These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

Not Available

1990-12-01

2

Engineering evaluation\\/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri. Environmental assessment: Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation\\/cost analysis (EE\\/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal

M. M. MacDonell; J. M. Peterson

1991-01-01

3

Radiologic characterization of the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Remedial Action Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy established the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program in February 1985 to effect remedial action at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant site and the Femme Osage Slough Vicinty Property. This radiologic characterization of the Weldon Spring Site was performed at the request of the DOE\\/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Weldon Spring, because additional data were needed

S. J. Marutzky; R. Colby; L. S. Cahn

1988-01-01

4

Supporting evaluation for the proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the technical information developed since the interim record of decision (IROD) was issued in September 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] 2000). The information was incorporated into the evaluation that was performed in selecting the preferred alternative for the Chemical Plant groundwater operable unit (GWOU) of the Weldon Spring site. The contaminants of concern (COCs) in groundwater and springs are trichloroethylene (TCE), nitrate, uranium, and nitroaromatic compounds. The preferred alternative of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities is described in the ''Proposed Plan (PP) for Final Remedial Action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri'' (DOE 2003b).

NONE

2003-08-06

5

Aquifer Characteristics Data Report for the Weldon Spring Site chemical plant/raffinate pits and vicinity properties for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the procedures and methods used, and presents the results of physical testing performed, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the shallow Mississippian-Devonian aquifer beneath the Weldon Spring chemical plant, raffinate pits, and vicinity properties. The aquifer of concern is composed of saturated rocks of the Burlington-Keokuk Limestone which constitutes the upper portion of the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. This aquifer is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium which can be described in terms of diffuse Darcian flow overlain by high porosity discrete flow zones and conduits. Average hydraulic conductivity for all wells tested is 9.6E-02 meters/day (3.1E-01 feet/day). High hydraulic conductivity values are representative of discrete flow in the fractured and weathered zones in the upper Burlington-Keokuk Limestone. They indicate heterogeneities within the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneity in the horizontal plane is believed to be randomly distributed and is a function of fracture spacing, solution voids, and preglacial weathering phenomena. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities in deeper portions of the aquifer are though to be due to the presence of widely spaced fractures. 44 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1990-11-01

6

Proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.  

SciTech Connect

This Proposed Plan (PP) presents the preferred alternative for addressing contaminated groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site, in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located about 30 mi west of St. Louis, in St. Charles County (Figure 1). This proposed action constitutes the final remedial action for the Weldon Spring site. The residual contamination in groundwater and springs at the Chemical Plant area is the only remaining contamination that needs to be addressed for the site. All other contamination has been addressed by previous remedial actions. After this remedial action is implemented, long-term surveillance and maintenance activities will maintain the effectiveness of all remedial actions conducted at the Weldon Spring site, including this final remedial action for groundwater and springs that is being proposed in this plan. DOE complies with the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in conducting remedial activities at the site. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process; that is, the analysis conducted and presented in the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This PP is required under CERCLA to (1) notify the public and present a brief analysis of the remedial action alternatives, (2) identify and present the rationale for the preferred remedial action alternative identified in the PP, (3) summarize key information from the RI/FS evaluations, including the Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), and (4) inform the public of its role in the remedy selection process and give the public the opportunity to participate in the process. Remediation activities at the Weldon Spring site have been coordinated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). The EPA has overall oversight and approval authority, with consultation provided by the MDNR. A range of alternatives was considered in identifying the preferred alternative. The alternatives were developed after careful analysis of geological, environmental, and human health and ecological risk data and an evaluation of the effectiveness, implementability, and cost of the various technologies available for groundwater remediation at the Chemical Plant area. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities has been selected as the preferred alternative.

NONE

2003-08-06

7

Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

Not Available

1990-11-01

8

Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

Not Available

1993-06-01

9

Multimedia assessment of health risks for the Weldon Spring site remedial action project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. The Weldon Spring site became radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of processing and

L. A. Haroun; M. M. MacDonell; J. M. Peterson; D. J. Fingleton

1990-01-01

10

Getting it right at Weldon Spring  

SciTech Connect

This article focuses on the federal cleanup project at the Weldon Spring site, working with the community and solving technical problems. The sites was both radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Topics include the following: site background; initial plan rejected; a phased approach: putting the wheels in motion; Communication and reaching out to the community and the public; lessons from implementation. 6 figs.

MacDonell, M.; Picel, M.; Peterson, J.

1996-11-01

11

Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

Schumacher, J.G.

1993-12-31

12

Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE's Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

1992-11-01

13

Biological assessment for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site in St.Charles County, Missouri, became contaminated during the 1940s through the 1960s as a result of explosives production by the US Army and uranium and thorium processing by the predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency, and DOE is responsible for its cleanup. Contaminants are present in soil, surface water, and aquatic sediments. Alternatives identified for site remediation are no action (included as baseline for comparison), treatment and disposal of the wastes at the Weldon Spring site, and on-site treatment followed by off-site disposal at either a commercial facility near Clive, Utah, or at DOE`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. In accordance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act, this biological assessment has been prepared to evaluate the potential effects of proposed remedial action alternatives on federal listed (endangered or threatened) and candidate species at the respective sites. The assessment includes consideration of the environmental setting at each site; the federal listed and candidate species that could occur at each site; the construction, excavation, and treatment activities under each alternative; and the amount of land area affected at each site.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Dunn, C.P.

1992-11-01

14

Interim Record of Decision for Remedial Action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site in St. Charles County, Mo. This remedial action was selected in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended, and to the extent practicable the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.

Prime Management Contractor

2000-09-03

15

Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized.

Chang, Y.S.

1994-01-01

16

Geologic report for the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary geologic site characterization study was conducted at the Weldon Spring Raffinate Pits Site, which is part of the Weldon Spring Site, in St. Charles County, Missouri. The Raffinate Pits Site is under the custody of the Department of Energy (DOE). Surrounding properties, including the Weldon Spring chemical plant, are under the control of the Department of the Army. The study determined the following parameters: site stratigraphy, lithology and general conditions of each stratigraphic unit, and groundwater characteristics and their relation to the geology. These parameters were used to evaluate the potential of the site to adequately store low-level radioactive wastes. The site investigation included trenching, geophysical surveying, borehole drilling and sampling, and installing observation wells and piezometers to monitor groundwater and pore pressures.

none,

1984-10-01

17

Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from raffinate pits were determined at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site. Surface-water samples from the raffinate pits con- tained large concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, nitrite, lithium, moly- bdenum, strontium, vanadium, and uranium. Analyses of interstitial-water samples from raffinate pit 3 indicated that concentrations of most constituents increased with increasing depth below the water- sediment interface. Nitrate and uranium were not chemically reduced and attenuated within the raffinate pits and can be expected to migrate into the overburden. Laboratory sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH value on the sorption of several raffinate constituents by the overburden. No sorption of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, or lithium was observed. Sorption of molybdenum was dependent on solution pH and sorption of uranium was dependent on solution pH and carbonate concentration. The sorption of uranium and molybdenum was consistent with sorption controlled by oxyhydroxides. The quality of water collected in overburden lysimeters near raffinate pit 4 can be modeled as a mixture of water from raffinate pits 3 and 4, and an uncontaminated com- ponent in a system at equilibrium with ferrihydrite and calcite. Increased constituent concentrations in a perennial spring north of the site were the result of a subsurface connection between the spring and several losing stream segments receiving runoff from the site, in addition to seepage from the raffinate pits.

Schumacher, John G.

1993-01-01

18

Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995  

SciTech Connect

This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

NONE

1996-06-01

19

Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

NONE

1995-05-01

20

Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e.g., radium and thorium) were measured at back-ground levels and were eliminated from further consideration. Chemical contaminants identified in wells at the chemical plant area and ordnance works area include nitroaromatic compounds, metals, and inorganic anions. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,2-dichloroethylene (1,2 -DCE) have been detected recently in a few wells near the raffinate pits at the chemical plant.

NONE

1999-07-14

21

Buildings radiological characterization report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes radiological characterization data on the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) buildings gathered as part of five previous investigations, and provides a consistent will be used to support future feasibility studies which will determine the best available technologies for ultimate disposition of the buildings and associated equipment. At present no structure or piece of equipment can be released from the WSCP for unrestricted use without further radiation measurements being performed. A final group of equipment and building components contains surface radioactivity levels in excess of DOE guidelines; this group, usually found in buildings housing uranium and/or thorium processing equipment, will require decontamination and comprehensive scanning in order to be considered for unrestricted use release. 9 refs., 44 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-01

22

Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

Not Available

1994-05-01

23

Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE's predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

1992-01-01

24

Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4 km (4 mi) southwest of the chemical plant area. Both of these areas became chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through 1960s. The Weldon Spring site, located about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis, is listed on the National Priorities List of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Nitroaromatic explosives were processed by the Army at the chemical plant area during the 1940s, and radioactive materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency (the Atomic Energy Commission) during the 1950s and 1960s. Overall remediation of the Weldon Spring site is being addressed through the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, and it consists of several components. One component is the management of radioactively and chemically contaminated surface water impoundments at the chemical plant area -- i.e., the four raffinate pits, Frog Pond, and Ash Pond which was addressed under a separate action and documented in an engineering evaluation/cost analysis report. This report discusses the evaluation of surface water treatment at the Weldon Spring site.

Goyette, M.L.; MacDonell, M.M.

1992-09-01

25

Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the nature and extent of contamination is presented in Section 1.2, and the results of the BRA are summarized in Section 1.3. The objective of this FS is discussed in Section 1.4, and preliminary remediation goals are identified in Section 1.5. The organization of the remaining chapters of this FS is outlined in Section 1.6.

NONE

1999-07-15

26

Supplemental feasibility study for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Site data evaluated indicate that after source removal, dilution and dispersion appear to be the primary processes that would further attenuate groundwater contaminant concentrations. On the basis of these attenuation processes, the calculations presented in Chapter 2 indicate that it would take several years to decades (approximately 60 to 150 and 14 years, respectively, for Zones 1 and 2) for TCE concentrations in Zones 1 and 2 to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 5 pg/L. The estimates for Zones 1 through 3, where the higher nitrate concentrations are clustered, indicate that it would likely take at least 80 years for nitrate concentrations to attenuate to the MCL (or ARAR) of 10 mg/L. Costs for implementing NINA for groundwater at the chemical plant area are primarily associated with those incurred for monitoring contaminant concentrations and the replacement costs for monitoring wells. Cost estimates are relatively high because a rather lengthy period of monitoring would be involved. Calculations performed to evaluate the feasibility of groundwater removal and subsequent treatment of the extracted water included determinations for the number of extraction wells needed, required number of pore volumes, and the number of years of implementation required to attain bench marks. The calculations were performed per zone of contamination, as discussed in Chapter 1. Several observations can be made about the results presented in Chapter 3 regarding Alternative 4. The first is that by looking at the results for Zones 1 and 2 evaluated under Alternative 4, one can also assess the feasibility of Alternative 7, because Alternative 7 addresses this particular subset of Alternative 4 (i.e., Zones 1 and 2). TCE contamination has been observed in Zones 1 and 2, but has not been reported in any of the remaining five zones. Nitrate, nitroaromatic compounds, and uranium have also been reported in Zones 1 and 2. The present-worth costs for implementing the pump and treat alternative in Zones 1 and 2 constitute the major component of the overall present-worth cost for Alternative 4, which indicates that the cost for Alternative 7 would be similarly high. Another observation is that although estimated times are shorter for the pump and treat approach than those for MNA, pump and treat for Zones 1 and 2 likely would take several decades (at least 30 years) to attain ARARs or bench marks. The cost estimates (in present-worth costs) for Alternatives 4 and 7 are much higher (approximately an order of magnitude higher) than those for Alternative 3.

NONE

1999-08-06

27

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed removal action at the Southeast Drainage near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) has been prepared to support the proposed removal of contaminated sediment from selected portions of the Southeast Drainage as part of cleanup activities being conducted at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The cleanup activities are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Weldon Spring site is located near the town of Weldon Spring, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. It consists of two noncontiguous areas: the chemical plant area and a limestone quarry about 6.4 km (4 mi) south-southwest of the chemical plant area. The Southeast Drainage is a natural 2.4-km (1.5-mi) channel that carries surface runoff to the Missouri River from the southern portion of the chemical plant area and a small portion of the ordnance works area (part of the Weldon Spring Training Area) south of the groundwater divide. The drainage became contaminated as a result of past activities of the U.S. Army and the DOE (and its predecessors).

NONE

1996-08-01

28

Development of a model for geomorphological assessment at U.S. DOE chemical/radioactive waste disposal facilities in the central and eastern United States; Weldon spring site remedial action project, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Landform development and long-term geomorphic stability is the result of a complex interaction of a number of geomorphic processes. These processes may be highly variable in intensity and duration under different physiographic settings. This limitation has influenced the applicability of previous geomorphological stability assessments conducted in the arid or semi-arid western United States to site evaluations in more temperate and humid climates. The purpose of this study was to develop a model suitable for evaluating both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes which may impact landform stability and hence the stability of disposal facilities located in the central and eastern United States. The model developed for the geomorphological stability assessment at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) near St. Louis, Missouri, included an evaluation of existing landforms and consideration of the impact of both long-term and short-term geomorphic processes. These parameters were evaluated with respect to their impact and contribution to three assessment criteria considered most important with respect to the stability analysis; evaluation of landform age, evaluation of present geomorphic process activity and ; determination of the impact of the completed facility on existing geomorphic processes. The geomorphological assessment at the Weldon Spring site indicated that the facility is located in an area of excellent geomorphic stability. The only geomorphic process determined to have a potential detrimental effect on long-term facility performance is an extension of the drainage network. A program of mitigating measures has been proposed to minimize the impact that future gully extension could have on the integrity of the facility.

Rockaway, J.D. [Univ. of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States); Smith, R.J. [Jacobs Engineering Group, WSSRAP, St. Charles, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

29

Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

NONE

1998-02-01

30

Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

NONE

1999-07-15

31

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

1999-12-15

32

Evaluation of surface water treatment and discharge options for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy (DOE), under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, is responsible for conducting response actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits and two small ponds, and (2) a 3.6-ha (9-acre) quarry located about 6.4

M. L. Goyette; M. M. MacDonell

1992-01-01

33

Responsiveness summary for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for management of the bulk wastes at the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program. The site consists of a quarry and a chemical plant area located about 6.4 km (4 mi) northeast of the quarry. The quarry is surrounded by the Weldon Spring Wildfire Area and is near an alluvial well field that constitutes a major source of potable water for St. Charles County; the nearest supply well is located about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) southeast of the quarry. From 1942 to 1969, the quarry was used for the disposal of various radioactively and chemically contaminated materials. Bulk wastes in the quarry consist of contaminated soils and sediments, rubble, metal debris, and equipment. As part of overall site remediation, DOE is proposing to conduct an interim remedial action at the quarry to manage the radioactively and chemically contaminated bulk wastes contained therein. Potential remedial action alternatives for managing the quarry bulk wastes have been evaluated consistent with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for conducting remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The contents of these documents were developed in consultation with EPA Region VII and the state of Missouri and reflect the focused scope defined for this interim remedial action. 9 refs.

Peterson, J.M.; MacDonell, M.M.

1990-08-01

34

Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

NONE

1998-03-01

35

The effect of a zero-concentration sink on contaminant transport and remedial-action designs for the Weldon Spring quarry, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

One-dimensional analytical expressions are developed to simulate two processes in a homogeneous porous medium: contaminant transport through a porous medium that has a zero-concentration sink located at a finite distance from a step-function source; and contaminant transport through a porous medium that has an initial steady-state distribution corresponding to a constant strength source and zero-concentration sink separated by a finite distance. The governing equations are cast in dimensionless form, making use of the flow system's Peclet number. Evaluation of the analytical expressions is accomplished by numerical inversion of Laplace-space concentrations using either a full Fourier series approach with acceleration, or the Stehfest algorithm. The analytical expressions are used to evaluate possible contaminant conditions at the Weldon Spring quarry near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The following results have been found: contaminant concentrations should be at or near steady-state conditions; the spatial distribution of contaminants should be a function of the flow system's Peclet number; contaminant concentrations near the Femme Osage Slough should approach zero; contaminant concentrations near the quarry during dewatering and bulk-waste removal should monotonically decrease with time; and the spatial distribution of contaminants during remedial activities should be relatively flat, especially near the dewatering pumps. Future work will entail evaluating existing radionuclide or chemical concentration data to determine the applicability of the proposed contaminant transport model and to improve the hydrogeological conceptualization of the quarry area and vicinity. 20 refs., 27 figs.

Tomasko, D.

1990-04-01

36

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

Meier, J.

2002-02-26

37

Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available

1991-10-01

38

Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

NONE

1998-08-01

39

Hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St. Charles County, Missouri; 1984-1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and water quality data were collected during an investigation of the Weldon Spring radioactive waste disposal sites and surroundings area in St. Charles County, Missouri, from 1984 to 1986. The data consists of water quality analyses of samples collected from 45 groundwater and 27 surface water sites. This includes analyses of water from four raffinate pits and from the Weldon Spring quarry. Also included in the report are the results of a seepage run on north flowing tributaries to Dardenne Creek from Kraut Run to Crooked Creek. Mean daily discharge from April 1985 to April 1986 is given for two springs located about 1.5 mi north of the chemical plant. (USGS)

Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.; Barks, J.H.

1986-01-01

40

Modeling to optimize operational practices to limit shallow dose and dose to the lens at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) began remediation of its chemical plant buildings in June 1992. The chemical plant was used by the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950`s and 1960`s to process uranium ore and natural thorium. Many remaining equipment surfaces were highly contaminated with uranium and thorium product residues, which are relatively weak gamma emitters, but

D. J. Hillman; S. W. Green

1994-01-01

41

Weldon Spring citizens commission overview for 1996. Annual report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring DOE grantee, St. Charles County, is seeking a twelve month renewal of the Weldon Spring Grant to cover calendar year 1997. This annual overview provides a brief historical account of the Weldon Spring Citizen Commission`s origins as well its` activities and accomplishments i calendar year 1996. In late January of 1995, the St. Charles County Executive appointed seven St. Charles County residents to be members of the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission, an oversite committee for the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weldon Spring site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The seven appointed Commission members were selected by the three member Selection Panel/Work Group. This group consisted of one member selected by each of the following: The DOE, St. Charles County Executive, and the St. Charles County Council. The end of the first year an agreement was reached between the Citizens Commission, the County Administration and the DOE that support of the Commissions activities for the upcoming year did not require the services of a full time project director. With the contracting of part time administrative assistance in April of 1996, the communications, office management, and financial management capabilities of the Commission have seen tremendous improvements. These improvements have enabled the Commission to spend more of their energy on fulfilling their oversite responsibilities. A overview of these activities and accomplishments are presented in the next section.

NONE

1998-01-01

42

Responses to comments on the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement for remedial action at the Chemical Plant area of the Weldon Spring site (November 1992)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. The site consists of a chemical plant area and a noncontiguous limestone quarry; both areas are radioactively and chemically contaminated as a result of past processing and disposal activities. Explosives were produced by the US Army at the chemical plant in the 1940s, and uranium and thorium materials were processed by DOE`s predecessor agency in the 1950s and 1960s. During that time, various wastes were disposed of at both areas of the site. The DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the site under its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The integrated remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS) documents for the chemical plant area were issued to the public in November 1992 as the draft RI/FS-EIS. (The CERCLA RI/FS is considered final when issued to the public, whereas per the NEPA process, an EIS is initially issued as a draft and is finalized after substantive public comments have been addressed.) Four documents made up the draft RI/FS-EIS, which is hereafter referred to as the RI/FS-EIS: (1) the RI (DOE 1992d), which presents general information on the site environment and the nature and extent of contamination; (2) the baseline assessment (BA) (DOE 1992a), which evaluates human health and environmental effects that might occur if no cleanup actions were taken; (3) the FS (DOE 1992b), which develops and evaluates alternatives for site cleanup; and (4) the proposed plan (PP) (DOE 1992c), which summarizes key information from the RI, BA, and FS reports and identifies DOE`s preferred alternative for remedial action. This comment response document combined with those four documents constitutes the final RI/FS-EIS for the chemical plant area.

Not Available

1993-06-01

43

Environmental Response to Remedial Actions at the Weldon Spring Site--An Environmental Success Story  

SciTech Connect

Environmental remediation activities have been ongoing at the Weldon Spring Site for over a decade, beginning with small interim response actions and culminating in completion of surface cleanup as represented by closure of the 17 hectare (42-acre) on-site disposal cell. As remedial actions have incrementally been accomplished, the occurrence of site-related contaminants in on and off-site environmental media have effectively been reduced. The DOE-WSSRAP has demonstrated success through the effective reduction or elimination of site related water and airborne contaminants along multiple migration pathways. This paper briefly describes the remedial measures affected at Weldon Spring, and quantifies the environmental responses to those remedial measures.

Meier, J. A.; Welton, T. D.

2002-02-27

44

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

NONE

1995-08-01

45

Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site management activities necessary to ensure that the Weldon Spring Site remains protective over the long-term. The LTS and M Plan is revised periodically to ensure its applicability to changing site, regulatory, or procedural conditions. In addition to addressing such activities as long-term groundwater monitoring and disposal cell maintenance, the LTS and M Plan was developed and issued to ensure that the use restrictions identified in the ESD were properly imposed and maintained. The LTS and M Plan included a detailed IC Implementation Plan, which includes a process for evaluating and identifying specific IC mechanisms that best accomplish the objectives set out in the ESD. Consistent with EPA guidance on selecting ICs, various IC mechanisms were evaluated, including government controls, proprietary controls, enforcement tools, and informational devices. Where appropriate, redundant mechanisms were employed to increase the effectiveness of the ICs. Information in the IC Implementation Plan includes: (1) a discussion of current site conditions (reflecting post-remedial action conditions for the Chemical Plant and Quarry Areas and the risk-basis for why use restrictions are needed); (2) the objectives of, or performance expectations for, the use restrictions; (3) specific ICs already in place and additional mechanisms identified for implementation; (4) a schedule for implementing additional ICs; (5) procedures for maintaining the ICs and for conducting periodic inspections; and (6) general provisions for the implementing ICs for the site. The actual agreements and documentation of the various ICs are included in an appendix of the LTS and M Plan. These documents are also available via the internet from the authorizing agencies (County, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, EPA, etc.) The Weldon Spring Site personnel have been successful in finalizing each of the ICs that were established for the site. The planning, establishment, and implementation of the ICs was a long and detailed process with several lessons-learned that were identified along the way. (authors)

Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy [Stoller LMS Team (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team (United States); Starr, Ken [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)] [DOE Office of Legacy Management (United States)

2013-07-01

46

A survey of the wetlands and floodplains of the borrow area and wetland/shorebird complex for the remedial action at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is conducting cleanup operations at the Weldon Spring site, St. Charles, Missouri, that will include development of a 77-ha (191-acre) soil borrow area. Eight wetlands, including riverine and palustrine emergent wetland types and totaling 0.9 ha (2.2 acres), will be eliminated during excavation of the borrow area. A 23-ha (57-acre) wetland/shorebird complex will be created at the Busch Conservation Area. The complex will include 2 ha (5 acres) of palustrine emergent wetland as mitigation for wetland losses in the borrow area.

Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Yin, S.; Hlohowskyj, I.

1995-02-01

47

Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

Not Available

1994-01-01

48

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project approach to building dismantlement and demolition  

Microsoft Academic Search

When remediation began at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), there were 41 buildings on site. Twenty-nine of these buildings were ancillary structures and were not used for processing radioactive material. Most of these have been torn down. The remaining 12 buildings were used for uranium and thorium processing or were major support structures, such as the laboratory.

Spittler

1996-01-01

49

Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities

C. F. Sigmon; M. B. Levine

1990-01-01

50

Weldon Spring storage site environmental-monitoring report for 1979 and 1980  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site consists of two separate radioactive waste storage properties: a 52-acre site which is a remnant of the Weldon Spring Feed Materials Plant; and a 9-acre abandoned rock quarry. The larger property has four pits which contain settled sludge from uranium and thorium processing operations. At the quarry, part of the excavation contains contaminated building rubble, scrap, and various residues. During 1979 and 1980 these storage locations were managed by NLO, Inc., contract operator of the DOE Feed Materials Production Center. Air and water samples were collected to provide information about the transfer of radionuclides in the offsite environment. Monitoring results show that uranium and radium concentrations in offsite surface and well water were within DOE Guide values for uncontrolled areas. At offsite locations, radon-222 concentrations in air were well within the Guide value.

Weidner, R B; Boback, M W

1982-04-19

51

Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

NONE

1997-07-23

52

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-02-01

53

Proposed plan for remedial action at the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site  

SciTech Connect

This proposed plan addresses the management of contamination present in various components of the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) of the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri. The QROU consists of (1) residual waste at the quarry proper; (2) the Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of the slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of the evaluations for this operable unit. Remedial activities for the QROU will be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process required for the QROU under CERCLA, three major evaluation documents have been prepared to support cleanup decisions for this operable unit.

NONE

1998-03-01

54

Environmental compliance assessment findings for Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sigmon, C.F.; Levine, M.B.

1990-03-02

55

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement: Quarterly environmental data summary for third quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

In support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement, a copy of the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the third quarter of 1998 is enclosed. The data presented in this letter and attachment constitute the QEDS. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the third quarter of 1998. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined above normal Level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal Level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits, and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in the event that above normal data occur.

NONE

1998-11-06

56

The Use of Ecological Restoration Principles To Achieve Remedy Protection At the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring Sites  

SciTech Connect

At both the Fernald Preserve and the Weldon Spring Site, the development of ecological restoration goals and objectives was used to complement and even enhance achievement of selected remedies. Warm-season native grasses and forbs were used for revegetation of remediated areas. The hardiness and ability to establish in low-nutrient conditions make native grasses ideal candidates for reestablishment of vegetation in excavated areas. At the Fernald Preserve, native grasses were used for vegetative cover on an on-site disposal facility as well. Also at the Fernald Preserve, excavation footprints were optimized to increase the quantity and quality of created wetlands. Drainage features in a couple instances provide passive groundwater recharge, potentially accelerating groundwater remediation efforts. In addition, a number of clean materials and structures were beneficially reused as part of ecological restoration designs, including wood-chip mulch and woody debris, clean concrete, and a rail trestle. At the Weldon Spring Site, several methods were used to control erosion for three years after the initial seeding of native species. A field evaluation of soil conditions and general species diversity was performed in 2007 and it was determined that erosion at the site was typical and repairing naturally. These approaches resulted in 'win-win' strategies needed to successfully remediate and restore complex projects such as the Fernald Preserve and Weldon Spring. (authors)

Powell, J.; Johnston, F.; Homer, J. [Fernald Preserve, Ohio (United States); Deyo, Y. [Weldon Spring, St. Charles, Missouri (United States)

2008-07-01

57

Ground-water flow and ground- and surface-water interaction at the Weldon Spring quarry, St. Charles County, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water-level measurements to support remedial actions were made in 37 piezometers and 19 monitoring wells during a 19-month period to assess the potential for ground-water flow from an abandoned quarry to the nearby St. Charles County well field, which withdraws water from the base of the alluvial aquifer. From 1957 to 1966, low-level radioactive waste products from the Weldon Spring chemical plant were placed in the quarry a few hundred feet north of the Missouri River alluvial plain. Uranium-based contaminants subsequently were detected in alluvial ground water south of the quarry. During all but flood conditions, lateral ground-water flow in the bedrock from the quarry, as interpreted from water-table maps, generally is southwest toward Little Femme Osage Creek or south into the alluvial aquifer. After entering the alluvial aquifer, the ground water flows southeast to east toward a ground-water depression presumably produced by pumping at the St. Charles County well field. The depression position varies depending on the Missouri River stage and probably the number and location of active wells in the St. Charles County well field.

Imes, J.L.; Kleeschulte, M.J.

1997-12-31

58

St. Charles County Weldon Spring citizens commission communication education project overview for 1995. Annual report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring DOE grantee, St. Charles County, is seeking an early renewal on the Weldon Spring Grant order to match the grant`s reporting calendar with the County`s fiscal calendar which is January through December. Therefore, this renewal application will cover five months time instead of 12 months. This notified annual overview bridges a two month period that precedes the appointment and activation of the Weldon Spring Citizens Commission in February 1995. In the original grant application the County described its intent to select a volunteer Citizens Oversight Commission to monitor the cleanup activities at the DOE`s Weldon Spring Site. This commission would serve at the County`s watchdog group by monitoring Weldon Spring Site activities and provide on-going communication to the County`s residents through publications and forums. The first eight months of the project involved setting up the project office and working with a three member {open_quotes}Section Panel/Work Group{close_quotes} to select the Citizen`s Commission. These activities were coordinated by a Project Director hired by the County and funded from the initial grant funds.

NONE

1998-01-01

59

Missouri Department of Natural Resources Hazardous Waste Program Weldon Spring site remedial action project - status to date January 1998  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the progress made by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) during the fifth year (1997) of the Agreement in Support (AIS) in its oversight role of the Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Staffing issues this year have been a challenge with the resignation of an Environmental Specialist (ES) in June 1997, and the death of Robert Stovall, an Environmental Engineer (EE) II in August 1997. Progress made during this period includes securing a contract laboratory, participation in several workgroup meetings for activities at the site, oversight of the Feasibility Study/Proposed Plan (FS/PP), coordination between the US Department of Energy and the various State regulatory programs and interactions with the local public drinking water supply agency and health departments.

