Sample records for welfare equipment chromosome

  1. Chromosome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genes . It is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist ... come in pairs. Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). ...

  2. After Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biewen, John

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

  3. Race and Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Bonds

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in

  4. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01...standards for office space, equipment, and facilities...Section 205.170 Public Welfare Regulations...GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...standards for office space, equipment, and...

  5. Welfare in horse breeding.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, P

    2015-04-25

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  6. Child welfare outcomes revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyndie Murray; Thomas P. McDonald

    2000-01-01

    The use of outcome measures in child welfare has been part of agency and academic discussions for at least two decades. In 1989, McDonald, Lieberman, Poertner and Hornby contributed to the implementation of an outcome focus through the publication of “Child Welfare Standards for Success.” That paper presented the results of a comprehensive review of published and unpublished research that

  7. Happiness and Welfare

    E-print Network

    Meseroll, Sean

    2014-08-31

    In this dissertation I argue that while hedonism seems to be the correct theory of happiness, happiness does not seem to be the essence of welfare; after all, it appears that a person may be brainwashed over a given duration, ...

  8. [Animal welfare and profit motive in compatible pet shops].

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, H

    1996-02-01

    In recent years, the zoo specialist shops have realized that their survival is depending from an adequate translation of animal welfare aspects, corresponding to its significance in our society. In particular, this includes that the shop's pet animals are presented adequately, that the offer of pet equipment is in conformity with animal welfare rules and that a competent consultation of the clients, including all animal species offered is ensured. PMID:8720799

  9. Chromosome Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2003-09-26

    This interactive feature provides a microscopic view of the 24 Human chromosomes. Each chromosome is labeled with the names of some of the genetic conditions and traits associated with particular regions on that chromosome.

  10. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  11. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  12. Health insurance coverage after welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bowen Garrett; John Holahan

    2000-01-01

    This DataWatch examines the health insurance coverage of former welfare recipients who left welfare between January 1995 and mid-1997, using data from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families. Although the major- ity of women who left welfare were working, only 33 percent of these women obtained health coverage through their jobs. Rates of uninsurance increase with the number of

  13. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  14. Off Welfare, into Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

  15. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  16. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  17. Advertising and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

    1978-01-01

    This paper applies conventional welfare-theoretic methods to study advertising which changes consumer tastes. In a wide range of empirically plausible circumstances, private profitability is seen to be necessary but not sufficient for the social desirability of a small amount of advertising. The market equilibrium level of such advertising is shown to be socially excessive, even when postadvertising tastes are used

  18. Inflation and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

  19. Replacing Welfare with Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Laura

    1977-01-01

    Describes President Carter's proposed system to give welfare and other low-income families a chance to earn their way out of poverty. Focus is on the Jobs for Families component which combines the Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Supplemental Security Income for the aged, blind, and disabled; and Food Stamps in a single cash assistance…

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  1. Sex Chromosome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

    2005-04-14

    A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

  2. Development of intelligent parking support system for welfare vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Yasunobu; Keita Kinoshita

    2003-01-01

    Welfare vehicles are convenient equipments for a senior citizen. Because they have a nonholonomic characteristic, driving them are uneasy. Especially, since the area that can move in the parking lot is limited, the operation is very difficult. To help him parking, an intelligent parking support system by fuzzy control that built in expert's knowledge is developed. This system supports other

  3. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the occurence of genetic errors. Top of page Glossary of Terms When reading about chromosomes and chromosome ... of many of these words in the Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms . A few additional terms are ...

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

  5. Human Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

    2005-03-12

    Representation of the 23 paired chromosomes of the human male. Chromosome: a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism. a. Structure of a chromosome (Typical metaphase chromosome): A chromosome is formed from a single DNA molecule that contains many genes. A chromosomal DNA molecule contains three specific nucleotide sequences which are required for replication: a DNA replication origin; a centromere to attach the DNA to the mitotic spindle.; a telomere located at each end of the linear chromosome. The DNA molecule is highly condensed. The human DNA helix occupy too much space in the cell. Small proteins are responsible for packing the DNA into units called nucleosomes. b. Stained chromosomes: Chromosomes are stained with A-T (G bands) and G-C (R bands) base pair specific dyes. When they are stained, the mitotic chromosomes have a banded structure that unambiguously identifies each chromosome of a karyotype. Each band contains millions of DNA nucleotide pairs which do not correspond to any functional structure. Adapted from K.F. Jorgenson, J.H. van de Sande, and C.C. Lin, Chromosoma 68:287-302, 1978. c. Karyotype of a male: The human haploid genome contains 3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs, divided among twenty two (22) pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

  6. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

  7. Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

  8. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  9. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  10. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  11. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan...normal compensation, out of the employer's...employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan...accidents occurring during working hours. (d) Holiday...employee welfare benefit plan” and...

