs to shot peened springs.

Smith, Debra Lynn

169

Springing into Spring: Reading Games for the Season  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As spring arrives, more time is spent outdoors. Unfortunately, as spring fever hits, books and learning often take a backseat. The goal is for educators to find a way to re-engage learners. In this article, the author presents a seasonal story and game that can help catch students' attention by making learning both informative and entertaining.…

Maxwell, D. Jackson

2008-01-01

170

Large springs of east Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients of correlation were 0.70 or better as compared with a perfect correlation factor of 1.00.

Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J. H.; Poole, J. L.

1963-01-01

171

BLACKJACK SPRINGS WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineral-resource potential of the Blackjack Springs Wilderness in northern Wisconsin was evaluated. The lack of bedrock exposures in or near the wilderness and the thick mantle of glacial sediments precludes a detailed assessment of the mineral potential of the wilderness. However, based on presently available data, the area is concluded to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. If mineral deposits exist in the area, they would be under thick glacial cover and probably be of the massive sulfide type in association with metavolcanic rocks or be magmatic copper-nickel in association with metamorphosed mafic intrusive rocks. Sand and gravel resources occur in the wilderness, but they are abundant regionally, outside the wilderness. No other metallic or energy resources were identified in this study.

Schulz, Klaus, J.

1984-01-01

172

Koopmans' springs to life.  

PubMed

The meaning of orbital energies (OOEs) in Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is subject to a longstanding controversy. In local, semilocal, and hybrid density functionals (DFs) a Koopmans' approach, where OOEs approximate negative ionization potentials (IPs), is unreliable. We discuss a methodology based on the Baer-Neuhauser-Livshits range-separated hybrid DFs for which Koopmans' approach "springs to life." The OOEs are remarkably close to the negative IPs with typical deviances of +/-0.3 eV down to IPs of 30 eV, as demonstrated on several molecules. An essential component is the ab initio motivated range-parameter tuning procedure, forcing the highest OOE to be exactly equal to the negative first IP. We develop a theory for the curvature of the energy as a function of fractional occupation numbers to explain some of the results. PMID:20025305

Salzner, Ulrike; Baer, Roi

2009-12-21

173

Spring loaded thermocouple module  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

1984-03-13

174

Missouri Springs: Blue Jewels in the Ozarks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to the Missouri Springs of the Ozarks, a series of large springs that occur south of the Missouri River along the Ozark Uplift. There is general information on springs, including what they are, how they form, and their connection to the groundwater system. Photographs and brief descriptions are provided for the twenty largest springs in the state. There is also a map showing the distribution of springs in Missouri, and information on visiting springs. Other information includes material about mineral springs and spas, historical uses of springs, groundwater systems and karst hydrology, and scuba diving in the springs (not generally recommended).

Schaper, Jo

175

Single-Crystal Springs For Accelerometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal noise reduced, enabling use of smaller proof masses. Spring-and-mass accelerometers in which springs made of single-crystal material being developed. In spring-and-mass accelerometer, proof mass attached to one end of spring, and acceleration of object at other end of spring measured in terms of deflection of spring, provided frequency spectrum of acceleration lies well below resonant frequency of spring-and-proof-mass system. Use of single-crystal spring materials instead of such polycrystalline spring materials as ordinary metals makes possible to construct highly sensitive accelerometers (including seismometers) with small proof masses.

Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

1995-01-01

176

Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida’s first magnitude spring waters (discharge ?2.8 m 3\\/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg\\/L,

B. G. Katz

2004-01-01

177

IA Thursday Workshop, Spring 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IA Workshop handouts for Spring 2010 Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2010. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

Olsen, Mr.

2010-01-19

178

Spheres of discharge of springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although springs have been recognized as important, rare, and globally threatened ecosystems, there is as yet no consistent and comprehensive classification system or common lexicon for springs. In this paper, 12 spheres of discharge of springs are defined, sketched, displayed with photographs, and described relative to their hydrogeology of occurrence, and the microhabitats and ecosystems they support. A few of the spheres of discharge have been previously recognized and used by hydrogeologists for over 80 years, but others have only recently been defined geomorphologically. A comparison of these spheres of discharge to classification systems for wetlands, groundwater dependent ecosystems, karst hydrogeology, running waters, and other systems is provided. With a common lexicon for springs, hydrogeologists can provide more consistent guidance for springs ecosystem conservation, management, and restoration. As additional comprehensive inventories of the physical, biological, and cultural characteristics are conducted and analyzed, it will eventually be possible to associate spheres of discharge with discrete vegetation and aquatic invertebrate assemblages, and better understand the habitat requirements of rare or unique springs species. Given the elevated productivity and biodiversity of springs, and their highly threatened status, identification of geomorphic similarities among spring types is essential for conservation of these important ecosystems.

Springer, Abraham E.; Stevens, Lawrence E.

2009-02-01

179

Mammoth Hot Springs Online Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Mammoth Hot Springs. Prominent hot springs and terraces are highlighted with photos and information concerning their cycles of activity. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone are also available online.

Park, Yellowstone N.

180

Spring loaded locator pin assembly  

DOEpatents

This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

1998-03-03

181

Chemistry of thermal and nonthermal springs in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meaningful applications of water geothermometry to thermal springs in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are limited to Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs. Most hot springs located within LVNP are low-chloride, acid-sulfate waters associated with nearby steam vents. This type of hot-spring activity is characteristically found above vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock interaction at relatively shallow depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures close to measured spring temperatures of 65 to 95??C. Hot-spring waters located south of LVNP at Growler Hot Spring, Morgan Hot Springs, and in the south-central part of LVNP in the Walker "O" No. 1 well at Terminal Geyser are rich in chloride and yield calculated geothermometer temperatures between 220 and 230??C. These thermal waters probably originate within a zone of upflow of high-enthalpy fluid inside LVNP and cool conductively during lateral flow to the south and southeast. ?? 1985.

Thompson, J. M.

1985-01-01

182

Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

183

Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

1983-01-01

184

Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking

Susan A. King; Sabrina Behnke; Kim Slack; David P. Krabbenhoft; D. Kirk Nordstrom; Mark D. Burr; Robert G. Striegl

2006-01-01

185

Light-stable-isotope studies of spring and thermal waters from the Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort/Sulphurdale Thermal areas and of clay minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area  

SciTech Connect

The isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen have been determined for spring waters and thermal fluids from the Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale thermal areas, for clay mineral separates from shallow alteration of the acid-sulfate type in the Roosevelt Hot Springs area, and for spring and well waters from the Goshen Valley area of central Utah. The water analyses in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area confirm the origin of the thermal fluids from meteoric water in the Mineral Range. The water analyses in the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale thermal area restrict recharge areas for this system to the upper elevations of the Pavant and/or Tushar Ranges. The low /sup 18/O shift observed in these thermal fluids (+0.7 permil) implies either high water/rock ratios or incomplete isotope exchange or both, and further suggests minimal interaction between the thermal fluid and marble country rock in the system. Hydrogen and oxygen-isotope data for clay mineral separates from shallow alteration zones in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal system suggest that the fluids responsible for the shallow acid-sulfate alteration were in part derived from condensed steam produced by boiling of the deep reservoir fluid. The isotope evidence supports the chemical model proposed by Parry et al. (1980) for origin of the acid-sulfate alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs. The isotope analyses of spring and well waters from the Goshen Valley area indicate only a general correlation of isotope composition, salinity and chemical temperatures.

Bowman, J.R.; Rohrs, D.T.

1981-10-01

186

Groundwater and nutrient discharge through karstic coastal springs (Castelló, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge of groundwater and associated chemical compounds into coastal karstic regions, which are abundant in the Mediterranean basin, is envisaged to be significant. In this study, we evaluate the groundwater discharge and its nutrient load to the open karstic site of Badum (Castelló, East Spain). Salinity profiles evidenced that groundwater discharge from coastal brackish springs causes a buoyant fresher layer,

E. Garcia-Solsona; J. Garcia-Orellana; P. Masqué; V. Rodellas; M. Mejías; B. Ballesteros; J. A. Domínguez

2010-01-01

187

Kate Spring field discovery, Nevada Basin and Range  

SciTech Connect

Kate Spring field, the sixth commercial oil pool found in Nevada, was completed in January 1986. The well produced I 521 BO (10.6{sup 0} API gravity) before it was shutin because of engineering problems and collapsing oil prices. The No. I Kate Spring was drilled on a seismically and geomorphically defined fault block upthrown from the Eagle Spring field (I mi north) and from the Husky/Marathon No. I Soda Springs dry hole (with significant light oil and gas shows, 2 mi south of he discovery). Pennsylvanian Ely Limestone was encountered beneath the Miocene unconformity. Clay-rich valley-fill sediments above the unconformity serve as vertical seals for the underlying fractured Paleozoic carbonate reservoirs. High-angle Miocene and younger normal faults place the valley-fill downthrown against the Paleozoic carbonates, forming a lateral seal in three directions; gouge development along the major valley-bounding fault serves as seal to the east. Confirmation of Kate Spring field came with completion of the David M. Evans No. I Taylor Federal in October 1987, about 1000 ft west of the discovery well. Chemical characteristics of formation fluids recovered from the No. 1 Taylor Federal are essentially the same as those recovered from the No. I Kate Spring, indicating fluid continuity within the same fractured reservoir. However, the No. I Taylor Federal encountered lower units of the Upper Devonian Guilmette Formation beneath the Miocene unconformity. Preliminary data suggest that Kate Spring field has a water drive, porosities to 17%, and permeabilities to 4 darcies. Conclusive data is unavailable, however,and only subsequent drilling will define Kate Spring reservoir parameters.

Flanigan, D.M.H. (Flanigan and Flanigan, Inc., Reno, NV (USA))

1988-10-01

188

Design of FSMA spring actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new spring actuator composing of two parts: driving unit and ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) spring, is designed based on hybrid actuation mechanism. The driving unit, which is based on hybrid magnet, consists of coil, yoke, and ring shape permanent magnet (PM); the FSMA spring can be either composite material, which is made of shape memory alloy of superelastic grade, and soft ferromagnetic material, or FSMAs such as FePd. In this design, driving units are inserted in between ferromagnetic springs. This will provide the actuator with larger force and stroke. FEM analysis under axis symmetric model has been used to optimize the driving components. According to the numerical results, the iron blocks, both on the top and the bottom, can provide larger magnetic forces facing downwards and upwards respectively due to the gradient of magnetic flux density. Advantages of this design are simple, robust, and compact yet providing relatively large force (20N) and stroke (30mm).

Chen, Hsiu-hung; Taya, Minoru

2004-07-01

189

Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springs on Kilauea Volcano and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understand processes that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water, and ...

C. J. Janik M. Nathenson M. A. Scholl

1994-01-01

190

Geology and Land-use related pattern of spring water quality. Case study from the catchments of the Malopolska Upland (S. Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring water chemical composition was investigated in three catchments (i.e. Pradnik, Dlubnia and Szreniawa) located within a carbonate-rock monocline from the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and constituting voluminous aquifers. The total spring water dissolved solids (TDS) displayed a concentration increase between 1974 and 1999. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the authors identified factors determining spring water chemistry. The research

Janusz Siwek; Wojciech Chelmicki

2004-01-01

191

Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular surfaces that produce palisade and "shrub" fabrics, respectively. At finer scales, composite fabrics are seen to consist distinctive associations of microstructures formed by the encrustation of individual cells and filaments. Composite fabrics survive the diagenetic transitions from primary opaline silica to quartz and are known from subaerial thermal spring deposits as old as Lower Carboniferous. However, fossil microorganisms tend to be rare in older deposits, and are usually preserved only where cells or sheaths have been stained by iron oxides. In subaqueous mineralizing springs at lower temperatures, early infilling leads to a more rapid and complete reduction in porosity and permeability. This process, along with the slower rates of microbial degradation at lower temperatures, creates a more favorable situation for organic matter preservation. Application of this taphonomic model to the Rhynie Chert, previously interpreted as subaerial, suggest it was probably deposited in a subaqueous spring setting at lower temperatures.

Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

192

Changes in European spring phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European phyto-phenological database of the EU 5th Framework project POSITIVE facilitated an examination of the rate and spatial pattern of changes in spring phenology across Europe. This database was collected, evaluated and composed from different national databases of Eastern and Western Europe covering the time period 1951-1998. Results show that spring phases have advanced four weeks in Western and Central Europe, and have been delayed up to two weeks in Eastern Europe. Western European spring starts earlier because of the intensive flow of warmer Atlantic air masses; the Eastern part of Europe has a different phenological rhythm and trends, that can be explained by the influence of the Siberian high. The highest rate of significant (p < 0.05) phenological change (-0.3 to -0.4 days per year) occurs in the Western Europe and Baltic Sea regions for early spring phases of hazel and colts-foot. Spring phases of birch, apple and lilac, and summer phases, such as the flowering of linden, tend to occur earlier with an average rate of -0.1 to 0.3 days per year.

Ahas, R.; Aasa, A.; Menzel, A.; Fedotova, V. G.; Scheifinger, H.

2002-11-01

193

Bouncing dynamics of a spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the dynamics of a deformable object bouncing on an oscillating plate and we propose to model its deformations. For this purpose, we use a spring linked to a damper. Elastic properties and viscous effects are taken into account. From the bouncing spring equations of motion, we emphasize the relevant parameters of the dynamics. We discuss the range of parameters in which elastic deformations do not influence the bouncing dynamics of this object and compare this behavior with the bouncing ball dynamics. By calculating the spring bouncing threshold, we evidence the effect of resonance and prove that elastic properties can make the bounce easier. This effect is for example encountered in the case of bouncing droplets. We also consider bifurcation diagrams in order to describe the consequences of a dependence on the frequency. Finally, hysteresis in the dynamics is presented.

Hubert, M.; Ludewig, F.; Dorbolo, S.; Vandewalle, N.

2014-04-01

194

Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997  

SciTech Connect

The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

NONE

1997-07-01

195

Interpretation of spring recession curves.  

PubMed

Recession curves contain information on storage properties and different types of media such as porous, fractured, cracked lithologies and karst. Recession curve analysis provides a function that quantitatively describes the temporal discharge decay and expresses the drained volume between specific time limits (Hall 1968). This analysis also allows estimating the hydrological significance of the discharge function parameters and the hydrological properties of the aquifer. In this study, we analyze data from perennial springs in the Judean Mountains and from others in the Galilee Mountains, northern Israel. All the springs drain perched carbonate aquifers. Eight of the studied springs discharge from a karst dolomite sequence, whereas one flows out from a fractured, slumped block of chalk. We show that all the recession curves can be well fitted by a function that consists of two exponential terms with exponential coefficients alpha1 and alpha2. These coefficients are approximately constant for each spring, reflecting the hydraulic conductivity of different media through which the ground water flows to the spring. The highest coefficient represents the fast flow, probably through cracks, or quickflow, whereas the lower one reflects the slow flow through the porous medium, or baseflow. The comparison of recession curves from different springs and different years leads to the conclusion that the main factors that affect the recession curve exponential coefficients are the aquifer lithology and the geometry of the water conduits therein. In normal years of rainy winter and dry summer, alpha1 is constant in time. However, when the dry period is longer than usual because of a dry winter, alpha1 slightly decreases with time. PMID:12236268

Amit, H; Lyakhovsk, V; Katz, A; Starinsky, A; Burg, A

2002-01-01

196

Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metastable ikaite (CaCO3??6H2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2?? 5H2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method. ?? 1993.

Bischoff, J. L.; Stine, S.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Fitzpatrick, J. A.; Stafford, Jr. , T. W.

1993-01-01

197

Hydrogeophysical Evidence for Groundwater Mixing At Freeling Spring Group, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. Current research into the Western Margin of the GAB includes investigations of spring discharge and determining aquifer flow paths. Spring water sampling at nine springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and groundwaters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Additionally, regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site and extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically. The ERI data indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models of porous and fractured media. Water chemistry indicates that water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a major fault and that the resulting spring waters maintain a strong PD signature down the elevation gradient hundreds of meters into the GAB side of the fault.

dailey, M. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Berens, V.; Wohling, D.; Keppel, M. N.

2011-12-01

198

Interpretation of the Hydrothermal System in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, Southern Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to understand hydrothermal systems for sustainable utilizing of hot springs. However, in Japan, most of the large hot springs are located in national parks. Therefore, explorations such as geochemical, geophysical or boring surveys to interpret the hydrothermal systems had not been conducted enough. For this reason, hydrothermal systems of some hot springs in Japan have not been made clear even now. We constructed a conceptual model to interpret the hydrothermal system of Kirishima Hot Spring Village in Kirishima national park, southern part of Kyushu, Japan. There are many hot springs in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, such as Maruo, Hayashida, and Myoban hot spring areas. Kirishima Hot Spring Village is located in southwestern part of Kirishima volcanoes, like Onami-ike volcano, and the altitude of Maruo area is about 600 m and that of Hayashida and Myoban areas is about 800 m. In order to interpret the hydrothermal system in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, we need to understand three important factors which are heat source, hot spring water, and subsurface structure. In January 2011, Shinmoe-dake volcano of Kirishima volcanoes made a large scale eruption. Then, the pressure source of Kirishima volcanoes is expected to be located in about 2 km west of Onami-ike volcano and its estimated altitude is about -7 km (Kobayashi et al., 2011). We used this pressure source for our conceptual model as a heat source. Secondary, we tried to clarify the fluid of Kirishima Hot Spring Village by considering the chemical compositions of hot spring water. In addition, we made a Na-K-Mg diagram to estimate the reservoir temperature and find that spring water has reached equilibrium or not. As a result, we supposed that hot spring water of Maruo area is magmatic, and that of Hayashida and Myoban area is consisted of sulfate and meteoric water. Thirdly, we used gravity data, which is the result from previous study and our field survey, to make a residual Bouguer anomaly map and a vertical derivative map for understanding subsurface structure. These maps indicate that there are many faults in subsurface of Kirishima Hot Spring Village. Integrating the result from previous studies, our discussions, and gravity survey, we constructed a conceptual model of hydrothermal system in Kirishima Hot Spring Village. This conceptual model represents that the reservoir of Maruo, Hayashida, and Myoban areas is a presumed fault and attendant cracks. It also represents the formation process of the hot spring water.

Yonekura, Yusaku; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Nishijima, Jun

2014-05-01

199

The Forced Soft Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through numerical investigations, this paper studies examples of the forced Duffing type spring equation with [epsilon] negative. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, the existence is demonstrated of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions. Subharmonic boundaries are…

Fay, T. H.

2006-01-01

200

A Breath of Spring Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most promising sights of spring in Nebraska this year were two conferences for women. One event, sponsored by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, was a Women's History Month Tea. A second conference was the meeting of the Nebraska Women in Higher Education. These two events suggest that there is a continuing interest in women's leadership…

Grady, Marilyn L.

2009-01-01

201

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

202

The Forced Hard Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through numerical investigations, various examples of the Duffing type forced spring equation with epsilon positive, are studied. Since [epsilon] is positive, all solutions to the associated homogeneous equation are periodic and the same is true with the forcing applied. The damped equation exhibits steady state trajectories with the interesting…

Fay, Temple H.

2006-01-01

203

THE JEWS OF STEAMBOAT SPRINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ski resort town of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, the late Professor Daniel J. Elazar, founder of the thirty-year, worldwide Study of Jewish Community Organization (and founder of the Jewish Political Studies Review), found a microcosm of the American Jewry now taking shape. In this town of 7,000 are several hundred Jews, ninety of whom are members of local Jewish

Daniel J. Elazar

2001-01-01

204

Changes in North American spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onset of the growing season in mid-latitudes is a period of rapid transition, which includes heightened interaction between living organisms and the lower atmosphere. Phenological events (seasonal plant and animal activity driven by environmental factors), such as first leaf appearance or flower bloom in plants, can serve as convenient markers to monitor the progression of this yearly shift, and assess longer-term change resulting from climate variations. We examined spring seasons across North America over the 1900-1997 period using modelled and actual lilac phenological data. Regional differences were detected, as well as an average 5-6 day advance toward earlier springs, over a 35-year period from 1959-1993. Driven by seasonally warmer temperatures, this modification agrees with earlier bird nesting times, and corresponds to a comparable advance of spring plant phenology described in Europe. These results also align with trends towards longer growing seasons, reported by recent carbon dioxide and satellite studies. North American spring warming is strongest regionally in the northwest and northeast portions. Meanwhile, slight autumn cooling is apparent in the central USA.