NONE

1998-04-01

60

Compilation and preliminary interpretation of hydrologic data for the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri; a progress report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Weldon Spring Chemical Plant is located just north of the drainage divide separating the Mississippi River and the Missouri River in St. Charles County, Missouri. From 1957 to 1966 the plant converted uranium-ore concentrates and recycled scrap to pure uranium trioxide, uranium tetrafluoride, and uranium metal. Residues from these operations were pumped to four large pits that had been excavated near the plant. Small springs and losing streams are present in the area. Water overlying the residue in the pits has a large concentration of dissolved solids and a different chemical composition compared to the native groundwater and surface water. This difference is indicated by the concentrations of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride, uranium, radium, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium, all of which are greater than natural or background concentrations. Water from Burgermeister Spring, located about 1.5 miles north of the chemical plant area, contains uranium and nitrate concentrations greater than background concentrations. Groundwater in the shallow bedrock aquifer moves northward from the vicinity of the chemical plant toward Dardenne Creek. An abandoned limestone quarry several miles southwest of the chemical plant also has been used for the disposal of radioactive waste and rubble. Groundwater flow from the quarry area is southward through the alluvium, away from the quarry and toward the Missouri River. The St. Charles County well field is located in the Missouri River flood plain near the quarry and the large yield wells are open to the Missouri River alluvial aquifer. Water from a well 4,000 ft southeast of the quarry was analyzed; there was no indication of contamination from the quarry. Additional water quality and water level data are needed to determine if water from the quarry moves toward the well field. Observation wells need to be installed in the area between the chemical plant, pits, and Dardenne Creek. The wells would be used to provide access for measurements of depth to ground water and for the collection of water samples from the shallow bedrock aquifer. (Lantz-PTT)

Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

1986-01-01

61

Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project: Report from the DOE voluntary protection program onsite review, November 17--21, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) Review Team`s findings from the five-day onsite evaluation of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), conducted November 17--21, 1997. The site was evaluated against the program requirements contained in ``US Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program, Part 1: Program Elements`` to determine its success in implementing the five tenets of DOE-VPP. DOE-VPP consists of three programs, with names and functions similar to those in OSHA`s VPP. These programs are STAR, MERIT, and DEMONSTRATION. The STAR program is the core of DOE-VPP. The program is aimed at truly outstanding protectors of employee safety and health. The MERIT program is a steppingstone for contractors and subcontractors that have good safety and health programs but need time and DOE guidance to achieve STAR status. The DEMONSTRATION program is rarely used; it allows DOE to recognize achievements in unusual situations about which DOE needs to learn more before determining approval requirements for the STAR status.

NONE

1998-01-28

62

Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 milligramsper litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100?C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in 'granitic' terranes.

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

1976-01-01

63

Chemical Oceanography 3 credits MSL 660 -Spring 2011  

E-print Network

Chemical Oceanography ­ 3 credits MSL 660 - Spring 2011 Syllabus Meets: T, Th 09:45-11:15, 138 Irv and biochemistry are helpful. Biological and physical oceanography are helpful, but we work around it if students;can provide introductory general oceanography texts for any students who have not had this background

Wagner, Diane

64

Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

1982-01-01

65

Chemical, isotopic, and gas compositions of selected thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-seven thermal springs in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah were sampled for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. The springs issue sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium mixed-anion waters of near neutral (6.2) to alkaline (9.2) pH. High concentrations of fluoride, more than 8 milligrams per liter, occur in Arizona in waters from Gillard Hot Springs, Castle Hot Springs, and the unnamed spring of Eagle Creek, and in New Mexico from springs along the Gila River. Deuterium compositions of the thermal waters cover the same range as those expected for meteoric waters in the respective areas. The chemical compositions of the thermal waters indicate that Thermo Hot Springs in Utah and Gillard Hot Springs in Arizona represent hydrothermal systems which are at temperatures higher than 125 deg C. Estimates of subsurface temperature based on the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometer differ by up to 60 deg C for Monroe, Joseph, Red Hill, and Crater hot springs in Utah. Similar conflicting estimates of aquifer temperature occur for Verde Hot Springs, the springs near Clifton and Coolidge Dam, in Arizona; and the warm springs near San Ysidro, Radium Hot Springs, and San Francisco Hot Springs, in New Mexico. Such disparities could result from mixing, precipitation of calcium carbonate, or perhaps appreciable concentrations of magnesium. (Woodard-USGS)

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

1977-01-01

66

Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year`s survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

Not Available

1992-09-01

67

Chemical analyses of thermal and nonthermal springs in Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most thermal waters issuing in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are acidic (pH =3.5), low-Cl (concentrations =30 mg/L) hot springs which are characteristic of vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems and, as such, are not useful for liquid chemical geothermometry. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley, hot spring localities characterized by neutral pH and low Cl containing water, may have equilibrated in shallow aquifers so that temperatures estimated by both the Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometers approach the measured spring temperatures of 65? to 95?C. Waters rich in chloride (>2000 mg/L), such as those at Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs, situated south of LVNP, are the most appropriate springs for liquid chemical geothermometry and indicate subsurface temperatures between 220? and 230?C. The chemical and thermal characteristics of these springs may result either from boiling at depth and subsequent mixing with meteoric water or from conductive cooling during lateral flow. In either case ~220? to 230?C thermal water probably originates inside LVNP and flows south to Morgan Hot Springs.

Thompson, J.M.

1983-01-01

68

Physical and chemical analysis of Onyang hot spring in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Onyang hot spring has a long history back in the time of Baekje Kingdom. It has currently 38 wells active for hot spring. Geologically, it consists of Precambrian banded gneiss, Jurassic porphyritic granite, biotite granite etc., Cretaceous microgranite, dike. Fault zones exist in the ESE-WNW around Onyang hot spring. Locations of the wells indicates that the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution may exist, while geochemistry is determined by rocks. Geochemically, Onyang hot spring is primarily the type of Na-HCO3. Sometimes, with sufficient Ca it evolved to the types of Ca-HCO3, Na(Ca)-HCO3, and. Na-HCO3. Water temperature is measured in the range of 45.87 - 52.92. The highest temperature range of 48.2 - 60 was observed during the pumping test. Based on the data from 2007 to 2011, the average of water production rate is 2,600 m3/d with significant seasonal fluctuation. It seems it was a natural spring 100 years ago. Due to excess pumping, the water depth has dropped more than 100 meter. It shows clear correlation with water usage. Key words: Onyang hot spring, Natural spring, Quantity, Water depth

Lee, Cholwoo; Park, Chan-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Chan

2014-05-01

69

Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon  

SciTech Connect

The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

1981-01-01

70

SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

Thompson, J.M.; Grunder, A.L.; Hildreth, Wes

1983-01-01

71

Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Depending on where you are, spring is either wrapping up or just around the bend. From the sounds of spring peepers peeping to birds chirping, this is definitely the season of re-birth. Check out this handful of sites that look at some of the signs of spring.The first site (1), from naturesound.com, allows you to hear the chorus of a truly spring sound: spring peepers. Next, from Education World, is a good collection of lesson plans for any teachers out there hoping to bring some spring fever into the classroom, or at least try to harness it(2). The Chicago Tribune (3)has the spirit with this feature on the signs of spring in the third site. The fourth site (4), from the Illinois State Museum, will help those out there considering putting in their own prairie garden this spring -- a perfect time to plant. The fifth site (5) is from eNature.com and offers a great look at the spring migration. Lastly is a show from NPR on spring bugs (4).

72

CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho  

DOE Data Explorer

This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

Baum, Jeffrey

73

CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

Baum, Jeffrey

2014-03-10

74

Syllabus444_2014.docx 1 FSC/CHE444 Forensic Chemical Analysis Spring Semester 2014  

E-print Network

Syllabus444_2014.docx 1 FSC/CHE444 Forensic Chemical Analysis Spring Semester 2014 ****************PLEASE READ THIS ENTIRE SYLLABUS***************** Professor Ulrich Englich TAs: Leanna Kim, slkim and the TAs, Leanna Kim and Craig Sherwood, #12;Syllabus444_2014.docx 2 will be available for help both

Doyle, Robert

75

Abrupt physical and chemical changes during 1992-1999, Anderson Springs, SE Geyser Geothermal Field, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Anderson Springs area is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. Patrons drank a variety of cool to hot mineral waters from improved springs, swam in various baths and pools, and hiked in the rugged hills flanking Anderson Creek and its tributaries. In the bluffs to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. By the early 1970s, the higher ridges south and west of Anderson Springs became part of the southeast sector of the greater Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric power plants are built on these ridges, producing energy from a vapor-dominated 240 °C reservoir. Only the main hot spring at Anderson Springs has maintained a recognizable identity since the 1930s. The hot spring is actually a cluster of seeps and springs that issue from a small fault in a ravine southwest of Anderson Creek. Published and unpublished records show that the maximum temperature (Tm) of this cluster fell gradually from 63°C in 1889 to 48°C in 1992. However, Tm of the cluster climbed to 77°C in 1995 and neared boiling (98°C) in 1998. A new cluster of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm = 99.3°C) formed in 1998 about 30 m north of the old spring cluster. Several evergreen trees on steep slopes immediately above these vents apparently were killed by the new activity. Thermal waters at Anderson Hot Springs are mostly composed of near-surface ground waters with some added gases and condensed steam from The Geysers geothermal system. Compared to gas samples from Southeast Geysers wells, the hot spring gases are higher in CO2 and lower in H2S and NH3. As the springs increased in temperature, however, the gas composition became more like the mean composition of steam discharges from the Southeast Geysers. The hot spring waters are low in ions of Cl, B, and Li, but relatively high in HCO3, SO4 and NH4. The stable-isotope compositions (deuterium and oxygen-18) of these waters plot near the global meteoric water line. Geochemical data through time reveal apparent maxima in the concentrations of SO4, Fe, and Mn in 1991 to 1992, before the cluster became hotter. The black-to-gray deposits from the new spring cluster are rich in pyrite and contain anomalous metals. About one-half mile to the east of the hot springs, mineralized water discharges intermittently from an old adit of the Schwartz (Anderson) mine, and enters a tributary of Anderson Creek. This drainage increased substantially in July 1998, and a slurry of mine water and precipitates were transported down the tributary and into Anderson Creek. In December 1998, the adit water was 22°C, and had a chemical composition that was similar to spring waters that once discharged in the ravines surrounding the old Anderson Springs resort. The cause for the abrupt changes that have occurred in thermal features at Anderson Springs is still not resolved. One possibility is that these changes are a response to withdrawal of steam from The Geysers geothermal field over more than 20 years of production. Pressure declines in the geothermal reservoir may have caused a "drying out" of the overlying condensation zone. Induced boiling in this zone and upflow of deep steam to shallower depths would cause heating and vaporization of shallow ground waters. In addition, earthquakes occurring in the vicinity of Anderson Springs have increased significantly after nearby geothermal power plants began operation. These earthquakes may have enhanced surface discharge of thermal fluids along fractures and faults.

Janik, Cathy J.; Goff, Fraser; Walter, Stephen R.; Sorey, Michael L.; Counce, Dale; Colvard, Elizabeth M.

2000-01-01

76

Aqua de Ney, California, a spring of unique chemical character  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemistry of water of Aqua de Ney, a cold spring of unusual character located in Siskiyou County, Calif., has been re-examined as part of a study of the relation of water chemistry to rock environment. The water has a pH of 11??6 and a silica content of 4000 parts per million (p.p.m.), the highest values known to occur in natural ground waters. The rocks exposed nearby consist of two volcanic sequences, one predominantly basaltic in composition, the other highly siliceous. Neither these rocks nor the sedimentary and igneous rocks presumed to underlie the area at depth seem to offer explanation of the unusual mineralization which includes 240 p.p.m. of boron, 1000 p.p.m. of sulphide (as H2S), and 148 p.p.m. of ammonia nitrogen (as NH4) in a water that is predominantly sodium chloride and sodium carbonate in character. By analogy, it is assumed that water from Aqua de Ney is the product of an initial mixture of connate sea water with a calcium magnesium sulphate water. It is postulated that ion exchange has increased the content of sodium and reduced that of calcium and magnesium, and that sulphate reduction has brought about the high alkalinity, high pH, and high content of sulphide. The large silica value is explained as the result of solution of silica by water having the high pH observed. ?? 1961.

Feth, J.H.; Rogers, S.M.; Roberson, C.E.

1961-01-01

77

WELDON SPRING SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2002  

SciTech Connect

This annual report presents a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. This report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment.

WASHINGTON GROUP INTERNATIONAL AND JACOBS ENGINEERING GROUP

2003-05-01

78

Chemical composition and source signature of spring aerosol in Seoul, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of atmospheric aerosol was made in Seoul during the spring of 1998. The objective of this study was to investigate the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosol with an emphasis on the effect of Asian dust. Total suspended particles (TSP) and particles smaller than 10 mum (PM10) were collected during March-May 1998. For PM10, water-soluble ions and trace elements

Jae C. Choi; Meehye Lee; Youngsin Chun; Jiyoung Kim; Sungnam Oh

2001-01-01

79

Chemical studies of selected trace elements in hot-spring drainages of Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Intensive chemical studies were made of S(-II), O/sub 2/, Al, Fe, Mn, P, As(III), As(V), and Li in waters from two high-Cl, low Ca-Mg hotspring drainages in the Lower Geyser Basin, a warm spring system rich in Ca and Mg in the Yellowstone Canyon area, and the Madison River system above Hebgen Lake. Analyses were also made of other representative thermal waters from the Park.

Stauffer, R.E.; Jenne, E.A.; Ball, J.W.

1980-01-01

80

Stable isotope and chemical investigation of CO2-rich springs in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eastern Carpathian Mts. (Romania) have the highest concentration of CO2-rich cold springs in Europe, related mostly to post volcanic CO2 degassing along both point sources, and through several deep faults. To investigate the source and circulation of waters in the region, we have analyzed the chemical and stable isotopic composition of surface and ground waters in the area. Chemically, the ground waters are rich in Li, Ca, Na, Mg and sulfates, as a result of long flow paths through alkali-mafic magmatic rocks. Stable isotopes (?18O and ?2H) in cold springs show variations that generally follow those in surface waters and precipitation, while thermal springs seem to be disconnected from the seasonal variability. A slight shift towards lighter ?18O is noticeable, indicating mixing with CO2 from deeper sources. Both chemical and stable isotope data seem to indicate a meteoric origin of the waters; however, in some cases, its underground residence time is long enough to mask this surface origin, pointing towards a deep circulation along faults, resulting in equilibration with CO2 possibly originating from local magma reservoirs.

Per?oiu, Aurel; Fekete, Sándor

2013-04-01

81

[The deterioration of hot spring resources and the change of chemical constituents with the development of spa].  

PubMed

General aspects of the deterioration and typical examples in some hot springs (Atami, Shirahama, Isawa.Kasugai, and Syuzenji Hot Springs) are outlined in this report in connection with the change of chemical constituents. (1) Deterioration of thermal spring resources generally occurs accompanied with the following phenomena: a) drawdown of the water level in thermal water wells. b) lowering of temperature of thermal springs. c) change of the water quality (salt water encroachment in the coastal region and decrease in concentration of chemical components resulting from the intrusion of underground water in the inland area). (2) Typical examples of the deterioration are summarized as follows; [table: see text] (3) It has been revealed from the analyses of the statistical data of Environment Agency that the deterioration of hot spring resources in Japan is gradually progressing. PMID:9414594

Kanroji, Y; Mashiko, Y

1997-11-01

82

Determination of the sources of nitrate contamination in karst springs using isotopic and chemical indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The sources of nitrate (NO-3) in groundwater of the shallow karst aquifer in southwestern Illinois' sinkhole plain were investigated using chemical and isotopic techniques. The groundwater in this aquifer is an important source of potable water for about half of the residents of the sinkhole plain area. Previous work has shown that groundwater from approximately 18% of the wells in the sinkhole plain has NO-3 concentrations in excess of the USEPA's drinking water standard of 10 mg N/1. Relative to background levels, the NO-3 concentrations in water from 52% of the wells, and probably all of the springs in the study area, are anomalously high, suggesting that sources other than naturally occurring soil organic matter have contributed additional NO-3 to groundwater in the shallow karst aquifer. This information, and the dominance of agriculture in the study area, suggest that agrichemical contributions may be significant. To test this hypothesis, water samples from 10 relatively large karst springs were collected during four different seasons and analyzed for inorganic constituents, dissolved organic carbon, atrazine, and ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ions. The isotopic data were most definitive and suggested that the sources of NO-3 in spring water are dominated by N-fertilizer with some possible influence of atmospheric NO-3 and, to a much lesser extent, human and/or animal waste. Differences in the isotopic composition of NO-3 and some of the chemical characteristics were observed during the four consecutive seasons in which spring water samples were collected. Isotopic values for ??15N and ??18O of the NO-3 ranged from 3.2??? to 19.1??? and from 7.2??? to 18.7???, respectively. The trend of ??15N and ??18O data for NO-3 also indicated that a significant degree of denitrification is occurring in the shallow karst hydrologic system (within the soil zone, the epikarst and the shallow karst aquifer) prior to discharging to springs. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Panno, S.V.; Hackley, K.C.; Hwang, H.-H.; Kelly, W.R.

2001-01-01

83

Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During August–October 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

1999-01-01

84

Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise Area, southwesten Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers ' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. (USGS)

Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

1988-01-01

85

Synthetic biologists spring into action at the 245th American Chemical Society National Meeting.  

PubMed

As the field of synthetic biology continues to define itself, it has merged concepts from many related areas of research: molecular biology, genetics, bioengineering, and chemistry. At the 2013 Spring American Chemical Society National Meeting in New Orleans, LA, this mixture was manifested in a wealth of sessions emphasizing the use of modern synthetic biological approaches to solve many of today's biggest chemical problems. As a result of the field's diverse yet pervasive nature, synthetic biology concepts were present in several of the conferences many divisions, including Biological Chemistry, Biochemical Technology, Cellulose and Renewable Materials, and several others. Here we offer a snapshot of some of the exciting research discussed in the dedicated synthetic biology sessions throughout the week. PMID:24884108

Glasgow, Jeff E; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

2013-06-21

86

Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska. [Subsurface temperature of 100°C to 160°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. Preliminary chemical and isotopic analyses suggest

T. P. Miller; I. Barnes; W. W. Jr. Patton

1973-01-01

87

Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.

1994-01-01

88

Influence of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of soil water, springs, and ground water, Catoctin Mountains, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1983 and 1984, wet precipitation was primarily a solution of dilute sulphuric acid, whereas calcium and bicarbonate were the major ions in springs and ground water in two small watersheds with a deciduous forest cover in central Maryland. Dominant ions in soil water were calcium, magnesium, and sulphate. The relative importance of mineral weathering reactions on the chemical composition of these subsurface waters was compared to the contribution from wet precipitation, biological processes, and road deicing salts. -from Author

Katz, B.G.

1989-01-01

89

Calculation of the Relative Chemical Stabilities of Proteins as a Function of Temperature and Redox Chemistry in a Hot Spring  

PubMed Central

Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

Dick, Jeffrey M.; Shock, Everett L.

2011-01-01

90

Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.  

PubMed

Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems. PMID:21853048

Dick, Jeffrey M; Shock, Everett L

2011-01-01

91

Physical and chemical characteristics of regional springs found in the carbonate rock province of eastern Nevada and southeastern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interbasin movement of ground water in the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin results in numerous large regional springs. A description of what differentiates a regional spring from a local spring in the carbonate rock province has not been adequately addressed. One Hundred springs from Spring Valley in the north to Death Valley in the south were visited over a

R. L. Hershey; S. A. Mizell; J. W. Hess

1992-01-01

92

Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

2005-01-01

93

"Describing our whole experience": the statistical philosophies of W. F. R. Weldon and Karl Pearson.  

PubMed

There are two motivations commonly ascribed to historical actors for taking up statistics: to reduce complicated data to a mean value (e.g., Quetelet), and to take account of diversity (e.g., Galton). Different motivations will, it is assumed, lead to different methodological decisions in the practice of the statistical sciences. Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon are generally seen as following directly in Galton's footsteps. I argue for two related theses in light of this standard interpretation, based on a reading of several sources in which Weldon, independently of Pearson, reflects on his own motivations. First, while Pearson does approach statistics from this "Galtonian" perspective, he is, consistent with his positivist philosophy of science, utilizing statistics to simplify the highly variable data of biology. Weldon, on the other hand, is brought to statistics by a rich empiricism and a desire to preserve the diversity of biological data. Secondly, we have here a counterexample to the claim that divergence in motivation will lead to a corresponding separation in methodology. Pearson and Weldon, despite embracing biometry for different reasons, settled on precisely the same set of statistical tools for the investigation of evolution. PMID:22035721

Pence, Charles H

2011-12-01

94

Hydrologic and chemical data from selected wells and springs in southern Elmore County, including Mountain Home Air Force Base, southwestern Idaho, Fall 1989  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and chemical data were collected during September through November 1989 from 90 wells and 6 springs in southern Elmore County, southwestern Idaho. These data were collected to characterize the chemical quality of water in major water-yielding zones in areas near Mountain Home and the Mountain Home Air Force Base. The data include well and spring locations, well-construction and water-level information, and chemical analysis of water from each well and spring inventoried. Ground water in the study area is generally suitable for most uses. In localized areas, water is highly mineralized, and pH, concentrations of dissolved sulfate, chloride, or nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen exceed national public drinking water limits. Fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria were detected in separate water samples. One or more volatile organic compounds were detected in water samples from 15 wells, and the concentration of benzene exceeded the national public drinking water limit in a water sample from one well.

Parliman, D.J.; Young, H.W.

1990-01-01

95

Chemical composition and source characterization of spring aerosol over Horqin sand land in northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2005, daily particulate matter (PM2.5) aerosol samples were collected at Tongliao, a site in the Horqin sand land of northeastern China. The concentrations of 20 elements, 9 water-soluble ions, and elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively) were determined in the filter samples. Crustal material was the major contributor to the PM2.5 mass, but rural biomass burning

Z. X. Shen; J. J. Cao; R. Arimoto; R. J. Zhang; D. M. Jie; S. X. Liu; C. S. Zhu

2007-01-01

96

Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Underwater Fresh Water Springs in the Dead Sea  

PubMed Central

Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water’s chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea?Dead Sea water conduit. PMID:22679498

Ionescu, Danny; Siebert, Christian; Polerecky, Lubos; Munwes, Yaniv Y.; Lott, Christian; Häusler, Stefan; Biži?-Ionescu, Mina; Quast, Christian; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Ramette, Alban; Rödiger, Tino; Dittmar, Thorsten; Oren, Aharon; Geyer, Stefan; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Sauter, Martin; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; de Beer, Dirk

2012-01-01

97

BE.104J Chemicals in the Environment: Toxicology and Public Health, Spring 2005  

E-print Network

This course addresses the challenges of defining a relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals and human disease. Course topics include epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation; biostatistical ...

Sherley, James L.

98

Chemical and isotopic characteristics of geothermal fluids from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphur Springs is a vigorous, geothermal field associated with the active Soufrière Volcanic Centre in southern Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles island arc. The 'Sulphur Springs Park' is an important tourist attraction (touted as the 'world's only drive-through volcano') with some of the hot pools being developed into recreational pools. Some 200,000 people visit the park each year. Since 2001, the hydrothermal fluids of Sulphur Springs have been sampled as part of an integrated volcanic monitoring programme for the island. Gas and water samples were analysed to characterise the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system, and to assess the equilibrium state and subsurface temperatures of the reservoir. This has also enabled us, for the first time, to establish baseline data for future geochemical monitoring. The gases are of typical arc-type composition, with N2 excess and low He and Ar content. The dry gas composition is dominated by CO2 (ranging from 601-993 mmol/mol), with deeper magmatic sourced H2S-rich vapour undergoing boiling and redox changes in the geothermal reservoir to emerge with a hydrothermal signature in the fumarolic gases. Fluid contributions from magmatic degassing are also evident, mainly from the moderate to high contents of HCl and deeply-sourced H2S gas, respectively. Sulphur Springs hydrothermal waters have acid-sulphate type compositions (SO4 = 78-4008 mg/L; pH = 3-7), and are of primarily meteoric origin which have been affected by evaporation processes based on the enrichment in both ?18O and ?D (?18O = - 1 to 15‰ and ?D = - 9 to 14‰ respectively) in relation to the global meteoric water line (GMWL). These waters are steam-heated water typically formed by absorption of H2S-rich gases in the near surface oxygenated groundwaters. Reservoir temperatures calculated from the evaluation of gas equilibria in the CO2-CH4-H2 system reveal higher temperatures (190 to 300 °C) than those derived from quartz geothermometry (95 to 169 °C), which appeared to be affected by dilution with meteoric waters. Generally, no significant variations in fluid geochemistry of the hydrothermal system were observed between 2001 and 2006, and we propose that there were no changes in the state of volcanic activity during this period.

Joseph, Erouscilla P.; Fournier, Nicolas; Lindsay, Jan M.; Robertson, Richard; Beckles, Denise M.

2013-03-01

99

Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

Gay, Hannah

2012-07-01

100

Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

2006-01-01

101

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures

Brian G. Katz; Dale W. Griffin

2008-01-01

102

Chemical indicators of subsurface temperature applied to hot spring waters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Under favorable conditions the chemistry of hot springs may give reliable indications of subsurface temperatures and circulation patterns. These chemical indicators can be classified by the type of process involved: {A table is presented}. All these indicators have certain limitations. The silica geothermometer gives results independent of the local mineral suite and gas partial pressures, but may be affected by dilution. Alkali ratios are strongly affected by the local mineral suite and the formation of complex ions. Carbonate-chloride ratios are strongly affected by subsurface PCO2. The relative concentration of volatiles can be very misleading in high-pressure liquid systems. In Yellowstone National Park most thermal waters issue from hot, shallow aquifers with pressures in excess of hydrostatic by 2 to 6 bars and with large flows (the flow of hot spring water from the Park is greater than 4000 liters per second). These conditions should be ideal for the use of chemical indicators to estimate aquifer temperatures. In five drill holes aquifer temperatures were within 2??C of that predicted from the silica content of nearby hot springs; the temperature level off at a lower value than predicted in only one hole, and in four other holes drilling was terminated before the predicted aquifer temperature was reached. The temperature-Na/K ratio relationship does not follow any published experimental or empirical curve for water-feldspar or water-clay reactions. We suspect that ion exchange reactions involving zeolites in the Yellowstone rocks result in higher Na/K ratios at given temperatures than result from feldspar or clay reactions. Comparison of SiO2 and Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) suggest that because of higher subsurface PCO2 in Upper Geyser Basin a given Cl/(HCO3 + CO3) ratio there means a higher temperature than in Lower Geyser Basin. No correlation was found in Yellowstone Park between the subsurface regions of highest temperature and the relative concentration of volatile components such as boron and ammonia. ?? 1971.

Fournier, R.O.; Truesdell, A.H.

1970-01-01

103

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?18O and ?2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ?18O and ?2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (?15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (?15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin.

Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

2008-08-01

104

Chemical and Physical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosols (a) A Case Study in the Unique Properties of Agricultural Aerosols (b) The Role of Chemical Composition in Ice Nucleation during the Arctic Spring  

E-print Network

in the Unique Properties of Agricultural Aerosols ............................... 1 2. The Role of Chemical Composition in Ice Nucleation during the Arctic Spring ....... 6 II METHODOLOGY... Distributions ....................................................................... 14 iv. Particle Sampling for Raman Microspectroscopy .................................... 15 B. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign 2008...

Moon, Seong-Gi

2011-08-08

105

Surface chemical reactivity and metal adsorptive properties of natural cyanobacterial mats from an alkaline hydrothermal spring,  

E-print Network

-leachable metal contents. Potentiometric titration data of samples that were acid-washed to remove sorbed metals experimental values. In contrast, samples that were not acid-washed, but merely rinsed in titration electrolyte hydrothermal system in Yellowstone National Park, in terms of surface chemical parameters and acid

Konhauser, Kurt

106

Macroalgae in a spring stream in Shanxi Province: composition and relation to physical and chemical variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourteen stream segments were investigated throughout the Xin’an Spring in Shanxi Province, China in 2004. The variation ranges in stream size, current velocity, discharge, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance were large. Twenty-two macroalgae species were found in the stream. Major divisions in terms of species numbers were Chlorophyta (59.1%), Cyanophyta (22.8%), Xanthophyta (9.1%), Rhodophyta (4.5%) and Charophyta (4.5%). The most widespread species, Cladophora rivularis (50.0%), also Oedogonium sp. (42.9%) and Spirogyra sp. (42.9%) were well represented throughout the stream, whereas another 10 species were found in only one sampling site. Total percentage cover varied from <1% to 90%. Red algae Batrachospermum acuatum and the charophytes Chara vulgaris have the highest percentage cover. Among the parameters analyzed, the stream width, specific conductance and dissolved oxygen were the ones that more closely related to the species number and percentage cover of macroalgal communities. The species number of each site was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen content. The total percentage cover of the macroalgae was negatively correlated with the stream width and the specific conductance.

Hu, Bianfang; Xie, Shulian

2007-07-01

107

Trace chemical measurements from the northern midlatitude lowermost stratosphere in early spring: Distributions, correlations, and fate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of a large number of trace chemicals from the midlatitude (37-57°N) lower stratosphere were performed with the NASA DC-8 aircraft during March 1994. Deepest penetrations into the stratosphere (550 ppb O3, 279 ppb N2O, and 350 K potential temperature) corresponded to a region that has been defined as the ``lowermost stratosphere'' (LS) by Holton et al. [1995].