  12. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan...normal compensation, out of the employer's...employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan...accidents occurring during working hours. (d) Holiday...employee welfare benefit plan” and...

  13. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control. PMID:22688439

  14. Chromosome Shuffle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tamsen Knowlton Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing the parts of chromosomes and centrioles, learners use large chromosome models and nylon cords (spindle fibers and cell membranes) to walk through the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Physical manipulation of the chromosomes and their parts in the process of cell division and replication both clarifies and reinforces some very abstract concepts for learners. The activity demonstrates crossing over and gene linkage. It may be extended to illustrate chromosome anomalies such as deletions and trisomies. Models can be used to show other mutation types as well as x-linkage. A large floor space is needed for this activity.

  15. Green accounting and the welfare gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Turner; John Tschirhart

    1999-01-01

    Although gross domestic product (GDP) is not intended to be a measure of societal welfare, it is often used as such. One shortcoming as a welfare measure is that it fails to account for the non-marketed value of natural resource flows. The difference between societal welfare and GDP is labelled the ‘welfare gap’. A model that accounts for both market

  16. Does the loss of welfare income increase the risk of involvement with the child welfare system?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen Shook Slack

    1999-01-01

    This analysis is based on administrative, survey, and qualitative data from a study of welfare recipients in the Chicago metropolitan area. A relationship between welfare income reductions and child welfare risk is tested, and employment is found to moderate this relationship. Respondents who lacked employment income when their welfare grants were substantially reduced faced greater odds of child welfare system

  17. Welfare reform and female headship.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John M; Ribar, David C

    2004-05-01

    While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at decisions regarding living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage, and cohabitation. This article assesses the impact of welfare reform waivers and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. We pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which span the period when many states began to adopt welfare waivers and to implement TANF, and estimated logit models of the incidence of female headship and state-stratified, Cox proportional hazard models of the rates of entry into and exit from headship. We found little consistent evidence that waivers affected female headship of families. PMID:15209037

  18. Public Capital, Growth and Welfare

    E-print Network

    Public Capital, Growth and Welfare Pierre-Richard Agénor University of Manchester Centre for Growth Time allocated to own health Time allocated to child rearing Children's health education Time allocated

  19. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  20. The Economics of Sheep Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Milne; A. W. Stott; J. M. Santarossa

    This chapter aims to provide an introduction to some of the economic issues surrounding the welfare of farmed sheep. Typically,\\u000a ethical issues, or welfare indicators measured by natural scientists (physiological, physical and behavioural), gain precedence\\u000a in discussion, and economic aspects are considered to be side issues. Moreover, economics is assumed, by some, to be a means\\u000a of justifying profit generation

  1. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards. PMID:16358524

  2. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern. PMID:24875152

  3. chromosomal mutations I. Chromosomal mutations

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    /6,0001/6,000Trisomy-18Trisomy-18 DownDown1/8001/800Trisomy-21Trisomy-21 syndromesyndrome. The loss of one chromosome to produce a 2n ­ 1 complement is called Trisomy involves the addition/ either 3 members (trisomy) or only one member (monosomy) of the chromosome. gene imbalance - results

  4. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

  5. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

  6. Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

  7. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  8. Education and Training under Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Marie

    1998-01-01

    Some welfare experts and policymakers advocate providing education and training to prepare welfare recipients for jobs that will eventually help them leave poverty (the "work first" approach), whereas others advocate placing welfare recipients in jobs immediately whenever possible. Although the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  9. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  10. Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

  11. Gender Biases in Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Risley-Curtiss; Kristin Heffernan

    2003-01-01

    Gender biases are pervasive in child welfare research and practice. Although these biases have been addressed to some extent in the literature, there continues to be a lack of information on fathers and an overrepresentation of information on mothers, and thus the biases continue. This article explores how these biases are currently manifested in both research and practice and makes

  12. Human cloning and child welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Burley; J Harris

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or

  13. Interagency Collaboration and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Tara

    2000-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes raises some major issues that agencies may want to address as they consider expanding collaborative efforts. It describes collaborative efforts and identifies resources that could prove useful in designing successful collaborations. Section 1 offers background. Section 2 answers these…

  14. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  15. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  16. Welfare: Occupational Cluster Series-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David H., Comp.; Moore, Allen B., Comp.