Schwartz, Mark D.; Reiter, Bernhard E.

2000-06-01

205

Hot Springs: Valley of Vapors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Best known for its 47 mineral-rich hot springs by those seeking relief in the ancient tradition of thermal bathing, This Arkansas mecca has been visited first by Indians seeking mudholes and later by turn-of-the century visitors coming to enjoy the plush ...

1994-01-01

206

NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity…

Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

207

Archaeal Nitrification in Hot Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological nitrification, i.e. the aerobic conversion of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is a major component of the global nitrogen cycle. Until recently, it was thought that the ability to aerobically oxidize ammonia was confined to bacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria. However, it has recently been shown that Archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota are also capable of ammonia oxidation. As many Crenarchaeota are thermophilic or hyperthermophilic, and at least some of them are capable of ammonia oxidation we speculated on the existence of (hyper)thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Using PCR primers specifically targeting the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, we were indeed able to confirm the presence of such organisms in several hot springs in Reykjadalur, Iceland. These hot springs exhibited temperatures well above 80 °C and pH values ranging from 2.0 to 4.5. To proof that nitrification actually took place under these extreme conditions, we measured gross nitrification rates by the isotope pool dilution method; we added 15N-labelled nitrate to the mud and followed the dilution of the label by nitrate production from ammonium either in situ (incubation in the hot spring) or under controlled conditions in the laboratory (at 80 °C). The nitrification rates in the hot springs ranged from 0.79 to 2.22 mg nitrate-N per L of mud and day. Controls, in which microorganisms were killed before the incubations, demonstrated that the nitrification was of biological origin. Addition of ammonium increased the gross nitrification rate approximately 3-fold, indicating that the nitrification was ammonium limited under the conditions used. Collectively, our study provides evidence that (1) AOA are present in hot springs and (2) that they are actively nitrifying. These findings have major implications for our understanding of nitrogen cycling of hot environments.

Richter, A.; Daims, H.; Reigstad, L.; Wanek, W.; Wagner, M.; Schleper, C.

2006-12-01

208

Biochemical Characterization of Spring Wheats in Relation to Grain Hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain hardness is arguably the single most important determinant of wheat grain quality and utilization and forms the basis of differentiating world trade of wheat grain. The present study was carried out to determine the texture of spring wheats using starch granule-associated friabilin, a 15kDa protein, as biochemical marker and their relationship with other hardness methods, chemical and quality parameter.

Imran Pasha; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Masood Sadiq Butt

2009-01-01

209

Manufacture of springs from cold-worked austenitic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic chromonickel steel, containing 18% Cr and 9?10% Ni, is highly corrosion-resistant and nonmagnetic. Such steel is widely used in the medical, chemical, and food industries and in the manufacture of machine tools and equipment for tropical climates. Elastic components made from such steel—springs and membranes—should be characterized by high yield point and also high strength and hardness. The only

A. M. Adaskin

2009-01-01

210

Water Quality Assessment for Agana Springs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This water quality study assessed the potential of Agana Springs for possible development as a municipal water source. The results indicated that water quality was sufficiently high to merit development of Agana Springs as a freshwater resource. The chemi...

T. L. Smalley W. J. Zolan

1981-01-01

211

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other...Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers...

2009-10-01

212

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other...Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers...

2010-10-01

213

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65 Transportation Other...Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers...

2013-10-01

214

Two Springs and a Pendulum Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Physlet-based simulation where you can compare the motion of one block that oscillates on a horizontal spring to a second block on another spring, and/or compare those motions to the motion of a simple pendulum.

Duffy, Andrew

2009-10-21

215

Composition of pore and spring waters from Baby Bare: global implications of geochemical fluxes from a ridge flank hydrothermal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warm hydrothermal springs were discovered on Baby Bare, which is an isolated basement outcrop on 3.5 Ma-old crust on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We have sampled these spring waters from a manned submersible, along with associated sediment pore waters from 48 gravity and piston cores. Systematic variations in the chemical composition of these waters indicate

C. Geoffrey Wheat; Michael J. Mottl

2000-01-01

216

Effective Mass of an Oscillating Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an experimental method to obtain the effective mass of an unloaded oscillating spring. We measure the period "T"("n") of the partial springs that result when hanging "n" of the total "N" coils of a given spring. Data are correlated with the expectation of a simple model for "T"("n") that takes into account the effective mass of the…

Rodriguez, Eduardo E.; Gesnouin, Gabriel A.

2007-01-01

217

RUNNING SPRINGS: SPEED AND ANIMAL SIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find

CLAIRE T. FARLEY; JAMES GLASHEEN; THOMAS A. MCMAHON

1993-01-01

218

Effects of Nutrients on Spring Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The relationship between nutrients and spring ecosystem structure and function primarily focuses on the state-wide increase in spring nitrate concentrations derived from anthropogenic sources and the concurrent observed visual decline of these ecosystems. However, the apparent correlation between increased nitrate loading and declining aesthetic appearance of spring ecosystems has only anecdotally provided evidence for a causative relationship. Organism-level studies,

Robert L. Knight; Sky K. Notestein

219

Water quality modelling of Jadro spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enablestheentiresurfacepollutiontobetransferredfastandwithoutfiltrationintogroundwatersprings.A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs

J. Margeta; I. Fistani

2004-01-01

220

Triangular Springs for Modeling Non-Linear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a formal connexion between springs and continuum mechanics in the context of one- dimensional and two-dimensional elasticity. In a first stage, the equivalence between tensile springs and the finite element discretization of stretching energy on planar curves is established. Furthermore, when considering a quadratic strain function of stretch, we introduce a new type of springs called tensile

Membranes H. Delingette

221

Mars in Early Northern Spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In April 2003, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) operations team completed the validation and archiving of MOC data acquired between February and July 2002. This was a period that included the end of northern winter and the start of spring in that hemisphere. This composite of MOC daily global images, acquired in early May 2002, shows what the planet looked like in early northern spring. The retreating north polar seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap is seen at the top of this view. Other white features in the image are clouds of water ice crystals in the martian atmosphere. The left half of this picture shows the Tharsis region, which includes several very large volcanoes. Olympus Mons, the largest martian volcano, is as wide as the Hawaiian Island chain is long; it is the dark, somewhat circular feature at the far left. Toward the lower right, the system of deep Valles Marineris chasms can be seen.

2003-01-01

222

FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

Beard, L. S.; Ellis, C. E.

1984-01-01

223

Archaeal and bacterial community analysis of several Yellowstone National Park hot springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are home to a diverse assemblage of microorganisms. Culture-independent studies have significantly expanded our understanding of the diversity of both Bacteria and Archaea present in YNP springs as well as the geochemical and ecological controls on communities. While the ecological analysis of Bacteria among the physicochemically heterogenous springs of YNP has been previously conducted, less is known about the extent of diversity of Archaeal communities and the chemical and ecological controls on their populations. Here we report a culture-independent analysis of 31 hot spring archaeal and bacterial communities of YNP springs using next generation sequencing. We found the phylogenetic diversity of Archaea to be generally comparable to that of co-occurring bacterial communities although overall, in the springs we investigated, diversity was higher for Bacteria than Archaea. Chemical and physical controls were similar for both domains with pH correlating most strongly with community composition. Community differences reflected the partitioning of taxonomic groups in low or high pH springs for both domains. Results will be discussed in a geochemical and ecological context.

Colman, D. R.; Takacs-Vesbach, C. D.

2012-12-01

224

Hydrogeophysical evidence for ground water mixing at Freeling Spring Group, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. As part of the Australian National Water Commission's (NWC) GAB Project, research is being conducted to understand the aquifer including studying the discharge of springs and determining flow paths of the aquifer. Water sampling at springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and waters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Nine springs were used to evaluate fluid chemistry of the Freeling Spring Group. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site. The ERI data, which extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically, indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models. Regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. The chemistry of spring water samples indicates that the water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture of waters from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing at the site. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a structural feature in the Peake and Dennison Ranges and that the spring water maintains a strong PD signature even well east of the fault zone.

Dailey, Meghan Kathleen Marie

225

A Test for Airborne Dispersal of Thermophilic Bacteria from Hot Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Physical and chemical,barriers separate individual terrestrial hot springs and their affiliated communities,of thermophilic bacteria. However, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons suggest that seemingly identical or closely related bacterial species are found in multiple hot springs that are separated by distances that range from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. To investigate whether this dispersal could result from airborne

George T. Bonheyo; Jorge Frias-Lopez; Bruce W. Fouke

226

Supplemental data from the Ennis and other thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana, 1978-1980  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogeologic data were collected principally during 1978 to 1980 in eight hot-spring areas, in the Marysville geothermal test well, in the Butte mine and in the Bitterroot and Missoula River valleys to provide a basis for evaluating the geothermal potential of the areas. Measurements are tabulated for subsurface temperatures, water levels, rates of flow, and the chemical composition of water and gas in wells and test holes. Most of the data are for the area near Ennis Hot Springs.

Leonard, R.B.; Wood,W.A.

1980-10-01

227

Microscopic Physical Biomarkers in Carbonate Hot Springs: Implications in the Search for Life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms—submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72°C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In

Carlton C. Allen; Fred G. Albert; Henry S. Chafetz; Joan Combie; Catherine R. Graham; Thomas L. Kieft; Steven J. Kivett; David S. McKay; Andrew Steele; Anne E. Taunton; Michael R. Taylor; Kathie L. Thomas-Keprta; Frances Westall

2000-01-01

228

Spring water quality and usability in the Mount Cameroon area revealed by hydrogeochemistry.  

PubMed

Groundwater is the only reliable water resource for drinking, domestic, and agricultural purposes for the people living in the Mount Cameroon area. Hydrogeochemical and R-mode factor analysis were used to identify hydrogeochemical processes controlling spring water quality and assess its usability for the above uses. Main water types in the study area are Ca-Mg-HCO(3) and Na-HCO(3). This study reveals that three processes are controlling the spring water quality. CO(2)-driven silicate weathering and reverse cation exchange are the most important processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the spring waters. While tropical oceanic monsoon chloride-rich/sulfate-rich rainwater seems to affect spring water chemistry at low-altitude areas, strong correlations exist between major ions, dissolved silica and the altitude of springs. In general, the spring waters are suitable for drinking and domestic uses. Total hardness (TH) values indicate a general softness of the waters, which is linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Based on Na %, residual sodium carbonate, sodium adsorption ratio, and the USSL classification, the spring waters are considered suitable for irrigation. Though there is wide spread use of chemical fertilizers and intense urban settlements at the lower flanks of the volcano, anthropogenic activities for now seem to have little impact on the spring water quality. PMID:22539220

Ako, Andrew Ako; Shimada, Jun; Hosono, Takahiro; Kagabu, Makoto; Ayuk, Akoachere Richard; Nkeng, George Elambo; Eyong, Gloria Eneke Takem; Fouepe Takounjou, Alain L

2012-10-01

229

Chlorine-36, bromide, and the origin of spring water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Natural ratios of chlorine-36 (36Cl) to stable chlorine (i.e., 36Cl/Cl ?? 10-15) vary in shallow groundwater of the United States from about 50 in coastal areas to about 1400 in the northern Rocky Mountains. Ratios lower than these indicate the presence of chloride (Cl-) that has been isolated from the atmosphere for hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer. Higher ratios, which can exceed 5000, usually originate from fallout from testing thermonuclear devices in the western Pacific in the 1950s. Natural mass ratios of chloride to bromide (Cl-/Br-) in precipitation vary in the United States from about 250 in coastal areas to about 50 in the north-central states. Lower ratios may suggest contamination from human sources. Higher ratios, which may exceed 2000, commonly reflect the dissolution of halite. Seawater has a Cl-/Br- ratio of 290. Both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios have been measured in 21 samples of spring water collected from springs in 10 different states. Brackish water from Saratoga Springs area in New York has low values for both 36Cl and Cl-/Br- ratios. This indicates that a large component of the water has a very deep origin. Brackish water from Alexander Springs in Florida has a low 36Cl ratio but a high Cl-/Br- ratio similar to seawater. This suggests the addition of ancient seawater that may be trapped in the aquifer. Big Spring in Iowa discharges water with a very high Cl-/Br- ratio but a moderate 36Cl ratio. The high ratio of Cl-/Br- may be produced by dissolution of road salt or agricultural chemicals. Of the 21 springs sampled, only 10 appeared to have potable water not significantly affected by human activity. Chlorine-36 from testing of nuclear devices is still being flushed out of four of the spring systems that were sampled. Thus, more than 45 years have passed since 36Cl was introduced into the aquifers feeding the springs and the systems, as yet, have not been purged. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

Davis, S. N.; Cecil, L. D.; Zreda, M.; Moysey, S.

2001-01-01

230

Volusia Blue Spring - A Hydrological Treasure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs are natural openings in the ground through which water beneath the surface discharges into hydrologic features such as lakes, rivers, or the ocean. The beautiful springs and spring rivers are among Florida's most valued natural resources; their gemlike refreshing waters have been a focal point of life from prehistoric times to the present (2008). The steady flow of freshwater at a nearly constant water temperature attracted animals now long absent from Florida's landscape. Fossil remains and human artifacts, discovered by divers from many spring runs, attest to the importance of springs to the State's earliest inhabitants. Explorers of Florida, from Ponce de Leon to John and William Bartram and others, often mentioned the springs that were scattered across central and northern Florida. As colonists and settlers began to inhabit Florida, springs continued to be the focus of human activity, becoming sites of missions, towns, and steamboat landings.

German, Edward R.

2008-01-01

231

DHS Summary Report -- Robert Weldon  

SciTech Connect

This summer I worked on benchmarking the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fission multiplicity capability used in the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX. This work involved running simulations and then comparing the simulation results with experimental experiments. Outlined in this paper is a brief description of the work completed this summer, skills and knowledge gained, and how the internship has impacted my planning for the future. Neutron multiplicity counting is a neutron detection technique that leverages the multiplicity emissions of neutrons from fission to identify various actinides in a lump of material. The identification of individual actinides in lumps of material crossing our boarders, especially U-235 and Pu-239, is a key component for maintaining the safety of the country from nuclear threats. Several multiplicity emission options from spontaneous and induced fission already existed in MCNPX 2.4.0. These options can be accessed through use of the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a physics model for the simulation of neutron and gamma ray emission from fission and photofission that was included in MCNPX 2.7.B as an undocumented feature and then was documented in MCNPX 2.7.C. The LLNL multiplicity capability provided a different means for MCNPX to simulate neutron and gamma-ray distributions for neutron induced, spontaneous and photonuclear fission reactions. The original testing on the model for implementation into MCNPX was conducted by Gregg McKinney and John Hendricks. The model is an encapsulation of measured data of neutron multiplicity distributions from Gwin, Spencer, and Ingle, along with the data from Zucker and Holden. One of the founding principles of MCNPX was that it would have several redundant capabilities, providing the means of testing and including various physics packages. Though several multiplicity sampling methodologies already existed within MCNPX, the LLNL fission multiplicity was included to provide a separate capability for computing multiplicity as well as including several new features not already included in MCNPX. These new features include: (1) prompt gamma emission/multiplicity from neutron-induced fission; (2) neutron multiplicity and gamma emission/multiplicity from photofission; and (3) an option to enforce energy correlation for gamma neutron multiplicity emission. These new capabilities allow correlated signal detection for identifying presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Therefore, these new capabilities help meet the missions of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), which is tasked with developing nuclear detection strategies for identifying potential radiological and nuclear threats, by providing new simulation capability for detection strategies that leverage the new available physics in the LLNL multiplicity capability. Two types of tests were accomplished this summer to test the default LLNL neutron multiplicity capability: neutron-induced fission tests and spontaneous fission tests. Both cases set the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card to 5 (i.e. use LLNL multiplicity). The neutron-induced fission tests utilized a simple 0.001 cm radius sphere where 0.0253 eV neutrons were released at the sphere center. Neutrons were forced to immediately collide in the sphere and release all progeny from the sphere, without further collision, using the LCA card, LCA 7j -2 (therefore density and size of the sphere were irrelevant). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific multiplicity did not exceed 0.36%. Neutron-induced fission multiplicities were computed for U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241. The spontaneous fission tests also used the same spherical geometry, except: (1) the LCA card was removed; (2) the density of the sphere was set to 0.001 g/cm3; and (3) instead of emitting a thermal neutron, the PAR keyword was set to PAR=SF. The purpose of the small density was to ensure that the spontaneous fission neutrons would not further interact and induce fissions (i.e. th

Weldon, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

232

Water resources of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 1,000-square-mile Warm Springs Indian Reservation in north-central Oregon were obtained and evaluated. The area is bounded on the west by the crest of the Cascade Range and on the south and east by the Metolius and Deschutes Rivers. The mountainous western part is underlain by young volcanic rocks, and the plateaus and valleys of the eastern part are underlain by basalt, tuff, sand, and gravel of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. There are numerous springs, some developed for stock use, and about 50 domestic and community wells; yields are small, ranging from less than 1 to as much as 25 gallons per minute. Chemical quality of most ground water is suitable for stock or human consumption and for irrigation. Average flows of the Warm Springs River, Metolius River, and Deschutes River are 440, 1,400, and 4,040 cubic feet per second (cfs), respectively. Shitike Creek, which has an average flow of 108 cfs had a peak of 4,000 cfs in January 1974. Most streams have fewer than 100 milligrams per liter (mg/liter) of dissolved solids. Chemical and biological quality of the mountain lakes is also good; of 10 lakes studied, all had fewer than 50 mg/liter of dissolved solids and none had measurable fecal coliform bacteria. (Woodard-USGS)

Robison, J. H.; Laenen, Antonius

1976-01-01

233

Spring-force measuring device  

SciTech Connect

A device is described for measuring the spring-force of resilient spacer projections set into spacer grids of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies to push fuel rods surrounded by spacer meshes against at least two oppositely disposed rigid spacer projections. It includes a force measuring plug having a diameter equal to the diameter of a fuel rod to be fixed in the spacer grid, and a flexible beam integral with the force measuring plug. The flexible beam has a free end in contact with a first resilient spacer projection to be measured, and another end firmly connected to the force measuring plug and has at least one wire strain gage disposed thereon.

Bezold, H.; Steven, J.

1981-01-27

234

Florida Springs: Protecting Nature's Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational Web site from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection offers an in-depth exploration of Florida's freshwater springs and the aquifer that supports them. The site includes many informal (and highly visual) learning opportunities, such as an animated demonstration of the hydrologic cycle and classroom lesson plans based on Web site content. The four lessons plans (one each for grades 1-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) emphasize ecosystem interconnectivity and how human activity impacts groundwater resources.

2002-01-01

235

CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

Matti, Jonathan, C.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

236

The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar was used in this study to help identify ground-surface deformation and locate structures such as faults that may affect groundwater movement. Analysis of 18 interferograms representing time periods ranging from 35 to 595 days between October 2003 and September 2005 indicates that little deformation (less than 0.6 inches) occurred in the study area for the time periods repr

Edited by: Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

2011-01-01

237

Discharge and water quality of springs in Roan and Parachute Creek basins, northwestern Colorado, 1981-83  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report is a compilation and interpretation of discharge, water-quality, and radiochemical data collected at springs in the oil-shale regions of Roan and Parachute Creek basins, Colorado, from 1981 to 1983. Springs located on upland plateaus and ridges are mixed-cation bicarbonate water types with 216 to 713 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Calcite and dolomite dissolution are dominant chemical reactions in upland springs. Springs located in the canyons contain greater concentrations of sodium and sulfate and have 388 to 3,970 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Gypsum dissolution is an important chemical reaction in canyon spring water. The only trace constituents with mean concentration greater than 10 micrograms per liter in the study area were barium, boron, lithium and strontium. None of the canyon springs investigated represent discharge from the lower aquifer in the Green River Formation. Analysis of chemical and discharge data for streams in the Roan Creek drainage showed evidence of lower-aquifer discharge into the canyons. Springs located near an oil-shale mine or processing plant could be used for monitoring groundwater quality and quantity. Bicarbonate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, lithium, mercury, ammonia, and organic carbon may be chemical indicators of mine or process-water contamination of shallow aquifers near an oil-shale plant or mine. (USGS)

Butler, D. L.