H. B. Singh; Y. Chen; G. L. Gregory; G. W. Sachse; R. Talbot; D. R. Blake; Y. Kondo; J. D. Bradshaw; B. Heikes; D. Thornton

1997-01-01

108

Trace chemical measurements from the northern midlatitude lowermost stratosphere in early spring: Distributions, correlations, and fate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ measurements of a large number of trace chemicals from the midlatitude (37–57°N) lower stratosphere were performed with the NASA DC-8 aircraft during March 1994. Deepest penetrations into the stratosphere (550 ppb O3, 279 ppb N2O, and 350 K potential temperature) corresponded to a region that has been defined as the “lowermost stratosphere” (LS) by Holton et al. [1995].

H. B. Singh; Y. Chen; G. L. Gregory; G. W. Sachse; R. Talbot; D. R. Blake; Y. Kondo; J. D. Bradshaw; B. Heikes; D. Thornton

1997-01-01

109

Hydrothermal system beneath Mt. Bandai (Japan): constrains from self-potential, chemical and strontium isotopic data on hot spring waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several chemical and isotopic data of thermal waters are useful for understanding behavior of hydrothermal fluid (e.g. Chudaev et al., 2006; Tassi et al., 2003). And some studies on active volcanoes using self-potential (SP) showed presence of hydrothermal system within their edifice (e.g. Hase et al., 2005; Finizola et al., 2004). This work addresses the study of hydrothermal system beneath Mt. Bandai (Northeast Honshu, Japan) using self-potential, chemical and isotopic data on hot spring waters. Water samples from and around Mt. Bandai were divided into five types based on the anion compositional classification. Type-A represented by Nakanoyu acid spring water is SO4 type. Type-B, which is distributed northeast district, is neutral Cl type. Type-C, which is located north-northeast area, is Cl-SO4 type and may be explained by the mixture Type-A with Type-B. Type-D, ascending at the southern foot of Obandai, is HCO3 type. Type-E, which is distributed south-southwest area, is Cl-HCO3 type, and can be explained by the blend Type-D into Type-B. Strontium isotopic data were supporting this hypothesis of two-component mixtures. SP measurements exhibit that the sharp and positive SP anomaly (400-`600mV) was observed on the south side of Obandai, where no signs of hydrothermal event were shown. Positive SP profile was seen with ascending Type-B water at Kawakami district. On the contrary flat distribution of SP may be due to the low resistivity (Tanahashi et al., 1995) or the low pH of the groundwater around Nakanoyu. On the other hand sharp descent related with the marked change of resistivity was found on the north side of the Akahaniyama. Meanwhile the terrain-related SP fields were slightly seen on the each root, especially noticeable at northern foot of the mountain. This might be because much Type-A water is streaming underground at northern foot of the mountain.

Ishikawa, H.

2006-12-01

110

Optical and chemical properties of aerosols transported to Mount Bachelor during spring 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on springtime 2010 observations of aerosol optical properties and size-resolved elemental composition from Mount Bachelor Observatory (MBO; 2763 meters above sea level). Observations included multiwavelength aerosol scattering and absorption, made with a nephelometer and a particle soot absorption photometer, and size-resolved composition, made using a rotating DRUM impactor with substrates analyzed by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. Our main tool for investigating variability in composition was empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. In April, dust and sulfate explained 96% of the variance in the observed fine composition and accounted for the majority of the fine mode scattering. Three coincident Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation overpasses also identified aerosol layers classified as dust or polluted dust over MBO. Later in the spring, we deduce that organics and nitrate comprised more than 50% of the submicrometer aerosol mass. We used the EOF analysis to identify systematic relationships between composition and optical properties. We observed dust accompanied by anthropogenic pollutants including sulfate. When present, dust aerosol controlled ˜30% of the variability in the wavelength dependence of fine mode scattering. Many of the samples containing sulfate had absorption Ångstrom exponents near 1, suggesting black carbon was also present. Most of the sulfate was in the fine mode, but sulfate was also observed on coarse aerosols, and we inferred that much of the coarse sulfur was coated on the dust or had formed CaSO4 during transport. The relationships between Fe, Ca, Al, and Si observed at MBO were consistent with previous observations of Asian dust transported to North America.

Fischer, E. V.; Perry, K. D.; Jaffe, D. A.

2011-09-01

111

WELDON SPRING EPA Region 7 10/13/2011 QUARRY/PLANT/ PITTS  

E-print Network

the treatment and discharge of stormwater and impounded surface water. Quarry Bulk Waste: In 1990, the DOE chose (formerly St. Charles County) water treatment facility, a law-enforcement training center, the village structures were dismantled and placed in temporary storage. Two water treatment plants were built to manage

112

Modeling vertical and horizontal solute transport for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This technical memorandum presents a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of a contaminant that originates as a liquid release, moves vertically downward through a vadose zone, mixes with initially clean groundwater in an unconfined aquifer, and ends at a downgradient extraction well. Vertical and horizontal segments of the contaminant pathway are coupled by assuming that the breakthrough curve of

1992-01-01

113

Chemical composition and source characterization of spring aerosol over Horqin sand land in northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spring 2005, daily particulate matter (PM2.5) aerosol samples were collected at Tongliao, a site in the Horqin sand land of northeastern China. The concentrations of 20 elements, 9 water-soluble ions, and elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively) were determined in the filter samples. Crustal material was the major contributor to the PM2.5 mass, but rural biomass burning and local urban pollution also influenced the composition of the aerosol. The mean PM2.5 mass concentration was 126 ± 71 ?g m-3 (arithmetic mean ± standard deviation), with higher loadings during five dust storms (DS, 255 ± 80 ?g m-3) than for normal days (ND, 104 ± 43 ?g m-3) or pollution episodes (PE, 118 ± 52 ?g m-3). During the DS, crustal material accounted for 69% of the PM2.5 mass, followed by carbonaceous matter (14%), sulfate (4%), nitrate (2%), ammonium (1%), and chloride (1%). The observed Si/Al, Ca/Al, and Fe/Al ratios during the DS events were different from those in dust from western or central/northern Asia. On normal days the percentage of crustal material decreased to 43%, and the mass of carbonaceous matter increased 2 times over that during DS. During the pollution episodes the contributions of sulfate and nitrate were 3 times those on DS while ammonium increased four-fold. Secondary aerosols (NH4+, SO42-, and NO3-) were the dominant species during the pollution episodes, but SO42- and NO3- also were important components of the aerosol during DS events, suggesting that mineral dust was mixed with other materials. Ion balance calculations indicate that the DS samples were alkaline, the ND samples were weakly alkaline, and the PE samples were slightly acidic. A deficit of measured anions during DS implied the presence of carbonate; this evidently accounts for ˜5.5% of the PM2.5 mass. The average OC and EC concentrations were 16.3 ± 7.3 ?g m-3 and 3.4 ± 1.7 ?g m-3, respectively. Noncrustal K was correlated with OC and EC, indicating that biomass burning was a major contributor to the regional carbonaceous aerosol.

Shen, Z. X.; Cao, J. J.; Arimoto, R.; Zhang, R. J.; Jie, D. M.; Liu, S. X.; Zhu, C. S.

2007-07-01

114

Results of weekly chemical and isotopic monitoring of selected springs in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park during June-September, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Each year at Norris Geyser Basin, generally in August or September, a widespread hydrothermal 'disturbance' occurs that is characterized by simultaneous changes in the discharge characteristics of many springs, particularly in the Back Basin. During the summer season of 1995, water samples from eight widely distributed hot springs and geysers at Norris were collected each week and analyzed to determine whether chemical and isotopic changes also occurred in the thermal waters at the time of the disturbance. In addition, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, 5.8 km southwest of Norris Geyser Basin, was included in the monitoring program. Waters discharged by four of the monitored hot springs and geysers appear to issue from relatively deep reservoirs where temperatures are at least 270 C and possibly higher than 300 C. At the time of, and for several days after, the onset of the 1995 disturbance, the normally neutral-chloride waters discharged by these four features all picked up an acid-sulfate component and became isotopically heavier. The acid-sulfate component appears to be similar in composition to some waters discharged in 100 Spring Plain that issue from subsurface regions where temperatures are in the range 170-210 C. However, the two monitored springs that discharge acid-chloride-sulfate waters in the 100 Spring Plain region did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. Beryl Spring, and two neutral-chloride hot springs at Norris that appear to draw their water from reservoirs where temperatures are 250 C or less, also did not show any significant chemical or isotopic response to the annual disturbance. After the start of the annual disturbance, chloride concentrations in water sampled from Double Bulger Geyser in the Back Basin increased from about 800 ppm to about 1500 ppm, nearly twice as high as any previously reported chloride concentration in a thermal water at Yellowstone. The isotopic composition of that water precludes an origin of the high chloride by evaporation at atmospheric pressure. One way to account for the unique chemical and isotopic composition of this highly concentrated wateris by recirculation of water that had gone through one cycle of adiabatic cooling during upflow (decompressional boiling) back down into the hydrothermal system, where it is reheated to greater than 220 C. This previously boiled water then undergoes additional cycles of decompressional boiling during subsequent upflow. Another way the unique chemical and isotopic composition of Double Bulger water might evolve is by excess boiling in the formation that results from a decrease in fluid pressure within the channels of upflow. The annual disturbance at Norris Geyser Basin generally appears to be triggered by a cyclic up and down movement of the boilingpoint curve within the hydrothermal system in response to changes in the potentiometric surface of the cold water that is adjacent to, and interconnected with, that hydrothermal system. Annual disturbance phenomena that are easily recognized at Norris Geyser Basin may not be easily recognized elsewhere in Yellowstone National Park because (1) the neutral-chloride waters at Norris ascend directly from higher-temperature and higherpressure reservoirs (270 to >300 C at Norris compared to 180-215C at Upper and Lower Geyser Basins) that are capable of producing massive amounts of high-pressure steam, and (2) the clay that makes hot spring and geyser waters become turbid at Norris, heralding the start of the disturbance, comes from acid altered rocks that are widely distributed at intermediate depths at Norris, and that are rare in other geyser basins.

Fournier, R.O.; Weltman, U.; Counce, D.; White, L.D.; Janik, C.J.

2002-01-01

115

Chemical Characterization and Single Scattering Albedo of Atmospheric Aerosols Measured at Amami-Oshima, Southwest Japan, During Spring Seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An intensive field program was performed to measure atmospheric aerosols at Amami-Oshima, a small island located at southwest Japan, in the spring season of 2001, 2003, and 2005 under the ACE-Asia, APEX and ABC-EAREX2005 projects. Chemical analysis of the fine and coarse aerosols was made for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon, water soluble ions, and trace elements. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of aerosols was independently estimated by two methods. The one (SSAc) is by chemical compositions assuming a half internal mixture between EC and non sea-salt sulfate, and the other (SSAo) is by optical measurements of scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The backward trajectory analysis showed that the aerosol concentrations in the air masses arrived at Amami, were much higher from the Asian Continent than from other regions, and two types of aerosol enhancement were observed. The one was caused by polluted air masses from the urban-industrial area of east-coast China, the other was by high mineral dusts due to large- scale dust storms in the desert regions of northwest China. The SSAc was in a range of 0.87-0.98, and in good agreement with the SSAo after some corrections for original scattering and absorption coefficients. The SSAc showed no significant difference between the air masses from the polluted area and the desert regions. The negative correlation between the SSAc and EC was divided into two groups depending on the concentration of non sea-salt sulfate, while the increase in mineral dusts did not show any correlation with the SSAc.

Tsuruta, H.; Yabuki, M.; Takamura, T.; Sudo, S.; Yonemura, S.; Shirasuna, Y.; Hirano, K.; Sera, K.; Maeda, T.; Hayasaka, T.; Nakajima, T.

2008-12-01

116

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical\\u000a compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application\\u000a of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures

Brian G. Katz; Dale W. Griffin

2008-01-01

117

Physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at Spitsbergen in the spring of 1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground level measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were conducted at Ny Ålesund on Spitsbergen from late March to mid-May 1996 as part of the European Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry study (ARCTOC'96) using laser-scattering aerosol-spectrometer probes and a denuder-filterpack system. When the air comes from Eurasia, the number, area, and volume distributions of aerosols at Ny Ålesund are similar to those observed in the high Arctic at Alert, Canada, while when air comes off open water areas of the North Atlantic or Greenland, they are most different. The marine air has relatively more supermicrometer particles than the polluted arctic air. In Eurasian air the inorganic ionic component is dominated by H+ and SO4= and to a lesser extent NH4+. The average molar ratio of NH4+/H+ is 1/3. The average dry aerosol mass concentration and composition at Ny Ålesund varied depending on origin of air. The period mean mass concentration was 4.1 ?g m-3. It was lowest (2.2 ?g m-3) in air coming from the open North Atlantic and Greenland and was highest (6.2 ?g m-3) in air coming from the east. On average, aerosols in the North Atlantic and Greenland air were composed of 19% non-sea-salt SO4=, 22% sea salt, 25% "other inorganic ions," and 34% of an uncharacterized residual fraction that is likely mostly carbonaceous compounds. In contrast, for the most polluted eastern air these fractions were 48% non-sea-salt SO4=, 7% sea salt, 8% other inorganic ions, and 37% residual. For the period the median diameters of the mean accumulation mode number, surface area, and volume distributions at ambient relative humidity (78-90%) were 0.23 ?m, 0.37 ?m, and 0.50 ?m effective scattering diameter (ESD), respectively. Number concentrations (for dry particle diameters >0.065 ?m) ranged from 10 to 922 cm-3 with an average of 270 cm-3. Mixing ratios of particulate Br- compounds were observed to be anticorrelated with that of ozone, increasing markedly when the ozone mixing ratio was <10 nmol/mol. There was no obvious dependence of the ratio of gas to particle Br- on ozone mixing ratio. Observations suggested that during ozone depletion events the number concentration of particles increased in the 1.0 to 1.4 ?m ESD diameter range (ambient relative humidity).

Staebler, Ralf; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree; Barrie, Leonard; LangendöRfer, Uwe; Lehrer, Eckhard; Li, Shao-Meng; Dryfhout-Clark, H.

1999-03-01

118

Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: chemical and microbiological indicators.  

PubMed

Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1 mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30 years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3 m(3)/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64 million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774 ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15 km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2 ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank. PMID:19232432

Katz, Brian G; Griffin, Dale W; Davis, J Hal

2009-04-01

119

Kamchatka's thermal hot springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kamchatka Peninsula is featured in this website including information on geography, climate, fauna, flora, volcanoes, thermal springs, Valley of Geysers, native people, and options for travel in Kamchatka. This specific page highlights a selection of Kamchatka's hot springs, presenting basic information on temperature ranges, chemical and physical characteristics, surrounding vegetation, and general location.

Vision of Kamchatka

120

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

1997-06-01

121

Spring carbonate chemistry dynamics of surface waters in the northern East China Sea: Water mixing, biological uptake of CO2, and chemical buffering capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated sea surface total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and satellite-derived chlorophyll-a in the connection between the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea (ECS) during April to early May 2007. In spring, Changjiang dilution water (CDW), ECS offshore water, and together with Yellow Sea water (YSW) occupied the northern ECS. Using 16 day composite satellite-derived chlorophyll-a images, several algal blooms were identified in the CDW and ECS offshore water. Correspondingly, biological DIC drawdown of 73 ± 20 ?mol kg-1, oversaturated DO of 10-110 ?mol O2 kg-1, and low fugacity of CO2 of 181-304 ?atm were revealed in these two waters. YSW also showed CO2 uptake in spring, due to the very low temperature. However, its intrusion virtually counteracted CO2 uptake in the northern ECS. In the CDW and the ECS offshore water, Revelle factor was 9.3-11.7 and 8.9-10.6, respectively, while relatively high Revelle factor values of 11.4-13.0 were revealed in YSW. In the ECS offshore water, the observed relationship between DIC drawdown and oversaturated DO departed from the Redfield ratio, indicating an effect of chemical buffering capacity on the carbonate system during air-sea reequilibration. Given the fact that the chemical buffering capacity slows down the air-sea reequilibration of CO2, the early spring DIC drawdown may have durative effects on the sea surface carbonate system until early summer. Although our study is subject to limited temporal and spatial coverage of sampling, these insights are fundamental to understanding sea surface carbonate chemistry dynamics in this important ocean margin.

Zhai, Wei-Dong; Chen, Jian-Fang; Jin, Hai-Yan; Li, Hong-Liang; Liu, Jin-Wen; He, Xian-Qiang; Bai, Yan

2014-09-01

122

Mercury in the Arctic spring: a tracer for physical and chemical processes linking the atmosphere to the land and sea (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic mercury story is an intriguing one: gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is oxidized to reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) during early spring atmospheric mercury deposition events. The RGM produced is readily deposited to snow and ice surfaces. Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs) are associated with mercury concentrations in surface snow and sea ice that are routinely above 100 ng/L. The GEM to RGM oxidation is driven by sunlight, halogen oxide radicals and the presence of snow and ice crystal surfaces. The most likely source of halogens (and the halogen oxides) is likely newly formed sea ice or the open water on which sea ice grows. The complex relationships between sea ice, leads, open sea water and the lower atmosphere is not well understood. However, mercury is a tracer linking atmospheric chemical and physical processes, sea ice conditions, the snow pack, and arctic ecosystems. Previous work has shown that interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and RGM likely drive the scavenging and deposition of RGM to the snow pack. This yields insight into how mercury (and potentially other contaminants and chemical compounds) are adsorbed onto or otherwise associated with snow and ice crystals. Some of the RGM deposited to the snow pack is subsequently reduced to GEM that evades from the snow pack. This is evident during the onset of spring snow melt when GEM values increase well above ambient background values of 1.6 ng per cubic meter. However, some of the deposited RGM remains in the snow pack and becomes part of the spring melt runoff event. We have been measuring mercury in the atmosphere, in snow, in snow melt runoff and in soils near Barrow, Alaska for the past 5 years. During the Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snow (OASIS) campaign in the spring of 2009 we collected snow, frost flowers and brine on the sea ice. Our results show that mercury is readily scavenged by frost flowers and snow on the sea ice. We also collected snow and melt during the 2008 and 2009 spring runoff events at a microwatershed 5 km inland from Barrow. An “ionic pulse” is evident in our samples whereby snow melt concentrations of mercury and major elements greatly exceed bulk snow pack concentrations. For example, the primary melt water pooling at the base of the snow pack had three times the bulk snow mercury concentration and five to ten times the bulk snow pack major element concentrations. Our results suggest there is a pulse of mercury and major elements from the snow pack during the initial stages of melt. This result points back to the interactions between snow and ice crystal surfaces and atmospheric chemical compounds. It also places the mercury deposition in Polar Regions within the context of a changing climate where sea ice extent is expected to continue to decrease and the timing of spring melt is migrating forward.

Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.; Steffen, A.

2009-12-01

123

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 14 sites as part of an ongoing study to monitor the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer between the southern boundary of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Burley-Twin Falls-Hagerman area. The State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality, Division of INL Oversight and Radiation Control cosampled with the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources and their analytical results are included in this report. The samples were collected from four domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, four irrigation wells, one observation well, and one stock well and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. Two quality-assurance samples, sequential replicates, also were collected and analyzed. None of the concentrations of radiochemical or organic-chemical constituents exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the concentration of one inorganic-chemical constituent, nitrate (as nitrogen), in water from site MV-43 was 20 milligrams per liter which exceeded the maximum contaminant level for that constituent. Of the radiochemical and chemical concentrations analyzed for in the replicate-sample pairs, 267 of the 270 pairs (with 95 percent confidence) were statistically equivalent.

Rattray, Gordon W.; Wehnke, Amy J.; Hall, L. Flint; Campbell, Linford J.

2005-01-01

124

An integrated chemical and stable-isotope model of the origin of midocean ridge hot spring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and isotopic changes accompanying seawater-basalt interaction in axial midocean ridge hydrothermal systems are modeled with the aid of chemical equilibria and mass transfer computer programs, incorporating provision for addition and subtraction of a wide-range of reactant and product minerals, as well as cation and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic exchange equilibria. The models involve stepwise introduction of fresh balsalt into

Teresa Suter Bowers; Hugh P. Taylor

1985-01-01

125

Biological and chemical redox transformations of mercury in fresh and salt waters of the high arctic during spring and summer.  

PubMed

It is well-established that atmospheric deposition transports Hg to Arctic regions, but the postdepositional dynamics of Hg that can alter its impact on Arctic food chains are less understood. Through a series of in situ experiments, we investigated the redox transformations of Hg in coastal and inland aquatic systems. During spring and summer, Hg reduction in streams and pond waters decreased across a 4-fold increase in salinity. This alteration of Hg reduction due to chloride was counterbalanced by the presence of particles, which favored the conversion of oxidized Hg to its elemental form. In saline waters, biogenic organic materials, produced by algae, were able to promote oxidation of Hg(O) even under dark conditions. Overall these results point to the vulnerability of marine/ coastal Arctic systems to Hg, compared to inland systems, with oxidation processes enhancing Hg residence times and thus increasing its potential to enter the food chain. PMID:17410779

Poulain, Alexandre J; Garcia, Edenise; Amyot, Marc; Campbell, Peter G C; Raofie, Farhad; Ariya, Parisa A

2007-03-15

126

Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005 samplings, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant was 40 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from that wastewater treatment plant was 28 percent effluent. At each site, 300 individual constituents were determined to characterize the water. Most of the inorganic constituents were detected in all of the stream and treatment-plant effluent samples, whereas detection of synthetic organic compounds was more limited and contaminants typically occurred only in wastewater treatment-plant effluents and at downstream sites. Concentrations ranged from nanograms per liter to milligrams per liter.

Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

2011-01-01

127

Hot Springs, Virginia  

SciTech Connect

Three major springs are located in the Warm Springs Valley of the Allegheny Mountains in western Virginia along US route 220--the Warm, Hot and Healing--all now owned by Virginia Hot Springs, Inc. The Homestead, a large and historic luxurious resort, is located at Hot Springs. The odorless mineral water used at The Homestead spa flows from several springs at temperatures ranging from 39{degrees}C to 41{degrees}C (102{degrees} to 106{degrees}F) (Loam and Gersh, 1992). It is piped to individual, one-person bathtubs in separate men`s and women`s bathhouses, where is is mixed to provide an ideal temperature of 40{degrees}C (104{degrees}F). Tubs are drained and refilled after each use so that no chemical treatment is necessary. Mineral water from the same springs is used in an indoor swimming pool maintained at 29{degrees}C (84{degrees}F), and an outdoor swimming pool maintained at 22{degrees}C (72{degrees}F). Eight kilometers (5 miles) away to the northeast, but still within the 6,000-ha (15,000-acre) Homestead property, are the Warm Springs, which flow at 36{degrees}C (96{degrees}F). The rate of discharge is so great, 63 L/s (1000 gpm) (Muffler, 1979) that the two large Warm Springs pools, in separate men`s and women`s buildings, maintain the temperature on a flow-through basis requiring no chemical treatment. The men`s pool was designed by Thomas Jefferson and opened in 1761; the ladies` pool was opened in 1836. The adjacent {open_quotes}drinking spring{close_quotes} and the two covered pools have been preserved in their original condition.

Lund, J.W.

1996-05-01

128

Spring, 2009 ACS Process Spectroscopy/Society for Applied Spectroscopy Meeting Topic: Discussion of current research into insitu chemical sensors  

E-print Network

: Discussion of current research into insitu chemical sensors Speaker: Dr. Karl Booksh, University: Karl Booksh is currently a professor in the chemistry department at the University of Delaware. He in chemometrics and sensor research. He was previously the codirector of Arizona Applied Nanosensors

Taber, Douglass

129

Masses & Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity, learners use a realistic mass and spring laboratory. They hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. Learners can even slow time and transport the lab to different planets! A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. Use this activity for a lesson on Hooke's Law and Conservation of Energy. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 30 languages.

Michael Dubson

2011-01-01

130

Hydrology and water-quality at the Weldon Spring radioactive waste-disposal sites, St Charles County, Missouri  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water samples from five monitoring wells adjacent to raffinate pits storing low-level radioactive waste contained concentrations of nitrate as nitrogen ranging from 53 to 990 milligrams per liter. Most samples also had maximum concentrations of calcium (900 milligrams per liter), sodium (340 milligrams per liter), sulfate (320 milligrams per liter), lithium (1,700 micrograms), strontium (1,900 micrograms per liter), and uranium (86 micrograms per liter). The raffinate pits also had large concentrations of these constituents. A water balance made on the raffinate pits indicated a 0.04 to 0.08 inch per day decrease in the water level that cannot be attributed to meterological conditions. These data and seismically-detected areas of saturated overburden beneath one raffinate pit and possibly adjacent to three other pits indicate leakage from the pits. (USGS)

Kleeschulte, M.J.; Emmett, L.F.

1987-01-01

131

Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element Chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

Hobba, W.A.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J., Jr.

1976-01-01

132

Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

Knowles, L., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

2010-01-01

133

Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ?15N and ?18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

2010-12-01

134

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1999-06-01

135

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1998-12-01

136

PREDICTING SPRING LAKE CHEMISTRY FROM FALL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between fall and spring lake chemistry was investigated for five chemical variables of 103 lakes in seven regions of the United States. Strong linear relationships were found between preceding springs and fall values for acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), pH, sulf...

137

Comparing pre- and post-chemical abrasion ages for Miocene Peach Springs Tuff zircon from ID-TIMS and SIMS analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Miocene Peach Spring Tuff (PST) is a voluminous (>600 km3), zoned ignimbrite (trachyte to high-SiO2 rhyolite) that is exposed widely in eastern California, western Arizona, and southernmost Nevada, which was erupted from the Silver Creek caldera in the southwestern Black Mountains, AZ. PST serves as a regionally widespread marker unit and its eruption age has been determined to 18.8 to 18.9 Ma by 40Ar/39Ar methods, when corrected for systematic bias and normalized to the U-Pb system (Renne et al., 2010,). We performed ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from individual pumice clasts from PST to evaluate the growth history of zircon in the PST magma system. Sectioned, polished zircon from conventional epoxy mounts allows dating of internal growth domains (e.g. cores, interiors, and near-rim), whereas mounting unpolished zircon in indium and analyzing unpolished crystal faces provides a means to selectively sample the final increments of crystal growth (Reid and Coath, 2000). Combining U-Pb ages of unpolished zircon rims with near-rim interior analyses on sectioned grains yields a mean age of ca. 18.3 Ma, whereas ages of cores of sectioned crystals yield a mean of ca. 18.9 Ma. Several zircons have rim and/or core ages that are several hundred thousand years older or younger than these means (up to 1 m.y. total spread), although the uncertainties for individual SIMS ages are 2 to 5% (2 sigma uncertainty). Therefore, the distribution of ages is challenging to resolve. A modest number of the older grains are plausibly recycled antecrysts, but we suspect that the youngest zircons may have experienced Pb-loss. Failure to account for the possibility of inheritance and Pb-loss may lead to erroneous interpretations about crystallization in the PST system. In order to evaluate and mitigate the effects of Pb-loss, we employed the chemical abrasion (CA) technique of Mattinson (2005), which effectively eliminates domains in zircon that have suffered Pb-loss, and removes micro-inclusions that typically contain common Pb. Thermal annealing followed by CA techniques were used for ID-TIMS dating of a sub-set of zircon crystals previously analyzed by SIMS. Prior to TIMS analyses, zircon crystals were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the effects of CA on crystal domains sampled by SIMS. SEM images reveal that whole portions of crystals were removed by the CA technique, and a heterogeneous pattern of etching that was not confined to specific compositional zones visible in cathodoluminescence. Most of the SIMS sputter pits that yield spurious ages, are associated with etching and/or preferential annealing by the combined annealing and CA technique, suggesting that the young ages relative to the 40Ar/39Ar age may be due to Pb loss. ID-TIMS yields a coherent U-Pb age population of 18.8 Ma, with several older and younger crystals that might reflect xenocrysts, Pb-loss, and/or younger crystallization. In order to maintain spatial resolution and further evaluate the effects of Pb-loss in PST zircon, the annealing and CA-technique will be applied to zircon prior to SIMS dating. References: Reid and Coath, 2000, Geology 28: 443 Renne et al., 2010, GCA 78: 5349

Lidzbarski, M. I.; Mundil, R.; Miller, J. S.; Vazquez, J. A.

2012-12-01

138

Variable stiffness torsion springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their

Dean C. Alhorn; Michael E. Polites

1995-01-01

139

Variable stiffness torsion springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their

Dean C. Alhorn; Michael E. Polites

1994-01-01

140

CHEMISTRY 210 SYLLABUS Spring 2007  

E-print Network

Ch. 10 Gases and the Ideal Gas Law Ch. 15 The Chemistry of Solutes and Solutions Ch. 13 ChemicalCHEMISTRY 210 SYLLABUS Spring 2007 General Chemistry II Dr. Craig P. Jasperse Office: Hagen 407J e:30-11:30 Required Text and Materials: 1) Text: "CHEMISTRY The Molecular Science, 2nd Edition" by Moore

Jasperse, Craig P.

141

AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SPRING 2013  

E-print Network

PLS 4613 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL SPRING 2013 CREDITS: 3.0 DESCRIPTION: Identification of Florida's aquatic weed problems and methods of chemical, biological, mechanical and physical weed control. Specific, insect biocontrol, grass carp, and current laws regulating aquatic weed control. INSTRUCTOR: William T

Watson, Craig A.