    This compilation of ERIC abstracts dealing with welfare is the 10th in a series that identifies research and instructional materials in selected occupational clusters. Sixty-three documents were identified by means of computer searches of "Research in Education" from 1967 to December 1972. Instructions on how to use ERIC reference products are…

  17. Schooling, Welfare and Parental Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, Michael G.

    Issues of child protection, child abuse, and delinquency have generated public and academic concerns about the ability of adults to underwrite the physical, moral, and social welfare of children. At the same time, recent educational reform has provoked debate about the shifting balance of power between parents and teachers. This book combines…

  18. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    are the U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and TrainingOffice of Laboratory Animal Welfare National Institutes of Health PublicHealthService Policyon

  19. Child Welfare Outcome Indicator Matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nico Trocmé; Butch Nutter; Bruce MacLaurin; Barbara Fallon

    Child welfare practice is at a turning point in Canada. Inquests and media interest have drawn public attention to the plight of mal- treated children. With this increased attention there is a risk that the complexity inherent in helping maltreated children and their families may not be fully recognized. The pro- posed multi-dimensional ecological framework reflects the complex balance child

  20. Air quality and human welfare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  1. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  2. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  3. University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt, including the return of proceeds to the Federal government. Estimated proceeds: $ Purchase Order: Sale: Any of proceeds to the Federal government. Estimated proceeds: $ FAS Account: Stolen: University Police Department

  4. USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

  5. Inversion Chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orsetta Zuffardi; Roberto Ciccone; Sabrina Giglio; Tiziano Pramparo

    A number of findings revealed that chromosome inversions are more frequent than deduced from classical cytogenetic studies.\\u000a Indeed, some paracentric cryptic inversions have been found to be flanked by segmental duplications, either causing a Mendelian\\u000a disease owing to the interruption of specific genes at inversion breakpoints or being present in the normal population as\\u000a a polymorphism. In the latter case,

  6. Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  7. Welfare to Work. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    "Welfare to work" is an issue in the substance abuse field because of the high number of people on welfare who have a substance abuse problem. One-fourth of women on welfare either abuse or are addicted to alcohol or other drugs. For women ages 18-24 the incidence is as high as 37%, according to the Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.…

  8. The Nordic Path of Spain's Mediterranean Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Moreno

    Abstract Despite the fact that the Nordic welfare model has become less exceptional in recent times, it con- tinues to offer numerous examples for “best practices” in social policy provision, together with a high degree,of welfare political legitimacy. This paper,explores Nordic “benchmarking”,as refer- ence to the ,case of welfare ,development ,in Spain. In the general process ,of convergence ,of the

  9. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  10. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  11. The Duration of Spells on Welfare and Off-welfare among Lone Mothers in Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Stewart; Martin Dooley

    This paper provides a first look at the dynamics of social assistance use among lone mothers in Ontario. We use an administrative caseload data set to analyse the relationship between the duration of spells, both on welfare and off welfare, and a series of factors including the clients’ personal characteristics, their history of welfare use, the duration of current spells,

  12. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Human Resources, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of the welfare programs in two counties bordering different states along with comparative welfare expenditure in interior counties tests the theory that Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients migrate to counties which have a higher per capita welfare budget. Research shows that border counties with a $100 differential…

  13. Child Welfare Workers: Who They Are and How They View the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zell, Maristela C.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics of child welfare caseworkers, their views of the child welfare system, their clients, their agency of employment, and child welfare policies, and whether these views vary according to caseworkers' characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with…

  14. Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörgen Hansen; Magnus Löfström

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee

  15. Welfare Transitions in the 1990s: The Economy, Welfare Policy, and the EITC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Grogger

    2003-01-01

    The rapid decline in the welfare caseload remains a subject of keen interest to both policymakers and researchers. In this paper, I use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation spanning the period from 1986 to 1999 to analyze how the economy, welfare reform, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and other factors influenced welfare entries and exits, which

  16. Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare

  17. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

  18. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  19. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  20. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  1. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  2. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

  3. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

  4. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies...health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient...impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...