1985-01-01

238

Anti-infective Potential of Hot-spring Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Aim and Background: Antibiotic resistance currently spans most of the known classes of natural and synthetic antibiotics; limiting our options for treatment of infections and demanding discovery of new classes of antibiotics. Much effort is being directed towards developing new antibiotics to overcome this problem. Success in getting novel chemical entities from microbial sources depends essentially on novelty of its habitat. The diversity of geographical location decides the type of micro-flora. In the past various terrestrial and aqueous microorganisms have provided several novel bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. Hot-springs have not been as extensively exploited as other terrestrial resources. However, perseverance with such microbes augment the probability of getting novel bioactive compounds. Materials and Methods: Hot-springs soil samples were collected from Hot-springs in Maharashtra. Actinomycetes and other eubacteria were isolated from these soil samples by selective methods and purified. They were classified based on gram's nature and morphology. Six representative morphological strains were screened for their anti-infective potential by agar well diffusion method as reported by Nathan P. et al (1974). The bioactivity of the active microbes was confirmed. Results: Seventy three strains of bacteria encompassing eight actinomycetes, and 65 eubacteria were isolated and purified. Among the actives eubacteria PPVWK106001 showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing both gram positive and gram negative bacterial test models. The extract was active against resistant bacteria such as MRSA and VREs. Activity was very specific as there was no activity against fungi even at 100 fold concentration. The active principle was extractable in butanol. Conclusions: The study showed that Hot-springs exhibit diverse bacteria and it serves as potential reservoirs for bacteria of antimicrobial importance with diverse facet of activities. Thus Hot-springs microbes have ability to address issue of resistant bugs.

Pednekar, Pallavi; Jain, Roopesh; Mahajan, Girish

2011-01-01

239

Boston University Physics Applets: Work by Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is an interactive physics simulation relating to work done by a spring. As a spring is stretched to its elastic limit, the movement is recorded on Force vs. Position and Work vs. Position graphs. Users may view the graphs in stepped motion to see how the position of the spring is related to the amount of work done. This item is part of a collection of similar simulation-based activities developed for students of introductory physics.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-22

240

The paradoxical asymptotic status of massless springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most fundamental problem in the entire theory of oscillations is to describe the motion of a mass point, the tip mass, attached to a spring. Within the classical theory of particle mechanics, the spring is regarded as massless, so that it serves only to transmit a force to the tip mass. This force typically depends on the position and velocity of the tip mass in perhaps a nonlinear way. In this case, the motion is governed by an autonomous ordinary differental equation. On the other hand, if the spring has mass, then its motion as a continuum is coupled to that of the tip mass. If the spring has a nonlinear constitutive equation, then the analysis of the resulting motion, governed by partial differential equations, can be formidable indeed. This paper studies the motion of both tip mass and spring when the mass density of the spring is small and when its constitutive equation describes nonlinearly elastic and viscoelastic materials. Although these constitutive equations do not account for past history, it is nevertheless proven that in the formal limit as the spring's mass density goes to zero the equation for the tip mass is an ordinary differential equation for elastic springs, but is generally not so for viscoelastic springs.

Antman, Stuart S.

1987-03-01

241

Hydrogeochemical constrains from U activity ratios measured in spring waters: Example of the granitic Ringelbach catchment (Vosges Mountain, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a detailed analysis of major element concentrations and U and Sr isotope ratios in water samples from the main springs located in the small (0.36 km2) granitic catchment (Ringelbach creek Catchment, Vosges, France), monthly collected during two hydrological years from October 2004 to September 2006. The data highlights that at a scale of a small watershed, large spatial variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions (Sr-U) of the spring waters on granitic lithology can occur along with significant temporal variations in the elemental concentrations and elemental concentration ratios of the waters for a given spring. The increase in the alkalinity, the major element (Na, Ca and Mg) concentrations, and especially the U activity ratios of the granitic spring waters with decreasing elevation of the spring in the watershed certainly indicate that the length of the water pathway within the bedrock is a primary parameter to take into account for explaining the geochemical characteristics of the granitic spring waters. The modeling of the (234U/238U) activity ratio variations in spring waters using a simple stationary 1D reactive transport model that considers dissolution, precipitation and alpha recoil allows for the determination of the dissolution rate of the granitic bedrock and the water residence time for the granitic springs within the catchment. These results highlight that the analysis of different springs emerging along the slope of a single watershed enables a simple method to characterize the different stages of water evolution along the water pathway.

Chabaux, François; Schaffhauser, Thiebaud; lucas, Yann; Ambroise, Bruno; Fritz, Bertrand; Reuschle, Thierry; Stille, Peter

2014-05-01

242

1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the Springs of the South and West by Moorman) No date 'MAP OF ROUTES AND DISTANCES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS' - White Sulphur Springs, U.S. Route 60, White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, WV

243

Rotational Hysteresis of Exchange-Spring Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We highlight our experimental studies and micromagnetic simulations of the rotational hysteresis in exchange-spring magnets. Magneto-optical imaging and torque magnetometry measurements for SmCo/Fe exchange-spring films with uniaxial in-plane anisotropy s...

J. S. Jiang R. D. Shull S. D. Bader H. Kaper A. J. Shapiro

2002-01-01

244

1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report  

SciTech Connect

This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Dirkes, R.L.

1990-12-01

245

Bog Hot Springs, Nevada: the geothermal cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bog Hot Springs are located in one of the high desert valleys of northern Nevada below the Pueblo Mountains. The flow of the springs is estimated to be 2,500 gpm. Temperatures range from 125 to 212°F. (JGB)

1977-01-01

246

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 3, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 2000 Cancer Information Services If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a toll-free

247

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 1, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office What is the PLCO Trial?Why volunteer?Screening testsWhy two study groups? From Lab to Life

248

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 Cancer Information Services If you have a question about cancer, call and speak with a trained specialist at NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS). The CIS operates a toll-free

249

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet Amy SubarMeet Richard Hayes From Lab to Life Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Clinical Trials

250

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 3, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS Oops! We missed putting this issue up on the web. We should get it up by the end of February 2001. Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet the PLCO

251

Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that parents…

Edwards, Jennifer

2012-01-01

252

Paradoxical Asymptotic Status of Massless Springs,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most fundamental problem in the entire theory of oscillations is to describe the motion of a mass point, the tip mass, attached to a spring. Within the classical theory of particle mechanics, the spring is regarded as massless, so that it serves only ...

S. S. Antman

1987-01-01

253

Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

1978-01-01

254

IA Tuesday Workshop Materials, Spring 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All Workshop Materials during Spring 2010 for printing and viewing. Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

Olsen, Mr.

2010-01-19

255

Spring and surface water quality of the Cyprus ophiolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of surface, spring and borehole waters associated with the ophiolite rocks of Cyprus shows five broad water types (1) Mg-HCO3, (2) Na-SO4-Cl-HCO3, (3) Na-Ca-Cl-SO4-OH-CO3, (4) Na-Cl-SO4 and (5) Ca-SO4. The waters represent a progression in chemical reactivity from surface waters that evolve within a groundwater setting due to hydrolysis of the basic\\/ultrabasic rock as modified by CO2-weathering. An

Colin Neal; Paul Shand

2002-01-01

256

Hekla cold springs (Iceland): groundwater mixing with magmatic gases.  

PubMed

We have analysed the chemical and stable isotope compositions of four spring waters situated just northwest of the Hekla volcano, where cold water emerges from the base of the lava flows. The stable isotope ratios of water (H, O), dissolved inorganic carbon (C) and sulphate (S) were used to determine whether magmatic gases are mixing with the groundwater. The waters can be characterised as Na-HCO(3) type. The results show that deep-seated gases mix with groundwater, substantially affecting the concentration of solutes and the isotopic composition of dissolved carbon and sulphate. PMID:20582787

Holm, Nils G; Gislason, Sigurour R; Sturkell, Erik; Torssander, Peter

2010-06-01

257

Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs are naturally occurring features that convey excess ground water to the land surface; they represent a transition from ground water to surface water. Water issues through one opening, multiple openings, or numerous seeps in the rock or soil. The database of this report provides information about springs and spring flow in Texas including spring names, identification numbers, location, and, if available, water source and use. This database does not include every spring in Texas, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hard-copy data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), and Capitol Environmental Services.

Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Reece, Brian D.

2003-01-01

258

Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

1979-01-01

259

Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are probably limited in extent, compared to geothermal fields now being used elsewhere in the world. Only the Bell Island and Bailey Bay sites now offer any potential for generation of electricity; these sites could also be used for a variety of direct uses such as space heating, wood or lumber processing, and perhaps aquaculture. The other sites have less potential but could be used locally for space heating or agriculture enhancement.

Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

1980-06-01

260

Chemical tracing of salinity sources in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Kinneret is a freshwater lake in northern Israel that receives a major part of its salt input from unmonitored springs that discharge through the lake's bottom. We attempt to characterize the nature of these springs by estimating their chemical composition. While the springs around Lake Kinneret are subject to wide spatial and temporal variations in their ionic concentrations, specific

Yehoshua Kolodny; Amitai Katz; Abraham Starinsky; Tamar Moise; Ehud Simon

1999-01-01

261

Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

Schoen, R.; White, D. E.; Hemley, J. J.

1974-01-01

262

Radon behavior in springs and wells around Cuitzeo lake, Lerma river basin, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon was determined in springs and wells from urban and agricultural zones around Cuitzeo lake, in the Lerma river basin, Mexico. Major and trace elements were also studied in the water samples. The measurement techniques included the liquid scintillation method for 222 Rn, conventional chemical analysis for major components and ICP-MS for metallic trace elements. The average radon concentration values

R. Alfaro; V. Martínez; N. Segovia; P. Peña; M. B. E. López; M. A. Armienta; J. Rangel; J. L. Seidel

2002-01-01

263

Geostatistical Evaluation of Spring Water Quality in an Urbanizing Carbonate Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an investigation of the impacts of urbanization on the hydrology and ecology of Valley Creek watershed near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we have analyzed the chemical composition of 110 springs to assess the relative influence of geology and anthropogenic activities on water quality. The 60 km^2 watershed is underlain by productive fractured rock aquifers composed of Cambrian and Ordovician

A. McGinty; C. Welty

2003-01-01

264

Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca.

Diego M. Guido; Kathleen A. Campbell

2011-01-01

265

The limnology of “Swetganga” — A thermal spring of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the limnological investigations of “Swetganga”, one of the thermal springs of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India, have formed the basis of this paper. The samples of water were collected eleven times from the month of September '67 to October '68 at regular intervals for analysis. The physical conditions like depth, temperature and chemical factors like pH, free carbon

B. B. Jana; H. L. Sarkar

1971-01-01

266

Trace element geochemical zoning in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical interaction of thermal brines with reservoir rock in the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area has resulted in the development of distinctive trace element signatures. Geochemical analysis of soil samples, shallow temperature-gradient drill hole cuttings and deep drill hole cuttings provides a three-dimensional perspective of trace element distributions within the system. Distributions of As, Hg and Li provide the clearest

O. D. Christensen; J. N. Moore; R. M. Capuano

1980-01-01

267

Spatiotemporal analysis of spring water ion processes derived from measurements at the Dyle basin in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the study of natural variations and mapping of spatiotemporal spring water ion processes by means of stochastic analysis. Natural variations in space\\/time are the result of the combined effects of the physical, chemical, and topographical laws as well as the uncertainties and heterogeneities underlying the phenomenon under consideration. Maps of the space\\/time distribution of natural processes

G. Christakos; P. Bogaert

1996-01-01

268

A global model study of processes controlling aerosol size distributions in the Arctic spring and summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global chemical transport model (CTM) with size-resolved aerosol microphysics to evaluate our understanding of the processes that control Arctic aerosol, focussing on the seasonal changes in the particle size distribution during the transition from Arctic haze in spring to cleaner conditions in summer. This period presents several challenges for a global model simulation because of changes in

Hannele Korhonen; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Dominick V. Spracklen; David A. Ridley; Johan Ström

2008-01-01

269

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

1993-11-23

270

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

DeMario, Edmund E. (Columbia, SC); Lawson, Charles N. (Columbia, SC)

1993-01-01

271

The Science Teacher: Spring 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews chemistry-related articles published between Summer 2007 and February 2008, in The Science Teacher ( TST ). A new TST column addresses safety-with emphases in reviewed articles on chemical hygiene plans, bloodborne pathogens, ionizing radiation, eyewash and shower stations, electrical safety, and chemical management. In addition, activities for teaching about ionic compounds, an inquiry-based lab and card sorting project on freezing point depressions, and a simulation of Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment are described. Also included is a career focus on a green product chemist. Supplementary JCE articles for these articles and topics are referenced.

Long, Steve

2008-06-01

272

Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

273

Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflo...

M. O. Gary R. H. Gary W. H. Asquith

2008-01-01

274

Physical characteristics and quality of water from selected springs and wells in the Lincoln Point-Bird Island area, Utah Lake, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From February 1991 to October 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Utah Water Conservancy District, investigated the hydrology of the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area in the southeast part of Utah Lake, Utah. The investigation included measurements of the discharge of selected springs and measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of water from selected springs and wells in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area. This report contains data for twenty-one distinct springs in the study area including two springs beneath the surface of Utah Lake at Bird Island. Data from this study, combined with data from previous studies, indicate that the location of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area probably is controlled by fractures that are the result of faulting. Measured discharge of springs in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to 0.84 cubic foot per second. Total discharge in the study area, including known unmeasured springs and seeps, is estimated to be about 5 cubic feet per second. Reported and measured temperatures of water from springs and wells in the Lincoln Point - Bird Island area ranged from 16.0 degrees Celsius to 36.5 degrees Celsius. Dissolved-solids con-centrations ranged from 444 milligrams per liter to 7,932 milligrams per liter, and pH ranged from 6.3 to 8.1. Physical and chemical characteristics of spring and well water from the west side of Lincoln Point were virtually identical to the physical and chemical characteristics of water from the submerged Bird Island springs, indicating a similar source for the water. Water chemistry, isotope analyses, and geothermometer calculations indicate deep circulation of water discharging from the springs and indicate that the source of recharge for the springs at Lincoln Point and Bird Island does not appear to be localized in the LincolnPoint - Bird Island area.

Baskin, R. L.; Spangler, L. E.; Holmes, W. F.

1994-01-01

275

INHALANT ALLERGENS IN PALM SPRINGS, CALIFORNIA  

PubMed Central

Although Palm Springs, California, offers a pleasant desert climate that is often advantageous in treatment of respiratory allergies, physicians should be made aware in referring their patients that definite pollen factors must be taken into consideration in recommending a visit to Palm Springs, and should try to determine the compatibility of their patient's allergic sensitivity pattern and the particular seasonal incidence of pollen concentration in Palm Springs. It is believed that the most important pollens there are those of Bermuda grass, olive tree, mesquite, dicoria, false ragweed, scales, and hymenoclea salsola. A favorable climate alone does not permit a patient to disregard good allergic management.

Stephens, Hugh

1954-01-01

276

Pumping tests of well Campbell et al. No. 2, Gila Hot Springs, Grant County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Well Campbell et al. No. 2 near Gila Hot Springs in southwestern New Mexico (Section 5, Township 13 South, Range 13 West) was pumped for a five-step test and a 48-hour constant-rate test during October 1981. Measurements included depth to water in the pumping well and two observation wells, and discharge rates at the pumping well and two springs. The water level in the pumping well responded during both tests. However, water-level changes in the observation wells were too small for analytical use and discharge rates from the springs showed no change. Chemical analyses of water samples collected from two springs and the pumping well show very similar water chemistries. Estimates of hydraulic properties show transmissivity from 12,000 to 14,000 gpd/ft and a storativity of 0.05. Combining these parameters with well data gives the first-year optimum discharge rate as 50 gpm with 20 feet of drawdown. Pumping this well at 50 gpm for forty years should produce only small water-level changes in wells a few hundred feet away. It would diminish the flow of the springs, and for planning purposes the combined discharge of the springs and well should be considered constant.

Schwab, G.E.; Summers, W.K.; Colpitts, R.M. Jr.; Teuten, C.E.; Young, W.K.

1982-03-01

277

Role of the terrestrial subsurface in shaping geothermal spring microbial communities.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the possibility that dispersal from terrestrial subsurface sources 'seeds' the development of geothermal spring microbial assemblages. We combined microscopy and culture-independent molecular approaches to survey the bacterial diversity of spring source waters in Yellowstone National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park, and Russia's Kamchatka peninsula. Microscopic analysis uncovered clear evidence of microbial cells from spring sources in all three regions. Analysis of source water phylogenetic diversity identified members of all bacteria groups found previously in downstream sediments, as well as many other phylogenetic groups. Closely related or identical 16S sequences were determined from the source waters of geographically distant, chemically distinct springs, and we found no association between spring water chemistry and microbial diversity. In the source waters of two different Yellowstone springs, we also discovered a phylogenetic group of uncultured Firmicutes never before reported in geothermal habitats that were closely related to uncultured bacteria found in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert. Altogether, our results suggest geothermal features can be connected via the subsurface over long distances and that subsurface sources provide a potentially diverse source of microorganisms for downstream surface mat communities. PMID:23761312

Tin, Sara; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T

2011-08-01

278

Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking Hg speciation with microbial processes. Molecular methods (amplification of environmental DNA using 16S rDNA primers, cloning, denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) screening of clone libraries, and sequencing of representative clones) were used to examine the dominant members of microbial communities in hot springs. Total Hg (THg), monomethylated Hg (MeHg), pH, temperature, and other parameters influential to Hg speciation and microbial ecology are reported for hot springs water and associated microbial mats. Several hot springs indicate the presence of MeHg in microbial mats with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 ng g-1 (dry weight). Concentrations of THg in mats ranged from 4.9 to 120,000 ng g-1 (dry weight). Combined data from surveys of geothermal water, lakes, and streams show that aqueous THg concentrations range from l to 600 ng L-1. Species and concentrations of THg in mats and water vary significantly between hot springs, as do the microorganisms found at each site. ?? 2006.

King, S. A.; Behnke, S.; Slack, K.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Nordstrom, D. K.; Burr, M. D.; Striegl, R. G.

2006-01-01

279

Microscopic Physical Biomarkers in Carbonate Hot Springs: Implications in the Search for Life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms—submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72°C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

Allen, Carlton C.; Albert, Fred G.; Chafetz, Henry S.; Combie, Joan; Graham, Catherine R.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Kivett, Steven J.; McKay, David S.; Steele, Andrew; Taunton, Anne E.; Taylor, Michael R.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Westall, Frances

2000-09-01

280

Spring Break-Weathering Homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to photograph something that shows either physical or chemical weathering. They must be in the photograph for purposes of scale. They must then write up their description of the weathering feature and explain the actual weathering processes. This assignment can also be expanded to include mass wasting and mass wasting prevention.

Farthing, Dori

281

Spatial distribution and temporal variation of 3He\\/ 4He in hot spring gas released from Unzen volcanic area, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the first phreatic explosion on 17 November 1990, hot spring gases were collected periodically over the next 10years for 3He\\/4He isotopic ratio and chemical analyses from three hot springs (Obanma, Unzen and Shimabara) located around Unzen volcano, Japan. The 3He\\/4He ratios, although showing some scatter at each site, show an increase from west to east (Obama

K. Notsu; S. Nakai; G. Igarashi; J. Ishibashi; T. Mori; M. Suzuki; H. Wakita

2001-01-01

282

Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California  

SciTech Connect

Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 l/s. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 l/s, which corresponds to about 8.2 {times} 10{sup 4} kJ/s of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-10

283

Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s-1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 L s-1, which corresponds to about 8.2 ?? 104 kJ s-1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified. -Authors

Mariner, R. H.; Presser, T. S.; Evans, W. C.; Pringle, M. K. W.

1990-01-01

284

Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices  

EIA Publications

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

Information Center

2008-04-04

285

1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water sa...

R. L. Dirkes

1990-01-01

286

Spring balance evaluation of the ischiocavernosus muscle.  