142

Spring Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, the purposes of this module are to investigate a mathematical model for spring motion and to study the effect of increased damping. This is one within a much larger set of learning modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang

143

Spring Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although this would not be considered a standard lab, it does help students with projects and other labs that involve the combinations of springs or rubber bands. Even if the activity is not used elsewhere, it allows students one more chance to practice u

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

144

Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico–Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano–hydrothermal system (Mexico–Guatemala).\\u000a Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW\\/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge\\u000a at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500–2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral\\u000a (pH from 5.8 to 6.9)

Dmitri Rouwet; Salvatore Inguaggiato; Yuri Taran; Nicholas Varley

2009-01-01

145

Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico-Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano-hydrothermal system (Mexico-Guatemala). Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500-2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral (pH from 5.8 to 6.9) thermal ( T from 25.7°C to 63.0°C) HCO3-SO4 waters are thought to have formed by the absorption of a H2S/SO2-CO2-enriched steam into a Cl-rich geothermal aquifer, afterwards mixed by Na/HCO3-enriched meteoric waters originating from the higher elevations of the volcano as stated by the isotopic composition (?D and ?18O) of meteoric and spring waters. Boiling temperature fumaroles (89°C at ~3,600m a.s.l. NW of the summit), formed after the May 1986 phreatic explosion, emit isotopically light vapour (?D and ?18O as low as -128 and -19.9‰, respectively) resulting from steam separation from the summit aquifer. Fumarolic as well as bubbling gases at five springs are CO2-dominated. The ?13CCO2 for all gases show typical magmatic values of -3.6 ± 1.3‰ vs V-PDB. The large range in 3He/4He ratios for bubbling, dissolved and fumarolic gases [from 1.3 to 6.9 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)] is ascribed to a different degree of near-surface boiling processes inside a heterogeneous aquifer at the contact between the volcanic edifice and the crystalline basement (4He source). Tacaná volcano offers a unique opportunity to give insight into shallow hydrothermal and deep magmatic processes affecting the CO2/3He ratio of gases: bubbling springs with lower gas/water ratios show higher 3He/4He ratios and consequently lower CO2/3He ratios (e.g. Zarco spring). Typical Central American CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios are found for the fumarolic Agua Caliente and Zarco gases (3.1 ± 1.6 × 1010 and 6.0 ± 0.9 R A, respectively). The L/ S (5.9 ± 0.5) and ( L + S)/ M ratios (9.2 ± 0.7) for the same gases are almost identical to the ones calculated for gases in El Salvador, suggesting an enhanced slab contribution as far as the northern extreme of the Central American Volcanic Arc, Tacaná.

Rouwet, Dmitri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Varley, Nicholas; Santiago S., José A.

2009-04-01

146

Spring Migration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spring Migration site from eNature.com and the National Wildlife Federation provides an online reference for bird enthusiasts that shows the dates that each species can be expected to return to its summer habitat. Site visitors can choose from a large number of species found in their range. Maps show summer and winter habitat ranges and migration patterns. The site also provides photos, field guide information, and bird call audio for each species.

147

Spring Break Midterm Picnic  

E-print Network

Spring Break or the Monday after do count toward total absences. Get your I-20s signed if you planHighlights Spring Break Midterm Picnic Notes from the Office Manners TheELIWeekly Spring Break aren't already aware of it, our Spring Break is next week! If you do not yet have any plans for Spring

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

148

ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK!  

E-print Network

SIGN UP TODAY! ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK! The Community Service Center, Boston University's volunteer hub, just keeps growing. Lining Up toServe BOSTON UNIVERSITY Spring 2009 SIGN UP TODAY! ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK! #12;BUParentSpring2009 1 SIGN UP TODAY! ALTERNATIVE SPRING BREAK! Features 5 Online

Goldberg, Bennett

149

Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants  

E-print Network

or signs of disease before bringing them into the greenhouse. Isolate or discard contaminated plants1 Spring Greenhouse Bedding Plants Spring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring GreenhouseSpring Greenhouse Bedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding PlantsBedding Plants Purdue University Authors: Raymond A

150

77 FR 9254 - Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH or Advisory Board), National Institute for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Laboratory and Stanford Linear Accelerator; SEC petitions for: Electro Metallurgical (Niagara Falls, NY), Hangar 481 (Kirtland Air Force Base); Weldon Spring Plant (Weldon Spring, MO), Sandia National Laboratories, Clinton Engineering...

2012-02-16

151

Variable stiffness torsion springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

1995-01-01

152

Variable stiffness torsion springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

Alhorn, Dean C. (inventor); Polites, Michael E. (inventor)

1994-01-01

153

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

2004-01-01

154

Chemistry 106X -Spring 2011 General Chemistry  

E-print Network

Chemistry 106X - Spring 2011 General Chemistry Instructor: Christopher Iceman Class: MWF 1 and can be purchased in the UAF bookstore or elsewhere: · Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed for Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity 7th Ed. (1 or 2 semester) · TurningPoint Technologies ResponseCard RF

Wagner, Diane

155

HARVARD UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION Spring 2014 Advising Booklet  

E-print Network

· Chemical & Physical Biology · Chemistry Human Developmental and Regenerative Biology · Human Evolutionary (LS 1b) ­ Spring term LS 1b covers genetics, genomics, and evolution. ****** Physical Sciences 1 Sciences concentrations: ! · Biomedical Engineering · Chemical and Physical Biology · Chemistry

Chen, Yiling

156

GRADUATION SPEAKERS (Spring 1961 Spring 2014)  

E-print Network

Senator 1998 Fall Benjamin S. Ruffin Chairman, Board of Governors 1998 Spring General Henry Hugh Shelton, The Supreme Court of NC 1995 Spring Dr. E. Gordon Gee President, The Ohio State University #12;1994 Fall Dr

Velev, Orlin D.

157

A batch study on the bio-fixation of carbon dioxide in the absorbed solution from a chemical wet scrubber by hot spring and marine algae.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide mass transfer is a key factor in cultivating micro-algae except for the light limitation of photosynthesis. It is a novel idea to enhance mass transfer with the cyclic procedure of absorbing CO(2) with a high performance alkaline abosorber such as a packed tower and regenerating the alkaline solution with algal photosynthesis. Hence, the algae with high affinity for alkaline condition must be purified. In this study, a hot spring alga (HSA) was purified from an alkaline hot spring (pH 9.3, 62 degrees C) in Taiwan and grows well over pH 11.5 and 50 degrees C. For performance of HSA, CO(2) removal efficiencies in the packed tower increase about 5-fold in a suitable growth condition compared to that without adding any potassium hydroxide. But ammonia solution was not a good choice for this system with regard to carbon dioxide removal efficiency because of its toxicity on HSA. In addition, HSA also exhibits a high growth rate under the controlled pHs from 7 to 11. Besides, a well mass balance of carbon and nitrogen made sure that less other byproducts formed in the procedure of carboxylation. For analysis of some metals in HSA, such as Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, related to the photosynthesis increased by a rising cultivated pH and revealed that those metals might be accumulated under alkaline conditions but the growth rate was still limited by the ratio of bicarbonate (useful carbon source) and carbonate. Meanwhile, Nannochlopsis oculta (NAO) was also tested under different additional carbon sources. The results revealed that solutions of sodium/potassium carbonate are better carbon sources than ammonia carbonate/bicarbonate for the growth of NAO. However, pH 9.6 of growth limitation based on sodium was lower than one of HSA. The integrated system is, therefore, more feasible to treat CO(2) in the flue gases using the algae with higher alkaline affinity such as HSA in small volume bioreactors. PMID:16860839

Hsueh, H T; Chu, H; Yu, S T

2007-01-01

158

THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE REMEDIATION OF WWI CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE SPRING VALLEY SUPERFUND SITE, WASHINGTON, DC  

EPA Science Inventory

During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

159

Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

1976-01-01

160

Chemical of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Bassam Z. Shakhashiri at the University of Wisconsin-Madison adds a new chemical to this page every week. The site was created for his general chemistry courses, Chem 103 and Chem 104, to increase students' knowledge about various chemicals and their use. Users can view featured chemicals from the currently updated fall course (103) or from the spring course (104). The chemicals featured thus far include: lime, methane, uranium, the chemistry of autumn colors, and gases that emit light.

Shakhashiri, Bassam Z.

1997-01-01

161

Spring Break Midterm Picnic  

E-print Network

: SPRING C STUDENTS NEED TO SIGN UP ON THE SIGN UP SHEET. Everyone is Welcome! The Weekly NewsletterHighlights Spring Break Midterm Picnic Birthdays Manners TheELIWeekly Spring Break Relax! Enjoy! Just in case you aren't already aware of it, our Spring Break is next week! Since we have no scheduled

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

162

Public involvement case study -- The public, the media, and chemical weapons in the front yard: Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. (1993)  

SciTech Connect

On January 5, 1993, a worker digging a utility trench in an upscale Washington neighborhood uncovered some World War I chemical munitions. Once emergency officials heard the words ``poison gas`` and ``munitions,`` District of Columbia emergency equipment and workers streamed into the neighborhood. Reporters descended on the site. Soldiers in chemical suits arrived. Residents were evacuated. With the onslaught of flashing police lights, uniformed soldiers, and omnipresent news cameras, local homeowners began to panic. This one site had all the attributes of a great news story: disaster, panic, conflict, danger, and big government. But you didn`t see this story played out nightly on CNN. In fact, it wasn`t picked up as a major, controversial story. That`s because of the excellent work by those removing the munitions and a strong public involvement program. These turned a potential public relations disaster and media nightmare into a success story. Public involvement changed angry, frightened citizens into firm believers in the project. It turned cynical media into informed news outlets. And it made the munitions removal effort easier. The focus of this paper, however, is on the public relations battle.

Crawford, K. [Army Corps of Engineers, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1994-12-31

163

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

164

Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.  

PubMed

Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

Castenholz, Richard W

2015-01-01

165

Water-quality data for the Missouri River and Missouri River alluvium near Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1991--92  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the water-quality data collected at two cross sections across the Missouri River and from monitoring wells in the Missouri River alluvium near Defiance, Missouri. The sampling results indicate the general water composition from the Missouri River changes with different flow conditions. During low-base flow conditions, the water generally contained about equal quantities of calcium and sodium plus potassium and similar quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate. During high-base flow conditions, water from the river predominantly was a calcium bicarbonate type. During runoff conditions, the water from the river was a calcium bicarbonate type, and sulfate concentrations were larger than during high-base flow conditions but smaller than during low-base flow conditions. The total and dissolved uranium concentrations at both the upstream and downstream cross sections, as well as from the different vertical samples across the river, were similar during each sampling event. However, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and total and dissolved uranium concentrations varied with different flow conditions. Sodium and sulfate concentrations were larger during low-base flow conditions than during high-base flow or runoff conditions, while nitrate concentrations decreased during low-base flow conditions. Both total and dissolved uranium concentrations were slightly larger during runoff events than during low-base or high-base flow conditions.

Kleeschulte, M.J.

1993-12-31

166

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video-enhanced lesson, students will explore Florida’s springs using video segments from the NATURE film “Springs Eternal: Florida’s Fountain of Youth” and related activities and discussions. Students will learn about how the springs are formed and will explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students will also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs. At the end of the lesson, students will conduct research and give a presentation about one species that lives in and/or around the springs.

2010-01-01

167

[Chemical characteristics in airborne particulate matter (PM10) during a high pollution spring dust storm episode in Beijing, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou, China].  

PubMed

Atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) was collected at sampling locations of Beijing, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou from April 1st to May 24th, 2012. The mass concentration of PM10 and concentrations of ions, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in PM10 were determined. The results showed that average mass concentration of PM10 were 233.82 microg x m(-3) for Beijing, 279.64 microg x (-3) for Tianjin and 238.13 microg x m(-3) for Zhangjiakou, respectively. Backward trajectories results confirmed dust storm events occurred from 27th to 29th April. The maximum daily mass concentrations of PM10 were 755.54 microg x m(-3) for Beijing, 831.32 microg x m(-3) for Tianjin and 582.82 microg x m(-3) for Zhangjiakou during the dust storm episodes, respectively. Water-soluble ions (Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2-)), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were major aerosol components during the dust storm episodes, and their concentrations were higher than non-dust storm days. In addition, dust storm caused increases in NO3-, SO4(2-) and enrichment of secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentration relative to OC, suggesting that chemical reaction processes involving gas-particle conversion occurred during the long-distance transport of aerosol particles. PMID:25338350

Liu, Qing-Yang; Liu, Yan-Ju; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Mei-Gen; Wang, Cun-Mei

2014-08-01

168

Controls on the genesis of a high-fluoride thermal spring: Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the source, evolution, reactions and environmental impacts of F-rich thermal water at Innot Hot Springs, north Queensland. Thermal water of the Innot Hot Springs has a surface temperature of 71°C, alkaline pH (8.1), low dissolved oxygen (0.61 mg\\/L) and low total dissolved solids (652 mg\\/L). The main chemical composition is Na – Cl, with F concentrations (16 mg\\/L) being comparatively high.

B. G. Lottermoser; J. S. Cleverley

2007-01-01

169

Hydrogeochemical investigation of thermal springs in the Black Canyon - Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 80 liters\\/sec. of spring flow discharges from both sides of the Colorado River in Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona. The spring issue primarily from the highly faulted and fractured volcanic rocks which are exposed throughout the canyon from Hoover Dam to 9.5 kilometers downstream. Chemical analysis of the spring waters, including environmental isotope and tritium results, indicate a

W. A. McKay; D. E. Zimmerman

1983-01-01

170

Rachel Carson's Silent Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from American Experience: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, learn how the lethal impact of the pesticide DDT on wildlife inspired biologist Rachel Carson to write Silent Spring.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-07-01

171

Hot Springs Creek  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS scientist Jennifer Lewicki measures the discharge along a tributary to Hot Springs Creek, Akutan Island, Alaska. Steam (upper left) rises from 3 high-temperature springs that discharge into the tributary....

172

Springs in Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of springs in Egypt deal only with examples of natural springs producing potable water. None of the natural springs producing highly mineralized thermal water for therapeutical are considered. No water from natural springs in Egypt is bottled. Egyptian standards state that the total dissolved solids in potable water should not exceed 1000 ppm, except in Siwa, where the only available source for water for human consumption is from springs that have water containing more than 2000 ppm TDS. Six natural springs in Egypt provide typical examples for the Sinai and the Western Desert: Ain Furtaga in the southern pre-Cambrian province of Sinai Peninsula; Ain El Gudeirat in the sedimentary plateau of North Sinai; and Ain El Bishmo, Ain El Bousa, and Ain El Gabal in the Western Desert Oases of Bahariya, Kharga, and Dakhla. They discharge from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer system. The sixth spring, Ain El Arayes, is a spring in Siwa Oasis.

Idris, H.

1996-03-01

173

Syllabus for EK424, Spring 2014 "Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics"  

E-print Network

Syllabus for EK424, Spring 2014 "Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics" Boston University or molecules. The subject of statistical mechanics is concerned with expressing thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, therefore, are essential for explaining the forces that drive chemical and biochemical

Vajda, Sandor

174

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

WNET

2010-11-05

175

Water Treatment Technology - Springs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

176

Adjustable support spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Restraining spring mechanism acting against a force has adjustable spring constant, and its performance is not affected by changes in ambient pressure. Natural frequency of device is varied by changing absolute pressures within bellows and may be tuned to prevent coupling while maintaining a given spring constant.

Hadland, W. O.

1970-01-01

177

Joshua Smith Spring 2006  

E-print Network

Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Joshua Smith Spring 2006 #12;The UGA Land Use Clinic provides in Georgia Author: Joshua Smith Editor: Jamie Baker Roskie University of Georgia Land Use Clinic Spring 2006....................................................................................................10 #12;#12;1Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Stormwater Utilities in Georgia Joshua Smith Spring 2006

Rosemond, Amy Daum

178

Wrap spring clutch syringe ram and frit mixer  

SciTech Connect

A wrap spring clutch syringe ram pushes at least one syringe with virtually instantaneous starting and stopping, and with constant motion at a defined velocity during the intervening push. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram includes an electric motor, a computer, a flywheel, a wrap spring clutch, a precision lead screw, a slide platform, and syringe reservoirs, a mixing chamber, and a reaction incubation tube. The electric motor drives a flywheel and the wrap spring clutch couples the precision lead screw to the flywheel when a computer enables a solenoid of the wrap spring clutch. The precision lead screw drives a precision slide which causes syringes to supply a portion of solution into the mixing chamber and the incubation tube. The wrap spring clutch syringe ram is designed to enable the quantitative study of solution phase chemical and biochemical reactions, particularly those reactions that occur on the subsecond time scale.

Simpson, Frank B.

2006-07-25

179

Spring Motion Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spring Motion Model shows the motion of a block attached to an ideal spring. The block can oscillate back-and-forth horizontally. Users can change the mass of the block, the spring constant of the spring, and the initial position of the block. You can then see the resulting motion of the block, as well as see bar graphs of the energy and plots of the block's position, speed, and acceleration as a function of time. The Spring Motion model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. See Related Materials for an interactive homework problem that takes learners step-by-step through each component of a "block and spring" exercise. It provides free-body diagrams, conceptual analysis, and explicit support in using the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem to solve the problem.

2010-05-02

180

Engineering Momentum spring 2014  

E-print Network

News 28 >> Faculty News 33 >> The Last Word 1 12 24 2016 4 6 signs of spring The cherry blossomsEngineering Momentum spring 2014 ac r o s s di s ci p l i n e s . ac r o s s t h e w o r l d. Sommerer #12;spring 2014 > Engineering Momentum 1 Contents dean Ralph Quatrano, PhD associate dean

Subramanian, Venkat

181

Spring and valve skirt  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an engine having a valve guide operatively mounting a valve stem and its associated valve spring and spring retainer for actuation of the valve stem by a valve actuator. An improvement is described comprising: a hollow, generally cylindrical shaped skirt means having a side portion forming an interior with one open end and having at its other end an end portion extending inwardly and formed with an axial opening therein communicating to the interior. The skirt means is mounted on and about the valve stem and spring retainer and about its spring so as to move with the valve stem and to cover the spring retainer and most of the portion of the valve spring and the valve stem extending outwardly from the valve guide except for an outermost end of the stem which extends through the opening in the end portion for actuation by the actuator , such that the inwardly extending end portion lies between the outermost end of the stem and an outermost end of the spring retainer to allow for retrofitting insertion of the skirt means over existing valve stems without removal of the spring and spring retainer. Excessive oil is presented from seeping between and valve guide and the valve stem thus preventing excessive carbon build-up in the combustion area, sticking valves, fouled plugs and high exhaust emissions.

Moore, L.

1986-07-29

182

Thermal springs in Lake Baikal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The ??18O values of pore wqters range from -15.2??? to -16.7???, and ??D values range from -119??? to -126??? (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water [SMOW]). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a ??18O value of -5.6??? and a ??D value of -120???. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest ??D and ??18O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites. -from Authors

Shanks, Wayne C., III; Callender, E.

1992-01-01

183

Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium, and sulfate show statistically significant differences between the median values of base-flow and stormflow samples. While variations in these constituents do not degrade water quality, the differences do provide evidence of variability in the factors controlling water quality of the hot springs and show that water quality is influenced by the locally derived, cold-water component of flow to the springs. Water temperature was measured continuously (3-minute intervals) between August 2000 and October 2002 at four hot springs. Continuous water-temperature data at the springs provide no indication of persistent long-term change in water temperature through time. Short time-scale water-temperature decreases occur in response to mixing of hot-springs water with locally derived recharge after storm events; the magnitude of these decreases varied inversely with the amount of rainfall. Maximum decreases in water temperature for specific storms had a non-linear relation with the amount of precipitation measured for the events. Response time for water temperature to begin decreasing from baseline temperature as a result of storm recharge was highly variable. Some springs began decreasing from baseline temperature as quickly as 1 hour after the beginning of a storm; one spring had an 8-hour minimum response time to show a storm-related temperature decrease. Water-quality, water-temperature, isotopic, and radiochemical data provide multiple lines of evidence supporting the importance of the contribution of cold-water recharge to hot springs. All the springs sampled indicated some measure of influence from local recharge. Binary mixing models using silica and total dissolved solids indicate that cold-water recharge from stormflow contributes an estimated 10 to 31 percent of the flow of hot springs. Models using water temperature indicate that cold-water recharge from stormflow contributes an estimated 1 to 35 percent of the flow of the various hot springs. Alth

Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

2007-01-01

184

Thermal springs in Lake Baikal  

SciTech Connect

Pore waters extracted from sediment cores were analyzed for their oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions and major ion chemistry to determine the source of water from a vent area for diffuse lake-bottom thermal springs or seeps in Frolikha Bay, northeastern Lake Baikal. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of pore waters range from {minus}15.2{per thousand} to {minus}16.7{per thousand}, and {delta}D values range from {minus}119{per thousand} to {minus}126{per thousand} (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW)). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a {delta}{sup 18}O value of {minus}5.6{per thousand} and a {delta}D values of {minus}120{per thousand}. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites.

Shanks, W.C. III; Callender, E. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1992-06-01

185

Hydrogeochemical inventory and analysis of thermal springs in the Black Canyon-Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 70 liters\\/sec. of spring flow discharges from both sides of the Colorado River in Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona. Observed springs issue primarily from the highly faulted and fractured volcanic rocks which are exposed throughout the canyon from Hoover Dam to 7.5 kilometers downstream. Chemical analyses of the spring waters, including stable isotope and tritium results, indicate a

McKay

1981-01-01

186

Spring Scale Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how spring scales work and how they are used for non-exact weight measurement. Learners work in teams to develop their own working spring scale out of ordinary items. They test their scale, present their designs to the group, compare their designs with those of other teams, and reflect on the experience.

2014-05-22

187

Masses and Springs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive simulation adapted from the University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology project, hang various masses from different springs and see the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy of each spring system. You can even slow time or move your demonstration to another planet.

2007-04-19

188

SPRING 2004 the Homeless  

E-print Network

SPRING 2004 Hope for the Homeless U of M Alumni Making a Difference #12;Above: Spring and all its play key roles in getting homeless people back on track as Memphis and Shelby County push to end chronic homelessness by 2013. Photograph by Michael Spikes. Illustration by Aaron Drown. #12;issue

Dasgupta, Dipankar

189

Valve-spring Surge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test equipment is described that includes a system of three quartz indicators whereby three different pressures could be synchronized and simultaneously recorded on a single oscillogram. This equipment was used to test the reliction of waves at ends of valve spring, the dynamical stress of the valve spring for a single lift of the valve, and measurement of the curve of the cam tested. Other tests included simultaneous recording of the stress at both ends of the spring, spring oscillation during a single lift as a function of speed, computation of amplitude of oscillation for a single lift by harmonic analysis, effect of cam profile, the setting up of resonance, and forced spring oscillation with damping.

Marti, Willy

1937-01-01

190

Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing  

E-print Network

RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

Dong, Jipeng

2010-01-14

191

Spring Arts Festival TOEFL Prep!  

E-print Network

Highlights · Spring Arts Festival · TOEFL Prep! · Birthdays · Manners TheELIWeekly Downtown Spring will be staying here in Gainesville for the 39th Annual Downtown Spring Arts Festival. The Spring Arts Festival is difficult. The cost is FREE. You only need money for what you would like to buy. Sign up on the activities

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

192

Harbingers of Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

Serrao, John

1976-01-01

193

Biotechnology Laboratory Spring 2012  

E-print Network

CH369T Biotechnology Laboratory Spring 2012 Instructor: Dr. Gene McDonald Office: WEL 3.270C Phone, and at the same time to introduce you to issues associated with various biotechnology laboratory operations. After

194

University Calendar Spring 2017  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2017 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON

Suzuki, Masatsugu

195

University Calendar Spring 2013  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2013 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON UNIVERSITY State.m. * Courses meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT

Suzuki, Masatsugu

196

University Calendar Spring 2014  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2014 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON

Suzuki, Masatsugu

197

University Calendar Spring 2015  

E-print Network

University Calendar Spring 2015 Binghamton University operates on a year round schedule than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT TO REVISION BINGHAMTON.m. * Courses meeting less than the full semester have proportionately adjusted deadlines CALENDAR SUBJECT

Suzuki, Masatsugu

198

Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain access to these environments and cope with their extreme physicochemical characteristics may be provided with refuge from extinction. The disproportionate number of endemic crenobiotic species found in regional aquifer thermal springs, as well as in some local aquifer geothermal springs, within the Great Basin strongly suggests that these hydrothermal habitats represent important biodiversity hotspots, and efforts to conserve and restore these unique ecosystems should be a major priority to ensure that the valuable information that these species can provide is not lost forever.

Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

2013-12-01

199

Chemistry of thermal and nonthermal springs in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Meaningful applications of water geothermometry to thermal springs in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are limited to Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs. Most hot springs located within LVNP are low-chloride, acid-sulfate waters associated with nearby steam vents. This type of hot-spring activity is characteristically found above vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock interaction at relatively shallow depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures close to measured spring temperatures of 65 to 95??C. Hot-spring waters located south of LVNP at Growler Hot Spring, Morgan Hot Springs, and in the south-central part of LVNP in the Walker "O" No. 1 well at Terminal Geyser are rich in chloride and yield calculated geothermometer temperatures between 220 and 230??C. These thermal waters probably originate within a zone of upflow of high-enthalpy fluid inside LVNP and cool conductively during lateral flow to the south and southeast. ?? 1985.

Thompson, J.M.

1985-01-01

200

Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

2008-01-01

201

Compositional Similarities between Hot Mineral Springs in the Jordan and Suez Rift Valleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chemical composition of the Hammam Farun hot spring (72° C) in the Suez Rift Valley has been found to be almost identical to that of the Tiberias Hot Springs (60° C) in the Jordan Rift Valley (Figs. 1 and 2 and Table 1). This finding is of vital importance in the evaluation and sorting out of various hypotheses that

Emanuel Mazor

1968-01-01

202

Geothermal investigation of spring and well waters of the Los Alamos Region, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and isotopic characters of 20 springs and wells in the Los Alamos area were investigated for indications of geothermal potential. These waters were compared with known hot and mineral springs from adjacent Valles Caldera and San Ysidro. All waters in the Los Alamos area are composed of meteoric water. Isotopic data show that the two primary aquifers beneath

F. E. Goff; S. Sayer

1980-01-01

203

Mercury in water and biomass of microbial communities in hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-clean sampling methods and approaches typically used in pristine environments were applied to quantify concentrations of Hg species in water and microbial biomass from hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, features that are geologically enriched with Hg. Microbial populations of chemically-diverse hot springs were also characterized using modern methods in molecular biology as the initial step toward ongoing work linking

Susan A. King; Sabrina Behnke; Kim Slack; David P. Krabbenhoft; D. Kirk Nordstrom; Mark D. Burr; Robert G. Striegl

2006-01-01

204

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

205

SpringFlow: a digital spring-sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present SpringFlow, a digital Spring-sign, which, from February to May, changes its characteristics to indicate how far gone spring is. With the aid of our Spring-sign, you navigate through time just like you would with a calendar. Its construction resembles a hollow ball, while the appearance of it depends on the users interactions. By tilting it, changes in sound,

Charlotte Axelsson; Eva Eriksson; Daniel Lindros; Marie Mattsson

2002-01-01

206

Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

1983-01-01

207

Sleeved damper limits spring surging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Damping device limits spring surging in delicate instrumentation subjected to shock loading to tolerable limits. The device consists of a spiral formed plastic member interleaved between the spring coils in the same helix configuration.

Dean, W. C.

1968-01-01

208

Spring Allergies Coming into Bloom  

MedlinePLUS

... spring allergies, a doctor says. Allergies to spring pollens cause sneezing, stuffy and runny nose, and watery ... pointed out in a hospital news release. Monitor pollen and mold counts, and stay inside during mid- ...

209

Intermediate Accounting II Spring 2012  

E-print Network

in various financial reporting environments (accounting rules and principles) and their influenceKimbro Intermediate Accounting II Spring 2012 1 ACCT 532 INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING II Spring 2012 allocation processes. To learn the conceptual framework underlying Financial Accounting and Financial

Carter, John

210

Silent Spring Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Named after ecologist Rachel Carson's landmark book, _Silent Spring_, the Silent Spring Institute (SSI) is a "scientific research organization dedicated to identifying the links between the environment and women's health, especially breast cancer." The SSI website contains descriptions of several research projects including the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study, Geographic Information System Exposure Assessment, Groundwater and Drinking Water Initiatives, and Household Exposure Study. SSI also makes a number of downloadable publications available including journal articles and issues of the Institute's own _Silent Spring Review_. The site posts relevant news stories from a variety of sources, and contains a sizeable News Archive as well. In addition, the site offers a great many annotated links, and a glossary with pertinent medical, scientific, and environmental terms.

211

Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spring which includes a tube with an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension extending vertically is disclosed. A plurality of cuts in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube extend perpendiculary to a longitudinal axis extending along the tube. An uncut portion of the tube wall extends along the tube for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom of a seat cushion.

Haslim, L. A. (inventor)

1985-01-01

212

Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spring (10) includes a tube (12) having an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension (22) extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension (24) extending vertically. A plurality of cuts (20) in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube (12) extend perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis (16) extending along the tube (12). An uncut portion (26) of the tube wall extends along the tube (12) for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom (28) of a seat cushion (30).

Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

1988-01-01

213

76 FR 59998 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Postharvest Chemical Use Survey and All Associated Reports  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...after harvesting, how the chemicals are applied, when they...and 2009 the Postharvest Chemical Use survey was suspended...not publish a Postharvest Chemical Use report in the Spring of 2012 unless there is a change in the anticipated...