  5. Deposition Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

  6. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  7. Toward a new welfare economics for sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gowdy

    2005-01-01

    The debate over various definitions of sustainability has for the most part been conducted within the framework of traditional welfare economics. Discussion has centered on technical issues imbedded within the functional forms of various optimization models, especially the coefficient of the elasticity of substitution and the social discount rate. Two more basic problems are: (1) intractable theoretical difficulties within welfare

  8. Welfare Effects of Global Patent Protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan V Deardorff

    1992-01-01

    This paper uses a simple model of invention and patent protection to examine the welfare effects of extending patent protection from the country where invention takes place to another country that is only a consumer of invented products. It is shown that, while the welfare of the inventing country certainly rises with the extension of patent protection, that of the

  9. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  10. Understanding and Measuring Child Welfare Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Dandrade; Kathy Lemon Osterling; Michael J. Austin

    2008-01-01

    The new “Children's and Family Services Reviews” (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and

  11. Phantom Welfare: Public Relief for Corporate America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Daniel D.; Johnson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and quantifies major types of federal subsidies to American businesses, calling subsidies important policies that directly affect more traditional welfare programs. Notes that policies responsible for "phantom welfare state" represent major redistribution of wealth that partially accounts for growing gap between rich and poor. Discusses…

  12. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  13. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  14. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  15. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  16. Child Welfare, the Media, and Capacity Building

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine Briar-Lawson; Kelly Martinson; Jen Briar-Bonpane; Kathryn Zox

    2011-01-01

    Public child welfare systems and practices have been scrutinized, if not criticized, by the media. In response a “circle the wagons” orientation to the media may ensue. This article lays out more strategic ways in which media engagement with community initiatives may help to advance the public's understanding of child welfare and child safety. An array of suggestions is offered

  17. Child Welfare In-Service Training

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    to learning and improving. This is important work as child welfare professionals have the opportunity to saveFall 2013 Child Welfare In-Service Training for the Michigan Department of Human Services & DHS-Contracted Private Agencies Delivered by the seven Michigan Graduate Schools of Social Work OFFERING SOcIal WORk c

  18. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  19. Child Welfare in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldgate, Jane; Hill, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of recent changes in legislation and social policy with respect to child welfare in England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Discusses the effect of the Children Act 1989 on children's services in England and contrasts England's services with the organization of child welfare services in Scotland and Northern Ireland.…

  20. Self-rated economic welfare in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Ravallion; Michael Lokshin

    2002-01-01

    Most of those Russian adults who feel that they are poor are not classified as such in the poverty statistics, and most of those who are classified as poor don't feel that way. We study the determinants of peoples’ perceptions of their economic welfare in an unusually rich socioeconomic survey. While income is a highly significant predictor, subjective economic welfare

  1. Summary of State Welfare Waiver Requests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, J. Larry

    Since the passage of the Family Support Act in 1988, states have been pursuing a variety of experiments in welfare policy innovation. This document summarizes state welfare waiver requests reviewed and approved by the Department of Health and Human Services as of September 1995. Included in the document is a list of definitions of waiver provision…

  2. Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

  3. AID and the Single Welfare Mother.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooms, Theodora; Steinfels, Margaret O'Brien

    1983-01-01

    Debates the issue of voluntary artificial insemination among single women who depend on public assistance. Ooms argues that eligibility for welfare should be based on court defined criteria rather than on moral judgments, while Steinfels suggests that the welfare of the child is most important in any consideration. (Author/AOS)

  4. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

  5. Risk and Safety Assessment in Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Dandrade; Michael J. Austin; Amy Benton

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of risk is a critical part of child welfare agency practice. This review of the research literature on different instruments for assessing risk and safety in child welfare focuses on instrument reliability, validity, outcomes, and use with children and families of color. The findings suggest that the current actuarial instruments have stronger predictive validity than consensus-based instruments. This

  6. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  7. International Fund for Animal Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the past few years, a finely nuanced sensibility about the shared interests and coexistence of human and animals has emerged as a number of international organizations have begun work and advocacy efforts in this area. The work of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) began three decades ago when a group of individuals decided to come together to stop a hunt for white-coat harp seals on the eastern coast of Canada. Since that time, the IFAW has expanded its work across the world, and this site affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the organization's work, read its annual reports from the past several years, and find out more about its different campaigns across different regions. Visitors can click on different parts of an interactive world map to look at this information or browse a list of animals in the "Save Animals" section of the site.