PubMed

We studied the voluntary contractile activity of the ischiocavernosus muscle (ICM) in 21 sexually potent and 97 erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects using a spring balance. A strap was placed around the coronal grove of the glans penis and tensioned with the spring balance. Subjects were asked and encouraged to contract the ICM against the spring balance. We evaluated the length of stroke, duration of contraction, and maximum contractile force. The length of stroke, duration of contraction, and maximum contractile force showed statistically significant differences between potent and ED subjects. Diagnosed psychogenic ED and arteriogenic ED showed higher contractile activity than cavernous ED and neurogenic ED. Our results corresponded to those of previous studies that have urged consideration of the role of the ICM during the process of erection in animal experiments and in human electrophysiological studies. The spring balance evaluation is a useful, inexpensive method for evaluating the ICM. PMID:11890517

Kawanishi, Y; Kishimoto, T; Kimura, K; Yamaguchi, K; Nakatuji, H; Kojima, K; Yamamoto, A; Numata, A

2001-10-01

287

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Courses and Workshops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information regarding courses and workshops available at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. These courses range in biological topics and bring in invited lecturers renowned in their specific field.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (1 Bungtown Rd.)

2012-07-24

288

Pneumatic Spring with Hydraulic Shock Absorber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent describes a pneumatic spring with a hydraulic shock absorber, principally for heavy automobiles. This device is distinguished by the fact that, in order to regulate the oscillation frequency, it is provided with an annular counterpressure cham...

Z. L. Sirotkin L. I. Dobrykh A. A. Khodasevich

1969-01-01

289

Tensile strength testing of Topopah Spring tuff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare two techniques for determining the tensile strength of nonlithophysal, welded tuff of the Topopah Spring Member and determine which technique should be used for site characterization. Tensile strengths were...

L. W. Teufel M. J. McNamee

1991-01-01

290

Intra-Urethral Valve with Integral Spring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to prosthetic urethral valves for controlling urinary continence. More particularly, the invention relates to a prosthetic urethral valve having an integral spring member which may be installed totally within a patient's urethra with...

S. Leighton

1990-01-01

291

How sick is the Spring AGU Meeting?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I confess—I missed Spring AGU this year. But who can be surprised? After all, I am in the Tectonophysics Section, and almost none of us showed up.Recently skimming the Spring 2000 AGU abstract volume, I was stunned to see that the Tectonophysics abstracts constituted only a bit more than twelve pages—slightly less than Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, and a touch more than Geodesy. What has become of us?

Goff, John A.

292

The influence of local spring temperature variance on temperature sensitivity of spring phenology.  

PubMed

The impact of climate warming on the advancement of plant spring phenology has been heavily investigated over the last decade and there exists great variability among plants in their phenological sensitivity to temperature. However, few studies have explicitly linked phenological sensitivity to local climate variance. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the strength of phenological sensitivity declines with increased local spring temperature variance, by synthesizing results across ground observations. We assemble ground-based long-term (20-50 years) spring phenology database (PEP725 database) and the corresponding climate dataset. We find a prevalent decline in the strength of phenological sensitivity with increasing local spring temperature variance at the species level from ground observations. It suggests that plants might be less likely to track climatic warming at locations with larger local spring temperature variance. This might be related to the possibility that the frost risk could be higher in a larger local spring temperature variance and plants adapt to avoid this risk by relying more on other cues (e.g., high chill requirements, photoperiod) for spring phenology, thus suppressing phenological responses to spring warming. This study illuminates that local spring temperature variance is an understudied source in the study of phenological sensitivity and highlight the necessity of incorporating this factor to improve the predictability of plant responses to anthropogenic climate change in future studies. PMID:24357518

Wang, Tao; Ottlé, Catherine; Peng, Shushi; Janssens, Ivan A; Lin, Xin; Poulter, Benjamin; Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe

2014-05-01

293

Causes of fluctuations in the rate of discharge of Clear Lake Springs, Millard County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Clear Lake Springs in southeastern Millard County are the source of water for the maintenance of the Clear Lakes Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Seasonal declines in the rate of discharge were noted during 1959-60. Fluctuations in the flow of Clear Lake Springs are caused both by natural variations in the quantity of recharge and by variations in the quantity of water pumped from an increasing number of irrigation wells in the southern four districts of adjacent Pavant Valley. The springs are the principal discharge point for an aquifer in a complex of highly permeable basalt flows. Water enters the basalt aquifer as direct recharge from precipitation, as interformational leakage from a contiguous artesian aquifer in lake and alluvial sediments, and as infiltration of infrequent flood runoff and of unconsumed irrigation water in the lowlands of Pavant Valley. A hydrograph of the flow of the springs indicates that precipitation on the basalt outcrop recharges the aquifer; this conclusion is strengthened by fluctuations in the chemical quality of the spring water. The effects due to precipitation, however, are partly masked by the larger effects due to the pumping of ground water for irrigation in southern Pavant Valley. Withdrawal of ground water from wells in the southern four districts causes seasonal reductions in the flow of the springs by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wells and the springs. Statistical analysis of three parameters--the (1) October-April precipitation, (2) annual pumpage, and (3) annual lowest rate of spring discharge--shows that a departure of 1 inch from the normal October-April precipitation at Fillmore is accompanied by a change of 0.41 cubic feet per second in the low flow of Clear Lake Springs. Similarly, a departure of 1,000 acre-feet from the 1961-64 average annual pumpage causes the low flow of the springs to change by 0.23 cubic feet per second. The average annual volume of discharge from Clear Lake Springs during 1960-64 was 14,900 acre-feet. The equation derived from the statistical analysis shows that of the average annual discharge, 3,000 acre-feet of water was derived from precipitation on the basalt, 9,000 acre-feet, from underflow from Pavant Valley, and 2,900 acre-feet, from undetermined sources.

Mower, R. W.

1967-01-01

294

Spring Flooding on the Mississippi  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mighty Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca, Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico, is approximately 3780 kilometers long and has flooded many times during its history. In April 2001, residents of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois once again battled near-record water levels. These Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images, acquired one month apart, illustrate the effects of snowmelt and heavy rainfall on areas traversed by the upper Mississippi River.

Each image in this pair covers an identical 195-kilometer x 339-kilometer area. The one on the left was acquired March 26, 2001 (Terra orbit 6762), and the one on the right is from April 27 (Terra orbit 7228). Both are false-color composites, displaying data from the near-infrared band of the instrument's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera as red; the green band of the nadir camera as green; and the red band of the 26-degree forward camera as blue. Data from the forward-viewing camera is included to enhance the reflectivity of water. The near-infrared data provide a good indicator of the abundance of vegetation since plants are highly reflective in this spectral region. The redder color of the right-hand image is due to increased vegetation cover brought about by wet conditions and the onset of spring.

Locations of major cities are marked on the left-hand image; major rivers are marked on the right. The portion of the Mississippi River captured in these views extends from just north of La Crosse, Wisconsin to south of Davenport, Iowa. The Wisconsin River joins the Mississippi just below Prairie du Chien. On March 26, snow can clearly be seen over much of the northern portions of the left-hand image. At this point in time, the snow had already begun to melt and the Wapsipinicon River was 52 centimeters above flood stage at De Witt, Iowa (between Clinton and Davenport). By mid-April heavy rainfall swelled the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers. In the early morning of April 25, two days before the right-hand image was acquired, the Mississippi River crested in Davenport, Iowa at 680 centimeters, slightly below the level reached in the record-setting flood of 1993.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

295

Relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot springs usually are situated in the volcanic belt of a convergent zone and are utilized as indicators of geothermal potential in an area. Characteristics of hot springs in Japan have been examined in order to understand the relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields. The characteristics examined include locations of hot springs, their temperature, density of distribution, flow rate,

Hemendra R. Acharya

1989-01-01

296

Design of nonlinear springs for wideband magnetic vibration energy harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares four nonlinear springs for the micro power generator (MPG) application which convert low level vibration energy into electrical power. The magnet-spring system decides the generator's resonant frequency, and this work proves that the spring's nonlinearity level influences the width of the operating frequency. The four different planar springs have the same outer\\/inner dimensions and the same linear

Linghe Sui; Xuhan Dai; Xiaolin Zhao; Peihong Wang; Hailin Zhou

2011-01-01

297

Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs and La Abra Plain area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quitobaquito Springs, in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the south end of the northwestward-trending Quitobaquito Hills, are less than 0.25 mile north of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. The National Park Service is concerned that the natural flow from Quitobaquito Springs might be reduced by ground-water withdrawals in the adjacent State of Sonora, Mexico. Quitobaquito and other nearby springs flow from a highly fractured granite that forms the Quitobaquito Hills. Fractures in the granitic intrusive rocks provide conduits for ground water to flow from an alluvial flow system along Aguajita Wash to a line of springs on the southwest side of Quitobaquito Hills. The chemical composition of water from all the springs is similar. Carbon-14 analysis of water from Quitobaquito Springs indicates that the spring water probably is between 500 and several thousand years old. Discharge at Quitobaquito Springs averaged 28 gallons per minute and ranged from 15 to 40 gallons per minute for 1981-92. Rainfall at two gages in the area of recharge to the northeast of Quitobaquito Hills averaged 6.6 inches per year during the 11-year monitoring program ending in September 1992. The lack of correlation between spring discharge and local rainfall indicates that local annual recharge may be small relative to the total quantity of ground water in storage. Surface-geophysical data indicate that a thin alluvial aquifer overlies the shallow crystalline rocks northeast of Quitobaquito Hills along Aguajita Wash. Results of the study indicate that the ground-water flow system along Aguajita Wash provides a source of water to the springs and may be hydraulically connected to the ground-water system that is pumped for agricultural purposes in Mexico. The altitude and low permeability of the granite bedrock near the international boundary, however, may provide a barrier to and (or) delay the effect of a northwestward propagation of water- level declines caused by pumping near the Rio Sonoyta in Mexico.

Carruth, R. L.

1996-01-01

298

Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic and transcriptomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in situ in these ecosystems. [1] Havig et al., 2010. Merging isotopes and community genomics in a siliceous sinter-depositing hot spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences (in press). [2] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3] Hall et al., 2008. Molecular characterization of the diversity and distribution of a thermal spring microbial community using rRNA and metabolic genes. AEM 74:4910-4922. [4] Steunou et al., 2006. In situ analysis of nitrogen fixation and metabolic switching in unicellular thermophilic Cyanobacteria inhabiting hot spring microbial mats. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [5] Boyd et al., 2009. CO2 uptake and fixation by a thermoacidophilic microbial community attached to precipitated sulfur in a geothermal spring. AEM 75:4289-4296.

Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

2010-12-01

299

Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork

Longyear

1980-01-01

300

Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocho?owski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocho?owski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. PMID:21168942

Zelazny, Miros?aw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Ma?ek, Stanis?aw

2011-05-01

301

Convective heat discharge of Wood River group of springs in the vicinity of Crater Lake, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data sets for spring and stream chemistry are combined to estimate convective heat discharge and discharge anomalous amounts of sodium and chloride for the Wood River group of springs south of Crater Lake. The best estimate of heat discharge is 87 MWt based on chloride inventory; this value is 3-5 times the heat input to Crater Lake itself. Anomalous discharges of sodium and chloride are also larger that into Crater Lake. Difference between the chemical and thermal characteristics of the discharge into Crater Lake and those from the Wood River group of springs suggest that the heat sources for the two systems may be different, although both ultimately related to the volcanic system.

Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.; Thompson, J. Michael

1994-01-01

302

Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meters to Quantify Flow From Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are the two largest springs in Texas, are major discharge points for the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, and provide habitat for several Federally listed endangered species that depend on adequate springflows for survival. It is therefore imperative that the Edwards Aquifer Authority have accurate and timely springflow data to guide resource management. Discharge points for Comal Springs and San Marcos Springs are submerged in Landa Lake and in Spring Lake, respectively. Flows from the springs currently (2008) are estimated by the U.S Geological Survey in real time as surface-water discharge from conventional stage-discharge ratings at sites downstream from each spring. Recent technological advances and availability of acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) now provide tools to collect data (stream velocity) related to springflow that could increase accuracy of real-time estimates of the springflows. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, did a study during May 2006 through September 2007 to evaluate ADVMs to quantify flow from Comal and San Marcos Springs. The evaluation was based on two monitoring approaches: (1) placement of ADVMs in important spring orifices - spring run 3 and spring 7 at Comal Springs, and diversion spring at San Marcos Springs; and (2) placement of ADVMs at the nearest flowing streams - Comal River new and old channels for Comal Springs, Spring Lake west and east outflow channels and current (2008) San Marcos River streamflow-gaging site for San Marcos Springs. For Comal Springs, ADVM application at spring run 3 and spring 7 was intended to indicate whether the flows of spring run 3 and spring 7 can be related to total springflow. The findings indicate that velocity data from both discharge features, while reflecting changes in flow, do not reliably show a direct relation to measured streamflow and thus to total Comal Springs flow. ADVMs at the Comal River new channel and old channel sites provide data that potentially could yield more accurate real-time estimates of total Comal Springs flow than streamflow measured at the downstream Comal River site. For San Marcos Springs, the findings indicate shortcomings with ADVM installations at diversion spring and in the west and east outflow channels. However, the accuracy of streamflow measured at the San Marcos River gage as an estimate of real-time San Marcos Springs flow could potentially be increased through use of ADVM data from that site.

Gary, Marcus O.; Gary, Robin H.; Asquith, William H.

2008-01-01

303

Emission control valve with internal spring  

SciTech Connect

This patent describe, with an internal combustion engine, a crankcase gas flow control device located between the engine crankcase and the engine fuel-air induction. It comprises: a hollow housing defining an inlet at one end, a cylindrical flow passage, a diverging orifice passage and an outlet passage; a slender rod extending coaxially through the cylindrical flow passage and the diverging orifice passage; a tubular valve element within the housing and supported about the slender rod thereby allowing axial movement of the valve element along the rod; a coil-type compression spring extending about the rod and within the tubular valve element, one end of the spring fixedly connected to the rod, the other end of the spring bearing against the tubular valve element tending to move it along the rod toward the housing inlet and away from the diverging orifice passage whereby a gas pressure differential produced between the crankcase and the fuel-air induction causes the valve element to move against the spring force and resultantly the gas flows over the exterior of the valve element without interference by the spring thereby preventing turbulence. The housing has a walled elbow portion between the diverging orifice passage and the outlet whereby the downstream end of the rod is supported by the elbow wall.

Betterton, J.T.; Glover, A.H.; McKee, T.S.; Romanczuk, C.S.

1990-03-06

304

Hydrogeology, water quality, and geochemistry of the Rush Springs aquifer, western Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Rush Springs aquifer, in western Oklahoma, is equivalent to the Permian-age Rush Springs Formation. It is composed of very fine-grained to fine-grained sandstone that is massive to highly cross-bedded and is underlain by less-permeable Marlow Formation. Reported irrigation well yields exceed 1,000 gallons per minute; yields reported on 89 drillers' logs ranged from 11 to 850 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 670 to 1,870 feet squared per day. Specific yields for core samples range from 0.13 to 0.34. Estimates of hydraulic conductivities at one site ranged from 1.05 to 5.62 feet per day. The Rush Springs aquifer is recharged by infiltration of precipitation, ranging from 0.2 to more than 2 inches per year. Discharge is primarily to streams and rivers where the Rush Springs aquifer crops. Estimated total withdrawal was 54.7 million gallons per day in 1990. Over 42 million gallons per day, or 77.8 percent of water withdrawn, was used for irrigation of crops. Thirty-five of the 64 wells sampled produced nitrate concentration that equaled or exceeded drinking water standards. Sulfate concentration also exceeds the drinking water standards in some areas. Two major water types occur in the aquifer, a calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type and a calcium sulfate type. Dissolved solids concentrations in water samples from the aquifer ranged from 52 to 1,840 milligrams per liter. The chemical composition of ground water in the Rush Springs aquifer is the result of chemical reactions between the recharge waters and minerals in the overlying soils and rocks in the Rush Springs and Marlow Formations. Saturation indices of minerals were calculated for 64 water-quality analyses using the geochemical computer model WATEQF. Mass transfer rates were calculated using the mass-balance model NETPATH.

Becker, M. F.; Runkle, D. L.

1998-01-01

305

Heavy metals in bottled natural spring water.  

PubMed

New regulations regarding the presence of contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in January 2009. These requirements include testing, reporting, and notification to regulate the presence of heavy metals in bottled natural spring water sold in California. In the study described in this article, six sources of bottled natural spring water were purchased and analyzed for silver, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. All of these metals except beryllium, mercury, and thallium were detected in at least one of the bottled natural spring water sources. No concentrations were above either federal or California maximum contaminant levels but arsenic concentrations exceeded California public health goals in all six sources. Improving the California notification requirements for bottled water contaminants would result in a process more similar to the notification process for tap water and would result in better-informed consumers. PMID:21667718

Sullivan, Michael J; Leavey, Shannon

2011-06-01

306

Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved design reduces clogging and maintains constant pressure drop as flow rate varies. Spring-Loaded Joule-Thomson Valve pressure drop regulated by spring pushing stainless-steel ball against soft brass seat. Pressure drop remains nearly constant, regardless of helium flow rate and of any gas contaminants frozen on valve seat. Because springloaded J-T valve maintains constant pressure drop, upstream roomtemperature throttle valve adjusts flow rate precisely for any given upstream pressure. In addition, new valve relatively invulnerable to frozen gas contaminants, which clog fixed-orifice J-T valves.

Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M. J.

1986-01-01

307

Motility Powered by Supramolecular Springs and Ratchets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Not all biological movements are caused by molecular motors sliding along filaments or tubules. Just as springs and ratchets can store or release energy and rectify motion in physical systems, their analogs can perform similar functions in biological systems. The energy of biological springs is derived from hydrolysis of a nucleotide or the binding of a ligand, whereas biological ratchets are powered by Brownian movements of polymerizing filaments. However, the viscous and fluctuating cellular environment and the mechanochemistry of soft biological systems constrain the modes of motion generated and the mechanisms for energy storage, control, and release.

L. Mahadevan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology;Department of Mechanical Engineering); P. Matsudaira (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research;Department of Biology and Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health)

2000-04-07

308

Peatland Structural Controls on Spring Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The species richness of wetland ecosystems' are sustained by the presence of discrete groundwater discharge, or springs. Springs provide thermal refugia and a source of fresh water inflow crucial for survival of many wetland species. The subsurface drivers that control the spatial distribution of surficial springs throughout peatland complexes are poorly understood due to the many challenges peatlands pose for hydrologic characterization, such as the internal heterogeneities, soft, dynamic substrate, and low gradient of peat drainage. This has previously made it difficult to collect spatial data required for restoration projects that seek to support spring obligate and thermally stressed species such as trout. Tidmarsh Farms is a 577-acre site in Southeastern Massachusetts where 100+ years of cranberry farming has significantly altered the original peatland hydrodynamics and ecology. Farming practices such as the regular application of sand, straightening of the main channel, and addition of drainage ditches has strongly degraded this peatland ecosystem. Our research has overlain non-invasive geophysical, thermal, and water isotopic data from the Tidmarsh Farms peatland to provide a detailed visualization of how subsurface peat structure and spring patterns correlate. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has proven particularly useful in characterizing internal peat structure and the mineral soil interface beneath peatlands, we interpolate the peatland basin at a large scale (1 km2) and compare this 3-D surface to the locations of springs on the peat platform. Springs, expressed as cold anomalies in summer and warm anomalies in winter, were specifically located by combining fiber-optic and infrared thermal surveys, utilizing the numerous relic agricultural drainage ditches as a sampling advantage. Isotopic signatures of the spring locations are used to distinguish local and regional discharge, differences that can be explained in part by the peat basin structure delineated with GPR. The study expands our understanding of complex peat systems and will be used to inform wetland restoration based on hydrodynamic processes; yielding a more successful, resilient restoration and desired ecologic function. Our research demonstrates how the use of GPR in combination with thermal imagery and isotopic analysis can help characterize degraded peatlands, informing a process-based approach to ecological restoration of the site with the ability to monitor changes through time.

Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Hackman, A. M.; Davenport, G.

2013-12-01

309

Education Statistics Quarterly: Spring 2001 Issue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has recently placed online the Spring 2001 editions of one of their informative publications. Education Statistics Quarterly (last mentioned in the December 1, 2000 Scout Report) gives an overview of all NCES products released in spring 2001. Organized by selected topic, short publications (under fifteen pages) are offered in their entirety, while summaries are provided for longer publications. Short descriptions of other NCES products and notices of training and funding opportunities are also included. The featured topic in this issue is the 1999 Third International Mathematics and Science Study - Repeat (TIMSS-R).

2001-01-01

310

Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H{sub 2}S and the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing microbes, preliminary {delta}{sub 34}S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO{sub 2} degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

2000-05-01

311

[History of hot spring bath treatment in China].  