2011-09-28

214

Can springs cut canyons into rock? Michael P. Lamb,1  

E-print Network

assumed to result from erosion by emerging spring water (i.e., seepage erosion or groundwater sapping, the extension of these processes to resistant rock is uncertain. In sedimentary rocks, groundwater might control of groundwater exfil- trating along the base of a headwall, leading to mechanical and chemical breakdown

Perron, Taylor

215

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, SPRING, 2014 (Updated 12/05/2013)  

E-print Network

CHEMISTRY COURSE OFFERINGS, SPRING, 2014 (Updated 12/05/2013) CHEM 0001-01 - CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS and chemistry of materials. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation. Only one of Chemistry 1, 11, or 16, and coordination chemistry, and chemistry of selected elements. Three lectures, one laboratory, one recitation

Kounaves, Samuel P.

216

Long-term Tillage influences on soil carbon, nitrogen, physical, chemical, and biological properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term tillage influences physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil environment and thereby crop production and quality. We evaluated the effect of long-term (>20 yrs) tillage no-till, spring till, and fall plus spring till under continuous spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on s...

217

Early Spring Flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

YOUR readers will doubtless have been observing how the mildness of the weather this winter, so far, has hastened on the spring flowers. I am inclined to think that some of the dates mentioned below have not often been paralleled. The dates in brackets, of the usual flowering times, have been taken from Babington's ``Manual of Botany'' and Johnson's ``Gardeners'

E. Armitage

1898-01-01

218

Spring black stem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spring black stem is the most destructive alfalfa diseases in temperate regions of the U.S., Canada, Australia, and countries of Europe, Asia, and South America. The disease causes serious yield losses by reducing canopy dry matter and also decreases seed weight and crown and root mass. Forage qua...

219

AGRICULTURAL SPRING 2005  

E-print Network

MICHIGAN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION SPRING 2005 VOL. 23 NO. 1 Plant Breeding and Genetics has been helping growers by developing new plant varieties and cultural techniques. Breeding por- tion of the MAES-supported plant breeding and genetics research. Biotechnology is used to improve

220

Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

Dowdy, June P., Ed.

1998-01-01

221

Planar torsion spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

2012-01-01

222

Warm Springs Creek, Idaho  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Warm Springs Creek is a tributary of the Big Wood River in south-central Idaho. It is one of eight sites at which the USGS is conducting an ecological assessment during the summer of 2014. Study results will be published in 2015....

223

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

Chemistry 101 Spring, 2012 Tentative Course Syllabus Millington 211; TR, 11-12:20 Instructor: S.K. Knudson; Office: Nope; Hours: by appt. email: skknud@wm.edu Text: Hill, McCreary, Kolb; Chemistry Shapes (4) 3 R, 2/16 The Mole and Reaction Stoichiometry (5) 3 T, 3/20 Gases and Gas Laws; Solids

Pike, Robert D.

224

Spring Into Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maria lifts up a book from the table. Dietre eats cereal for breakfast. Akisha winds up a toy robot. Jacob puts batteries in a flashlight. These seemingly dissimilar events demonstrate various ways children experience energy daily. You can help primary students make sense of these experiences and build their conceptual understanding of energy with this series of hands-on energy activities. We've used these lessons successfully for several years and have been continually impressed with the understandings that students develop as they conduct them. The lessons focus primarily on elastic, or spring, energy and use a conceptual hook, a simple phrase that identifies the key ideas from the activities. In these lessons, the "hook" is "lift, squeeze, stretch, and twist," which summarizes some of the ways students can "put" energy in objects. We chose to emphasize spring energy because it is tangible--students can easily observe the spring (or similar objects such as a rubberband) change as they squeeze, stretch, or twist it, and they can feel the spring resist them as they change its shape.

Stephen Van Hook

2007-03-01

225

Echoes of Spring Valley.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

Boyken, J. Clarine J.

226

The News. Spring 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spring issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Community College League of California contains the following articles: (1) Enrollment Drops; Fees to Blame?; (2) Senate's Grad Proposal Triggers Debate on Mission, Access; (3) Compton Decision has Affected Perceptions of Commission (discussion with Barbara Beno); (4) Dynamic New Architectural…

Giles, Ray, Ed.

2006-01-01

227

Atascocita Springs Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the significant amount of time invested in researching the best techniques for delivering instruction to their students, Humble ISD is always on the forefront of education. Taking the recommendations of their active and vocal community groups, the district embarked in the design of the 26th elementary school, Atascocita Springs Elementary…

Nigaglioni, Irene; Yocham, Deborah

2011-01-01

228

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-print Network

ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

229

Lemon Project Spring Symposium  

E-print Network

2 0 11 Lemon Project Spring Symposium From Slavery Toward Reconciliation: African Americans & The College March 19, 2011 - Bruton Heights School #12;March 19, 2011 Greetings and welcome to the first Lemon Lemon Project: A Journey of Reconciliation." The BOV defined Lemon "as a long- term research project

Fashing, Norman

230

Computer Security Spring 2009  

E-print Network

and risk assessment · social engineering attacks · security devices #12;Course Objectives: Students whoCIS4040 Computer Security Spring 2009 Vermont Technical College Class Meeting: MF 4:00-5:15 Via VIT. Course Overview: This course provides the background to understand security issues and how to re- duce

Damon, Craig A.

231

Editors' Spring Picks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

Library Journal, 2011

2011-01-01

232

Spring 2013 alumni magazine  

E-print Network

1 Spring 2013 alumni magazine Global Communities Alumni hit the world stage #12;2 14 11 22 21 20 friends' details too. Intouch is Murdoch University's alumni magazine for all those who have graduated a range of fascinating stories from Murdoch alumni on the international stage. With articles ranging from

233

SPRING 2014 GAME THEORY  

E-print Network

Momeni Office: C534 (403) 329-2642 abbas.momeni@uleth.ca Game Theory is the study of decision making under competition. More specifically, Game Theory is the study of optimal decision making underSPRING 2014 GAME THEORY Math 4850A Tuesdays / Thursdays 10:50 am ­ 12:05 pm Room: TBA Dr. Abbas

Seldin, Jonathan P.

234

Spring 2014 Pedal power  

E-print Network

Koen Lamberts #12;University highlights 4 International students give 4 York top vote The Killing rights art project 17 Aero girl unveiled 20 In memoriam Peter Smith 22 University news At the chalk face Wylie ­ and former aero girl exploring the potential of digital games spring watch on campus Cover photo

235

Spring 2011 affirmations  

E-print Network

sexual health and parenting. "The Jane Addams College is a good place to study both health disparitiesSpring 2011 affirmations In this issue: Promoting health justice, eliminating health disparities, an overarching goal of promoting health justice and eliminating health disparities. I hope the articles convey

Illinois at Chicago, University of

236

Creative Arts SPRING 2014  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF Creative Arts EVENTS SPRING 2014 SONIC ARTS FILM MUSIC DRAMA Find us on Facebook 9097 4867 CONCERT SEMINAR PERFORMANCE SCREENINGWORKSHOP Drama and Film Centre & Brian Friel Theatre Old in the music industry. But the shadow of paramilitary violence is always present. Catchpenny Twist is full

Paxton, Anthony T.

237

Spring 2014 Thermodynamics -1  

E-print Network

the weight is removed and the piston rapidly moves upward and the gas expands. After a few momentsSpring 2014 Thermodynamics - 1 Consider an insulated (adiabatic) piston and cylinder arrangement of oscillation, the piston comes to rest at a final state where the pressure and temperature of the air are 100 k

Virginia Tech

238

A Quadratic Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

Fay, Temple H.

2010-01-01

239

Biochemistry 482 Spring 2009  

E-print Network

1 Biochemistry 482 Spring 2009 Instructor: Dr. Stephen Lodmell Class time/place: MWF 10:10-11:00am, to be arranged Phone: 243-6393 email: stephen.lodmell@umontana.edu Text: Garrett and Grisham Biochemistry, 3rd ed. (updated) Overview: The second semester of biochemistry builds on the foundation laid by BIOC481

Vonessen, Nikolaus

240

Hot Spring Metagenomics  

PubMed Central

Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

2013-01-01

241

Ginnie Springs Cavern Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a quiet forest in central Florida, a mysterious pond filled with warm clear water hides a secret at the bottom. In this video, Jonathan explores the pond to find a spring which leads into a cave. As Jonathan travels underground, he meets unexpected marine life in the dark depths and learns how water travels through an aquifer from the underground world to the surface. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

2012-07-19

242

ANALYSIS II Spring 1998  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS II Math 555 Spring 1998 Instructor: Professor: Bob Sharpley Office: 313D LeConte Office. Principles of Real Analysis (3 rd ed.), by Walter Rudin, McGraw-Hill, 1976. 2. http://www.math.sc.edu/~sharpley/Uniqueness of solutions of elliptic and parabolic PDE. 1 of 2 04/25/2000 8:33 AM Real Analysis II http://www.math.sc.edu/~sharpley

Sharpley, Robert

243

Chemical Peels  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical ... damaged skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used ...

244

Signs of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because Spring has officially arrived, this week's Topic In Depth focuses on events that occur with the arrival of the new season.Offered by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the first Web site (1) focuses on seasonal events like hibernation and migration, and the rhythms behind them. Next is a phenology site (2), where visitors can register to record their observations of Spring online or just learn what phenology is and why it is important. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources also has a phenology Web site for kids (3). The Missouri Botanical Garden (4) keeps a record of the plants in bloom each week, with corresponding photos and a choice of either a brief or more detailed description. Plantwatch (5), a site from the University of Alberta that encourages students and volunteers to register and report observations, has recently added a downloadable teacher's guide. Operation Migration (6), the organization that has successfully led endangered Whooping Crane migration by ultralight aircraft, provides daily updates as the birds begin preparing for their journey north. Users who want to begin identifying the birds that return to their yard this spring may be interested in the Peterson online identification guide (7). The final site (8) traces the life cycle of the Bumblebee, beginning with the queen emerging from hibernation and building a nest.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

245

Spring magnet films.  

SciTech Connect

The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

1999-03-29

246

Statistical modeling of agricultural chemical occurrence in midwestern rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural chemicals in surface water may constitute a human health risk or have adverse effects on aquatic life. Recent research on unregulated rivers in the midwestern USA documents that elevated concentrations of herbicides occur for 1–4 months following application in late spring and early summer. In contrast, nitrate concentrations in unregulated rivers are elevated during fall, winter, and spring months.

William A Battaglin; Donald A Goolsby

1997-01-01

247

Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18?km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

2014-01-01

248

Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.  

PubMed

Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

2014-01-01

249

Spatial analysis for spring locations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to create a comprehensive GIS database of spring locations across the American Southwest. To complete the assignment you will be required to locate all springs within a county of the Four Corners region and map them on a geologic map of the area. Start by finding all spring names and locations in national and state digital resources (i.e., GNIS, NHD, USFS, AGIC...) as well as from Topographic 7.5 minute Quadrangle maps and peer reviewed papers. Once a comprehensive list is formed you must determine a strategy for deleting duplicates. Note that there can be several springs with the same name; Cibola County, New Mexico, has 4 different Coyote Springs but each one is on a different mountain range, therefore all three springs would be valid. Create a detailed document of the procedures and resources you used to create your final list. You will also create a final mxd product (GIS map) that has a completed springs layer using no less than three resources, geologic map and DEM to show elevation contours. The outcomes of this activity are 1) understanding that spring orifice locations can change over time 2) to show the complexity of using digital resources 3) to create a comprehensive list of spring locations over several years of having the assignment completed

Rebecca Frus

250

Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the dependence of the elastic constant with the length of the spring. The proposal by Menezes et al. consists of determining the springs elastic constant K (defined as the ratio of the elongation ? and the magnitude of applied force F) using the usual method of suspending a mass m and studying the dependence of K on the springs unstretched length L. The authors vary the length of a spring by cutting pieces off the end and obtain an experimental relation K =?L-1, with ? a constant depending on the spring materials and geometrical factors. In our teaching practice we have been using the experience in Ref. 1 as an opportunity for advanced students to earn extra credit after the ordinary laboratory experience. The results we have obtained so far confirm the work of Menezes et al. and inevitably motivate a discussion on the dependence of the elastic constant K with some other spring parameters. The present work originates from the quest of a couple of students to determine the role of the spring coil diameter D on the value of K and ?.

Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

2014-05-01

251

Supraglacial Sulfur Springs and Associated Biological Activity in the Canadian High Arctic-Signs of Life Beneath the Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique springs, discharging from the surface of an arctic glacier, release H2S and deposit native sulfur, gypsum, and calcite. The presence of sulfur in three oxidation states indicates a complex series of redox reactions. Physical and chemical conditions of the spring water and surrounding environment, as well as mineralogical and isotopic signatures, suggest biologically mediated reactions. Cell counts and DNA

Stephen E. Grasby; Carlton C. Allen; Teresa G. Longazo; John T. Lisle; Dale W. Griffin; Benoit Beauchamp

2003-01-01

252

Chemical Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

Mr. Jolley

2005-10-25

253

Ikaite precipitation by mixing of shoreline springs and lake water, Mono Lake, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metastable ikaite (CaCO3??6H2O) forms abundantly during winter months along the south shoreline of Mono Lake where shoreline springs mix with lake water. Ikaite precipitates because of its decreased solubility at low temperature and because of orthophosphate-ion inhibition of calcite and aragonite. During the spring some of the ikaite is transformed to anhydrous CaCO3 and is incorporated into tufa, but most is dispersed by wave action into the lake where it reacts to form gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2?? 5H2O). Spring waters have low pH values, are dominantly Ca-Na-HCO3, have low radiocarbon activities, and are mixtures of deep-seated geothermal and cold groundwaters. Chemical modeling reveals that precipitation of CaCO3 can occur over a broad range of mixtures of spring and lake water with a maximum production occurring at 96% spring water and 4% lake water. Under these conditions all the Ca and a significant fraction of the CO3 of the precipitate is spring supplied. A radiocarbon age of 19,580 years obtained on a natural ikaite sample supports this conclusion. With the springs supplying a large and probably variable portion of the carbonate, and with apparent 14C age of the carbonate varying from spring to spring, tufa of similar actual antiquity may yield significantly different 14C dates, making tufa at this location unsuitable for absolute age dating by the radiocarbon method. ?? 1993.

Bischoff, J.L.; Stine, S.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Stafford, T.W., Jr.

1993-01-01

254

Spring 2012 Maxwell Perspective 21 Spring Street Presbyterian  

E-print Network

long and painful illness." Hunter lived in a community in transition -- an area of Lower Manhattan along the Hudson River, at a tannery and glue factory, and at small shops along Spring Street. Hunter and joining the mar- ket economy. At the center of this diverse New York community was the Spring Street

Raina, Ramesh

255

Springing into Spring: Reading Games for the Season  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As spring arrives, more time is spent outdoors. Unfortunately, as spring fever hits, books and learning often take a backseat. The goal is for educators to find a way to re-engage learners. In this article, the author presents a seasonal story and game that can help catch students' attention by making learning both informative and entertaining.…

Maxwell, D. Jackson

2008-01-01

256

Interpretation of the Hydrothermal System in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, Southern Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to understand hydrothermal systems for sustainable utilizing of hot springs. However, in Japan, most of the large hot springs are located in national parks. Therefore, explorations such as geochemical, geophysical or boring surveys to interpret the hydrothermal systems had not been conducted enough. For this reason, hydrothermal systems of some hot springs in Japan have not been made clear even now. We constructed a conceptual model to interpret the hydrothermal system of Kirishima Hot Spring Village in Kirishima national park, southern part of Kyushu, Japan. There are many hot springs in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, such as Maruo, Hayashida, and Myoban hot spring areas. Kirishima Hot Spring Village is located in southwestern part of Kirishima volcanoes, like Onami-ike volcano, and the altitude of Maruo area is about 600 m and that of Hayashida and Myoban areas is about 800 m. In order to interpret the hydrothermal system in Kirishima Hot Spring Village, we need to understand three important factors which are heat source, hot spring water, and subsurface structure. In January 2011, Shinmoe-dake volcano of Kirishima volcanoes made a large scale eruption. Then, the pressure source of Kirishima volcanoes is expected to be located in about 2 km west of Onami-ike volcano and its estimated altitude is about -7 km (Kobayashi et al., 2011). We used this pressure source for our conceptual model as a heat source. Secondary, we tried to clarify the fluid of Kirishima Hot Spring Village by considering the chemical compositions of hot spring water. In addition, we made a Na-K-Mg diagram to estimate the reservoir temperature and find that spring water has reached equilibrium or not. As a result, we supposed that hot spring water of Maruo area is magmatic, and that of Hayashida and Myoban area is consisted of sulfate and meteoric water. Thirdly, we used gravity data, which is the result from previous study and our field survey, to make a residual Bouguer anomaly map and a vertical derivative map for understanding subsurface structure. These maps indicate that there are many faults in subsurface of Kirishima Hot Spring Village. Integrating the result from previous studies, our discussions, and gravity survey, we constructed a conceptual model of hydrothermal system in Kirishima Hot Spring Village. This conceptual model represents that the reservoir of Maruo, Hayashida, and Myoban areas is a presumed fault and attendant cracks. It also represents the formation process of the hot spring water.

Yonekura, Yusaku; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro; Nishijima, Jun

2014-05-01

257

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

The Exploratorium

2011-12-07

258

Workshop Materials Spring 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2009. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials Workshop I Handout - pdf Workshop II Handout - pdf Workshop III Handout - pdf IA Review Rubric - pdf - This is an editable pdf. When opened click on a star to indicate your selection. Advanced IA Features Sample IA Project 1 - Adding video and images to your project Sample IA Project 2 - Adding video, audio, images, and rss feeds to your project Sample Activities A true AUTO-mobile - ...

Heather

2008-09-08

259

PRINCIPLES OF PESTICIDES Spring 2014  

E-print Network

IPM 5305 PRINCIPLES OF PESTICIDES Spring 2014 Three (3) credit hours ­ Spring semesters Instructor: Dr. Fred Fishel Professor, Dept. of Agronomy Pesticide Information Office, Bldg. 164, Box 110710 DESCRIPTION Principles of Pesticides will provide opportunities for students to gain a basic knowledge

Watson, Craig A.

260

Schedule of Classes Spring 2011  

E-print Network

Health Services 88S Game of Life: Social Determinants of Health Roman Roque Alice Kuo Medicine 88S AIDSSchedule of Classes Spring 2011 Deadlines March 18 Last day to pay fees March 24 Classes dropped March 28 Instruction begins April 8 Last day to enroll #12;2 UCLA Schedule of Classes Spring 2011 What

Grether, Gregory

261

Mammoth Hot Springs Online Tour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Yellowstone National Park website offers an online tour of the Mammoth Hot Springs. Prominent hot springs and terraces are highlighted with photos and information concerning their cycles of activity. Similar tours of the Old Faithful area, the Norris Geyser Basin, the Fountain Paint Pots, and the Grand Canyon of Yellowstone are also available online.

Yellowstone National Park

262

Natural World Cluster Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

. Cluster End-of-Year Banquet ­ Wednesday, May 2. Natural World Cluster Faculty, Spring Seminar TitlesMontserrat Natural World Cluster Spring, 2012 Cluster Description Humans have always sought to understand the world we inhabit and our place in it. Our sciences, arts and literature, philosophy

Little, John B.

263

DEAN'S LIST Spring Semester 2010  

E-print Network

DEAN'S LIST Spring Semester 2010 Chai, Jun Christopher, Joseph Thomas Chu, Clayton N. Chu, Wesley D. Bloom, John Tyler Bond-Choquette, Claire Marie Bradford, Jonathan W. Brown, Thomas C. Bruns, Jared M Spring Semester 2010 Miles, Curtis Michael Miller, John M. Milner, Lily A. E. Mirchandani, Sera D. Mogk

Wong, Pak Kin

264

IA Thursday Workshop, Spring 2010  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IA Workshop handouts for Spring 2010 Participant materials for IA Workshop during spring 2010. For viewing and printing convenience each resource is a pdf. For your convenience, there is a link to download the free Adobe Reader. Download Adobe Reader Workshop Materials * Day 1 Handout with workshop requirements * Day 2 Handout ...

Mr. Olsen

2010-01-19

265

Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

2014-01-01

266

Intermediate Accounting I Spring 2013  

E-print Network

environments (accounting rules and principles) and their influence in the functioning of international marketsKimbro Intermediate Accounting I Spring 2013 1 ACCT 311 INTERMEDIATE ACCOUNTING I PIGT 305 - Spring framework underlying Financial Accounting and Financial Statements. To review the process of accumulating

Carter, John

267

Herbicide contamination and dispersion pattern in lowland springs.  

PubMed

Herbicides reduce the diversity of flora and fauna in freshwater ecosystems and also contaminate groundwater due to leaching. Herbicide contamination can be a serious threat for all groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDE), altering their chemical and biological quality. Successful management to protect GDE is dependent on detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical features of the surrounding environment. We consider the possible diffuse contamination by herbicides of groundwater and of GDE as lowland springs, semi-artificial ecosystems with elevated biodiversity. The main objectives of the present work were thus: (1) to map herbicide contamination in lowland springs, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for biota and (3) to quantify the extent of the area from which the herbicide use can affect the water quality of lowland springs. In June and August 2009, nearly 23 springs within the Po River Plain (Northern Italy) were sampled and analyzed for five herbicides used to control weeds in maize. Hydrogeological properties, half-lives of the herbicides and their concentrations in both groundwater and springs were used to quantify the area from which the contamination could originate. Such evaluation was performed by means of GIS techniques. Terbuthylazine were the only herbicide found, together with its metabolite desethylterbuthylazine. In 16 out of 84 measurements, their concentrations were above the threshold for drinking water; however, they were always below the ecotoxicological end-points of aquatic flora and fauna. Spatial analyses reveal that the theoretical area from which herbicides can contaminate spring water is within a distance varying between a few and 1800 m. Our findings indicate that conservation plans should focus on the fields adjacent to or surrounding the springs and should address the optimization of irrigation practices, restoration of buffer strips, crop rotation and in general more sustainable agricultural practices in the proximity of these fragile GDE. PMID:23018054

Laini, Alex; Bartoli, Marco; Lamastra, Lucrezia; Capri, Ettore; Balderacchi, Matteo; Trevisan, Marco

2012-11-01

268

Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

269

Chemical Threats  

MedlinePLUS

... indicate a chemical agent release. Before Before a Chemical Threat What you should do to prepare for ... and on the highest level. During During a Chemical Threat What you should do in a chemical ...

270

Chemical Emergencies  

MedlinePLUS

When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

271

Proceedings of the geosciences workshop  

SciTech Connect

The manuscripts in these proceedings represent current understanding of geologic issues associated with the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is in St. Charles County, Missouri. The proceedings are the record of the information presented during the WSSRAP Geosciences Workshop conducted on February 21, 1991. The objective of the workshop and proceedings is to provide the public and scientific community with technical information that will facilitate a common understanding of the geology of the Weldon Spring site, of the studies that have been and will be conducted, and of the issues associated with current and planned activities at the site. This coverage of geologic topics is part of the US Department of Energy overall program to keep the public fully informed of the status of the project and to address public concerns as we clean up the site and work toward the eventual release of the property for use by this and future generations. Papers in these proceedings detail the geology and hydrology of the site. The mission of the WSSRAP derives from the US Department of Energy's Surplus Facilities Management Program. The WSSRAP will eliminate potential hazards to the public and the environment and make surplus real property available for other uses to the extent possible. This will be accomplished by conducting remedial actions which will place the quarry, the raffinate pits, the chemical plant, and the vicinity properties in a radiologically and chemically safe condition. The individual papers have been catalogued separately.

none,

1991-01-01

272

Signals of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Signals of Spring is a web-based professional development package that provides training for teachers and integrated science curricular materials including data interpretation and applications for teachers and students. Students in expert teams work collaboratively and use NASA and other satellite earth imagery to explain the migration of land and marine animals tracked by satellites. Remote sensing imagery and GIS type interactive maps are seen in the site. Students select an area of expertise to focus on including weather, geography, vegetation, bathymetry, sea surface, or phytoplankton (chlorophyll). Students maintain analysis journals online and receive feedback from wildlife biologists and earth scientists. Teachers can use the online learning program to become certified in Signals of Spring and implement the program in their classrooms. Professional development for teachers is available as in-service or online. Three graduate credits are available at a low teacher cost. Connections are made between the content students need for standardized tests and concepts in geography, earth science, language arts, life science and technology. Registration is required for full access to the learning materials for students and teachers.

Glen Schuster

2002-05-23

273

Southern Mars: It's Spring!  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

274

The Science of Spring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores the Web's offering related to the science of the spring season. The first site -- Seasons, Equinoxes, Solstices, and Climate (1) -- is offered by Assistant Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Eric G. Blackman of the University of Rochester. Visitors can learn how the earth's axis and orbit causes the seasons and what the equinox and solstice are, as well as about astronomical effects on the Earth's climate. The second Web site tackles similar issues, but at a more elementary level. Seasons Reasons (2), from ScienceU.com, explains what causes the seasons to change, and provides informative graphics of the Earth's orbit and axis angle during the various seasons. Next, from MSNBC News, comes the Mysteries of the Universe: What Causes Earth's Seasons (3) Web site. The highlight of this site is the well-designed and informative graphic at the top of the page that concisely explains the cause of the seasons. Other portions of the site include the history of our understanding of these topics, a description of the vernal and autumnal equinox, and more. The fourth site related to spring is offered by The University of Illinois Extension called There is a Season (4). The site describes how the sun rises and sets differently throughout the year, and provides two simple but well designed lesson plans related to this topic called I See the Light and Grab Some Rays. The next Web site focuses on a different spring science phenomenon specific to lakes called What is Lake Turnover? (5). Maintained by the Missouri Department of Conservation, the site (although a bit graphically uninteresting) gives an informative description of what spring lake turnover is and what causes it. The sixth site, also dealing with lake turnover, is provided by the Sea Education Association. This well-designed site offers a student activity that demonstrates this process, which is called Density Dynamics (6). The introduction explains that bodies of water form layers based on differences in density affected most by temperature in fresh water and both temperature and salinity in salt water. Using beakers filled with water of varying temperatures and food coloring, students observe what happens when these fluids are mixed in order to better understand what happens naturally in lakes. From the National Institute of Standards and Technology comes the Saving Time, Saving Energy: Daylight Saving Time, its History, and Why We Use It (7) Web site. Visitors can learn how seasonal daylight changes caused the US to adapt daylight saving time as early as 1883 and how its use has progressed throughout the world. The last Web site, offered by the Punxsutawney Groundhog Club, contains information on the weather predictions of Punxsutawney Phil and is called Phil's Past Predictions (8). The site chronicles the "famous" groundhog's predictions, which historically have been used to determine the coming of spring by whether or not it sees its shadow. Visitors will find a list of every year's results, its accuracy, and various other links relating to the groundhog's exploits.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

275

Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

276

DHS Summary Report -- Robert Weldon  

SciTech Connect

This summer I worked on benchmarking the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory fission multiplicity capability used in the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX. This work involved running simulations and then comparing the simulation results with experimental experiments. Outlined in this paper is a brief description of the work completed this summer, skills and knowledge gained, and how the internship has impacted my planning for the future. Neutron multiplicity counting is a neutron detection technique that leverages the multiplicity emissions of neutrons from fission to identify various actinides in a lump of material. The identification of individual actinides in lumps of material crossing our boarders, especially U-235 and Pu-239, is a key component for maintaining the safety of the country from nuclear threats. Several multiplicity emission options from spontaneous and induced fission already existed in MCNPX 2.4.0. These options can be accessed through use of the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed a physics model for the simulation of neutron and gamma ray emission from fission and photofission that was included in MCNPX 2.7.B as an undocumented feature and then was documented in MCNPX 2.7.C. The LLNL multiplicity capability provided a different means for MCNPX to simulate neutron and gamma-ray distributions for neutron induced, spontaneous and photonuclear fission reactions. The original testing on the model for implementation into MCNPX was conducted by Gregg McKinney and John Hendricks. The model is an encapsulation of measured data of neutron multiplicity distributions from Gwin, Spencer, and Ingle, along with the data from Zucker and Holden. One of the founding principles of MCNPX was that it would have several redundant capabilities, providing the means of testing and including various physics packages. Though several multiplicity sampling methodologies already existed within MCNPX, the LLNL fission multiplicity was included to provide a separate capability for computing multiplicity as well as including several new features not already included in MCNPX. These new features include: (1) prompt gamma emission/multiplicity from neutron-induced fission; (2) neutron multiplicity and gamma emission/multiplicity from photofission; and (3) an option to enforce energy correlation for gamma neutron multiplicity emission. These new capabilities allow correlated signal detection for identifying presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Therefore, these new capabilities help meet the missions of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO), which is tasked with developing nuclear detection strategies for identifying potential radiological and nuclear threats, by providing new simulation capability for detection strategies that leverage the new available physics in the LLNL multiplicity capability. Two types of tests were accomplished this summer to test the default LLNL neutron multiplicity capability: neutron-induced fission tests and spontaneous fission tests. Both cases set the 6th entry on the PHYS:N card to 5 (i.e. use LLNL multiplicity). The neutron-induced fission tests utilized a simple 0.001 cm radius sphere where 0.0253 eV neutrons were released at the sphere center. Neutrons were forced to immediately collide in the sphere and release all progeny from the sphere, without further collision, using the LCA card, LCA 7j -2 (therefore density and size of the sphere were irrelevant). Enough particles were run to ensure that the average error of any specific multiplicity did not exceed 0.36%. Neutron-induced fission multiplicities were computed for U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241. The spontaneous fission tests also used the same spherical geometry, except: (1) the LCA card was removed; (2) the density of the sphere was set to 0.001 g/cm3; and (3) instead of emitting a thermal neutron, the PAR keyword was set to PAR=SF. The purpose of the small density was to ensure that the spontaneous fission neutrons would not further interact and induce fissions (i.e. th

Weldon, Robert A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31

277

A Test for Airborne Dispersal of Thermophilic Bacteria from Hot Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Physical and chemical,barriers separate individual terrestrial hot springs and their affiliated communities,of thermophilic bacteria. However, 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons suggest that seemingly identical or closely related bacterial species are found in multiple hot springs that are separated by distances that range from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. To investigate whether this dispersal could result from airborne

George T. Bonheyo; Jorge Frias-Lopez; Bruce W. Fouke

278

Supplemental data from the Ennis and other thermal-spring areas, southwestern Montana, 1978-1980  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogeologic data were collected principally during 1978 to 1980 in eight hot-spring areas, in the Marysville geothermal test well, in the Butte mine and in the Bitterroot and Missoula River valleys to provide a basis for evaluating the geothermal potential of the areas. Measurements are tabulated for subsurface temperatures, water levels, rates of flow, and the chemical composition of water and gas in wells and test holes. Most of the data are for the area near Ennis Hot Springs.