  8. Welfare indicators during broiler slaughtering.

    PubMed

    Grilli, C; Loschi, A R; Rea, S; Stocchi, R; Leoni, L; Conti, F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most relevant welfare indicators for unloading, lairage, stunning, killing and post-mortem inspection in a poultry slaughter plant. Different indicators were unloading duration, lairage time, environmental variables in the lairage facilities, shackling time and electrical variables used in the water bath. Lairage time did not correlate strongly with dead on arrival. Heat stress was limited by means of ventilation systems, correct cage placement and appropriate stocking density per crate. The acceptable shackling period was about 30 s. The presence of a corneal reflex showed that an animal was alive, while spontaneous wing flapping, spontaneous eye blinking and response to a painful stimulus were regarded as indicators of stunning efficiency. It was concluded that the presence of recent traumatic injuries during the post-mortem inspection could be a valid means to establish whether corrective measures concerning the handling, transport and loading procedures should be taken. PMID:25567419

  9. Linking Chromosome Duplication and Segregation via Sister Chromatid Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication during S phase generates two identical copies of each chromosome. Each chromosome is destined for a daughter cell, but each daughter must receive one and only one copy of each chromosome. To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells are equipped with a mechanism to pair the chromosomes during chromosome duplication and hold the pairs until a bi-oriented mitotic spindle is formed and the pairs are pulled apart. This mechanism is known as sister chromatid cohesion, and its actions span the entire cell cycle. During G1, before DNA is copied during S phase, proteins termed cohesins are loaded onto DNA. Paired chromosomes are held together through G2 phase, and finally the cohesins are dismantled during mitosis. The processes governing sister chromatid cohesion ensure that newly replicated sisters are held together from the moment they are generated to the metaphase–anaphase transition, when sisters separate. PMID:24906310

  10. Human chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S

    1988-01-01

    The role of human chromosome 8 in genetic disease together with the current status of the genetic linkage map for this chromosome is reviewed. Both hereditary genetic disease attributed to mutant alleles at gene loci on chromosome 8 and neoplastic disease owing to somatic mutation, particularly chromosomal translocations, are discussed. PMID:3070042

  11. Mitotic chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, Dieter W., E-mail: heermann@tphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  12. Implementing Welfare Reform: Solutions to the Substance Abuse Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nancy K.; Gardner, Sidney L.

    Implementing welfare reform will require difficult decisions from states about how to treat welfare clients who have problems with alcohol or other drugs (AOD). The processes by which states may respond to welfare reform are detailed in this guidebook. It is suggested that states begin with values clarification regarding welfare clients who abuse…

  13. Welfare Reform, Family Hardship, and Women of Color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Burnham

    2001-01-01

    Welfare reform has increased the hardships faced by many women leaving welfare for work. Their movement into low-wage jobs, or to no work, exposes them to higher levels of housing insecurity, homelessness, food insecurity, and hunger. Women of color, overrepresented on the welfare rolls, are especially vulnerable to the negative impacts of welfare reform.

  14. Commitment To Work among Welfare-Reliant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Pamela A.; Tiller, Vicky V.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the work of welfare reliant women and reveals commitment to work in the experiences of 84 welfare reliant, rural women interviewed for this study. Discussion focuses on women's formal participation in and barriers to the labor force; survival strategies for making ends meet while receiving welfare; and the stigma of welfare receipt. (BF)

  15. A Look at Child Welfare from a Homeless Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Although navigating the child welfare system can be daunting for those working in the field of homeless education, local liaisons and others must determine whether children in the child welfare system are eligible for McKinney-Vento services and collaborate with child welfare staff. This document provides an overview of the U.S. child welfare

  16. Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

  17. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terra McKinnish

    2005-01-01

    I test for welfare-induced migration by comparing AFDC participation in border counties to interior counties within states. If migration costs are lower for border-county residents, border counties on the high-benefit side of a state border should have higher welfare participation relative to interior counties of the same state. Border counties on the low-benefit side should have lower welfare participation relative

  18. Editorial Resources in Work and Welfare 

    E-print Network

    PUDIACwowe

    2010-01-01

    This paper collates information on the top English-language publishing outlets in the field of work and welfare, including peer-reviewed journals and book series with large academic publishers. It is intended as a bookshelf resource for scholars...