PubMed

As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

2011-07-01

312

Pin joints, gears, springs, cranks, and other novel micromechanical structures  

SciTech Connect

We report here the first fabrication of micrometer-scaled pin joints, gears, springs, cranks, and sliders made with silicon planar technology. These micromechanical structures are batch-fabricated in an IC-compatible process using polysilicon deposited by chemical vapor deposition from silane and the sacrificial-layer technique first described by Howe and Muller. An important feature of this new technology makes use of the high surface mobility of polysilicon during CVD growth to refill undercut regions in order to form restraining flanges. The movable mechanical elements are built on layers that are later removed to free them so that translation and rotation can take place. Although this initial demonstration of the technique for making these structures has employed polysilicon as the structural material and phosphosilicate glass (PSG) for the sacrificial layer, other materials compatible with the IC process can be substituted as appropriate.

Fan, Long-Sheng; Tai, Yu-Chong; Muller, R.S.

1987-08-01

313

Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

2014-04-01

314

Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

1991-01-01

315

Equivalent Mass of a Coil Spring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that first-year college students can understand in detail the origin of the equivalent mass. Provides both a simple calculation derivation of this result as well as a noncalculus derivation. Argues that for every soft spring, the equivalent mass should be somewhere between m0/3 and m0/2. (CCM)

Ruby, Lawrence

2000-01-01

316

Gap Analysis. Student Satisfaction Survey, Spring 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spring 1995, College of the Desert, in California, undertook a study to determine the perceptions of students at both its Copper Mountain and Palm Desert campuses regarding college services. A representative sample of students were administered a 7-point attitude scale (Student Satisfaction Survey developed by Noel-Levitz Centers, Inc.) both…

Breindel, Matthew

317

Recurrence Effects in the Parametric Spring Pendulum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a perturbation analysis to recurrence effects of the spring pendulum. The recurrence depends on two conservation laws which determine the motion in an intermediate region; oscillations outside this region are unstable and must return. Gives the relation to Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem together with the explicit solution. (Author/GA)

Falk, Lars

1978-01-01

318

Astronaut Sherwood Spring assembles ACCESS components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts Sherwood C. (Woody) Spring is recognizable through his helmet visor in this frame showing his connecting two more pieces of the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activities (EASE) device in the open payload bay. The frame was shot through the aft flight deck window.

1985-01-01

319

Adjustable Tuning Spring for Bellows Pump  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adjustable leaf spring increases maximum operating pressure of pump from 2 to over 60 psi (13 to over 400 kN/m2). Small commercial bellows pump using ac-powered electromagnet to vibrate bellows at mechanical resonance modified to operate over wider pressure range.

Green, G. L.; Tu Duc, D.; Hooper, S.

1985-01-01

320

Spring into Art: 87 Eclectic Titles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although fall has always been "the" season of art books, spring catalogs--which for most art publishers stretch between January and June--are replete with intriguing and, in some cases, even groundbreaking new publications. The quality of the reproductions and scholarship continues to impress, but so does the growing diversity of subjects, as more…

Roncevic, Mirela

2010-01-01

321

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cancer Center  

Cancer.gov

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) initiated work on a DNA tumor virus research program in 1969. This successful program expanded to further study of viruses and, in the early 1980’s, the Center’s work on cancer research expanded into additional areas. These endeavors formed the foundation for the CSHL Cancer Center which became an NCI-designated cancer center in 1987.

322

Study Skills Project, Spring 1968, Foothill College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to help college students who needed remedial work in English composition and reading, a combination of four courses (two in English and two in psychology) by means of team teaching and block scheduling was designed at Foothill College. During the spring of 1968, 30 selected students met during a 2-hour block of time five days a week.…

Bloesser, Robert; And Others

323

Non-Linear Spring Equations and Stability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the boundary in the Poincare phase plane for boundedness of solutions to spring model equations of the form [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 2] = Fcoswt and the [second derivative of]x + x + epsilonx[superscript 3] = Fcoswt and report the results of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of…

Fay, Temple H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

2009-01-01

324

Circulator. Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 1973.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication, issued twice a year -- Spring and Fall -- is designed for professional YMCA staff around the country. However, non-YMCA people and organizations might also be interested in the programs which may be applicable to their needs. The objective of the newsletter is to provide readers with information about types of specific innovative…

National Board of Young Men's Christian Associations, New York, NY. Urban Action Commission.

325

OATYC Journal, Fall 1990-Spring 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, the "OATYC Journal" is designed to provide a medium for sharing concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the classroom, and an open forum for the discussion and review of problems. This 16th volume of the journal, consisting of the fall 1990 and spring 1991 issues, contains the following…

Fullen, Jim, Ed.

1991-01-01

326

Micro and ultrafiltration of karstic spring water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karstic springs are characterized by their unsteady behaviour of quantitative and qualitative parameters. The irregular and unpredictable increases of turbidity, natural organic matter (NOM), particles and solutes require a flexible and reliable treatment to ensure save drinking water quality at any time. In this study, results of a microfiltration (MF) and an ultrafiltration (UF) pilot plant are presented based on

Roberto Pianta; Markus Boller; Marie-Laure Janex; Aurelie Chappaz; Bernard Birou; Rafael Ponce; Jean-Louis Walther

1998-01-01

327

Tried and True: Springing into Linear Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In eighth grade, students usually learn about forces in science class and linear relationships in math class, crucial topics that form the foundation for further study in science and engineering. An activity that links these two fundamental concepts involves measuring the distance a spring stretches as a function of how much weight is suspended…

Darling, Gerald

2012-01-01

328

Cold Spring Harbor Fish Hatchery and Aquarium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Largest living collection of New York State freshwater reptiles, fish and amphibians. Educational programs available by appointment; teachers receive advance packet. In-school programs available during part of the year. Fees apply (for non-members), membership information available on website. Wheelchair accessible. Located Cold Spring Harbor, New York.

329

Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This note discusses the boundary in the frequency--amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation. For fixed initial conditions and fixed parameter [epsilon] results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation on the global stability of solutions to the initial value problem as the parameters F and…

Fay, Temple H.

2006-01-01

330

Nonlinear Resonance and Duffing's Spring Equation II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses the boundary in the frequency-amplitude plane for boundedness of solutions to the forced spring Duffing type equation x[umlaut] + x + [epsilon]x[cubed] = F cos[omega]t. For fixed initial conditions and for representative fixed values of the parameter [epsilon], the results are reported of a systematic numerical investigation…

Fay, T. H.; Joubert, Stephan V.

2007-01-01

331

Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators  

DOEpatents

Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

Shahinpoor, M.

1995-02-14

332

Ejs CM Lagrangian Pendulum Spring Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lagrangian Pendulum Spring model asks students to solve the Lagrangian for a spring-pendulum and then develop a computational model of it. The model framework is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_CM_Lagrangian_pendulum_spring.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to run correctly, the student must add the correct physics to the EJS differential equation solver and parameter definitions. If EJS is installed on your computer, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/. The CM Lagrangian Pendulum Spring model is one of several Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used to incorporate computational physics in Classical Mechanics. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. Additional models can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Cox, Anne

2008-06-04

333

Spring-Operated Semiautomatic Irrigation Valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

ORSION spring operators for standard low pressure ?T butterfly type irrigation valves are described. These are used with 24-h timers to semiautomate gated pipe irrigation systems and are particularly well suited for use with flow-thru single pipeline systems. They are presently marketed in 150 mm (6 in.), 200 mm (8 in.) and 250 mm (10 in.) diameter sizes.

A. S. Humpherys; E. Oest; D. A. Young

334

Kendal Warm Springs Dace Recovery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recovery plan for the Kendall Warm Springs dace was prepared by the U.S. fish and Wildlife Service, Billings endangered Species Team, with the assistance of the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the U.S. Forest Service. Representatives from the abo...

1982-01-01

335

Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…

Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.

2010-01-01

336

Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories (MSSSO) are the astronomicalobservatories of the Australian National University. The facilities at MountStromlo Observatory were originally established as the Commonwealth SolarObservatory which commenced operation in the Australian Capital Territory in1924. Expansion after the Second World War saw Mount Stromlo Observatory moveinto stellar astrophysic...

Murdin, P.

2003-04-01

337

Spring Breakup of the Delta River, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spring 'breakup' of snow and ice on the Delta River, Alaska, was monitored in 1967. Breakup on this braided river was a relatively calm event, with gradual development of open-water channels from headwaters to mouth. Air temperature data at Big Delta, nea...

C. W. Slaughter H. R. Samide

1971-01-01

338

Manufacturing methods for machining spring ends parallel at loaded length  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first end surface of a coiled compression spring at its relaxed length is machined to a plane transverse to the spring axis. The spring is then placed in a press structure having first and second opposed planar support surfaces, with the machined spring end surface bearing against the first support surface, the unmachined spring end surface bearing against a planar first surface of a lateral force compensation member, and an opposite, generally spherically curved surface of the compensation member bearing against the second press structure support surface. The spring is then compressed generally to its loaded length, and a circumferentially spaced series of marks, lying in a plane parallel to the second press structure support surface, are formed on the spring coil on which the second spring end surface lies. The spring is then removed from the press structure, and the second spring end surface is machined to the mark plane. When the spring is subsequently compressed to its loaded length the precisely parallel relationship between the machined spring end surfaces substantially eliminates undesirable lateral deflection of the spring.

Hinke, Patrick Thomas (inventor); Benson, Dwayne M. (inventor); Atkins, Donald J. (inventor)

1995-01-01

339

Early recession behaviour of spring hydrographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe long-term flow recession of many springs can be approximated by an exponential function. However, the early recession often exhibits a different behaviour. The exponential recession function represents a long-term approximation of analytical solutions of the flow equation of fissured matrix blocks draining toward a fixed-head boundary. Thus, early deviations from the exponential behaviour potentially originate from the inappropriateness of this approximation at short times. We therefore examine the properties of the exact analytical solutions and make comparisons with field data. If hydraulic heads are initially constant within the matrix blocks the flow recession exhibits a power-law decrease at short times. Both from steady-state initial conditions and after finite recharge pulses the early flow recession follows a power law, too, if discharge is appropriately shifted and rescaled. If the catchment is composed of multiple blocks drained by highly conductive conduits the recession behaviour of the spring is identical to that of the individual blocks if the blocks are of the same size. The recession curves of the published hydrograph of Cheddar spring (Great Britain) are found to be in good agreement with this model if reasonable initial conditions are assumed. A brief look at recession curves from other springs suggests that the model might be applicable to most of them, too. The model also provides satisfactory fits to the flow recession of the Gallusquelle (Germany). However, the observed power-law exponent differs from that predicted by the analytical model. A consistent interpretation of the shape of several recession curves from this spring is provided by a more general fractal approach, which assumes that the catchment is composed of blocks of strongly different sizes.

Birk, Steffen; Hergarten, Stefan

2010-06-01

340

Carbon isotopic ratio of dissolved inorganic carbon in the spring water around Asama volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine the source and formation process of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in spring water and to evaluate quantitatively the contribution of volcanic gas to water chemistry of springs distributed on and around Asama volcano, the carbon isotopic ratio of DIC (?13CDIC) with major dissolved solids has been measured. The measurements of carbon isotopic ratios of volcanic and soil CO2, which are the source materials of DIC, were also carried out in Jigokudani fumarole and in the forest soil of several points of volcano flank, respectively. The spring waters in Asama volcano have been classified into nine groups (A?I) based on the physicochemical characteristics, such as water temperature, electrical conductivity and chemical compositions. As ?13CDIC increase with increasing DIC content, the origin of DIC in spring water from Asama volcano was can be assessed by mixing process between isotopically light soil CO2 (organic origin) and 13C-enriched volcanic CO2 (deep origin with mantle component), except for the springs of group B. On the basis of two components mixing, the contribution rate of volcanic CO2 to DIC in spring water was computed by using the carbon isotopic ratio of CO2 equilibrated with DIC (?13CCO2) as an indicator. Consequently, the contribution rates of volcanic CO2 were ranged from 40 to 60% in the groups C, F and H located on the flank of the mountain. In particular, the strong contribution of more than 90% was confirmed in the group I located on the higher part of the mountain, that is near the crater. These groups were correspondent with those in which influence of volcanic gases was assumed from the geochemical characteristics of spring water. By contrast, influence of volcanic CO2 was almost not found in other groups A, D, E and G. The spring waters of group B which are not plotted on the two components mixing line and located at the terminal of Onioshidashi lava flow have highest ?13CDIC in spite of low DIC content. These 13C-enriched spring waters are probably derived from dissolved CO2 degassing of thegroundwater affected by volcanic CO2 during the discharge process. Since the groundwater moves in the clinker, which is fractured zone developed in lower and upper part of the lava flow and is extremely porous, as not laminar flow but turbulent flow, the CO2 degassing would be effectively caused.

Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tase, Norio

341

Informing geobiology through GIS site suitability analysis: locating springs in mantle units of ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs sourced in the mantle units of ophiolites serve as windows to the deep biosphere, and thus hold promise in elucidating survival strategies of extremophiles, and may also inform discourse on the origin of life on Earth. Understanding how organisms can survive in extreme environments provides clues to how microbial life responds to gradients in pH, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential. Spring locations associated with serpentinites have traditionally been located using a variety of field techniques. The aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks to serpentinites is accompanied by the production of very unusual formation fluids, accessed by drilling into subsurface flow regimes or by sampling at related surface springs. The chemical properties of these springs are unique to water associated with actively serpentinizing rocks; they reflect a reducing subsurface environment reacting at low temperatures producing high pH, Ca-rich formation fluids with high dissolved hydrogen and methane. This study applies GIS site suitability analysis to locate high pH springs upwelling from Coast Range Ophiolite serpentinites in Northern California. We used available geospatial data (e.g., geologic maps, topography, fault locations, known spring locations, etc.) and ArcGIS software to predict new spring localities. Important variables in the suitability model were: (a) bedrock geology (i.e., unit boundaries and contacts for peridotite, serpentinite, possibly pyroxenite, or chromite), (b) fault locations, (c) regional data for groundwater characteristics such as pH, Ca2+, and Mg2+, and (d) slope-aspect ratio. The GIS model derived from these geological and environmental data sets predicts the latitude/longitude points for novel and known high pH springs sourced in serpentinite outcrops in California. Field work confirms the success of the model, and map output can be merged with published environmental microbiology data (e.g., occurrence of hydrogen-oxidizers) to showcase patterns in microbial community structure. Discrepancies between predicted and actual spring locations are then used to tune GIS suitability analysis, re-running the model with corrected geo-referenced data. This presentation highlights a powerful GIS-based technique for accelerating field exploration in this area of ongoing research.

Bowman, A.; Cardace, D.; August, P.

2012-12-01

342

Sulphur and oxygen isotopic composition of sulphates in springs feeding the Wieprz river and other springs of Lublin Upland and Roztocze.  

PubMed

Springs on Roztocze and Lublin Upland have been studied. Isotopic data are compared with data of chemical analyses. The results of studies allow us to distinguish five types of groundwaters. The differentiation is based upon different lithology; opokas, gaizes, sandy-silty-clay deposits, sands with shell sandstones, marly opokas, marly limestones and 'soft limestones of chalk type. A correlation can be observed between delta34S and the concentration of Ca or Mg ions also a correlation between HCO3- ion concentration and delta18O in sulphates. Probably these correlations are the result of some simultaneous processes, which occur in groundwater. The seasonal variations of the isotopic composition and sulphate concentration were observed in four springs feeding the upper Wieprz. The variations were simultaneous and often similar in these springs. Probably, these variations are caused by the admixture of sulphates coming from shallow water layers (or leached from soil); however the variations of the groundwater level may also change chemical and isotopic composition in groundwater. PMID:12725431

Trembaczowski, A; Swieca, A

2002-12-01

343

Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center Preliminary Design. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct hea...

A. B. Longyear

1980-01-01

344

Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center Conceptual Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothe...

A. B. Longyear

1980-01-01

345

A Hypersaline Spring Analogue in Manitoba, Canada for Potential Ancient Spring Deposits on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the characteristics of a spring complex, East German Creek, Manitoba (EGC), as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. We focus on EGC's mineral precipitation patterns and potential for biosignature preservation.

Berard, G.; Applin, D.; Stromberg, J.; Sharma, R.; Mann, P.; Grasby, S.; Bezys, R.; Horgan, B.; Londry, K.; Rice, M.; Last, B.; Last, F.; Badiou, P.; Goldsborough, G.; Bell, J. F.

2012-03-01

346

Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak.

Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

347

Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in Western sichuan province related to the wenchuan m s 8.0 earthquake.  

PubMed

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan M S 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ? D and ? (18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4 (-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

348

Briquetting and combustion of spring-harvested reed canary-grass: effect of fuel composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to increase the understanding how spring-harvested reed canary-grass briquettes with various chemical compositions with respect to ash content influence the formation of emissions during combustion in a 180kW burner. Furthermore, an objective was to investigate possible ash problems during the combustion. Five fuels were used in the study consisting of three reed canary-grass samples

Susanne Paulrud; Calle Nilsson

2001-01-01

349

Assessment of the spring water quality in The Shoubak area, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of spring water samples in Shoubak area\\u000a in the southern Jordan. The samples were collected from May 2004 to May 2005. All samples were analyzed for temperature, conductivity,\\u000a dissolved oxygen, pH, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+), major anions (Cl?, NO3?, HCO3?, SO42?, PO43?, F?), and trace metals (Fe2+, Al3+,

Omar Ali Al-Khashman

2008-01-01

350

Cold Spring Harbor study shows how “bookmarking” genes before cell division accelerates their subsequent reactivation:  

Cancer.gov

In order for cells of different types to maintain their identities even after repeated rounds of cell division, each cell must “remember” which genes were active before division and pass along that memory to its daughter cells. Cells deal with this challenge by deploying a “bookmarking” process... This bookmark, the [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory] scientists show, is a histone molecule that has undergone a chemical modification called acetylation, which alters its interactions with DNA as well as with proteins that bind to it.

351

Cyanobacterial mats from hot springs produce antimicrobial compounds and quorum-sensing inhibitors under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar (water) and non-polar (ethyl acetate) extracts from the cyanobacterial layer (top 1–3 mm) of four hot spring microbial\\u000a mats in the Sultanate of Oman were tested for their antibacterial, antidiatom and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities under\\u000a natural conditions. The chemical composition of the active extracts was analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC-MS). Cyanobacteria within these mats were identified by direct microscopy

Sergey Dobretsov; Raeid M. M. Abed; Sultan M. S. Al Maskari; Jamal N. Al Sabahi; Reginald Victor

352

Biotic and inorganic control on travertine deposition at Bullicame 3 spring (Viterbo, Italy): A multidisciplinary approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multidisciplinary characterization of an active thermal spring in central Italy has been undertaken with the aim of (i) ascertaining whether microbiological activity plays a relevant role in hot-depositing travertines and (ii) establishing an experimental protocol able to identify similar effects in fossil travertines. Water, gas, and travertine samples were investigated by chemical (ICP\\/MS, SEM\\/EDS), physical (DTA–DTG), isotopic (?18O, ?D,

F. Di Benedetto; G. Montegrossi; A. Minissale; L. A. Pardi; M. Romanelli; F. Tassi; A. Delgado Huertas; E. M. Pampin; O. Vaselli; D. Borrini

2011-01-01

353

Phytoplankton Dynamics During the Spring Bloom in the South-eastern English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two main phases of a phytoplankton spring bloom in the South-eastern English Channel were studied during two 3-day cruises in March and May 1992. Physico-chemical parameters were measured, such as temperature, salinity, density, turbidity and nutrients, as well as biological parameters (in situchlorophyllafluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and fatty acids). Photo-synthetic pigments and fatty acids were used as taxonomic and physiological

C. Brunet; J. M. Brylinski; L. Bodineau; G. Thoumelin; D. Bentley; D. Hilde

1996-01-01

354

49 CFR 236.14 - Spring switch signal protection; requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Spring switch signal protection; requirements. 236.14...INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES... General § 236.14 Spring switch signal protection; requirements. (a)...

2009-10-01

355

5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. FLOW METER AND PIPING SHOWING CONNECTIONS. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

356

33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The...