Leonard, R.B.; Wood,W.A.

1980-10-01

279

Hydrogeochemical investigation of thermal springs in the Black Canyon - Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 80 liters/sec. of spring flow discharges from both sides of the Colorado River in Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona. The spring issue primarily from the highly faulted and fractured volcanic rocks which are exposed throughout the canyon from Hoover Dam to 9.5 kilometers downstream. Chemical analysis of the spring waters, including environmental isotope and tritium results, indicate a variety of possible origins. Observed surface temperatures range from 24C to 62FC. Total dissolved solids values range from 500 mg/l to 3600 mg/l. The occasional absence of secondary mineral deposits suggests a potentially young system.

McKay, W.A.; Zimmerman, D.E.

1983-11-01

280

Neutron activation analysis of the rare earth elements in Nasu hot springs.  

PubMed

Eleven rare earth elements (lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, holmium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium) in hot spring waters and sinter deposits in the Nasu area were determined by the neutron activation method. The rare earth elements in hot spring water were pre-concentrated in ferric hydroxide precipitate and neutron-irradiated. The rare earth elements were chemically separated into lighter and heavier groups and the activity of each group was measured with a Ge(Li) detector. Distribution of the rare earth elements between the hot spring water and the sinter deposit was also discussed. PMID:684229

Ikeda, N; Takahashi, N

1978-06-01

281

Piston and spring powered engine  

SciTech Connect

The invention is an improved piston engine, either two stroke or four stroke. In one, two stroke, one cylinder embodiment, the improvement comprises two springs connecting between the piston and the base of the piston. These springs are relatively relaxed when the crank is at top dead center. Then during the power/intake stroke, some of the fuel's energy is delivered to the crankshaft and some is used to compress the springs. The stored energy in the springs is delivered to the crankshaft during the exhaust/compression stroke while the springs return to their relatively relaxed condition. As a result, energy is delivered to the crankshaft during both strokes of the cycle, and the engine runs smooth. In one, four stroke, two cylinder embodiment, each cylinder has springs as described above, the cranks of each cylinder are aligned, and the cam sets one cylinder in the power stroke while the other is in the intake stroke. As a result, the engine runs smooth because energy is delivered to the crankshaft during all four strokes of the cycle, during two of the strokes by the burning fuel and during the other two by the release of energy in the springs. In both embodiments, a heavy crankshaft is not needed because of the more uniform power delivery.

Samodovitz, A. J.

1985-12-10

282

The Dependence of the Spring Constant in the Linear Range on Spring Parameters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In basic physics laboratories, springs are normally used to determine both spring constants and the Earth's gravitational acceleration. Students generally do not notice that the spring constant is not a universal constant, but depends on the spring parameters. This paper shows and verifies that the spring constant in the linear range is inversely…

Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani; Khairurrijal

2011-01-01

283

Analysis of a damped pneumatic spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex dynamic stiffness of a damped spring is determined. The damping is produced by transient pressure feedback from an auxiliary tank connected by a capillary to the spring cylinder. From the complex stiffness, the damping and stiffness are determined as functions of excitation frequency. The behavior of a compound spring, consisting of a damped pneumatic spring in parallel with

B. I. Bachrach; E. Rivin

1983-01-01

284

An Overview of the Spring System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring is a highly modular, distributed, object-oriented operating system. This paper describes the goals of the Spring system and provides overviews of the Spring object model, the security model, and the naming ar chitecture. Implementation details of the Spring micr okernel, virtual memory system, file system, and UNIX emulation are sup- plied.

James G. Mitchell; Jonathan J. Gibbons; Graham Hamilton; Peter B. Kessler; Yousef Y. A. Khalidi; Panos Kougiouris; Peter W. Madany; Michael N. Nelson; Michael L. Powell; Sanjay R. Radia

1994-01-01

285

Recent Water Quality Trends in Florida's Springs  

E-print Network

down to the spring in the cool darkness of their shadows. A sharp pleasure came over him. This was a secret and a lovely place." ­ Marjory Kinnan Rawlings, The Yearling, 1938 "Springs are bowls of liquid of Florida underwater cave exploration · Springs as potable water sources #12;Springs and Florida History

Jawitz, James W.

286

(July 19, 2012) Spring-Mass Oscillations  

E-print Network

t = -kx (that is, ma = F) (1) where m is the mass hanging on the spring and x is the distance the spring mass. Show that this is the case. Hang a 1-kg mass from the spring which is still hanging on the force(July 19, 2012) Spring-Mass Oscillations GOALS (1) To determine experimentally whether the supplied

Collins, Gary S.

287

Spring loaded thermocouple module  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

1984-03-13

288

Spring loaded thermocouple module  

DOEpatents

A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

McKelvey, Thomas E. (Solana Beach, CA); Guarnieri, Joseph J. (San Diego, CA)

1985-01-01

289

Recharge mixing in a complex distributary spring system in the Missouri Ozarks, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toronto Springs is a complex distributary karst spring system with 11 perennial springs in the Missouri Ozarks, USA. Carroll Cave (CC) and Wet Glaize Creek (WG) were previously identified as principal recharge sources. This study (1) characterized physical and chemical properties of springs and recharge sources; (2) developed end-member mixing models to estimate contributing proportions of CC and WG; and (3) created a conceptual model for the system. Samples analyzed for major ions and specific conductivity, in conjunction with a rotating continuous monitoring program to identify statistically comparable baseflow conditions, were used to assess differences among the sites. Monitoring data showed that the springs differed depending upon recharge proportions. Cluster analysis of average ion concentrations supported the choice of CC and WG as mixing model end members. Results showed a range in the proportions of the recharge sources, from surface-water to groundwater dominated. A conceptual model suggests that a system of distinct conduits beneath the WG flood plain transmits water to the individual springs. These conduits controlled the end-member recharge contributions and water chemistry of the springs. Interpretation of relative proportions of recharge contributions extends existing knowledge of karst hydrologic geometry beyond that of point-to-point connections to revealing complex surface-water/groundwater mixing in heterogeneous distributary spring systems.

Miller, Benjamin V.; Lerch, Robert N.; Groves, Christopher G.; Polk, Jason S.

2015-02-01

290

The Begg's uprighting spring – Revisited  

PubMed Central

Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm. PMID:25657990

Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

2015-01-01

291

The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.  

PubMed

Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm. PMID:25657990

Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

2015-01-01

292

Paradata for 'Spring ~^ Nature Sound Studio: the Sound of Spring PeepersEducation World: Springtime Lesson PlansChicago Tribune: Signs of SpringIllinois State Museum: Planting a Prairie GardeneNature.com: Spring MigrationNPR: Spring Bugs'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Spring ~^ Nature Sound Studio: the Sound of Spring PeepersEducation World: Springtime Lesson PlansChicago Tribune: Signs of SpringIllinois State Museum: Planting a Prairie GardeneNature.com: Spring MigrationNPR: Spring Bugs'

293

Chemical milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical milling was used in removing excess material and reducing overall weight of metal parts. Chemical milling is discussed generally, describing the process, its applications, advantages and limitations, chemical milling solutions, maskants, and various other aspects of the chemical milling process. The effectiveness of chemical milling of specific materials such as aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, steel, and stainless steel alloys

J. W. Dini

1974-01-01

294

Pink Book 2014 Spring Semester  

E-print Network

Pink Book 2014 Spring Semester Courses of Interest to Students in Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual's and Gender Studies University of Texas at Austin #12;Pink Book | 2 Table of Contents How to Use the Pink Book

Texas at Austin, University of

295

Spring 2014 Showcasing Art & Design  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Showcasing Art & Design Office of the Board of Regents pieces created by 45 students from the College of Design, the Art Department in the College of Liberal Arts, and the University of Minnesota ­ Morris. Student

Amin, S. Massoud

296

UAA Leadership Honors Spring 2015  

E-print Network

UAA Leadership Honors Spring 2015 Purpose UAA Leadership Honors are awarded to individuals upon graduation to recognize and honor their leadership. Leadership activities and involvement must promote individual and collective growth

Pantaleone, Jim

297

Spring Small Grains Area Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

1986-01-01

298

Chemical Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It discusses the process of equation writing and balancing chemical equations in perspective of the chemical changes that take place during a reaction. This module is the third in a series on chemical reactions.

Anthony Carpi

2003-03-27

299

UC Berkeley Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

of Toxicology for Green Molecular Design Introduction Green chemistry seeks to promote the adoption of safer the basic tools and paradigms found in toxicology with a focus on ways to design safer chemicals toxicology. 2. Be able to effectively use tools and metrics to evaluate and compare the hazard profile

Iglesia, Enrique

300

UC Berkeley Spring, 2013  

E-print Network

the context of chemical case studies. Learning Goals 1. Learn an interdisciplinary approach to the scientific metrics. 4. Understand the role of law and economics in shaping industrial activity, and be able and the European Union's REACH regulation. 6. Understand and be able to critically assess methods for identifying

Iglesia, Enrique

301

UC Berkeley Spring, 2011  

E-print Network

. Learning Goals 1. Learn an interdisciplinary approach to the scientific and societal issues arising from properties, biological activity, and product performance. Be able to rank competing synthetic methods using and economics in shaping industrial activity, and be able to identify different legal approaches to chemical

302

Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

303

SPring-8 Program.  

PubMed

SPring-8 is a third-generation synchrotron radiation source operating in the soft and hard X-ray region. It consists of an injector linac of 1 GeV, a booster synchrotron of 8 GeV and a storage ring with a natural emittance of 5.9 nm rad. The storage ring can accommodate 61 beamlines in total, and 26 of them are under construction. The project has been carried out jointly by JAERI and RIKEN and construction of the facility started in 1991. Commissioning of the injector linac was started in August 1996 and an 8 GeV electron beam was injected into the storage ring in March 1997. The first synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet was observed at the front end of the beamline on 25 March and radiation from an undulator was observed on 23 April. On-beam testing of seven beamlines, four of them from in-vacuum undulators and three from bending magnets, started in July. The maximum stored current is currently fixed at 20 mA and the lifetime at maximum current is longer than 20 h. The dedication is scheduled for October 1997. PMID:15263472

Kamitsubo, H

1998-05-01

304

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1890, the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is one of the best-known and most respected private research institutions in the United States. Over the past century, the Laboratory has supported the careers of seven Nobel Prize recipients and it is particularly well-regarded for its work in the field of genetics research. Today, there are over 400 scientists who work at the facility in Long Island, and their work ranges across the areas of cancer, neuroscience, genomics, and bioinformatics. Their website is a cornucopia of information on their activities, and first-time visitors should start by reading over the "CSHL Headlines" scrolling updates on the homepage. After that, they can look at the "Research" section. Here they will find overviews of their primary research groups and links to some of their specialized facilities, like the Dolan DNA Learning Center. Most visitors will want to visit the "Library and Archives" section. Here they can learn about CSHL authors' publications and look through the digital collections. The digital collections include tributes to Barbara McClintock, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1983, and who worked at the Laboratory for four decades.

305

Radiological aspects of some Egyptian thermo-mineral springs.  

PubMed

In Egypt, nineteen water springs with temperatures exceeding 35 degrees C, which can be considered thermal waters, were reported. The radiological aspects of thermal water in three northern regions of Egypt (Gulf of Suez, Cairo, and Bahariya Oasis) were investigated. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides of 226Ra, 40K, total uranium and 210Pb (210Po) in water samples were determined using gamma spectrometry, laser fluorimetry and alpha spectrometry after chemical separation, respectively. The highest concentrations are detected in two locations, namely Sudr and Hammam Faroun springs, which are the hottest waters in Egypt (89 and 72 degrees C respectively). It seems that the presence of 226Ra is correlated to the water mineralization and the depth and the temperature of the reservoir's base. Also, these results seem evidence of uranium accumulation at depth in the mother bedrock and/or uranium immobilization due to uranium reduction to the immobile 4+-oxidation state in the reservoir base. The average activity concentrations of 40K are dependent on the water's origin, i.e. meteoric water mixed with sea water (Gulf of Suez springs) and meteoric water (Bahariya Oasis wells). There is no prescribed dose limit for short term and temporary exposure to thermal water. Workers at the thermal springs should be regularly monitored because of their continuous exposure to enhanced radiation levels over a long period of time. The hydrochemical characteristics, environmental isotopes aspects and water origin are briefly discussed based on published data. PMID:12833984

Khater, Ashraf E M

2003-06-01

306

Hydrogeochemical constrains from U activity ratios measured in spring waters: Example of the granitic Ringelbach catchment (Vosges Mountain, France)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a detailed analysis of major element concentrations and U and Sr isotope ratios in water samples from the main springs located in the small (0.36 km2) granitic catchment (Ringelbach creek Catchment, Vosges, France), monthly collected during two hydrological years from October 2004 to September 2006. The data highlights that at a scale of a small watershed, large spatial variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions (Sr-U) of the spring waters on granitic lithology can occur along with significant temporal variations in the elemental concentrations and elemental concentration ratios of the waters for a given spring. The increase in the alkalinity, the major element (Na, Ca and Mg) concentrations, and especially the U activity ratios of the granitic spring waters with decreasing elevation of the spring in the watershed certainly indicate that the length of the water pathway within the bedrock is a primary parameter to take into account for explaining the geochemical characteristics of the granitic spring waters. The modeling of the (234U/238U) activity ratio variations in spring waters using a simple stationary 1D reactive transport model that considers dissolution, precipitation and alpha recoil allows for the determination of the dissolution rate of the granitic bedrock and the water residence time for the granitic springs within the catchment. These results highlight that the analysis of different springs emerging along the slope of a single watershed enables a simple method to characterize the different stages of water evolution along the water pathway.

Chabaux, François; Schaffhauser, Thiebaud; lucas, Yann; Ambroise, Bruno; Fritz, Bertrand; Reuschle, Thierry; Stille, Peter

2014-05-01

307

Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular surfaces that produce palisade and "shrub" fabrics, respectively. At finer scales, composite fabrics are seen to consist distinctive associations of microstructures formed by the encrustation of individual cells and filaments. Composite fabrics survive the diagenetic transitions from primary opaline silica to quartz and are known from subaerial thermal spring deposits as old as Lower Carboniferous. However, fossil microorganisms tend to be rare in older deposits, and are usually preserved only where cells or sheaths have been stained by iron oxides. In subaqueous mineralizing springs at lower temperatures, early infilling leads to a more rapid and complete reduction in porosity and permeability. This process, along with the slower rates of microbial degradation at lower temperatures, creates a more favorable situation for organic matter preservation. Application of this taphonomic model to the Rhynie Chert, previously interpreted as subaerial, suggest it was probably deposited in a subaqueous spring setting at lower temperatures.

Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

308

History of Art Course Projections [tentative; subject to change] Instructor Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014  

E-print Network

History of Art Course Projections [tentative; subject to change] Instructor Spring 2012 Fall 2012 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Spring 2014 Aksamija, Nadja 110 Intro to Western Art Sabbatical Leave 110 Intro to Western Art 233 Art & Culture Italian Baroque 224 16C Italian Art/Architecture 221 Early Renaissance Art

Devoto, Stephen H.

309

A computational bow-spring model  

E-print Network

Bow-springs find few applications in industry. Principally, they are used in archery. In addition, they have found some use in a compression-spring mode in the field of biomechatronics, to emulate elastic human legs. The ...

Sessions, Blake A

2011-01-01

310

49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and...

2010-10-01

311

Experto Universitario Java Sesin 1: Spring core  

E-print Network

· Introducción. Spring vs. JavaEE estándar · El contenedor de beans (Spring core) · Trabajo con beans · Definir beans · Instanciar beans · Ámbitos · Acceder a recursos externos con beans · Definir beans en XML y Java

Escolano, Francisco

312

Mechanical energy storage in carbon nanotube springs  

E-print Network

Energy storage in mechanical springs made of carbon nanotubes is a promising new technology. Springs made of dense, ordered arrays of carbon nanotubes have the potential to surpass both the energy density of electrochemical ...

Hill, Frances Ann

2011-01-01

313

2012 SPRING GOLFTOURNAMENT COBBLESTONE PARK GOLF CLUB  

E-print Network

AEC 2012 SPRING GOLFTOURNAMENT COBBLESTONE PARK GOLF CLUB 280 UNIVERSITY CLUB PARKWAY BLYTHEWOOD,SC 29016 AEC 2012 SPRING GOLF TOURNAMENT _______@ $10.00 ea. $__________________ AEC Member-Golf Tournament ______ @ $35.00 ea

Almor, Amit

314

REPORT OF POSSIBLE HONOR CODE VIOLATION Honor Code Report Form Spring 2009.doc updated Spring 2009  

E-print Network

REPORT OF POSSIBLE HONOR CODE VIOLATION Honor Code Report Form Spring 2009.doc updated Spring 2009 VIOLATION Honor Code Report Form Spring 2009.doc updated Spring 2009 4. Circumstances. Please summarize what. Follow Up Instructions Please print out and sign this report form, make a copy of all materials (papers

Zobin, Nahum

315

Fifty years since Silent Spring.  

PubMed

Rachel Carson's 1962 Silent Spring exposed both observed and potential environmental and health externalities of the increasing organochlorine and organophosphate insecticide use in the United States post-World War II. Silent Spring was a critical component in a popular movement that resulted in increased regulation and the development of safer pesticides. Most changes in pesticide use in the global north have involved pesticide substitutions, although riskier pesticides remain in use. Many ideas in Silent Spring are compatible with the theory of integrated pest management (IPM), and IPM has been broadly embraced in the United States and internationally as a strategy for achieving least-use and/or least-risk pesticide use in agriculture. IPM is a politically feasible policy that purports to reduce pesticide use and/or risk in agriculture but often does not, except in extreme cases of pesticide overuse that result in negative agricultural/economic consequences for growers. PMID:25001457

Epstein, Lynn

2014-01-01

316

Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita

2014-12-01

317

Computer Aided Chemical Engineering CHEN 3600 Spring 2010 Course Outcomes  

E-print Network

subject material essential to the course is covered as well as detailing the degree of mastery expected (including "best model" selection via F-statistic). 4. Record, modify and write Excel macros. Write VBA user

Ashurst, W. Robert

318

Chemical Engineering Analysis CHEN 3650 Spring 2014 Course Grading Policy  

E-print Network

and not Failing) F : Failing (not Passing) Characteristics of Grade Benchmarks (employed in all courses taught: A : Superior B : Good (not Superior) C : Acceptable (not Good) (NOT AVERAGE) D : Passing (not Acceptable) A - Student clearly demonstrates an in-depth technical understanding of the concepts. Able to offer different

Ashurst, W. Robert

319

A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits  

PubMed Central

The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

2005-01-01

320

A silicified bird from Quaternary hot spring deposits.  

PubMed

The first avian fossil recovered from high-temperature hot spring deposits is a three-dimensional external body mould of an American coot (Fulica americana) from Holocene sinters of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. Silica encrustation of the carcass, feathers and colonizing microbial communities occurred within days of death and before substantial soft tissue degradation, allowing preservation of gross body morphology, which is usually lost under other fossilization regimes. We hypothesize that the increased rate and extent of opal-A deposition, facilitated by either passive or active microbial mediation following carcass colonization, is required for exceptional preservation of relatively large, fleshy carcasses or soft-bodied organisms by mineral precipitate mould formation. We suggest physico-chemical parameters conducive to similar preservation in other vertebrate specimens, plus distinctive sinter macrofabric markers of hot spring subenvironments where these parameters are met. PMID:16024344

Channing, Alan; Schweitzer, Mary Higby; Horner, John R; McEneaney, Terry

2005-05-01

321

An Investigation of Tape Spring Fold Curvature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tape springs are being used with increasing frequency in today's space industry to deploy small satellite aerials and array areas. However, to accurately model the deployment of an appendage mounted with tape spring hinges, it is necessary to accurately model the opening moments produced from the material strains in the tape spring fold. These moments are primarily a function of

Scott J. I. Walker; Guglielmo S. Aglietti

322

Parking &Transportation Update Spring 2013 Fairfax Campus  

E-print Network

Parking &Transportation Update Spring 2013 Fairfax Campus As the beginning of the spring semester to and from campus and use alternate entrances and exits to campus during the spring semester. For more to Lot K. If "Lot Full" signs are posted at the entrance(s) to Lot K please proceed directly to Field

323

Nutrient Effects on Spring Flora and Fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Many of Florida's springs and spring runs are enriched in nitrate due to broad-scale contamination of groundwater supplies. This observation fosters two primary and interrelated concerns regarding the effects of nutrients on flora and fauna in spring systems. High nitrate concentrations can affect fauna directly through toxicity. In addition, high nitrate concentrations can promote eutrophication or an increase in

Charles A. Jacoby; Thomas K. Frazer; Edward J. Phlips

324

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...may not have its top (long) leaf broken or any other three leaves broken, except when that spring...springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three...

2010-10-01

325

49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...may not have its top (long) leaf broken or any other three leaves broken, except when that spring...springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three...

2014-10-01

326

0 INNOVATE> SPRING 2007 Innovating Healing,  

E-print Network

0 INNOVATE> SPRING 2007 Innovating Healing, #12;SPRING 2007>INNOVATE Engineering Hope N THE SUMMER, and other energy-related areas of the emerging "bioeconomy," others are working in the kinds of medically and healing to millions. I #12; INNOVATE> SPRING 2007 A `Step Back' into the lives of a Cell In her

Lin, Zhiqun

327

RUNNING SPRINGS: SPEED AND ANIMAL SIZE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Trotting and hopping animals use muscles, tendons and ligaments to store and return elastic energy as they bounce along the ground. We examine how the musculoskeletal spring system operates at different speeds and in animals of different sizes. We model trotting and hopping as a simple spring-mass system which consists of a leg spring and a mass. We find

CLAIRE T. FARLEY; JAMES GLASHEEN; THOMAS A. MCMAHON

1993-01-01

328

Erera, Spring School 2004 Transportation Security  

E-print Network

, Spring School 2004 Before 9/11... ! Transport security passenger aviation hijack/bomb prevention ! Known weaponize common transportation assets #12;Erera, Spring School 2004 The new world ! Passenger aviationErera, Spring School 2004 Transportation Security Alan Erera and Chelsea C. White III Industrial

Erera, Alan

329

Why Springs Are Valuable Natural springs are important aquatic resources.  

E-print Network

vegetation along stream banks offer food and shel- ter for birds and other animals. Sculpins, blacknose dace hot weather and droughts. Spring streams and riparian lands provide critical water, food, refuge source of clean, high-quality groundwater that flows at a relatively constant rate and temperature

Liskiewicz, Maciej

330

Kemp's PKemp's PKemp's PKemp's PKemp's Pointointointointoint VVVVVolume 13,olume 13,olume 13,olume 13,olume 13, Number 1,Number 1,Number 1,Number 1,Number 1, Spring 2012Spring 2012Spring 2012Spring 2012Spring 2012  

E-print Network

my eye caught something black dart above the water. I looked up to see what seemed like a battalionSpringSpringSpringSpring By Steve Lasee, Biology Senior, UW-Stevens Point One of my most memorable experiences with bats has, and my father, brothers, and I were sitting on the dock at a family friend's summer cottage, just

331

Chemical Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A concise lesson about chemical communication in insects covering both semio and info chemicals. The site includes a short video of grape root borer moths using sex pheromone. Further links on the take the user to visual and auditory communication.

0000-00-00

332

Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies.

Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas.

The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together.

The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars.

The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy.

The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

2006-01-01

333

Chemical Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical oxidation is a process involving the transfer of electrons from an oxidizing reagent to the chemical species being\\u000a oxidized. In water and wastewater engineering, chemical oxidation serves the purpose of converting putrescible pollutant substances\\u000a to innocuous or stabilized products. Chemical oxidation processes take place in natural waters and serve as an important mechanism\\u000a in the natural self-purification of surface

Nazih K. Shammas; John Y. Yang; Pao-Chiang Yuan; Yung-Tse Hung

334

Home Chemicals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the occurrence and possible risks of household chemical products. Topics include some basic chemistry (how elements combine to form compounds), how chemicals are classified, and the idea of natural, as opposed to synthetic, chemicals. The lesson includes an activity in which students take an inventory of chemical products in their homes and research the possible hazards of some of them using an online resource developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Chris Fox

335

Spatial distribution and temporal variation of 3He\\/ 4He in hot spring gas released from Unzen volcanic area, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the first phreatic explosion on 17 November 1990, hot spring gases were collected periodically over the next 10years for 3He\\/4He isotopic ratio and chemical analyses from three hot springs (Obanma, Unzen and Shimabara) located around Unzen volcano, Japan. The 3He\\/4He ratios, although showing some scatter at each site, show an increase from west to east (Obama

K. Notsu; S. Nakai; G. Igarashi; J. Ishibashi; T. Mori; M. Suzuki; H. Wakita

2001-01-01

336

National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011  

SciTech Connect

Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

Schell, D. J.

2011-04-01

337

Static downhole characteristics of well CGEH-1 at Coso Hot Springs, China Lake, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of measurements was made in the exploratory well CGEH-1 at Coso Hot Springs. The temperature measurements provide estimates for the thermal equilibration of the well and indicate that the fractures intersecting the well have different temperatures. The hottest fractures are in the upper-cased portion of the well. Downhole chemical sampling suggests that the borehole still contains remnants of

C. Goranson; R. Schroeder

1978-01-01

338

Jurassic hot spring deposits of the Deseado Massif (Patagonia, Argentina): Characteristics and controls on regional distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deseado Massif, Santa Cruz Province, Argentinean Patagonia, hosts numerous Middle to Late Jurassic age geothermal and epithermal features represented by siliceous and calcareous chemical precipitates from hot springs (sinters and travertines, respectively), hydrothermal breccias, quartz veins, and widespread hydrothermal silicification. They indicate pauses in explosive volcanic activity, marking the final stages in the evolution of an extensive Jurassic (ca.

Diego M. Guido; Kathleen A. Campbell

2011-01-01

339

The limnology of “Swetganga” — A thermal spring of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the limnological investigations of “Swetganga”, one of the thermal springs of Bakreswar, West Bengal, India, have formed the basis of this paper. The samples of water were collected eleven times from the month of September '67 to October '68 at regular intervals for analysis. The physical conditions like depth, temperature and chemical factors like pH, free carbon

B. B. Jana; H. L. Sarkar

1971-01-01

340

A disarticulated lava cone, Burney Spring Mountain, Shasta County, USA: implications for extensional tectonics in the southern Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burney Spring Mountain is a 2556 ka lava cone situated in the northernmost part of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range. Dominated in volume by lava flows ranging from olivine basalts to augite, hypersthene andesites, Burney Spring Mountain is also comprised of localized ash fall tuffs, a pyroclastic flow, a scoria cone and a debris flow. Lavas originate from a central vent. A robust survey of the stratigraphy shows that Burney Spring Mountain is composed of at least two magma batches. A paleomagnetic survey reveals that the characteristic remanent magnetization of Burney Spring Mountain is heavily influenced by faulting and that when structural corrections are applied to the data the sampled lava flows show a uniform direction of characteristic magnetization, indicative of an eruption period of a few hundred years. Mapping reveals that two vents (Burney Spring Mountain and the scoria cone) form a linear array that parallels local normal faults suggesting that Burney Spring Mountain formed under an extensional tectonic regime. This suggest that extension was occurring in the Lassen segment of the Cascade volcanic arc as early as 2556 ka, making it the earliest known evidence of extension. Burney Spring Mountain is mineralogically and chemically similar to younger volcanoes to the south such as those of the Poison Lake chain, the Prospect Peak chain and the Sugarloaf chain. Their chemical similarity and formation under extensional tectonics suggests a common origin. Plate 1 contains maps and unit descriptions

Kersten, Kevin Robert

341

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df and the tube at a rate m , and the outer surface of the tube is well insulated. Heat generation occurs within. The specific heat of water pc , and the thermal conductivity of the fuel rod fk are constants. The system

Virginia Tech

342

SPRING 2014 wind energy's impact  

E-print Network

SPRING 2014 wind energy's impact on birds, bats......... 2-3 school news........... 4-5 alumni news measurable benefits reaped by the use of wind energy. But, it is a fact: all energy sources, alternative Interactions with Offshore Wind Energy Facilities," involves the design, deployment and testing

Tullos, Desiree

343

PAGOSA SPRINGS Conservation Action Plan  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................................... 4 III. Pagosa Springs Park Priority Action Area and Associated Rare Plants prepared for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. #12;3 I. Introduction The Rare Plant Conservation plants. With funding from National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, RPCI developed the statewide Colorado

344

The Forced Soft Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through numerical investigations, this paper studies examples of the forced Duffing type spring equation with [epsilon] negative. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, the existence is demonstrated of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions. Subharmonic boundaries are…

Fay, T. H.