  19. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

  20. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  1. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    PubMed

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting. PMID:23034780

  2. Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of annual reports from the Department of Health and Human Services required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA). The report "presents data on State performance in meeting the needs of children and families who come into contact with the child welfare system, focusing specifically on the "outcomes, or results, for these children." It also examines the condition of child welfare programs nationwide, presents data measuring outcomes, and offers findings and conclusions.

  3. Toward relationship-based child welfare services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Lawler; Phillip R. Shaver; Gail S. Goodman

    2011-01-01

    A relationship-based theoretical framework for child welfare services is proposed. Research literature is reviewed relative to attachment theory, relationship quality of maltreated child–parent and maltreated child–surrogate parent dyads, and effective child–parent and child–surrogate parent relationship-enhancing interventions. Authors recommend that establishment or repair of a protective, emotionally responsive positive child–parent or child–surrogate parent relationship be the central focus of child welfare

  4. Educating for Excellence in Child Welfare Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa G. Hodges; Linda Jewell Morgan; Brewster Johnston

    1993-01-01

    Public Law 96-272, the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, ushered in a new era in child welfare. Home-based programs designed to prevent out-of-home placement of children expanded rapidly. Today, many agencies struggle to hire and maintain staff who are well trained in the knowledge, values, and skills of family preservation practice. This paper describes a unique and innovative graduate

  5. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  6. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade. PMID:25000777

  7. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and food. Body condition and faeces consistence were worse in summer. Many daily grazing hours (range average above 3 to 9 h) turned out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing hours. PMID:23244468

  8. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Ring chromosome 4.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, A; Voyce, M A; Romain, D

    1977-01-01

    A mentally and physically retarded boy with a 46,XY,ring (4) (p16q35) chromosome complement is described. Chromosome banding showed that the amount of chromosome material deleted from the ring chromosome 4 was minimal, apparently no more than the telomeres. Chromosomal aberrations appear to be restricted to the production of double-sized dicentric rings, and aneuploidy. The mosiacism resulting from the behavioural peculiarities of ring chromosomes is described as dynamic mosaicism. It is suggested that the clinical features associated with this ring chromosome are more likely to be the result of the effects of a diploid/monosomy 4/polysomy 4 mosaicism than to the deficiency of the telomeric regions of the chromosome. Images PMID:881718

  10. Human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 21, describes in detail the human X chromosome. X chromatin (or Barr body) formation, inactivation and reactivation of the X chromosome, X;Y translocations, and sex reversal are discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Chromosomes Store genetic information

    E-print Network

    Evans, Brian L.

    as the same class · More common than smooth data on classifier decision boundary · Solution lies in combining human chromosomes form 24 classes ­ 22 different pairs ­ 2 sex chromosomes, X and Y · Goal: Segment

  12. The Postwar Greek Welfare Model within the Context of Southern European Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasiliki Rapti

    This chapter treats the welfare state as a historical phenomenon, which emerged after the Second World War, but its origins can be traced back in time. Its consolidation was the result of conflicts, but also compromises between oppositional social forces. The focus will be on the Greek case. However, the discourse over the special features of the Greek welfare state

  13. Welfare inequality, regionalisation, and welfare policy : measurement and analysis for Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Quadrado

    1999-01-01

    This study is focused on the changes in regional inequality in Spain over the last four decades, with emphasis on regional welfare. The two most important items of welfare in Spain are, health and education, and so these are the main focus of this study. Attention is paid to the levels and trends in inter and intra-regional disparities in the

  14. Welfare Monitoring Schemes: Using Research to Safeguard Welfare of Animals on the Farm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Barnett; Paul H. Hemsworth

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of nonhuman animal welfare monitoring schemes for animals on the farm in Australia and in other countries. Although the majority of such schemes are voluntary rather than legislated, some are nevertheless enforced through a number of customer requirements that industries must meet to gain access to markets. Animal welfare monitoring schemes rely on a number of

  15. Engaging Parents in Child Welfare Services: Bridging Family Needs and Child Welfare Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Susan P.; Marcenko, Maureen O.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Vesneski, William

    2009-01-01

    Calls for expanded use of tested child mental health interventions in child welfare practice add new urgency to the longstanding question of how to enhance parent engagement in child welfare services, where low and uneven levels of engagement are pervasive, and services to parents and children tend to be separated, leaving important opportunities…