2010-07-01

357

Agristars: Supporting Research. Spring Small Grains Planting Date Distribution Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model was developed using 996 planting dates at 51 LANDSAT segments for spring wheat and spring barley in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in 1979. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation were obtained from the coopera...

T. Hodges J. A. Artley

1981-01-01

358

9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. THERMOSTAT IN LADIES MASSAGE ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

359

11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. INTERIOR OF THERMOSTAT. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

360

Contact-spring forming machine for flat conductor cable receptacles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Machine tool produces beryllium-copper contact springs for FCC /flat conductor cable/ feed-through receptacles. The springs are heat-treated and plated to impart the required electrical contact properties.

Angele, W.; Martineck, H. G.

1968-01-01

361

Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction  

DOEpatents

An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

McIntyre, Peter M. (611 Montclair, College Station, TX 77840); Soika, Rainer H. (1 Hensel, #X4C, College Station, TX 77840)

2002-01-01

362

5. HORIZONTAL COOLEDWATER STORAGE TANKS. Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. HORIZONTAL COOLED-WATER STORAGE TANKS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

363

2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. SECTIONAL BOILER '#4 IDEAL RED FLASH.' - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

364

2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. PLENUM WALL, SHOWING PNEUMATIC TUBES. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

365

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

366

6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. UNIT VENTILATOR, WOMEN'S COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Ozark Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

367

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve...

2013-10-01

368

DETAIL OF THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL OF THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

369

THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

370

Integrating topography, hydrology and rock structure in weathering rate models of spring watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryWeathering rate models designed for watersheds combine chemical data of discharging waters with morphologic and hydrologic parameters of the catchments. At the spring watershed scale, evaluation of morphologic parameters is subjective due to difficulties in conceiving the catchment geometry. Besides, when springs emerge from crystalline massifs, rock structure must be accounted in formulas describing the area of minerals exposed to the percolating fluids, for a realistic evaluation of the rates. These particular features are not included in the available approaches and for that reason a new model was developed, coined THROW model. This is a lumped approach that integrates (T)opography, (H)ydrology, (RO)ck structure and (W)eathering in a single algorithm. The study area comprises several stream watersheds and spring sites of the Vouga River basin (northern Portugal), shaped on granites. Firstly, the THROW model couples a terrain modeling analysis with hydrologic models based on discharge rates, to determine hydraulic conductivities (K), effective porosities (ne) and annual recharges (Vr) at the stream watershed scale. Subsequently, these parameters are used in a water balance model to estimate concomitant groundwater travel times (t). The mean K [(4.7 ± 3.2) × 10-7 m s-1] and ne [(2.0 ± 1.3) × 10-2] values are adopted as proxies for the spring watersheds and a firm regression equation is defined between time and stream watershed area (A). Secondly, two more runs of terrain modeling analysis are executed to extrapolate morphologic parameters for the spring watersheds. The first run hinges on scaling properties of the drainage networks, known as Horton laws, and is used to scale watershed areas across stream orders (i). The scaling function is described by another regression equation. The second run evaluates the order of a spring watershed, defined as equivalent order (ieq) and equated to the mean order of the surrounding stream watersheds. Having calculated the ieq, spring watershed areas and travel times were downscaled using the regression equations (A < 10 km2 and t = 1.4-2.8 year). Standing on the physical and hydrologic parameters of the spring watersheds, the THROW model finally calculates plagioclase weathering rates in the vicinity of the spring sites. The SiB model (Pacheco and Van der Weijden, 1996) was used before to estimate the contribution of plagioclase dissolution to the chemical composition of these springs (Van der Weijden and Pacheco, 2006). The chemical data were now coupled with K, ne and t in a rate equation to estimate chemical weathering rates of plagioclase in the basin. In the THROW model, the rate equation describes the exposed surface area as a function of fracture spacings, openings and porosities (Pacheco and Alencoão, 2006). The calculated rates (WPl = (2.5 ± 1.2) × 10-14 mol m-2 s-1) are consistent with previous reports and with results of experimental kinetic models. The SiB results predict formation of halloysite and gibbsite along the flow path, which were indeed close to equilibrium with the dissolved Al and Si activities.

Pacheco, Fernando A. L.; Van der Weijden, Cornelis H.

2012-03-01

371

An assembled extreme value statistical model of karst spring discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a nonstationary extreme distribution of spring discharge.We eliminate the trend and periodicity of spring discharge to get the residuals.We obtain the return level of the residuals by the generalized Pareto distribution.We model the spring discharge by combining the trend, periodicity and return level.The model is applied to analyzing the depletion of Niangziguan Springs flow, China.

Fan, Yonghui; Huo, Xueli; Hao, Yonghong; Liu, Yan; Wang, Tongke; Liu, Youcun; Yeh, Tianchyi J.

2013-11-01

372

Changes in CaCO3 Mineralogy Resulting from Alterations in Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of CaCO3 mineral deposits (travertine) have been completed on samples collected from an in situ kinetic experiment (ISKA) at Mammoth Hot Springs (MHS), Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate that the dominant mineral phase on the experimental substrate changes from aragonite to calcite when the biotic components of the system are treated via filtration and ultra-violet (UV) irradiation. This shift in CaCO3 mineralogy may provide a new class of biomarkers to identify biogenic carbonates in the geologic record. The ISKA, in which water was siphoned directly from the primary flow path of the hot springs at MHS, was used to: (1) filter (sterile 0.2 micron) spring water to reduce microbial biomass concentrations by 80%; (2) irradiate spring water with UV, inhibiting microbial metabolic and replication activity; and (3) supply unaltered spring water to serve as a natural control. XRD analysis on the CaCO3 precipitates of these experiments shows that the natural control samples are predominantly aragonite (93%), the filtration samples are predominantly calcite (95%), and the UV-irradiation samples are a mixture of both aragonite (70%) and calcite (30%), suggesting that presence of biomass favors the stability of the aragonite phase and that microbial activity selects for this less thermodynamically stable for of CaCO3. Petrographic analysis has revealed that the carbonate precipitate on the Na2CO3 experimental substrates consists of an initial layering of calcite crystals followed by nucleation and growth of the aragonite. These combined results strongly suggest that microbial biomass, through nucleation and crystallization kinetics, controls the mineralogy in advection-dominated flow regimes of terrestrial hot springs. Results from a controlled experiment using a laboratory bench-top ISKA are being collected to determine shifts in CaCO3 mineralogy under specific suites of physical, chemical and biological environmental conditions.

Vescogni, H. R.; Fouke, B. W.; Wilson, S. R.; Miller, P. A.; Kandianis, M. T.

2008-12-01

373

Hydrogeochemical signatures of thermal springs compared to deep formation water of North Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal springs and hot deep formation waters can be used for geothermal energy production. Depending on the chemical composition of the used waters, geothermal power plants have to deal with scaling and corrosion effects. Therefore, the understanding of the hydrogeochemical behaviour of such waters can be helpful to enhance the efficiency of the energy production. This study is comparing hydrogeochemical characteristics of thermal springs in the Harz Mountains (North Germany) and deep formation water of the North German Basin. The Harz Mountains consist of uplifted Palaeozoic rocks, whereas the North German Basin consists of sedimentary layers of Permian, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. Volcanic rocks are included in the Permian layers. The thickness of the sedimentary basin varies between 2 km and more than 8 km. The deep aquifers of the North German Basin are mostly not involved in the recent meteoric water cycle. Their waters have contents of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) up to about 400 g/L. Thermal springs of the Harz Mountains are situated close to the main fracture system of the region. These springs are connected to the meteoric water cycle and display lower contents of TDS (< 25 g/L). In both geological systems the TDS content is increasing with depth and temperature. The elemental ratios of the waters (e.g., Na/Cl, Cl/Br, Na/Ca) indicate similar hydrogeochemical formation processes in the Harz Mountains and the North German Basin. The concentrations of calcium, sodium, and chloride differ due to salt dissolution and feldspar transformation (albitisation) in the thermal springs as well as in the deep formation waters. Based on today's knowledge hydrochemical and stratigraphical data from the North German Basin can be used to elucidate the geological origin of the thermal springs in the Harz Mountains. Acknowledgements. The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the State of Lower Saxony and the company Baker Hughes.

Bozau, Elke; van Berk, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

374

Interbasin flow revisited: The contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs in the Furnace Creek area (Texas, Travertine, and Nevares Springs) of Death Valley National Park exhibit high discharge rates and depleted ?18O VSMOW (˜-13‰) and ?D VSMOW (˜-102‰) values. Isotopic depletion of this magnitude and large spring fluxes (˜10,000 L/min) suggests that modern local recharge in the arid Furnace Creek drainage cannot be responsible for spring fluxes. An alternate explanation, interbasin flow, is difficult to envisage due to the stratigraphic and structural relationships of bedrock in intervening ranges, although it is the most common conceptual model for Furnace Creek spring flows. High-flux springs at Furnace Creek nonetheless respond modestly to modern climate in terms of discharge rate and isotopic composition. Hydrographs show a climate response and variations in time-series stable isotope data of widely spaced springs track one another. Small, but measurable quantities of tritium (<0.2 TU) were found at Nevares Spring, also suggesting a component of modern recharge. Thus, whatever the main source of water for these springs may be, there appears to be a subtle, but recent climatic influence. Estimates of flow at nearby mountain springs produce discharge rates per square kilometer of catchment that, by analogy, could support from 20 to 300% of the flow at large Death Valley springs under the current climate. Yet, 14C model ages suggest valley-bottom springs at Furnace Creek (5500-14,500 yr) contain a large component of older water, suggesting that much of the water was recharged during a pluvial period (Younger Dryas?) when net infiltration would have been much higher and isotopically depleted. 14C model ages are also of similar age, or younger, than many 'up gradient' waters, rather than being older as would be expected for interbasin flow. Chemical evolution models of solutes are consistent with both local recharge and interbasin transfer from Ash Meadows. However, when considered with isotopic constraints, interbasin flow becomes obviously untenable. Estimates of the thickness of alluvium and semi-consolidated Tertiary units in the Furnace Creek drainage seem to provide adequate storage, confinement, and upward leakage to accommodate current discharge. Thus, although Death Valley is the ultimate discharge location for regional groundwaters in terms of potential, careful study of these springs suggests that most of their flux is supported by local pluvial recharge, suggesting that a careful re-evaluation of the interbasin transfers be conducted on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, regional flow models that are built on the concept of interbasin flow provide boundary flux conditions for site-scale models for the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Thus, site-scale models may over-predict the potential transport of waste from the Yucca Mountain facility.

Anderson, Katherine; Nelson, Stephen; Mayo, Alan; Tingey, David

2006-05-01

375

Recession Cloud as Indicator of Karstic Spring Hydrograph Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive theory about groundwater depletion in karst aquifer reflected through spring recession curves has been developed. To skip theoretical presumptions about the analysis of karst spring recession, the concept of recession cloud has been introduced. The recession cloud is defined as set of all Nrec recession curves in the spring hydrogram. Inside of the apperent chaotic set of all recession

Mihael Brencic

2010-01-01

376

Deceptively Simple Harmonic Motion: A Mass on a Spiral Spring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the oscillatory motion of a mass on a spiral (nonhelical) spring, and calculates the lowest eigenfrequency and the associated effective spring mass for a range of values of the attached mass. Analytic and numerical comparisons are made to the helical spring problem. (HM)

McDonald, F. Alan

1980-01-01

377

75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RM-11580] Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications...proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and...

2010-01-22

378

Thermoelectric Materials Evaluation Program Spring Design to Minimize Load Relaxation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the spring relaxation study was to find a spring material whose fabrication technique and operating stress level would limit the spring relaxation to an acceptable amount over a period of 50,000 hours in a thermoelectric generator environ...

1980-01-01

379

Geohydrology of Pipe Spring National Monument Area, Northern Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pipe Spring National Monument is on the Arizona Strip, an area between the Utah border to the north and the north rim of the Grand Canyon to the south. Four springs at the base of Winsor Point on Winsor Mountain (known collectively as Pipe Spring) are a p...

M. Truini

1999-01-01

380

MOJAVE DESERT SPRING: THE AMPHIBIAN POINT OF VIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous springs are scattered throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, most of which are concentrated near the bases of mountain ranges. Spring-fed wetlands in this region comprise nearly all the available habitat for amphibians. We surveyed 128 springs for amphibians and habitat t...

381

Center of Mass of Two Carts with Attached Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A spring that is attached to the ends of two carts. The spring is compressed when the two carts are placed next to each other on a low-friction track. The spring is released such that the two carts are "pushed" apart as shown in the animations (position is in meters and time is in seconds).

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-14

382

The macroinvertebrate fauna and hydrogeology of springs in central Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macroinvertebrate fauna of 23 springs in central Sweden was sampled. A total of 79 taxa was recorded, including three crenobiont, nine crenophilic, 33 lotic, 11 lentic and 21 ubiquitous taxa. Only eight were non-insect taxa. Geological and hydrogeological maps were used to categorize each spring, resulting in eight glaciofluvial, 11 moraine and four limestone springs. Faunal composition and environmental

Per-Ola Hoffsten; Björn Malmqvist

2000-01-01

383

49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139... Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The outer edge of a wheel...not contact the gage side of a spring wing rail. (b) The toe of each wing rail...

2013-10-01

384

The Systematics of Strontium and Chlorine Isotopes in Hot Springs and Mud Volcano Fluids in Taiwan Accretionary Wedge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is located at the plate boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asia Continental Plate and has an extensive distribution of hot springs and mud volcanoes. In this study, we have selected fluids from various geological settings and analyzed for major and trace chemical constituents, as well as Sr and Cl isotopes. The isotopic compositions of fluids were

C. Chung; C. You; W. Huang; Y. Hsieh

2002-01-01

385

Seasonal variations of 226Ra and 222Rn in mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the activity concentrations of 226Ra and 222Rn were assayed in the mineral spring waters of Aguas da Prata in order to evaluate the seasonal variations of such radionuclides. The results obtained were related to the chemical composition of the water as well as to the lithology of the aquifer and temperature. Higher activity concentrations up to 1.8

Joselene De Oliveira; Barbara Mazzilli; Marian Helena De Oliveira Sampa; Bernadete Silva

1998-01-01

386

Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly

R. W. Bamford; O. D. Christensen; R. M. Capuano

1980-01-01

387

Springs as Ecosystems: Clarifying Groundwater Dependence and Wetland Status (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springs ecosystems are among the most productive, biologically diverse and culturally important ecosystems on Earth. Net annual productivity of some springs exceeds 5 kg/m^2/yr. Springs support an estimated 19% of the endangered species and numerous rare taxa in the United States. Springs serve as keystone ecosystems in arid regions, and as cornerstones of indigenous cultural well-being, history, economics, and aesthetics. Despite their significance, the ecosystem ecology and stewardship of springs have received scant scientific and public attention, resulting in loss or impairment of 50-90% of the springs in many regions, both arid and temperate. Six reasons contribute to the lack of attention to springs. Springs are poorly mapped because: 1) their generally small size is less than the pixel area of most remote sensing analyses and they are overlooked; and 2) springs detection is often limited by emergence on cliff faces, beneath heavy vegetation cover, or under water. In addition, 3) high levels of ecosystem complexity at springs require multidisciplinary team approaches for inventory, assessment, and research, but collaboration between the fields of hydrogeology and ecology has been limited. 4) Protectionism by land owners and organizations that manage springs limits the availability information, preventing regional assessment of status. 5) Prior to recent efforts, the absence of a descriptive lexicon of springs types has limited discussion about variation in ecological characteristics and processes. 6) Neither regarded entirely as groundwater or as surface water, springs fall 'between jurisdictional cracks' and are not subject to clear legal and regulatory oversight. With regards to the latter point, two jurisdictional phrases have reduced scientific understanding and stewardship of springs ecosystems: 'jurisdictional wetlands' and 'groundwater-dependent ecosystems' (GDEs). Most springs have insufficient monitoring data to establish perenniality or the range of natural variation in flow, and many of the 12 springs types do not develop hydric soils or wetland vegetation. These factors and their normally small size preclude springs as jurisdictional wetlands by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Army Corps of Engineers criteria. Helocrenes (springfed wet meadows, cienegas, and some fens) are considered as wetlands, but the other 11 types of terrestrial springs often are not. The use of the phrase 'GDE' applies to any aquatic ecosystem supported by groundwater, and the utility of this phrase as a descriptor of springs is diluted by its application to all subterranean and surface aquatic habitats. The failure to recognize the importance of springs ecosystems has become a quiet but global crisis, in part due to inappropriate conceptual understanding and poor jurisdictional terminology. We clarify relationships between these concepts and terms to establish effective, consistent monitoring, assessment, restoration, management, and monitoring goals and protocols for improving springs stewardship.

Stevens, L.; Springer, A. E.; Ledbetter, J. D.

2013-12-01

388

Activity of bacteria in water of hot springs from Southern and Central Kamchatskaya geothermal provinces, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.  

PubMed

The hot-spring waters of numerous hot springs at the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia differ in their chemical characteristics and elemental composition. Total bacterial abundance (TBA) as well as enzymatically active and respiring bacteria was enumerated in water samples collected from the Nalychevskie, Oksinskie, Apapelskie, and Dachnye hot springs. 5-Carboxyfluorescein diacetate activity was detected in all water samples and comprised 29-65% of the TBA as determined by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining. The respiratory activity of iron-oxidizing bacteria was assayed by 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyltetrazolium chloride reduction. Respiring cells accounted for 9-14% of the TBA, indicating a positive correlation with the number of iron-oxidizing bacteria from the hot-spring biomats. Enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria revealed a high-density bacterial population only in the water of the Apapelskie hot spring, which has a temperature of 36 degrees C. Therefore, it appears that heterotrophic and iron-oxidizing bacteria inhabiting the hot-spring waters are essential for the geochemical processes occurring in hydrothermal systems. PMID:16546359

Belkova, Natalia L; Tazaki, Kazue; Zakharova, Juliya R; Parfenova, Valentina V

2007-01-01

389

Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones  

SciTech Connect

This project was a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the Harvey E. Yates Company (Heyco), Roswell, NM, conducted under the auspices of Department of Energy's Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project applied Sandia perspectives on the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology for the stimulation and production of low permeability gas reservoirs to low permeability oil reservoirs, such as those typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report details the results and analyses obtained in 1990 from core, logs, stress, and other data taken from three additional development wells. An overall summary gives results from all five wells studied in this project in 1989--1990. Most of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones.

Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Northrop, D.A.

1992-06-01

390

Martian Hot Springs? Silica deposits in the Nili Patera Caldera.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The caldera of the Syrtis Major volcanic complex shows evidence of a late-stage, chemically evolved eruption that emplaced a volcanic cone and an evolved dacitic lava flow. This cone and flow contain several light-toned deposits, spectrally defined, with the CRISM instrument, by a broad asymmetrical absorption centered at 2.21 ?m that is characteristic of a Si-OH bond. Additional weak 1.4 and 1.9 ?m OH- and H2O related absorption features were detected that combined with the 2.21 ?m feature confirms the detection of hydrated silica (SiO2 nH2O). The deposits are expressed morphologically as low mounds in stereo HiRISE data that superpose and post-date the volcanic flows. This mineral detection and volcanic context is consistent with several formation mechanisms, notably volcanic outgassing leading to fumarole surface alteration or silica deposition in volcanically driven hot springs. Since current orbital observations do not allow conclusive determination of precise mechanism, we here focus on the hot spring silica depositional hypothesis and investigate what the current observations tell us about such a system. These deposits would occur as post-eruption volcanic heat-driven hydrothermal convection of ground and possibly magmatic waters. Convecting, heated water would dissolve the igneous minerals in the basalt that forms the majority of the caldera mobilizing significant silica. Silica saturated fluids that reach the surface cool and deposit amorphous silica as the silica solubility in the fluids decreases. The large size and mound building nature of individual deposits require a significant and sustained fluid source for deposition. That amorphous silica deposits were detected in several distinct regions illustrates the prevalence of this process in this volcanic complex. The largest deposit is located on the southern flank of the cone and forms a fan-shaped morphology as the material is sourced from a vent and flows downslope. Another small deposit was detected just west of the cone center near it's apex and appears to be exposed outcrop. The remaining detections are quasi-circular mounds on the caldera floor. One isolated large deposit is at the southern edge of the cone while the majority of deposits are in an 8,000 km2 field directly southwest of the cone that contains dozens of deposits of varying sizes. Recently confirmed deposits are also located in the far field, 10 km to the southwest of the cone but still confined to the dacite lava flow. These show that the deposits are more widespread than the immediate vicinity of the volcanic cone. This volcanically driven hydrothermal system and the resulting hot spring environments on Mars has significance for our understanding of Martian volcanic systems and for the search for habitability. Terrestrial hot springs are known to be ideal locations for microbial activity and for the sequestration and long-term preservation of biosignatures . Hot spring silica sinter deposits are among the best materials for preserving signs of habitability making the Nili Patera deposits an ideal location for future focused study.