2006-01-01

345

Senior Capstone Projects Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Manhattan, MT 59741 Description: Plastic Design and Manufacturing (PDM) is a plastic injection molding shop Capstone Projects Spring 2014 Project: Development of a Scheduling Tool for Plastic Injection Molding, and security personnel. Their production operations include 30 plastic injection molding machines which produce

Sobek II, Durward K.

346

Districtwide Test Results, Spring 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each spring students in fifth, seventh and ninth grades in the San Diego City Schools complete a series of tests as part of the annual Districtwide Testing Program. The Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) are used to measure student knowledge of various broad areas of the curriculum. This bulletin presents results of student achievement in…

San Diego Unified School District, CA.

347

Spring 2009 Prof. Hyesoon Kim  

E-print Network

multiplier capable of single cycle MAC operations · The ARM946E-S processor supports ARM's real-time traceSpring 2009 Prof. Hyesoon Kim The ARM9 Family-High Performance Microprocessors for Embedded LCD screens · CPUs ­ ARM 7 TDMI (33MHz) ­ ARM 9 946E-S (67MHz)­ ARM 9 946E-S (67MHz) · Main memory: 4

Kim, Hyesoon

348

CPCSForums@Kent Spring 2013  

E-print Network

CPCSForums@Kent Spring 2013 These events are designed as a space for colleagues in and around Kent and the public have reacted to its publication, and then pose some broad questions about what the book and its is the most important gift a mother can bestow on her baby. It argues that the rather dramatic

Banaji,. Murad

349

Spring 2014 University of Waterloo  

E-print Network

-buffer, an antialiased hidden surface method. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH), 18(3):103 108, July 1984. [21] Loren CCS488/688 Spring 2014 References University of Waterloo Department of Computer Science Instructor. High-performance polygon rendering. Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH), 22(4):239 246, August 1988. [2] Kurt

Waterloo, University of

350

Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012  

E-print Network

Chemistry Department Colloquium: Spring, 2012 Friday, March 16; 3:30 Seminar Hall (room 1315 Chemistry) Lost in Translation: How Regulators Use Science and How Scientists Can Help Bridge Gaps Stephanie to combine her Chemistry background with a legal education to improve the use of science in environmental

Sheridan, Jennifer

351

SPRING 2013 Empowering the Dream  

E-print Network

SPRING 2013 CAPITAL GAINS Empowering the Dream campaign draws to a close June 30, page 20 PATENT pursuing inventions that are already affecting millions around the world. Capital Gains by Greg Russell of the Empowering the Dream Centennial Campaign. The University's most ambitious capital campaign ever

Dasgupta, Dipankar

352

Spring 2014 Organization Development & Training  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Organization Development & Training Catalog University of Central Florida Office of Organization Development & Training 3280 Progress Drive Orlando, FL 32826-2912 (407) 823-0440 February 7, 2014 Volume 2, Number 3 The current Catalog is published at http://www.hr.ucf.edu/web

Wu, Shin-Tson

353

The Forced Hard Spring Equation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through numerical investigations, various examples of the Duffing type forced spring equation with epsilon positive, are studied. Since [epsilon] is positive, all solutions to the associated homogeneous equation are periodic and the same is true with the forcing applied. The damped equation exhibits steady state trajectories with the interesting…

Fay, Temple H.

2006-01-01

354

NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of Lost Empires". It provides activity set-ups related to…

Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

355

Semester in London Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Semester in London Spring 2014 Application Packet #12;Binghamton University Semester-in-London, NY 13902-6000 Tel: 607-777-2336; E-Mail: london@binghamton.edu APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS A complete to be made. Submit your completed application by October 15, 2013 to: In Person ­ Semester-in-London Program

Suzuki, Masatsugu

356

PSY 607: Optogenetics Spring 2014  

E-print Network

PSY 607: Optogenetics Spring 2014 last updated Friday, April 4, 2014 Overview! We will review and discuss the latest research, the latest tools, and find out how optogenetics is revolutionizing questions in the application of optogenetics to systems neuroscience. Time and Place! Wednesdays 2

Lockery, Shawn

357

NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity…

Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

358

Spring, 1980, DECUS symposium review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (DECUS) holds biannual symposia where its membership and the host company can exchange ideas, problems, and solutions. This report by the newly formed DECUS Local User Group at LLL collects information gathered at the Spring '80 symposium in Chicago on April 22-25. Information is presented for the following special interest groups (SIGs): RSX\\/IAS SIG,

M. J. Allen; J. M. Duffy; W. M. McDonald; J. L. Oppenheimer; J. J. Brandt; C. W. Grant; D. W. OBrien; A. L. VanLehn

1980-01-01

359

Spring above Rhoads Fork, SD  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Headwater springflow is common in the Limestone Pateau area in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Most headwater springs in the Black Hills, like this one contributing to Rhoads Fork, generally occur near the base of the Madison Limestone along the eastern edge of the Limestone Plateau area....

360

Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

2011-01-01

361

Scholarship Application Packet Spring 2015  

E-print Network

Scholarship Application Packet Spring 2015 Information and Application Forms Application Deadline-8000 or toll free 1-800-753-9044 FAX 207-338-8013 Scholarship applications are available to UMA students by visiting http://www.uma.edu/assets/docs/finaid/General_Scholarship_Application.pdf #12;APPLICATION CRITERIA

Thomas, Andrew

362

Finding Spring on Planet X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

363

27th Spring Session Resolutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Documenting the 1995 spring session, this report provides resolutions considered by the Academic Senate for the California Community Colleges. The three sections of the report detail 72 resolutions that passed, 7 that were referred, and 9 that failed. The resolutions that passed are further divided into the following sections: (1) the Academic…

Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Sacramento.

364

Molecular machines: Springing into action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling the movements of molecular systems through external stimuli is crucial for the construction of nanoscale mechanical machines. A spring-like compound has now been prepared - a double helicate that retains its handedness under ion-triggered extension and contraction.

Ben L. Feringa

2010-01-01

365

Clock Award Recipients Spring 2013  

E-print Network

Clock Award Recipients Spring 2013 College of Natural Sciences Deborah "Didi" Smith Department of Art and Art History Dr. Jeffrey Smith Dr. Louis Waldman Department of Classics Dr. Richard Buxton Johnson Department of History Dr. Frank Guridy Dr. Emilio Zamora Department of Human Ecology Dr. Cynthia

Texas at Austin, University of

366

Theory of Computing Spring 2010  

E-print Network

David Keil Theory of Computing Spring 2010 Notation Notation varies in the relatively new field (there exists) Set theory set membership nonmembership null set {} null set subset proper subset phi () gamma nu iota psi kappa lambda µ mu pi theta rho () sigma tau omega xi #12;

Keil, David M.

367

Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012  

E-print Network

1 WIS 4443C 4 credits Wetland Wildlife Ecology Spring 2012 Course Objectives Lecture and Laboratory to identify representatives of wetland wildlife groups (birds, amphibians, mammals) Course Description, and ecological concepts associated with wetland ecology and the wildlife species that are dependant on wetlands

Watson, Craig A.

368

Beauty, Eros, Death Spring 2012  

E-print Network

, Eros, Death KHC XL 102 Spring 2012 Wednesdays/Fridays 9:00am­10:30am Professor William Waters Office-0-872-20392-1. Plato. Symposium. Tr. Alexander Nehamas and Paul Woodruff. Hackett. 978-0-872-20076- 0. Gilbert Adair in Venice (film, 1971) Benjamin Britten, Death in Venice (opera, 1973) Gilbert Adair, Love and Death on Long

Goldberg, Bennett

369

Spring 2013 Thursday Lunchtime Concerts  

E-print Network

Spring 2013 Thursday Lunchtime Concerts at the First Universalist Church, corner of South Clintonth , concerts will take place in the Clara Barton Lounge, located at the rear of the church. April 4. May 30 Honors Finale II The second installment of the ECMS Honors graduates. Concerts resume

Cantlon, Jessica F.

370

Spring for It: First Novels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

Hoffert, Barbara

2010-01-01

371

Spring 2009 Prof. Hyesoon Kim  

E-print Network

Spring 2009 Prof. Hyesoon Kim #12;· "Compute Unified Device Architecture" · Available for GeForce 8 - graphics free API · Cuda provides general DRAM memory addressing (just like CPU) © David Kirk/NVIDIA only a few © David Kirk/NVIDIA and Wen-mei W. Hwu, 2007 ECE 498AL, UIUC #12;CPU (host) GPU w/ local

Kim, Hyesoon

372

A Breath of Spring Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most promising sights of spring in Nebraska this year were two conferences for women. One event, sponsored by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, was a Women's History Month Tea. A second conference was the meeting of the Nebraska Women in Higher Education. These two events suggest that there is a continuing interest in women's leadership…

Grady, Marilyn L.

2009-01-01

373

Spring 2015 Biochemistry Department Courses  

E-print Network

Spring 2015 Biochemistry Department Courses Course Number CRN Title Instructor Credits Days Time:00-10:50 5150 Elective Required GBCH-7520 24367 Human Medical Metabolic Biochemistry Franklin 5 T Th 3:30 - 5 GBCH-6110 26581 Basic Medical Biochemistry Landry 3 MWF 3:00-3:50 6065 Elective Master's Research

Vaccaro, Joe

374

Chemical Innovation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free online through December 2000, Chemical Innovation is a monthly journal that explores topics in research and development in chemical industries, and features such departments as Patent Watch, Chemist at Large, Book Alert, and The Industrial Chemist. The journal also shows a lighter side by including chemistry-related cartoons and jokes. The online version is provided by the American Chemical Society.

375

Supraglacial sulfur springs and associated biological activity in the Canadian high arctic - signs of life beneath the ice  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unique springs, discharging from the surface of an arctic glacier, release H2S and deposit native sulfur, gypsum, and calcite. The presence of sulfur in three oxidation states indicates a complex series of redox reactions. Physical and chemical conditions of the spring water and surrounding environment, as well as mineralogical and isotopic signatures, suggest biologically mediated reactions. Cell counts and DNA analyses confirm bacteria are present in the spring system, and a limited number of sequenced isolates suggests that complex communities of bacteria live within the glacial system.

Grasby, Stephen E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Longazo, Teresa G.; Lisle, John T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Beauchamp, Benoit

2003-01-01

376

76 FR 20992 - Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive Petition  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-C-0050] Sun Chemical Corp.; Filing of Color Additive...Administration (FDA) is announcing that Sun Chemical Corp. has filed a petition proposing...petition (CAP 1C0290) has been filed by Sun Chemical Corp., 5020 Spring Grove...

2011-04-14

377

Geochemical and hydrologic considerations and the use of enthalpy-chloride diagrams in the prediction of underground conditions in hot-spring systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal water ascending in a hot-spring system may cool by conduction of heat to the surrounding rock, by boiling, by mixing with cooler water, or by a combination of these processes. Complete or partial chemical reequilibration may occur as a result of this cooling. In spite of these complexities, in many places chemical compositions of hot-spring waters may be used to estimate underground conditions. A plot of enthalpy versus chloride is particularly useful for determining underground temperatures, salinities, and boiling and mixing relations. The utility of this approach is illustrated using hot-spring composition data from Cerro Prieto, Mexico, Orakeikorako, New Zealand, and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. ?? 1979.

Fournier, R.O.

1979-01-01

378

A Mechanical Analogue for Chemical Potential, Extent of Reaction, and the Gibbs Energy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analogy that relates the one-dimensional mechanical equilibrium of a rigid block between two Hooke's law springs and the chemical equilibrium of two perfect gases using ordinary materials. (PVD)

Glass, Samuel V.; DeKock, Roger L.

1998-01-01

379

Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s-1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 L s-1, which corresponds to about 8.2 ?? 104 kJ s-1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified. -Authors

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

1990-01-01

380

Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California  

SciTech Connect

Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 l/s. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 l/s, which corresponds to about 8.2 {times} 10{sup 4} kJ/s of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-10

381

Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.  

PubMed

Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices. PMID:23239886

Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

2013-04-01

382

Origin of the springs of Costa Verde beach in Lima Peru  

E-print Network

This paper tries to determine the origin of springs on the Costa Verde beach, located in the district of Barranco, Miraflores and Magdalena, province of Lima, Peru. These springs emerge near the shoreline, from the lower layers of a 80 meter high cliff. They have survived the process of urbanization of agricultural land, started in the early 70, which decreased the water table aquifer of Lima, and wiped the water leaks from the cliffs. To identify the source of the springs, isotopic, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis was carried out for samples from five springs. The isotopic concentrations in waters from Costa Verde springs are depleted compared to those obtained for Lima aquifer waters, which is recharged by infiltration of the Rimac River. The measured values of those concentrations suggest that water from the Costa Verde springs should come from a direct recharge in the upper and middle basin, due to infiltration of rainfall or the river at an altitude of about 3600 m. Conductivity and tempe...

Rojas, Ruben; Mamani, Enoc; Maguina, Jose; Montoya, Eduardo; Baltuano, Oscar; Bedregal, Patricia; Coria, Lucy; Guerra, Alcides; Justo, Santiago; Churasacari, Tania

2013-01-01

383

Microscopic physical biomarkers in carbonate hot springs: implications in the search for life on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical evidence of life (physical biomarkers) from the deposits of carbonate hot springs were documented at the scale of microorganisms--submillimeter to submicrometer. The four moderate-temperature (57 to 72 degrees C), neutral pH springs reported on in this study, support diverse communities of bacteria adapted to specific physical and chemical conditions. Some of the microbes coexist with travertine deposits in endolithic communities. In other cases, the microbes are rapidly coated and destroyed by precipitates but leave distinctive mineral fabrics. Some microbes adapted to carbonate hot springs produce an extracellular polymeric substance which forms a three-dimensional matrix with living cells and cell remains, known as a biofilm. Silicon and iron oxides often coat the biofilm, leading to long-term preservation. Submicrometer mineralized spheres composed of calcium fluoride or silica are common in carbonate hot spring deposits. Sphere formation is biologically mediated, but the spheres themselves are apparently not fossils or microbes. Additionally, some microbes selectively weather mineral surfaces in distinctive patterns. Hot spring deposits have been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration of Mars. The presence of preserved microscopic physical biomarkers at all four sites supports a strategy of searching for evidence of life in hot spring deposits on Mars.

Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Chafetz, H. S.; Combie, J.; Graham, C. R.; Kieft, T. L.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Steele, A.; Taunton, A. E.; Taylor, M. R.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Westall, F.

2000-01-01

384

Chemical burns  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report a burn unit’s experience with chemical burns and to discuss the fundamental principles in managing chemical burns. Design A chart review. Setting A burn centre at a major university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-four patients with chemical burns, representing 2.6% of all burn admissions over an 8-year period at the Ross Tilley Regional Adult Burn Centre. Seventy-five percent of the burn injuries were work-related accidents. Chemicals involved included hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, black liquor, various lyes, potassium permanganate and phenol. Results Fourteen patients required excision and skin grafting. Complications were frequent and included ocular chemical contacts, wound infections, tendon exposures, toe amputation and systemic reactions from absorption of chemical. One patient died from a chemical scald burn to 98% of the body surface area. Conclusions The key principles in the management of chemical burns include removal of the chemical, copious irrigation, limited use of antidotes, correct estimation of the extent of injury, identification of systemic toxicity, treatment of ocular contacts and management of chemical inhalation injury. Individualized treatment is emphasized. PMID:8640619

Cartotto, Robert C.; Peters, Walter J.; Neligan, Peter C.; Douglas, Leith G.; Beeston, Jeff

1996-01-01

385

[Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].  

PubMed

Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

Nakamura, Katsumi

2005-10-01

386

Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

1979-01-01

387

Colloidal rare earth elements in a boreal river: Changing sources and distributions during the spring flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in the physico-chemical speciation of the rare earth elements (REE) have been investigated in a subarctic boreal river during an intense spring flood event using prefiltered (<100 ?m) samples, cross-flow (ultra)filtration (CFF), flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). This combination of techniques has provided new information regarding the release and transport of the REE in river water. The colloidal material can be described in terms of two fractions dominated by carbon and iron, respectively. These two fractions, termed colloidal carrier phases, showed significant temporal changes in concentration and size distribution. Before the spring flood, colloidal carbon concentrations were low, the colloids being dominated by relatively large iron colloids. Colloidal concentrations increased sharply during the spring flood, with smaller carbon colloids dominating. Following the spring flood, colloidal concentrations decreased again, smaller carbon colloids still dominating. The REE are transported mainly in the particulate and colloidal phases. Before the spring flood, the REE composition of all measured fractions was similar to local till. During the spring flood, the REE concentrations in the colloidal and particulate fractions increased. The increase was most marked for the lighter REE, which therefore showed a strong enrichment when normalized to local till. Following the spring flood, the REE concentrations decreased again and reverted to a distribution similar to local till. These changes in the concentration and distributions of carbon iron and REE are interpreted in terms of changing hydrological flow paths in soil and bedrock which occur during the spring flood.

Andersson, Karen; Dahlqvist, Ralf; Turner, David; Stolpe, Björn; Larsson, Tobias; Ingri, Johan; Andersson, Per

2006-07-01

388

Hydrochemical assessment of tropical springs--a case study from SW India.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the hydrochemical characterization and water quality assessment of springs emerging from the Archaean crystalline basements at the foothills of Western Ghat mountains in the highlands and Neogene sedimentary formations in the coastal lowlands of Kerala in south west India. A total of 19 springs from two important river basins of southern Kerala such as Ithikkara and Kallada river basins were studied for 18 physico-chemical (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3 (2-), HCO3 (-), Cl(-), SO4 (2-) , NO3 (-), SiO2, Fe(2+), and F(-) ) as well as bacteriological parameters. The discharge computations show that free-falling type of springs in the area discharge about 256.23 million liters of water a year. A comparative study between the spring water samples of highland and lowland regions reveal that the quality of spring water, except pH and bacteriological contents, satisfies the standards set by the Bureau of Indian Standards and World Health Organization for drinking water. Spring water samples collected from the lowlands register high value of Na(+) and Cl(-) compared with the highlands. Bicarbonate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) values are high in highland than lowland springs. The present study reveals that the spring water sources in the region can be developed as an alternate source for drinking water, provided pH correction and proper disinfection are done prior to its end use. PMID:25638053

Nair, Hema C; Padmalal, D; Joseph, Ammini

2015-02-01

389

Chemical Bonds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Electrons are key to forming the two broad categories of chemical bonds: covalent and ionic. Atoms, which have a nucleus surrounded by electrons, are represented in several different ways. In the Chemical Bonds activity, students explore the different kinds of chemical bonds that can form, ranging from non-polar covalent to ionic. In the model depicted above students adjust the electronegativity of two atoms and see the effect it has on electron distribution and bond type.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

390

Chemical microsensors  

DOEpatents

An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Swanson, Basil I. (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01

391

Mars in Early Northern Spring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In April 2003, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) operations team completed the validation and archiving of MOC data acquired between February and July 2002. This was a period that included the end of northern winter and the start of spring in that hemisphere. This composite of MOC daily global images, acquired in early May 2002, shows what the planet looked like in early northern spring. The retreating north polar seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap is seen at the top of this view. Other white features in the image are clouds of water ice crystals in the martian atmosphere. The left half of this picture shows the Tharsis region, which includes several very large volcanoes. Olympus Mons, the largest martian volcano, is as wide as the Hawaiian Island chain is long; it is the dark, somewhat circular feature at the far left. Toward the lower right, the system of deep Valles Marineris chasms can be seen.

2003-01-01

392

FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

1984-01-01

393

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -2  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer - 2 A thin electronic chip is in the shape of a square wafer, b = 1 cm surface of the chip with a heat transfer coefficient of h = 100 W/m2 -K. Assume the chip has a uniform per side with a mass of m = 0.3 grams and specific heat of C = 103 J/kg-K. The chip is mounted

Virginia Tech

394

1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the Springs of the South and West by Moorman) No date 'MAP OF ROUTES AND DISTANCES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS' - White Sulphur Springs, U.S. Route 60, White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, WV

395

Spring 2015 Early Checkout Dates to Avoid Spring Registration Degree Audit/Admission to Candidacy  

E-print Network

Spring 2015 Early Checkout Dates to Avoid Spring Registration Degree Audit/Admission to Candidacy to graduate. Submittal Page ·Master's thesis and PHDs only. Submit signed submittal page to the Office

396

GEOL 205 syllabus, Spring 2008 1 Geology 205 Syllabus Spring 2008  

E-print Network

GEOL 205 syllabus, Spring 2008 1 Geology 205 Syllabus Spring 2008 Dr. Carl Kirby TTh 9:30-10 W 1 overall grade. Policies The syllabus is subject to change, therefore the syllabus is not the final word

Kirby, Carl S.

397

Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

Schoen, R.; White, D.E.; Hemley, J.J.

1974-01-01

398

Hydrogeology of the Quitobaquito Springs and La Abra Plain area, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quitobaquito Springs, in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the south end of the northwestward-trending Quitobaquito Hills, are less than 0.25 mile north of the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. The National Park Service is concerned that the natural flow from Quitobaquito Springs might be reduced by ground-water withdrawals in the adjacent State of Sonora, Mexico. Quitobaquito and other nearby springs flow from a highly fractured granite that forms the Quitobaquito Hills. Fractures in the granitic intrusive rocks provide conduits for ground water to flow from an alluvial flow system along Aguajita Wash to a line of springs on the southwest side of Quitobaquito Hills. The chemical composition of water from all the springs is similar. Carbon-14 analysis of water from Quitobaquito Springs indicates that the spring water probably is between 500 and several thousand years old. Discharge at Quitobaquito Springs averaged 28 gallons per minute and ranged from 15 to 40 gallons per minute for 1981-92. Rainfall at two gages in the area of recharge to the northeast of Quitobaquito Hills averaged 6.6 inches per year during the 11-year monitoring program ending in September 1992. The lack of correlation between spring discharge and local rainfall indicates that local annual recharge may be small relative to the total quantity of ground water in storage. Surface-geophysical data indicate that a thin alluvial aquifer overlies the shallow crystalline rocks northeast of Quitobaquito Hills along Aguajita Wash. Results of the study indicate that the ground-water flow system along Aguajita Wash provides a source of water to the springs and may be hydraulically connected to the ground-water system that is pumped for agricultural purposes in Mexico. The altitude and low permeability of the granite bedrock near the international boundary, however, may provide a barrier to and (or) delay the effect of a northwestward propagation of water- level declines caused by pumping near the Rio Sonoyta in Mexico.

Carruth, R.L.

1996-01-01

399

Causes of fluctuations in the rate of discharge of Clear Lake Springs, Millard County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Clear Lake Springs in southeastern Millard County are the source of water for the maintenance of the Clear Lakes Migratory Waterfowl Refuge. Seasonal declines in the rate of discharge were noted during 1959-60. Fluctuations in the flow of Clear Lake Springs are caused both by natural variations in the quantity of recharge and by variations in the quantity of water pumped from an increasing number of irrigation wells in the southern four districts of adjacent Pavant Valley. The springs are the principal discharge point for an aquifer in a complex of highly permeable basalt flows. Water enters the basalt aquifer as direct recharge from precipitation, as interformational leakage from a contiguous artesian aquifer in lake and alluvial sediments, and as infiltration of infrequent flood runoff and of unconsumed irrigation water in the lowlands of Pavant Valley. A hydrograph of the flow of the springs indicates that precipitation on the basalt outcrop recharges the aquifer; this conclusion is strengthened by fluctuations in the chemical quality of the spring water. The effects due to precipitation, however, are partly masked by the larger effects due to the pumping of ground water for irrigation in southern Pavant Valley. Withdrawal of ground water from wells in the southern four districts causes seasonal reductions in the flow of the springs by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wells and the springs. Statistical analysis of three parameters--the (1) October-April precipitation, (2) annual pumpage, and (3) annual lowest rate of spring discharge--shows that a departure of 1 inch from the normal October-April precipitation at Fillmore is accompanied by a change of 0.41 cubic feet per second in the low flow of Clear Lake Springs. Similarly, a departure of 1,000 acre-feet from the 1961-64 average annual pumpage causes the low flow of the springs to change by 0.23 cubic feet per second. The average annual volume of discharge from Clear Lake Springs during 1960-64 was 14,900 acre-feet. The equation derived from the statistical analysis shows that of the average annual discharge, 3,000 acre-feet of water was derived from precipitation on the basalt, 9,000 acre-feet, from underflow from Pavant Valley, and 2,900 acre-feet, from undetermined sources.

Mower, R.W.

1967-01-01

400

Chemical Name  

Cancer.gov

Attachment III Chemical Quick Reference Chart for Minors Chemical Name Select Carcinogen Reproductive Toxin LD50 < 50 mg/kg (oral rat) LD50 < 200 mg/kg for 24 hours or less (dermal rabbit) LC50 < 200 ppm or 2 mg/L for one hour (inhalation rat)

401

Chemical Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We don't often stop to think about it, but underlying many of our everyday activities are chemical reactions. From the cooking of an egg to the growth of a child, chemical reactions make things happen. Although many of the reactions that support our lives

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2009-05-01

402

Chemical Linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the Research Items in NATURE of October 20, certain arguments are advanced in opposition to the views which we expressed in a recent paper published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, and without going into detail we wish to take the opportunity of pointing out that : (1) We cannot call to mind any evidence, chemical or physical,

R. F. Hunter; R. Samuel

1934-01-01

403

Hydrogeology of northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico: a conceptual model based on a geochemical characterization of sulfide-rich karst brackish springs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conspicuous sulfide-rich karst springs flow from Cretaceous carbonates in northern Sierra de Chiapas, Mexico. This is a geologically complex, tropical karst area. The physical, geologic, hydrologic and chemical attributes of these springs were determined and integrated into a conceptual hydrogeologic model. A meteoric source and a recharge elevation below 1,500 m are estimated from the spring-water isotopic signature regardless of their chemical composition. Brackish spring water flows at a maximum depth of 2,000 m, as inferred from similar chemical attributes to the produced water from a nearby oil well. Oil reservoirs may be found at depths below 2,000 m. Three subsurface environments or aquifers are identified based on the B, Li+, K+ and SiO2 concentrations, spring water temperatures, and CO2 pressures. There is mixing between these aquifers. The aquifer designated Local is shallow and contains potable water vulnerable to pollution. The aquifer named Northern receives some brackish produced water. The composition of the Southern aquifer is influenced by halite dissolution enhanced at fault detachment surfaces. Epigenic speleogenesis is associated with the Local springs. In contrast, hypogenic speleogenesis is associated with the brackish sulfidic springs from the Northern and the Southern environments.

Rosales Lagarde, Laura; Boston, Penelope J.; Campbell, Andrew R.; Hose, Louise D.; Axen, Gary; Stafford, Kevin W.

2014-09-01

404

Athletic Training Coordinator Hometown: Colorado Springs, CO  

E-print Network

WHO WE ARE Gaby Bell Athletic Training Coordinator Hometown: Colorado Springs, CO Certifications Athletic Training Graduate Assistant Jonathan Hodapp Student Athletic Trainer Mike Carlson Student Athletic

Van Stryland, Eric

405

Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms  

E-print Network

Agronomy Yield response of spring wheat to increasing densities of spring oats and various forms; accepted 11 August 1993) Summary — Reductions in the yields of spring wheat (cv Bastion) caused for each of the 3 experimental years. Wheat yield losses were significantly greater on oat-infested plots

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

1953-01-01

407

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2014-10-01

408

New package for Belleville spring permits rate change, easy disassembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spring package, with grooves to hold the spring washers at the inner and outer edges, reduces hysteresis to a minimum. Three-segment retainers permit easy disassembly so that the spring rate can be changed.

Mac Glashan, W. F.

1964-01-01

409

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2011-10-01

410

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2013-10-01

411

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2010-10-01

412

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2012-10-01

413

Convective heat discharge of Wood River group of springs in the vicinity of Crater Lake, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data sets for spring and stream chemistry are combined to estimate convective heat discharge and discharge anomalous amounts of sodium and chloride for the Wood River group of springs south of Crater Lake. The best estimate of heat discharge is 87 MWt based on chloride inventory; this value is 3-5 times the heat input to Crater Lake itself. Anomalous discharges of sodium and chloride are also larger that into Crater Lake. Difference between the chemical and thermal characteristics of the discharge into Crater Lake and those from the Wood River group of springs suggest that the heat sources for the two systems may be different, although both ultimately related to the volcanic system.

Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.; Thompson, J. Michael

1994-01-01

414

Late-spring increase of trans-Pacific pollution transport in the upper troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observations during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) experiment show large enhancements of NOx, PAN, O3, CO, CFCs, and Halon-1211 in the upper troposphere over North America in late spring. Analysis of these observations and model results indicate that the enhancements are most likely driven by a surge of trans-Pacific pollutant transport in late spring. The rapid seasonal transition is particularly striking for upper tropospheric NOx, resulting in large increases in photochemical oxidation and O3 production during the period. The transition is later in season than that of low-altitude trans-Pacific transport, which peaks in March and April. The current generation of global chemical transport models clearly underestimates this long-range transport of pollutants, implying an underestimation in the model-projected impact on regional air quality over North America (through subsidence).