Skok, J. R.; Mustard, J. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Murchie, S. L.

2011-12-01

391

N Springs expedited response action proposal  

SciTech Connect

Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

Not Available

1994-01-01

392

Multifractal modelling of runoffs of karstic springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multifractal stochastic process, Terdik and Iglói call the Limit of the Integrated Superposition of Diffusion processes with Linear differential Generator (LISDLG) , has been defined for modelling network traffic multifractality. The process is stationary, and exhibits long range dependency or long memory. Its characteristic property is that its bispectrum is real. It serves as the basis of distinction e.g. from the superposition of Levy-processes driven Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes. Its further appealing property is that its finite dimensional distribution stems from multivariate Gamma, therefore it is inherently positive and skewed (and hence non-Gaussian). All together, this makes it a very promising candidate for modelling e.g. runoff data of springs or river flows. Quite recently Labat et al. (2002, J. of Hydrology, Vol 256, pp.176-195) pointed out multifractal properties of the runoff time series of French karstic springs. We show that runoff data of karstic springs in north-east Hungary possesses multifractal and cumulant-multifractal property as well as long range dependency and fit the above described LISDLG process, to model the phenomenon. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Nat. Sci. Research Fund OTKA, grant No.: T 032725.

Márkus, L.

2003-04-01

393

Archaeal diversity in Icelandic hot springs.  

PubMed

Whole-cell density gradient extractions from three solfataras (pH 2.5) ranging in temperature from 81 to 90 degrees C and one neutral hot spring (81 degrees C, pH 7) from the thermal active area of Hveragerethi (Iceland) were analysed for genetic diversity and local geographical variation of Archaea by analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. In addition to the three solfataras and the neutral hot spring, 10 soil samples in transects of the soil adjacent to the solfataras were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). The sequence data from the clone libraries in combination with 14 t-RFLP profiles revealed a high abundance of clones clustering together with sequences from the nonthermophilic I.1b group of Crenarchaeota. The archaeal diversity in one solfatara was high; 26 different RFLP patterns were found using double digestion of the PCR products with restriction enzymes AluI and BsuRI. The sequenced clones from this solfatara belonged to Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales or were most closest related to sequences from uncultured Archaea. Sequences related to group I.1b were not found in the neutral hot spring or the hyperthermophilic solfatara (90 degrees C). PMID:17014681

Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte K; Westermann, Peter

2007-01-01

394

Acoustical spring effect in a compliant cavity.  

PubMed

We report on the first dynamic study of acoustical spring effect in a compliant cavity formed between a spherical ultrasonic transducer immersed in water and the free liquid surface located at its focus. As its optical analog, this effect is due to the mutual feedback between the cavity length L and the large acoustical power stored inside the cavity, here through acoustic radiation pressure. We use surface waves to investigate the acoustical spring effect. The amplitude of surface waves above the cavity is observed to vary with the slope of variation of the L -dependent acoustic radiation pressure exerted on the liquid surface, i.e. with the acoustic spring stiffness. The observed simultaneous back-scattering of these surface waves demonstrates that the surface response to the cavity length variations results mainly in an added stiffness, i.e., in an increase of the real part of the surface impedance above the cavity. Finally, when the liquid surface is located out of the focal plane, spontaneous surface oscillations are reproducibly observed, which may be due to a parametric instability. PMID:23605569

Issenmann, B; Auberon, A; Wunenburger, R; Delville, J-P

2013-04-01

395

Geochemistry of low-temperature water–rock interaction: evidence from natural waters, andesite, and iron-oxyhydroxide precipitates at Nishiki-numa iron-spring, Hokkaido, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold, mildly acidic, and slightly oxidizing spring water from Nishiki-numa iron-spring, Hokkaido, Japan, has been sampled in two consecutive years, and analyzed for anions and thirty cations. The chemical composition of the acid–sulphate water is independent of filtration (0.2 ?m–0.8 ?m), and shows only minor temporal variation. The most striking feature of the Fe-rich water is the high abundance of

Michael Bau; Akira Usui; Bernhard Pracejus; Naoki Mita; Yutaka Kanai; Wolfgang Irber; Peter Dulski

1998-01-01

396

Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

Rowden, R. D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R. D.

2001-01-01

397

Abundance of Macroalgae in Florida Springs: Understanding the Role of Nutrients.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 4 decades Florida springs have experienced a large increase in nutrient concentrations. High nutrient levels are blamed for excess growth of thick algal mats in many springs. Reach-scale benthic algal assessments were conducted to characterize spatial extent and thickness of macroalgae and periphyton at 60 sites within 28 springs, where physico-chemical data were also collected. Diatom indicators were developed using the weighted average approach to infer nutrient conditions. Algal-nutrient relations were determined with % cover and thickness of all macroalgae and each common taxon independently and with measured and diatom-inferred nutrient concentrations. The most common taxa of macroalgae were a blue green alga Lyngbya wollei found at 57 % sites and a green alga Vaucheria sp. found at 55 % sites. Over half of the bottoms of Florida springs, on average, were covered by macroalgae. Analyses indicated a threshold in Vaucheria sp. cover response at 0.6 mg TN/L, but no such response was observed for Lyngbya wollei which seems to have a high tolerance for low nutrient concentrations. Further laboratory experiments were conducted to determine phosphorus and nitrogen limitation of Vaucheria sp. and Lyngbya wollei growth rates and to confirm limiting nutrient concentrations for growth of the macroalgae.

Pinowska, A.; Stevenson, J. R.; Frydenborg, R.

2005-05-01

398

Nickel-titanium spring properties in a simulated oral environment.  

PubMed

A study of nickel-titanium springs was undertaken to determine whether their mechanical properties are affected by prolonged exposure to a static, simulated oral environment. Stainless steel springs and polyurethane elastic chains were also studied for comparison. The springs were elongated to twice their rest length and held at that length while immersed in artificial saliva at body temperature for 0, 2, 4 or 6 weeks. Plots of force vs. deformation were made as the springs were stretched from rest length to three times that length and then relaxed back to rest. Nickel-titanium springs suffered no degradation of their spring properties in the simulated oral environment. In contrast, stainless steel springs became slightly more compliant to stretching, and polyurethane elastics lost a large portion of their force-generating capacity. These findings confirm and extend earlier reports which indicate that nickel-titanium is a preferred material for many orthodontic applications. PMID:8507034

Han, S; Quick, D C

1993-01-01

399

Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster imagery on the iPad2 has drastically changed how we plan and conduct our sampling trips. Orthoimagery onto the iPad2 is viewed with GISRoam and we use that imagery to help guide us toward points that we wish to visit. GISRoam was used to plot spatially correlated data points while in the field, estimate latitude and longitude, and record aforementioned data. A key factor to our success is up to the minute collaboration between all participants. Google's suite of services provides phone number for landowners, web site hosting, and the most crucial implementation for sharing data in real time has been the beta google Fusion Table. This spreadsheet allows for the incorporation of images, sample data and GPS location to be displayed as a kml file to be viewed in Google maps. This ability to modify and recognize data points in real time has made us more effective in the field, and in documenting progress in the lab. This workflow has enabled us to sample over 30 springs in 2 months, find 10 new springs, and estimate Tmax for 14 sites.By the end of 3 months we anticipate having water chemistry, isotope samples, gas samples, and Tmax determinations for 30 springs in the two study areas.

Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

2011-12-01

400

Seven New Bulk Chemical Analyses of Aubrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New bulk chemical analyses are given of Aubres, Bishopville, Bustee, Khor Temiki, Norton County, Peña Blanca Spring and Shallowater. Selective attack by dry chlorine (350°C) on magnetic and non-magnetic fractions was used to determine the distribution of some normally lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Ti) between silicate and sulphide groups of minerals.

Easton, A. J.

1985-09-01

401

Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

402

Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, Spring 1983 to Spring 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A summary map shows various aspects of groundwater availability in Arizona. Potential well production, in increments of 0 to 10 gpm, 10 to 500 gpm, and 50 to 2500 gpm (average 1000 gpm) os the primary emphasis of the map; however, data on changes in water level from spring 1983 to spring 1984, status of groundwater inventory, and estimated groundwater pumpage in Arizona in 1983, are also presented. The total water pumpage is also broken down by the following use categories: drainage, public supply, domestic, livestock, industrial and agricultural. (Halterman - PTT)

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1985-01-01

403

Scoping assessment of radiological doses to aquatic organisms and wildlife -- N Springs. [N Springs  

SciTech Connect

Estimated does rates were determined for endemic biota inhabiting the N Springs area based primarily on spring water data collected from the first 6 months of 1991. Radiological dose estimates were computed from measured values of specific radionuclides and modeled levels of radionuclides using established computer codes. The highest doses were predicted in hypothetical populations of clams, fish-eating ducks, and rabbits. The calculated dose estimates did not exceed 1 rad/d, an administrative dose rate established by the US Department of Energy for the protection of native aquatic biota. An administrative dose rate has not been established for terrestrial wildlife.

Poston, T.M.; Soldat, J.K.

1992-10-01

404

A hypersaline spring analogue in Manitoba, Canada for potential ancient spring deposits on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the possible applications of a spring complex, East German Creek (EGC), Manitoba, Canada, as a terrestrial analogue for similar environments on Mars. Potential ancient spring deposits have been identified by Allen and Oehler (Allen, C.C., Oehler, D.Z. [2008]. Astrobiology 8, 1093-1112) in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra, as well as in the intercrater plains of Terra Sirenum by Wray et al. (Wray et al. [2011]. J. Geophys. Res., 116, 1-41). EGC can provide guidance in the search for fossil spring deposits on Mars by using comparative mineralogy to contrast mineral identification from field studies to that available from remote sensing instruments such as the CRISM instrument aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The formation processes of EGC are also useful for finding spring-like environments on Mars. A variety of techniques were employed (X-ray diffractometry, reflectance spectra, water chemistry analysis) to analyze mineralogical changes in spring water precipitates with distance from the main springs at EGC, which were compared with concentrations of dissolved species in outflow water. Biosignatures in outflow stream sediments as well as the effect of surficial Fe oxyhydroxide coatings on the detection of underlying carbonate absorption features have also been spectrally characterized. Halite is the main mineral precipitated at EGC, followed by gypsum, and calcite. The presence of gypsum is readily detected in surficial precipitate spectra while halite does not have a diagnostic spectral signature in the 0.35-2.5 ?m region. An absorption feature indicative of chlorophyll a is present in stream sediment spectra from most sampling stations and on outwash plain sediments. Carbonates appear to be spectrally detectable through a coating of ferric minerals, such as goethite by a characteristic absorption band near 2.3 ?m. We attempted to detect significant spectral changes over an area of potential spring features in Vernal Crater on Mars using CRISM data over the 1.0-3.92 ?m interval, but results were inconclusive. Analysis of the surficial geology, geomorphology, biology, and water chemistry of EGC provides a number of insights into the possible nature of low-temperature spring deposits on Mars, while highlighting the limitations of spectroscopy without the cooperation of X-ray diffractometry.

Berard, Genevieve; Applin, Daniel; Cloutis, Edward; Stromberg, Jessica; Sharma, Raven; Mann, Paul; Grasby, Stephen; Bezys, Ruth; Horgan, Briony; Londry, Kathleen; Rice, Melissa; Last, Bill; Last, Fawn; Badiou, Pascal; Goldsborough, Gordon; Bell, James

2013-06-01

405

Assessing Essential Fish Habitat in Freshwater Environments Using Otolith Chemistry: Spring River, AR.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of essential fish habitat within freshwater systems is critical to the management of the game fish populations. In order to accurately assess habitat we investigated the physical and chemical hydrological controls on game fish abundances and distributions with the 92-km reach of the Spring River of Arkansas. The hydrology of the river was integrated in to the chemical analyses of otolith chemistry of game fish from habitats throughout the river. Identified spatial and temporal variations in metal concentration within the Spring River are an important factor in the recognition of essential fish habitat. In the Spring River, where spatial and temporal metal concentration variations are significant, otolith chemistry has the potential to serve as a marker of essential habitat in much the same way as in estuarine and marine settings. Using otolith chemistry to identify essential habitat in freshwater systems has the potential to revolutionize ecological management strategies. Fish otolith chemistry shows both inter-species variations and spatial variations. Spatial variations in the otolith chemistry as recorded over the life of the fish allow identification of the nursery habitat and feeding range of game fish. Using otolith chemistry, particularly variations in trace element composition rather than the traditional major element ratios (i.e., Mg/Ca), we are able to identify essential habitats and provide managers data needed for conservation and preservation of these habitats.

Bickford, N. A.; Hamilton, B.; Hannigan, R. E.

2002-12-01

406

Thoron (220Rn) in spring water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thoron (220Rn, half-life 55.6 s) is a shorter-lived isotope of the radioactive noble-gas radon (the longer-lived isotope is 222Rn; half-life 3.6 d). Both radionuclides are part of a natural radioactive decay chain, thoron from the 232Th and radon from the 238U series. They can be found in soil-near air and soil-gas, and, in case of radon, its occurrence in ground water is well known. We expected to find also thoron in groundwater. But, as radon and thoron result from different decay chains, the geochemical and geophysical behaviour of their precursors differs, too. The emanation of thoron out of solid material that contains the thoron precursor 224Ra and the occurrence in aquatic systems are not well known. To assess the thoron emanation, we formulated two working hypotheses. The first one is based on the low solubility of the thoron precursors in oxic ground waters: 232Th and its daughter nuclides will remain located at almost the same positions in the crystal lattice as their precursors. In that case, the thoron concentration in groundwater depends on the distribution of the precursors in the aquifer material ("primary emanation"). The second hypothesis is based on the enhanced mobility of the radium isotopes, the precursors of 220,222Rn, in anoxic ground water of springs. If the anoxic spring water gets in contact with oxygen, Ra tends to co-precipitate with Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxides and accumulates at surface coatings. From the decay of 224Ra thoron emanates to the water phase ("secondary emanation"). We measured radon and thoron with a Rad7 solid-state detector coupled to a RadAQUA unit (closed gas loop, in contact with sprayed flowing water), which allows continuous measurement of radon and thoron in water. In order to test our working hypothesis, several springs containing oxygen were analysed - none of them showed any detectable thoron. At an anoxic mineral spring with Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxide precipitations at its outlet we have measured a thoron concentration of around 0.2

Huxol, S.; Höhn, E.; Surbeck, H.; Kipfer, R.

2009-04-01

407

Resources for Yanghee Kim's Spring 4010 Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are a list of resources for INST 4010 for using the National Science Digital Library and the Instructional Architect Some interesting IA projects: Addition and Subtraction Facts Advertising the Animals of Utah Mystery Island Mystery Island Explanation Race Across South America States For Sale! The Statue of Liberty Help with the Instructional Architect: Spring 4010 Handout How to use the IA National Science Digital Library Resources National Science Digital Library NSDL: Resources for K-12 Teachers NSDL: Science Literacy Maps NSDL Literacy Maps NSDL Elementary Education Resources WebQuest Shell Web Quest ...

Robertshaw, Brooke

2010-04-11

408

Creation of an antiferromagnetic exchange spring  

SciTech Connect

We present evidence for the creation of an exchange spring in an antiferromagnet due to exchange coupling to a ferromagnet. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy on single crystal Co/NiO(001) shows that a partial domain wall is wound up at the surface of the antiferromagnet when the adjacent ferromagnet is rotated by a magnetic field. We determine the interface exchange stiffness and the antiferromagnetic domain wall energy from the field dependence of the direction of the antiferromagnetic axis, the antiferromagnetic pendant to a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop. The existence of a planar antiferromagnetic domain wall, proven by our measurement, is a key assumption of most exchange bias models.

Scholl, A.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.

2004-04-06

409

The Tale of Spring Water Cysts  

PubMed Central

Congenital pericardial diverticula and cysts are extremely uncommon lesions within the anterior mediastinum. Both lesions derive from the pericardial celom and represent different stages of a common embryogenesis. Initial reports date from the 19th century. Surgical pioneers were Otto Pickhardt, who removed a pericardial cyst at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York in 1931, and Richard Sweet, who accomplished the first resection of a pericardial diverticulum at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston in 1943. These lesions were also called spring water cysts because they usually contain watery, crystal-clear fluid. This history outlines the milestones of evolving surgical management, from the first report in 1837 up to the present time.

Schweigert, Michael; Dubecz, Attila; Beron, Martin; Ofner, Dietmar; Stein, Hubert J.

2012-01-01

410

Physics of iron: Showdown in Colorado Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Second Ironworkers Convention was held at an international conference in Colorado Springs, Colo., from June 28 to July 2, 1993. It was convened by the International Association for High Pressure Research and Technology. Papers on the physics of iron were presented by 51 authors and were sponsored by the University of California's IGPP, the American Physical Society, and Study of the Earth's Deep Interior.As this meeting affirmed, there has been an upswing of interest in iron melting and the equation of the state of iron since publication of the Proceedings of the 1989 First Ironworkers Convention (see JGR—Solid Earth, December 1990).

Anderson, Orson L.

411

Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

412

Novel sulfur-oxidizing streamers thriving in perennial cold saline springs of the Canadian high Arctic.  

PubMed

The perennial springs at Gypsum Hill (GH) and Colour Peak (CP), situated at nearly 80 degrees N on Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic, are one of the few known examples of cold springs in thick permafrost on Earth. The springs emanate from deep saline aquifers and discharge cold anoxic brines rich in both sulfide and sulfate. Grey-coloured microbial streamers form during the winter months in snow-covered regions of the GH spring run-off channels (-1.3 degrees C to 6.9 degrees C, approximately 7.5% NaCl, 0-20 p.p.m. dissolved sulfide, 1 p.p.m. dissolved oxygen) but disappear during the Arctic summer. Culture- and molecular-based analyses of the 16S rRNA gene (FISH, DGGE and clone libraries) indicated that the streamers were uniquely dominated by chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira species. The streamers oxidized both sulfide and thiosulfate and fixed CO(2) under in situ conditions and a Thiomicrospira strain isolated from the streamers also actively oxidized sulfide and thiosulfate and fixed CO(2) under cold, saline conditions. Overall, the snow-covered spring channels appear to represent a unique polar saline microhabitat that protects and allows Thiomicrospira streamers to form and flourish via chemolithoautrophic, phototrophic-independent metabolism in a high Arctic winter environment characterized by air temperatures commonly below -40 degrees C and with an annual average air temperature of -15 degrees C. These results broaden our knowledge of the physical and chemical boundaries that define life on Earth and have astrobiological implications for the possibility of life existing under similar Martian conditions. PMID:19278448

Niederberger, Thomas D; Perreault, Nancy N; Lawrence, John R; Nadeau, Jay L; Mielke, Randall E; Greer, Charles W; Andersen, Dale T; Whyte, Lyle G

2009-03-01

413

Geochemical signature of permanent and ephemeral thermal springs in Val di Cornia, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Val di Cornia area, several permanent thermal springs outflow. They belong to the hydrothermal system of Campiglia Marittima and have been exploited since longtime for the therapeutic properties of the discharged waters. With an average outflow of 250 L/sec, Calidario (36.3±0.2° C) is the most important permanent spring of the area. Periodically, i.e. about every 10 years, a number of ephemeral thermo-mineral springs in Bagnarello (46±0.2° C) and Monte Peloso (42.2±0.3° C) area, spontaneously reactivate over short time periods (several weeks to few months), with a maximum discharge of 150±20 L/sec. This phenomenon is generally induced by intensive rainfall events. In this contribution, we present new geochemical analyses of waters discharged from Calidario and the ephemeral springs reactivated at the beginning of 2001 and at the end of 2010. These new data are then compared to previous analyses to investigate geochemical variations over a 30-years period. Both ephemeral and permanent thermal springs have Ca-SO4 geochemical signature, typical of groundwaters circulating through the carbonate-evaporitic complexes of the Tuscan Nappe (Mesozoic age). Clear salinity trends are identified, with TDS increasing from Calidario to Monte Peloso and Bagnarello springs, up to a maximum of about 3000 ppm. Chemical speciation indicates that most of the thermal waters are close to saturation with respect to fluorite and gypsum/anhydrite, with solute geothermometers indicating possible equilibrium temperature of 50-55° C for Monte Peloso and Bagnarello waters, respectively. Higher temperatures, up to 75° C, were inferred by assuming equilibrium at depth with the aluminosilicates of the regional Basement (phyllitic formations of Paleozoic age), below the evaporites of the Tuscan Nappe (Triassic age). With ?18O and ?2H values of -6.4 (±0.2)o and -38.9 (±2.9)o respectively, the ephemeral springs have a steady stable isotope composition, comparable to permanent thermal springs. Based on these data, the main recharge area has been hypothesized in correspondence of outcropping carbonate formations in the hilly region NE of the area under study. The lack of tritium (3H) at Bagnarello suggests the existence of long underground residence times for the hydrothermal component, whereas the presence of measurable amounts of tritium at Calidario indicate the contribution of rapidly infiltrating meteoric waters. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ephemeral and permanent thermal springs (below 0.70804), significantly lower than local Ca-HCO3 groundwaters (0.70889), indicates a prolonged interaction with Mesozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations (0.70789). The ?34S-SO4 signature (+15.4o) mirrors the isotopic composition of local evaporites, reinforcing on the hypothesis of extensive thermal circulation through the Tuscan Nappe. Overall, the geochemical signature of the thermal springs of the Campiglia Marittima hydrothermal spring appears stable over the period 1984-present. Geochemical data support a regional groundwater circulation scheme where thermal waters move along a preferential NE-SW direction, flow at different depths within Mesozoic carbonate and evaporite formations, and emerge in correspondence of main faults.

Pierotti, Lisa; Pennisi, Maddalena; Muti, Antonio; Gherardi, Fabrizio

2014-05-01

414

A new device for collecting time-integrated water samples from springs and surface water bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new device termed the 'seepage sampler' was developed to collect representative water samples from springs, streams, and other surface-water bodies. The sampler collects composite, time-integrated water samples over short (hours) or extended (weeks) periods without causing significant changes to the chemical composition of the samples. The water sample within the sampler remains at the ambient temperature of the water body and does not need to be cooled. Seepage samplers are inexpensive to construct and easy to use. A sampling program of numerous springs and/or streams can be designed at a relatively low cost through the use of these samplers. Transient solutes migrating through such flow systems, potentially unnoticed by periodic sampling, may be detected. In addition, the mass loading of solutes (e.g., agrichemicals) may be determined when seepage samplers are used in conjunction with discharge measurements.

Panno, S. V.; Krapac, I. G.; Keefer, D. A.

1998-01-01

415

Microbial Diversity of Acidic Hot Spring (Kawah Hujan B) in Geothermal Field of Kamojang Area, West Java-Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

2009-01-01

416

Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.  

PubMed

Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria. PMID:19440252

Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

2009-01-01

417

Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through

Longyear

1980-01-01

418

Spring structure for a thermionic converter emitter support arrangement  

DOEpatents

A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

Allen, Daniel T. (La Jolla, CA) [La Jolla, CA

1992-01-01

419

Comparison of Archaeal Tetraethers From hot Springs in China, Russia, and the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeal lipid biomarkers vary among different species of the Archaea and thus can be used to understand the community structure of these organisms in the natural environment. In particular, glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) constitute the core membrane lipids of Crenarchaeota and the methanogenic Euryarchaeota but are not present in the halophilic Euryarchaeota. Furthermore, in culture studies, the number of cyclopentane rings in a GDGT has been observed to increase with the growth temperature of the individual species that produces the GDGT. The goal of this study was to determine the global distribution of archaeal biomarkers in terrestrial hot springs. Samples have been collected from China, Russia, and the United States. The temperature of these springs varied between 37 °C and 100 °C and the pH varied between 5.0 and 9.2. Total lipids were extracted from the freeze-dried samples and analyzed for GDGTs by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples contained GDGTs having between 0 and 5 rings. The distribution of GDGTs, however, varied dramatically between the hot springs in the US and those in China and Russia. For example, crenarchaeol (a five-ring structure containing 4 cyclopentanes and 1 cyclohexane) was a major biomarker in the US hot springs at temperatures up to 68 °C; however, it was not found in any of the springs in China or Russia. The weighted average number of rings ranged from 1.6 to 5.0 (mean = 3.2 ± 1.1, n = 18) in the US, from 0.0 to 3.2 (mean = 2.2 ± 0.8, n = 10) in Russia, and from 2.0 to 3.0 (mean = 2.5 ± 0.5, n = 3) in China. No significant correlation was found between the number of rings and temperature; crenarchaeol was the one exception, being relatively more abundant at lower temperature. These results indicate that the archaeal communities in the US hot springs may be significantly different from those in Russia or China. On the other hand, the lack of correlation between temperature and the number of rings in GDGTs suggests that archaeal lipids in terrestrial hot springs may respond in a complex manner to temperature, chemical environment, and community composition (Pearson et al. 2004. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 5229-5237). Further studies of the environmental control on the distribution patterns of archaeal biomarkers will provide significant insight into the ecosystem function and the evolutionary pathways of Archaea in the natural environment.

Zhang, C. L.; Pearson, A.; Li, Y.; Romanek, C.; Mills, G.; Yao, S.

2005-12-01

420

Estimation of recession curve of karst spring hydrograph: example of the spring Gradole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spring Gradole represents a typical karst spring of the rising type, which is situated in central part of Istria (Croatia). The drainage area is composed mostly of carbonate rocks (limestone) and partly of flysch components (marls and sandstones). The average altitude of the catchment area is approximately 330 m a.s.l. Strong tectonic deformations have made carbonate deposits very permeable, enabling the infiltration of water. The average rainfall is between 1046 and 1120 mm. The catchment area of the spring is estimated to approximately 114 km2. Several studies have shown that the recession curves of karst spring hydrographs characterize the storage properties of karst aquifers. The change in slope can be explained with the drainage of different types of media typical for karst, such as conduits, fractures, pores and fissures. The main factors that affect the recession curve are aquifer lithology and geometry of conduits. Consequently, the recession curve analyzes can provide information about the aquifer and the main features of karst rock massif. Usually, the recession curves can be fitted well by the function that consists of two or more exponential terms with exponential coefficients ?1,?2,…, where the lower coefficient ?1 represents the slow flow through porous medium or base flow. The recession curve that represents base flow is usually named as the master recession curve and its exponential coefficient ?1 is named as the master recession coefficient. In this study, classical methods for estimation of recession curve are applied to the hydrograph of the spring Gradole. The results are compared with those obtained by applying Composite Transfer Functions (CTF). Differently from classical parametric and nonparametric transfer functions that represent the quick flow and base flow component of spring response by a single function, CTF represents the spring response by two functions adapted for the quick flow and the slow flow component. The quick flow component is represented by a nonparametric transfer function, whereas the slow flow component is represented by a parametric transfer function which is an Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) formulated and defined mathematically from a conceptual model. By using CTF for Rainfall-Runoff (RR) modeling, the simulations of long recession periods as well as the simulations of complete hydrograph become more successful. If IUH defined from the conceptual model of linear reservoir is applied, the parametric transfer function representing slow flow component has exponential form. It means that the recession coefficient of IUH represents the master recession coefficient of the spring hydrograph, i.e. the recession coefficient of IUH can be determined by using classical methods for the estimation of master recession coefficient, and vice versa, the problem of determination of master recession coefficient can be transformed to the problem of determination of the recession coefficient of IUH. The recession coefficient of IUH is determined simultaneously with the values of nonparametric transfer function in the optimization procedure for estimation of parameters of RR model based on CTF. The recession coefficients of IUH are obtained separately in the optimization procedures for each hydrological year during the period 1987-2002. The results show that the recession curve of the spring Gradole has not a unique form. Depending on hydrological year, the obtained nonparametric transfer functions representing quick flow component can be fitted by one or two exponential terms. The values of master recession coefficient vary between 100 and 260 days. The average value for the entire period of 15 years is 140 days. These results are similar to the results obtained by applying classical methods for estimation of master recession curve. It confirms practically that the recession coefficient of IUH can be estimated from the spring hydrograph, which can be useful for RR modeling based on CTF because the number of unknown parameters is reduced.

Deni?-Juki?, V.; Kuštera, K.; Juki?, D.

2009-04-01

421

Hard-tip, soft-spring lithography.  

PubMed

Nanofabrication strategies are becoming increasingly expensive and equipment-intensive, and consequently less accessible to researchers. As an alternative, scanning probe lithography has become a popular means of preparing nanoscale structures, in part owing to its relatively low cost and high resolution, and a registration accuracy that exceeds most existing technologies. However, increasing the throughput of cantilever-based scanning probe systems while maintaining their resolution and registration advantages has from the outset been a significant challenge. Even with impressive recent advances in cantilever array design, such arrays tend to be highly specialized for a given application, expensive, and often difficult to implement. It is therefore difficult to imagine commercially viable production methods based on scanning probe systems that rely on conventional cantilevers. Here we describe a low-cost and scalable cantilever-free tip-based nanopatterning method that uses an array of hard silicon tips mounted onto an elastomeric backing. This method-which we term hard-tip, soft-spring lithography-overcomes the throughput problems of cantilever-based scanning probe systems and the resolution limits imposed by the use of elastomeric stamps and tips: it is capable of delivering materials or energy to a surface to create arbitrary patterns of features with sub-50-nm resolution over centimetre-scale areas. We argue that hard-tip, soft-spring lithography is a versatile nanolithography strategy that should be widely adopted by academic and industrial researchers for rapid prototyping applications. PMID:21270890

Shim, Wooyoung; Braunschweig, Adam B; Liao, Xing; Chai, Jinan; Lim, Jong Kuk; Zheng, Gengfeng; Mirkin, Chad A

2011-01-27

422

ThinkQuest: The Prague Spring 1968  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This ThinkQuest site provides an elaborately detailed history of the 1968 anti-Soviet uprising in Czechoslovakia known as the Prague Spring. The site provides not only comprehensive information on the main figures, events, and aftermath of the uprising, but also gives detailed background on the history that led to Czechoslovakia coming under Soviet influence in the wake of World War II. Users can take a guided tour or browse separate sections on the background of the uprising, the events of the Spring of '68, the Soviet Intervention, and its aftermath. In addition, a database of pamphlets, photographs, and biographical profiles is made available along with a search engine. Each separate section offers a pull-down menu for easy navigation, and the historical description is supplemented by 68 primary documents, including such fascinating items as the Munich Agreement struck between Western European allies and Hitler and a letter from Leonid Brehznev to Alexander Dubcek expressing concern about events in Czechoslovakia, April 11, 1968.

423

Fractures and stresses in Bone Spring sandstones  

SciTech Connect

This project is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Harvey E. Yates Company being conducted under the auspices of the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership. The project seeks to apply perspectives related to the effects of natural fractures, stress, and sedimentology to the simulation and production of low-permeability gas reservoirs to low-permeability oil reservoirs as typified by the Bone Spring sandstones of the Permian Basin, southeast New Mexico. This report presents the results and analysis obtained in 1989 from 233 ft of oriented core, comprehensive suite of logs, various in situ stress measurements, and detailed well tests conducted in conjunction with the drilling of two development wells. Natural fractures were observed in core and logs in the interbed carbonates, but there was no direct evidence of fractures in the sandstones. However, production tests of the sandstones indicated permeabilities and behavior typical of a dual porosity reservoir. A general northeast trend for the maximum principal horizontal stress was observed in an elastic strain recovery measurements and in strikes of drilling-induced fractures; this direction is subparallel to the principal fracture trend observed in the interbed carbonates. Many of the results presented are believed to be new information for the Bone Spring sandstones. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.; Sattler, A.R.; Northrop, D.A.

1990-09-01

424

Nonmarine Crenarchaeol in Nevada Hot Springs  

PubMed Central

Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are core membrane lipids of the Crenarchaeota. The structurally unusual GDGT crenarchaeol has been proposed as a taxonomically specific biomarker for the marine planktonic group I archaea. It is found ubiquitously in the marine water column and in sediments. In this work, samples of microbial community biomass were obtained from several alkaline and neutral-pH hot springs in Nevada, United States. Lipid extracts of these samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each sample contained GDGTs, and among these compounds was crenarchaeol. The distribution of archaeal lipids in Nevada hot springs did not appear to correlate with temperature, as has been observed in the marine environment. Instead, a significant correlation with the concentration of bicarbonate was observed. Archaeal DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All samples contained 16S rRNA gene sequences which were more strongly related to thermophilic crenarchaeota than to Cenarchaeum symbiosum, a marine nonthermophilic crenarchaeon. The occurrence of crenarchaeol in environments containing sequences affiliated with thermophilic crenarchaeota suggests a wide phenotypic distribution of this compound. The results also indicate that crenarchaeol can no longer be considered an exclusive biomarker for marine species.

Pearson, A.; Huang, Z.; Ingalls, A. E.; Romanek, C. S.; Wiegel, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Zhang, C. L.

2004-01-01

425

Helium and Ground Temperature Surveys at Steamboat Springs, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

n, Steamboat Springs, olorado, he1 ium and shallow quick, inexpensive ge rmal-exploration methods that ogether with excellent r esults. Steamboat Springs, in ado, lies primarily upon terrace gravels and alluvium with the major structure being a north-trending normal fault passing through the western portion of the city. Work by Christopherson (1979) indicates that the Steamboat warm springs are not laterally

Kevin P. McCarthy; Josh Been; G. M. Reimer; C. Gilbert Bowles; D. G. Murrey

426

Synthesis of actively adjustable springs by antagonistic redundant actuation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for active spring generation is presented based on antagonistic redundant actuation. Antagonistic properties are characterized using an effective system stiffness. 'Antagonistic stiffness' is generated by preloading a closed-chain (parallel) linkage system. Internal load distribution is investigated along with the necessary conditions for spring synthesis. The performance and stability of a proposed active spring are shown by simulation, and applications are discussed.

Yi, Byung-Ju; Freeman, Robert A.

1992-01-01

427

Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium\\/helium-3 (3H\\/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997–1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs

Brian G Katz; John Karl Böhlke; H. David Hornsby

2001-01-01

428

Principal Facts for Gravity Stations in Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observed gravity values, station locations, terrain corrections, and Bouguer gravity data are provided in tabular form for approximately 410 gravity observations in Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona. (Author)

D. L. Peterson

1972-01-01

429

Cold springs in permafrost on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perennial springs located on west central Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic occur in a region with a mean annual air temperature of -15°C and flow through continuous permafrost 600 m thick. The spring water is a low-temperature (up to 6°C) brine that maintains constant discharge temperatures and flow rates throughout the year. Here we report on observations of temperature and discharge rate of these springs and develop a combined flow and thermal model of the subsurface flow using the measured geothermal gradient. We also consider the implications these springs have for the search for similar environments, past or present, on Mars.

Andersen, Dale T.; Pollard, Wayne H.; McKay, Christopher P.; Heldmann, Jennifer

2002-03-01

430

Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration: Spring 2008 Results; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper presented at the 2008 National Hydrogen Association Meeting that describes the spring, 2008 results of the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project.

Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Garbak, J.

2008-04-01

431

Observed changes in false springs over the contiguous United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

warming fosters an earlier spring green-up that may bring potential benefits to agricultural systems. However, advances in green-up timing may leave early stage vegetation growth vulnerable to cold damage when hard freezes follow green-up resulting in a false spring. Spatiotemporal patterns of green-up dates, last spring freezes, and false springs were examined across the contiguous United States from 1920 to 2013. Results indicate widespread earlier green-up and last spring freeze dates over the period. Observed changes in these dates were asymmetric with the last spring freeze date advancing to earlier in the year relative to green-up date. Although regionally variable, these changes resulted in a reduction in false springs, notably over the past 20 years, except across the intermountain western United States where the advance in green-up timing outpaced that of the last spring freeze. A sensitivity experiment shows that observed decreases in false springs are consistent with a warming climate.

Peterson, Alexander G.; Abatzoglou, John T.

2014-03-01

432

Radioactive mineral spring precipitates, their analytical and statistical data and the uranium connection  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major radioactive mineral springs are probably related to deep zones of active metamorphism in areas of orogenic tectonism. The most common precipitate is travertine, a chemically precipitated rock composed chiefly of calcium carbonate, but also containing other minerals. The mineral springs are surface manifestations of hydrothermal conduit systems which extend downward many kilometers to hot source rocks. Conduits are kept open by fluid pressure exerted by carbon dioxide-charged waters rising to the surface propelled by heat and gas (CO2 and steam) pressure. On reaching the surface, the dissolved carbon dioxide is released from solution, and calcium carbonate is precipitated. Springs also contain sulfur species (for example, H2S and HS-), and radon, helium and methane as entrained or dissolved gases. The HS- ion can react to form hydrogen sulfide gas, sulfate salts, and native sulfur. Chemical salts and native sulfur precipitate at the surface. The sulfur may partly oxidize to produce detectable sulfur dioxide gas. Radioactivity is due to the presence of radium-226, radon-222, radium-228, and radon-220, and other daughter products of uranium-238 and thorium-232. Uranium and thorium are not present in economically significant amounts in most radioactive spring precipitates. Most radium is coprecipitated at the surface with barite. Barite (barium sulfate) forms in the barium-containing spring water as a product of the oxidation of sulfur species to sulfate ions. The relatively insoluble barium sulfate precipitates and removes much of the radium from solution. Radium coprecipitates to a lesser extent with manganese-barium- and iron-oxy hydroxides. R-mode factor analysis of abundances of elements suggests that 65 percent of the variance of the different elements is affected by seven factors interpreted as follows: (1) Silica and silicate contamination and precipitation; (2) Carbonate travertine precipitation; (3) Radium coprecipitation; (4) Evaporite precipitation; (5) Hydrous limonite precipitation and coprecipitated elements including uranium; (6) Rare earth elements deposited with detrital contamination (?); (7) Metal carbonate adsorption and precipitation. Economically recoverable minerals occurring at some localities in spring precipitates are ores of iron, manganese, sulfur, tungsten and barium and ornamental travertine. Continental radioactive mineral springs occur in areas of crustal thickening caused by overthrusting of crustal plates, and intrusion and metamorphism. Sedimentary rocks on the lower plate are trapped between the plates and form a zone of metamorphism. Connate waters, carbonate rocks and organic-carbon-bearing rocks react to extreme pressure and temperature to produce carbon dioxide, and steam. Fractures are forced open by gas and fluid pressures. Deep-circulating meteoric waters then come in contact with the reactive products, and a hydrothermal cell forms. When hot mineral-charged waters reach the surface they form the familiar hot mineral springs. Hot springs also occur in relation to igneous intrusive action or volcanism both of which may be products of the crustal plate overthrusting. Uranium and thorium in the sedimentary rocks undergoing metamorphism are sometimes mobilized, but mobilization is generally restricted to an acid hydrothermal environment; much is redeposited in favorable environments in the metamorphosed sediments. Radium and radon, which are highly mobile in both acid and alkaline aqueous media move upward into the hydrothermal cell and to the surface.

Cadigan, R. A.; Felmlee, J. K.

1982-01-01

433

The 41st Japan Society of Applied Physics Spring Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 41st Japan Society of Applied Physics Spring Meeting attracted a thousands of Japanese scientists and a few non-Japanese scientists coming mostly from Japanese universities, Japanese industrial research laboratories, and Japanese federally funded research centers. During a four day meeting, there were more than fifty simultaneous sessions in progress, covering most of the applied physics disciplines such as radiation and plasmas, measurements, optics, quantum electronics, optoelectronics, thin film physics, beam physics, applied materials, superconductivity, bioelectronics, semiconductors, crystal formations, and non-metallic formations. Presented here is an overview of papers presented in three topical sessions which covered the future and prospects of new light emitting materials, nanostructure control and single-electron electronics, and recent progress in silicon carbide and nitride related wide bandgap material research. Mr. S. Nakamura, Nichia Chemical industries, Inc., presented the latest data on InGaN/AlGaN double heterostructure light emitting diodes, which showed a luminescence value of 1.2 candelas, corresponding to an increase in brightness by a factor of 100 as compared to the existing SiC diodes.

Yakura, S. J.

1994-03-01