Wang, Yuhang; Choi, Yunsoo; Zeng, Tao; Ridley, Brian; Blake, Nicola; Blake, Donald; Flocke, Frank

2006-01-01

415

Late-spring Increase of Trans-Pacific Pollution Transport in the Upper Troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observations during the Tropospheric Ozone Production about the Spring Equinox (TOPSE) experiment show large enhancements of NOx, PAN, O3, CO, CFCs, and Halon-1211 in the upper troposphere over North America in late spring. Analysis of these observations and model results indicate that the enhancements are driven by a surge of trans-Pacific pollutant transport in late spring. The rapid seasonal transition is particularly striking for upper tropospheric NOx, resulting in large increases in photochemical oxidation and O3 production during the period. The transition is later in season than that of low-altitude trans-Pacific transport, which peak in March and April. The current generation of global chemical transport models clearly underestimates this long-range transport of pollutants, implying that the model-projected impact on regional air quality due to intercontinental pollution transport is also underestimated.

Wang, Y.; Choi, Y.; Zeng, T.

2005-12-01

416

Hydrogeochemical inventory and analysis of thermal springs in the Black Canyon-Hoover Dam area, Nevada and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 70 liters/sec. of spring flow discharges from both sides of the Colorado River in Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona. Observed springs issue primarily from the highly faulted and fractured volcanic rocks which are exposed throughout the canyon from Hoover Dam to 7.5 kilometers downstream. Chemical analyses of the spring waters, including stable isotope and tritium results, indicate a variety of possible origins and mixing scenarios. Observed surface temperatures range from 32/sup 0/C to 62/sup 0/C. Dissolved solid values range from 500 mg/l to 3600 mg/l. Tritium concentrations range from 10 T.U. to 116 T.U. While thermodynamic calculations indicate oversaturation of these waters with respect to several silicate and carbonate minerals, the general absence of secondary mineral deposits close to spring orifices suggests a potentially young system.

McKay, W.A.

1981-10-01

417

Database of historically documented springs and spring flow measurements in Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Springs are naturally occurring features that convey excess ground water to the land surface; they represent a transition from ground water to surface water. Water issues through one opening, multiple openings, or numerous seeps in the rock or soil. The database of this report provides information about springs and spring flow in Texas including spring names, identification numbers, location, and, if available, water source and use. This database does not include every spring in Texas, but is limited to an aggregation of selected digital and hard-copy data of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), and Capitol Environmental Services.

Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Reece, Brian D.

2003-01-01

418

Models of Formation and Activity of Spring Mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani System, Eastern Tunisia: Implications for the Habitability of Mars  

PubMed Central

Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet (“island”) stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars. The spring mounds further bear diagnostic mineralogic and magnetic properties, in comparison with their immediate surroundings. Consequently, remote sensing techniques can be very useful to identify similar spring mounds on Mars. The mechanisms (tectonic and/or hydraulic) of formation and evolution of spring mounds at the MCSH system are suitable for the proliferation and protection of life respectively. Similarly, life or its resulting biomarkers on Mars may have been protected or preserved under the spring mounds. PMID:25370379

Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, Alberto G.; Chan, Marjorie A.; Yaich, Chokri

2014-01-01

419

Models of formation and activity of spring mounds in the mechertate-chrita-sidi el hani system, eastern Tunisia: implications for the habitability of Mars.  

PubMed

Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet ("island") stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars. The spring mounds further bear diagnostic mineralogic and magnetic properties, in comparison with their immediate surroundings. Consequently, remote sensing techniques can be very useful to identify similar spring mounds on Mars. The mechanisms (tectonic and/or hydraulic) of formation and evolution of spring mounds at the MCSH system are suitable for the proliferation and protection of life respectively. Similarly, life or its resulting biomarkers on Mars may have been protected or preserved under the spring mounds. PMID:25370379

Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, Alberto G; Chan, Marjorie A; Yaich, Chokri

2014-01-01

420

Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

2006-01-01

421

Florida Springs: Protecting Nature's Gems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational Web site from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection offers an in-depth exploration of Florida's freshwater springs and the aquifer that supports them. The site includes many informal (and highly visual) learning opportunities, such as an animated demonstration of the hydrologic cycle and classroom lesson plans based on Web site content. The four lessons plans (one each for grades 1-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) emphasize ecosystem interconnectivity and how human activity impacts groundwater resources.

2002-01-01

422

CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

1984-01-01

423

76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical...Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Airspace reconfiguration is...

2011-11-16

424

Unnecessary Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

Johnson, Anita

1978-01-01

425

Chemical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tombstone weathering lab is designed to provide students with tangible understanding of chemical weathering and weathering rates. To prepare for this lab, students will have learned in previous labs to identify common minerals and rocks and will have attended lectures about the process of chemical weathering. During the first part of the lab we travel to the city cemetery to collect data on the age and extent of chemical weathering of tombstones that are made of limestone and igneous rocks. After collecting data for ~1 hour, we return to the computer lab where students use Microsoft Excel to analyze and interpret their data. Their task is to calculate a chemical weathering rate for limestone for our region and compare that rate to those from other regions. This activity gives students experience in the process of scientific inquiry: data collection, data analysis and data interpretation. Students develop Microsoft Excel skills: writing formulas, producing charts, understanding trendlines and R2 values.

Kira Lawrence

426

Chemical Emergency  

MedlinePLUS

... Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter Storm Tools ... and your family is to be prepared. In Case of Poisoning The most common home chemical emergencies ...

427

Chemical sensors  

DOEpatents

Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

1992-06-09

428

In this issue... SPRING -SUMMER 2012  

E-print Network

In this issue... SPRING - SUMMER 2012 www.fitrec.northwestern.edu Vegan and gluten-free diets page Gluten-free and Vegan dieting The ins and outs of Interval Training Sailing Services Spring is in the air, diet in a healthy way, or take your workout to a new level, this issue has you covered. Take whatever

Shull, Kenneth R.

429

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience  

E-print Network

Diabetes Experience Spring 2014 Interprofessional Diabetes Experience Phar 6226/Nurs 5011 Spring the opportunity to learn in-depth knowledge of diabetes mellitus through active, hands-on learning experience of living with diabetes, in which they will give "insulin" injections and check blood glucoses

Thomas, David D.

430

32 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE SPRING 2013 alumni impact  

E-print Network

32 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE SPRING 2013 alumni impact FOR THE LONG HAUL ROOMINATE Bettina Chen (BS '10 on Roominate, see "Dollhouse Deluxe," page 7.) The initial signs are promising--girls like playing others to believe as well." #12;33SPRING 2013 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE "Caltech has rich history of making

431

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet Amy SubarMeet Richard Hayes From Lab to Life Fecal Occult Blood Testing for Colorectal Cancer Clinical Trials

432

Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

(Cont.) · How about Bluetooth radio with sensor networks? · Scalability is a big problem · Lack of multiSpring 2006 CS 649 1 CS649 Sensor Networks Lectures 13-14: Medium Access Control Andreas Terzis Examples · S-MAC · BMAC #12;Characteristics of Sensor Network Spring 2006 CS 649 3 · A special wireless ad

Amir, Yair

433

Act 290 Spring 2014 Accounting 290  

E-print Network

Act 290 ­ Spring 2014 Accounting 290 Mastering the Accounting Cycle Spring 2014 Meeting Time: TTH the related financial statements is fundamental for success in the accounting classroom and in your career lose 10 points! My responsibility is to provide you with the necessary tools and instructions

Barrash, Warren

434

Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that parents…

Edwards, Jennifer

2012-01-01

435

RMI 357e spring 2013 Risk Management  

E-print Network

RMI 357e ­ spring 2013 1 Risk Management R M 357e Professor: Christopher McClellan Office: CBA 3 thomaspjacob@utexas.edu Syllabus ­ spring 2013 Textbook Risk Management for Enterprises and Individuals, v.1://students.flatworldknowledge.com/course/1112649 Risk Management: 357E. Risk Management - Upper-Division Course Principles of risk management

Ghosh, Joydeep

436

Instruction for Zoology TA Application Spring 2013  

E-print Network

Instruction for Zoology TA Application Spring 2013 1. IMPORTANT: This Year Kelly Layton not been a TA in Zoology in the past year: Attach a current resume. Attach copies of all of your college that upper level courses are often appointed to a zoology graduate student. Listed below are the Spring 2013

Turner, Monica G.

437

a UIC Writing Center Magazine Spring 2009  

E-print Network

for all students, it is an essential for a writing center to engage in anti-racist tutor training. As mucha UIC Writing Center Magazine Spring 2009 Through the Glass In this issue: Writing Center Praxis Becoming a WC tutor Spring 2009 Writing Prize winning essays Peerness: the Center of our Mission The 2008

Illinois at Chicago, University of

438

1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report  

SciTech Connect

This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

Dirkes, R.L.

1990-12-01

439

Bog Hot Springs, Nevada: the geothermal cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bog Hot Springs are located in one of the high desert valleys of northern Nevada below the Pueblo Mountains. The flow of the springs is estimated to be 2,500 gpm. Temperatures range from 125 to 212°F. (JGB)

1977-01-01

440

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1999 Volume 2, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1999 In the Spotlight Genevieve Joseph Genevieve Joseph is no stranger to clinical trials. Before joining the PLCO study, she enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a very

441

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 1, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 1998 TABLE OF CONTENTS Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office What is the PLCO Trial?Why volunteer?Screening testsWhy two study groups? From Lab to Life

442

Global Health Curriculum Guide Spring 2012  

E-print Network

Global Health Curriculum Guide Spring 2012 #12;Global Health Curriculum Guide | Spring 2012 | page 2 Introduction The Global Health Curriculum Guide provides a listing of the current global health in the field of global health. Students should work with their faculty advisors to select the appropriate

Subramanian, Venkat

443

P versus NP Math 40210, Spring 2014  

E-print Network

beginning to convince you "NP" stands for "nondeterministic polynomial time" Math 40210 (Spring 2012) P of steps that the procedure takes is at most a polynomial in the number of vertices of the graph) Examples! (this will be on an upcoming homework) "P" stands for "polynomial time" Math 40210 (Spring 2012) P

Galvin, David

444

P versus NP Math 40210, Spring 2012  

E-print Network

" stands for "nondeterministic polynomial time" Math 40210 (Spring 2012) P versus NP February 11, 2012 5 takes is at most a polynomial in the number of vertices of the graph) Examples of P properties: Being not "P" stands for "polynomial time" Math 40210 (Spring 2012) P versus NP February 11, 2012 4 / 9 #12;The

Galvin, David

445

P versus NP Math 40210, Spring 2012  

E-print Network

" stands for "nondeterministic polynomial time" Math 40210 (Spring 2012) P versus NP September 16, 2012 5 takes is at most a polynomial in the number of vertices of the graph) Examples of P properties: Being not "P" stands for "polynomial time" Math 40210 (Spring 2012) P versus NP September 16, 2012 4 / 9 #12

Galvin, David

446

HARD RED SPRING WHEAT - 2001 CROP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA/ARS Hard Red Spring and Durum Wheat Quality Laboratory evaluated 16 cultivars of hard red spring (HRS) wheat from the 2001 crop for kernel and milling properties, and subsequently shipped flour (and/or wheat) to overseas cooperators through arrangements made by US Wheat Associates (USW) for...

447

Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation Spring 2014  

E-print Network

Kimbro Financial Statement Analysis & Valuation Spring 2014 1 ACCT/FIN 538 FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS AND FIRM VALUATION PIGT 103 SPRING 2014 KIMBRO INSTRUCTOR AND CLASS INFORMATION Instructor to recast financial statements. To learn how to disaggregate and analyze: profitability, utilization

Carter, John

448

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998  

Cancer.gov

PLCO News, Spring/Summer 1998 Volume 3, Number 1 ----- Spring/Summer 2000 TABLE OF CONTENTS Oops! We missed putting this issue up on the web. We should get it up by the end of February 2001. Notes from the NCI's PLCO Project Office Meet the PLCO

449

PAID INTERNSHIP OPPORTUNITIES SPRING AND SUMMER 2014  

E-print Network

PAID INTERNSHIP OPPORTUNITIES SPRING AND SUMMER 2014 ABOUT THE PROGRAM: The Virginia Space Grant colleges are offering the Commonwealth STEM Industry Internship Program (CSIIP). CSIIP is a free resource for finding paid spring, summer, and fall internships. CSIIP provides an online system where undergraduate

Buehrer, R. Michael

450

Spring 2006 CS 649 1 Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

06/ #12;Overview Spring 2006 CS 649 2 · Overview of (in)security in WSN routing protocols · Availability · Which of the above is the responsibility of the routing protocol? · WSNs differ from other is desired #12;Attacks on WSN Routing Spring 2006 CS 649 8 · Spoofed, altered, or replayed routing

Amir, Yair

451

Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

2012-01-01

452

Fish Health Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010  

SciTech Connect

On December 22, 2008, over 4 million cubic meters of fly ash slurry was released into the Emory River when a dike surrounding a solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured. One component of TVA's response to the spill is a biological monitoring program to assess short- and long-term ecological responses to the ash and associated chemicals, including studies on fish health and contaminant bioaccumulation. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure to metals and health effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information from other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology information transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash (and related environmental stressors), not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report presents the results of the first two years of the fish health study. To date, fish health and bioaccumulation studies have been conducted from Spring 2009 though Fall 2011 and includes 6 seasonal studies: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, Fall 2010, Spring 2011, and Fall 2011. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to fish health and bioaccumulation, the Spring investigations also included reproductive integrity studies on the same fish used for bioaccumulation and fish health. In this report, results of the fish health studies from Spring 2009 through Fall 2010 are presented while an associated report will present the fish reproductive studies conducted during Spring 2009 and Spring 2010. A report on fish bioaccumulation was submitted to TVA in June 2011. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health.

Adams, Marshall [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL

2012-05-01

453

Chemical Loading into Surface Water along a Hydrological,  

E-print Network

transect during spring-runoff and base-flow conditions, and analyzed for major elements, trace elements as chemical and biological reactions that influence fate and transport. Understanding complex in-stream chemi and receiving waters (1-4). Com- pounds such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), which is widely used

454

An Analysis of the ChemicalMechanical Polishing Process \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Mises stress on the wafer surface is considered in [7]; mechanical properties of the slurry particles, 1998 Abstract We examine the non­uniform wear of the wafer and the pad in the Chemical Mechanical Polishing of wafers in the semiconductor industry. We model the pad as a set of springs in order to get

455

Hydrochemistry of the hot springs in western Sichuan province related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake.  

PubMed

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ? D and ?(18)O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K(+)and SO4(-) of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Du, Jianguo; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

456

Hydrochemistry of the Hot Springs in Western Sichuan Province Related to the Wenchuan MS 8.0 Earthquake  

PubMed Central

Hydrogeochemistry of 32 hot springs in the western Sichuan Province after the Wenchuan MS 8.0 earthquake was investigated by analyzing the concentrations of cation and anion and the isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen. The water samples of the hot springs were collected four times from June 2008 to April 2010. Hydrogeochemical data indicated the water samples can be classified into 9 chemical types. Values of ?D and ?18O indicated that the spring waters were mainly derived from meteoric precipitation and affected by water-rock interaction and mixture of deep fluids. Concentrations of K+and SO4? of the samples from the Kangding district exhibited evident increases before the Wenchuan earthquake, indicating more supplement of deep fluids under the increase of tectonic stress. The chemical and isotopic variations of the water samples from the area closer to the epicenter area can be attributed to variation of regional stress field when the aftershock activities became weak. PMID:24892106

Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xiaocheng; Yi, Li; Liu, Lei; Xie, Chao; Cui, Yueju; Li, Ying

2014-01-01

457

Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Karstic Springs in Western Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrogeochemical approach using recharge, circulate, and discharge data from different carbonate rocks with varying ages were collected and analyzed from several springs in Western Turkey to better understand Karstic aquifers. Samples were collected from the Paleozoic-Mesozoic marbles (K1, K3, K9, Sakarbasi and Kaymaz), the Jura-Cretaceous limestones (Sagalasus, Nardin, Deliktas, Kayaa?zi, and Adaköy Springs), and the Neocene limestones (K7 and K8). In situ measurements in wet and dry seasons were compared in order to explain aquifer characteristics and how they would be affected by varying types of precipitation resulting from changes in climate. The groundwaters have pH values ranging from 6 to 8.9, temperatures (T) vary from 6 to 35°C, and electrical conductivity (EC) values go from 140 to 985 ?S/cm. EC results show that variations depended on not only circulation depth but also on lithology. The EC-Temperature and DO (Dissolved oxygen) relationships indicate the existence of waters with different origins. The groups that have high EC, high T, and low DO values represent the deep circulating water (K7, K1, and Hitit Pinari). Low EC, low T and high DO values represent the shallow circulating waters (K3, K8, K9, Pinargözü, Sagalasus, Yesilköy, Narli, and Adaköy Springs). Low variations of the measurements in both the wet and dry seasons (all nearly at constant temperature with low chemical composition variations) reveal that fracture permeability is dominated by diffused-flow-controlled groundwater flow (K1, K7, K3, K8 and K9). High variations of the measurements (temperature and chemical composition) in both the wet and dry seasons show focused infiltration from karstic structures (sinkholes, fractures, and joints) and dominated by conduit permeability. Climate change data shows that the number of heavy precipitation days has been increasing, especially in western Turkey, and usually cause extreme flood events. Despite a year in which cumulative precipitation may increase, the total amount of recharge may be less in aquifers dominated by diffused flow. This research reinforces the hypothesis that aquifers controlled by conduit permeability have rapid recharge and discharge rates after flood events, developed karst sinkholes allow fast percolation into the aquifer, up to 80 % of heavy rainfalls, and rapid recharge causes rapid discharge rates from springs, which have been observed after storms. So it can be said that the recharge of aquifers (shallow and dominated by conduit permeability) can increase, but at the same time this situation can cause extreme flood events.

Demiroglu, M.; Aktuna, Z.

2013-12-01

458

Biogeochemistry of hypersaline springs supporting a mid-continent marine ecosystem: an analogue for martian springs?  

PubMed

Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem. PMID:17723097

Grasby, Stephen E; Londry, Kathleen L

2007-08-01

459

Effects of synchronization with host plant phenology occur early in the larval development of a spring folivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early spring feeding Lepidoptera depend on synchronization of larval emergence with host plant phenology for optimal growth and development. Physical and chemical characteristics of foliage change over the course of the growing season, and a delay in larval emergence therefore results in larvae foraging on lower quality food. We examine the effect of synchronization of larval emergence with leaf phenology

B. C. Jones; E. Despland

2006-01-01

460

SOUTHWEST CATALYSIS 2013 SPRING SYMPOSIUM  

E-print Network

9:15 AM Jerry Spivey, LSU Cain Department of Chemical Engineering, Baton Rouge, LA "Natural Gas coupons available for drivers of cars to exit the garage for free. You will input the coupon upon exiting

Natelson, Douglas

461

Flow rates in the East Pacific rise (21/sup 0/N) hot springs, and numerical investigations of two regimes of hydrothermal circulation  

SciTech Connect

Flow rates of 0.7 to 2.4 m/s were measured in the hot springs on the East Pacific Rise (21/sup 0/N). We estimate that the Southwest, National Geographic, and the OBS vents collectively discharge 2 x 10/sup 8/ watts and 150 kg H/sub 2/O/S. The lifetimes of hot springs can not exceed 40,000 years because of the limited heat supply. Mechanical or chemical clogging of the flow routes may shorten these lifetime significantly. We predict that less than 3% of the sulfide particles debouched by the hot springs settle near the vents.

Converse, D.R.

1985-01-01

462

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures.

DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

1993-11-23

463

Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint  

DOEpatents

A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

DeMario, Edmund E. (Columbia, SC); Lawson, Charles N. (Columbia, SC)

1993-01-01

464

Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

465

Using the translational potential energy of springs for prosthetic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robotic tendon is modeled and the stiffness of the spring is tuned so that the spring power reduces the peak motor power and energy required for ankle gait. When determining stiffness from gait literature, it is usually assumed that one side of the spring is fixed. We assume that the spring is translating to derive a second method to

Jeffrey A. Ward; Thomas G. Sugar; Kevin W. Hollander

2011-01-01

466

Relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot springs usually are situated in the volcanic belt of a convergent zone and are utilized as indicators of geothermal potential in an area. Characteristics of hot springs in Japan have been examined in order to understand the relationship between hot springs and geothermal fields. The characteristics examined include locations of hot springs, their temperature, density of distribution, flow rate,

Hemendra R. Acharya

1989-01-01

467

NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005  

E-print Network

NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005 Dr. Jennifer Sepez, Alaska Fisheries Science Center #12;NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005 #12;NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22 Communities #12;NOAA Fisheries Silver Spring, MD, June 22, 2005 · Compiling Data · Data in the Profiles · Data

468

Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O values that are as much as 4% less than predicted equilibrium values. This isotopic shift may record microbial respiration as well as downstream transport of travertine crystals. Despite the production of H2S and the abundance of sulfide oxidizing microbes, preliminary delta 34S data do not uniquely define the microbial metabolic pathways present in the spring system. This suggests that the high extent of CO2 degassing and large open-system solute reservoir in these thermal systems overwhelm biological controls on travertine crystal chemistry.

Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

2000-01-01

469

Environmental consequences of geochemical change in hot spring ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal systems provide a natural laboratory for studying the effects of geochemical change over time, and for testing predictions of how geochemical change will affect microbial ecology. Hot springs in hydrothermal areas that express the results of subsurface boiling, phase separation, and differential movement of liquid phase and vapor phase constituents can fluctuate in temperature and composition. Since 1999 we have sampled several fluctuating hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, and those hat experience large geochemical changes provide opportunities to quantify the effects of fluctuations on chemical energy supplies. Annual samples from Obsidian Pool (Mud Volcano Area) showed that pH increased from 6.5 (in 1999) to 6.8 (’00), steadily decreased to 4.2 (’06), and then increased to 5.2 (’09), with temperature ranging from 76.4 to 85.3°C. Simultaneously the chloride concentration increased by 65% (from 18.5 ppm in 1999 to 30.7 ppm in 2009), indicative of increased hydrothermal input, and the sulfate concentration increased by over 300% (from 50.0 ppm in 2000 to 203.8 ppm in 2009), suggesting an increased gas-phase sulfide input and subsequent oxidation. Several energy yielding reactions at a pH of 6.5 no longer yield energy at pH of 4.2. This suggests that microorganisms that use those pathways had a negative selection pressure with the drop in pH. As an example, the chemical affinity for sulfur reduction to pyrite coupled to iron oxidation to goethite changed from 7.1 (pH = 6.5) to -1.3 kcal/mol e- (pH = 4.2), and once again had a positive value at pH = 5.2. This means that microorganisms using this pathway may once again inhabit the hot spring while many others from when the pH was 6.5 still have a negative selection pressure. The pH of another hot spring in the Sylvan Springs Area steadily increased from 3.7 (’04) to 7.6 (’08) while the temp. decreased from 52.9 to 41.9°C, chloride concentration increased by 32% (from 464 to 614 ppm), and the sulfate concentration decreased by 36 % (from 255 to 166 ppm). The changes suggest an increased liquid-phase hydrothermal input (increasing Cl) coupled with a decreased gas-phase input (sulfide, oxidized to sulfate). Many reactions that do not yield energy at pH = 3.7 become energy yielding at pH = 7.6, including methanogenesis from CO or CO2 coupled with H2S oxidation to pyrite. These examples from the geochemistry of fluctuating hot spring systems illustrate how predictions can be made about dynamic changes in microbial ecosystems that can be tested by molecular methods.

Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

2010-12-01

470

Spring afforestation achievements in Hebei  

SciTech Connect

This article demonstrates how the use of contract responsibility systems in a Chinese province resulted in successful afforestation. During the spring afforestation drive, 179 million trees were planted, fulfilling 89.6% of the annual plan. The province released 800,000 mu of mountain land for private use and contracted 1.76 million mu of mountain land. The number of specialized forestry households and key households has reached 63,000. Responsibility systems have been adopted for the management, protection and afforestation of most of the forests on the plains. Many technical forest cadres have signed joint production contracts with production units directly to promote technical development, improve forest quality and speed up the greening of the environment.

Zhang Huasong; Li, Q.; Peng, C.

1983-05-30

471

Cold Spring Harbor study shows how “bookmarking” genes before cell division accelerates their subsequent reactivation:  

Cancer.gov

In order for cells of different types to maintain their identities even after repeated rounds of cell division, each cell must “remember” which genes were active before division and pass along that memory to its daughter cells. Cells deal with this challenge by deploying a “bookmarking” process... This bookmark, the [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory] scientists show, is a histone molecule that has undergone a chemical modification called acetylation, which alters its interactions with DNA as well as with proteins that bind to it.

472

MatE 152 Spring 2011 Page 1 of 8 San Jos State University  

E-print Network

MatE 152 Spring 2011 Page 1 of 8 San José State University Chemical and Materials Engineering MatE Days/Time: Tu and Th 1:30-2:45 pm in E395 Prerequisites: Prerequisite: 2.0 average for MATE 115, MATE 141, MATE 151, MATE 154 and MATE 155; ENGR 100W; CHE 162 Course Description Upon completion of MatE

Gleixner, Stacy

473

Nitrogen cycling in Hot Spring Sediments and Biofilms (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past several decades, gene-targeted analyses have revealed that microbial communities in hydrothermal environments can be surprisingly diverse. However, we know shockingly little about basic ecological functions such as carbon and nitrogen cycling or community shifts over time, or environmental parameters such as growth criteria. Previous work has shown that carbon cycling in one hot spring in Yellowstone National Park [“Bison Pool”] and its associated runoff channel functions as a complex system. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient at this location revealed that multiple autotrophic carbon fixation pathways are functioning in this system, and nitrogen fixation varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [1]. Further, sequencing of metagenomes from multiple locations at “Bison Pool” has indicated the presence of genes involved in carbon fixation [both phototrophic and autotrophic], and heterotrophy, as well as nitrogen fixation [2]. Studies from other Yellowstone locations have also found genetic evidence for carbon and nitrogen fixation [3-5]. The role of individual microbes in nitrogen cycling as environmental conditions vary over space and time is the focus of this study. Here, we explore the diversity of nifH [nitrogen fixation], nirK [nitrite reduction] and amoA [ammonia oxidation] genes across a variety of Yellowstone environments. Environmental nucleic acids were extracted, and the presence/absence of Bacteria and Archaea determined by PCR. In addition, PCR-directed screens reveal the presence or absence of the aforementioned functional genes, indicating genetic capacity for nitrogen cycling. We have examined the transition of genetic diversity and genetic capacity within sediments and biofilms at the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone in several hot springs spanning ranges of pH and geochemical conditions. By sampling across this ecotone, changes in the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation as a function of changing community structure become apparent. Our results provide insight into shifts in genomic and transcriptomic function in the context of niches within hot spring environments, and the effect of availability of fixed nitrogen on the growth habit of microbial communities in situ in these ecosystems. [1] Havig et al., 2010. Merging isotopes and community genomics in a siliceous sinter-depositing hot spring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences (in press). [2] Raymond et al., 2008. EOS Trans AGU. Abstract B14A-03. [3] Hall et al., 2008. Molecular characterization of the diversity and distribution of a thermal spring microbial community using rRNA and metabolic genes. AEM 74:4910-4922. [4] Steunou et al., 2006. In situ analysis of nitrogen fixation and metabolic switching in unicellular thermophilic Cyanobacteria inhabiting hot spring microbial mats. PNAS 103:2398-2403. [5] Boyd et al., 2009. CO2 uptake and fixation by a thermoacidophilic microbial community attached to precipitated sulfur in a geothermal spring. AEM 75:4289-4296.

Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Burton, M. S.; Havig, J. R.; Shock, E.

2010-12-01

474

Observation and characterization of an optical spring  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical developments have highlighted the potential importance of 'optical springs' in interferometers for gravitational wave detection as a means for beating the standard quantum limit. We have observed an optical spring effect experimentally in a detuned Fabry-Perot resonator in which one mirror is mounted on a flexure so that it has a significant response to radiation pressure. The main effect of the optical spring, an observed shift in the mechanical resonance frequency of the moveable mirror, agrees well with a simple model.

Sheard, Benjamin S.; Gray, Malcolm B.; Mow-Lowry, Conor M.; McClelland, David E.; Whitcomb, Stanley E. [Centre for Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200 (Australia); LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

2004-05-01

475

Application of spring tabs to elevator controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

Phillips, William H

1944-01-01

476

Chemical Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an excellent resource for teachers and students. It offers countless lab ideas for teaching chemical and physical changes and is geared for fifth through eighth grade. It also gives interactive web addresses for students and includes PowerPoint presentations on this topic.

can& #39; t tell- a science educator- not affiliated with any specific organization

2011-10-10

477

Chemical separations  

SciTech Connect

This volume collects papers presented at a conference on chemical separation. Topics include: field-flow fractionation, chromatography, electrophoresis, solvent extraction in metals recovery, extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid, modeling of flow fields in oscillating droplets, inclusion, and membrane processes.

King, J.C.; Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01

478

Chemical Wonders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to chemical engineering and learn about its many different applications. They are provided with a basic introduction to matter and its different properties and states. An associated hands-on activity gives students a chance to test their knowledge of the states of matter and how to make observations using their five senses: touch, smell, sound, sight and taste.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

479

Chemical Mahjong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An open-access, Web-based mnemonic game is described whereby introductory chemistry knowledge is tested using mahjong solitaire game play. Several tile sets and board layouts are included that are themed upon different chemical topics. Introductory tile sets can be selected that prompt the player to match element names to symbols and metric…

Cossairt, Travis J.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

2011-01-01

480

Delicious Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an approach to chemistry and nutrition that focuses on food items that people consider delicious. Information is organized according to three categories of food chemicals that provide energy to the human body: (1) fats and oils; (2) carbohydrates; and (3) proteins. Minerals, vitamins, and additives are also discussed along with…

Barry, Dana M.