  16. Methamphetamine and the Changing Face of Child Welfare: Practice Principles for Child Welfare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child…

  17. Education and Partnerships in Child Welfare: Mapping the Implementation of a Child Welfare Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Scottye J.; Mathiesen, Sally G.; Barbanell, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of focus groups conducted with participants following the completion of a Child Welfare Practice Certificate Program. Concept mapping was used as the guiding research method for the data collection and analysis. Social work students and child welfare workers generated statements during the focus group session that…

  18. EDUCATION AND PARTNERSHIPS IN CHILD WELFARE: MAPPING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A CHILD WELFARE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scottye J. Cash; Thomas E. Smith; Sally G. Mathiesen; Pamela Graham; Lisa D. Barbanell

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of focus groups conducted with participants following the completion of a Child Welfare Practice Certificate Program. Concept mapping was used as the guiding research method for the data collection and analysis. Social work students and child welfare workers generated statements during the focus group session that were then sorted into conceptual piles. Participants then rated

  19. Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

    2006-01-01

    We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

  20. Welfare to Wages: Strategies To Assist the Private Sector To Employ Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Brandon; Padden, Jeffrey D.

    This report explores how private sector employers are reacting to, responding to, and participating in welfare-to-work (WTW) efforts. Chapter 1 explains the study background and approach. Chapter 2 examines the environment, perspectives, experiences, and role of business in the WTW process and presents findings about employment patterns of welfare

  1. What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

    2000-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

  2. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  3. Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Although targeted explicitly at changing adult behaviors and outcomes, welfare reform has direct implications for children. This guidebook details the results of the Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, designed to assist states in measuring child outcomes in the context of welfare reform programs. The guidebook is presented in three sections.…

  4. Chromosome Models: Karyotyping

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perkins School for the Blind

    2012-06-26

    This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can have a tactile opportunity to construct a karyotype, an organized model of an organism’s chromosomes, conveying the chromosome’s size and shape. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can learn about the organization of chromosomes which carry the genetic material in all cells that have a nucleus.

  5. Methamphetamine and the changing face of child welfare: practice principles for child welfare workers.

    PubMed

    Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child welfare has not addressed the needs of children living in homes where methamphetamine is manufactured (U.S. Department of Justice, 2002; DOJ, 2003; Altshuler, 2005). This article presents key issues for child welfare workers related to the use, production, and effects of methamphetamine on children and families, and identifies practice principles for child welfare workers in order to ensure safety for victims, parents, and workers themselves. PMID:17722684

  6. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Gillberg

    1998-01-01

    Many cases of autism appear to be caused by several abnormal genes acting in concert. The literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism is reviewed, with a view to finding potential gene markers for the neuropsychiatric disorder. Most of the chromosomes have been implicated in the genesis of autism. However, aberrations on the long arm of Chromosome 15 and numerical and

  7. Air pollution control equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Theodore; A. J. Buonicore

    1988-01-01

    These volumes provide the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment with appropriate practical applications and an introduction to design principles. Divided into two parts, this book addresses air pollution control equipment for particulate pollutants and control equipment for gaseous pollutants. Each of the control equipment chapters in Parts I and II contain sections dealing with introductory material description of equipment,

  8. A study on laws related to women's welfare.

    PubMed

    Kim, E

    1991-01-01

    Since 1980, the domestic policy of every Korean government has focused on the construction of a welfare society, yet real change remains elusive, leaving women particularly neglected. This study examines social security legislation, especially the laws that define the status and welfare of women with the goal of advancing women's welfare and eliminating sexual discrimination against them. Welfare laws and literature were collected and examined from Korea and aboard, and facilities were visited. This paper reviews: 1) the theoretical background of women's welfare including the feminist critique and strategies for the welfare state and social welfare, and the significance and necessity of women's welfare; 2) women's welfare: international treaties and trends, including the World Declaration of Human Rights, international agreements on human rights, the International Labor Organization Treaty, the UN Convention on the Elimination of Sexual Discrimination Against Women, and the women's development strategies toward the year 2000; 3) the analysis of the laws and regulations related to women's welfare, including the systematic organization of women's welfare law (judicial, and systematic organization by applicable clients), the constitutional basis of the women's welfare related legislation and legal principles, the main feature and problems of the women's welfare related legislation, e.g. the Social Security Act: the National Pensions Act, Medical Insurance Act, the Livelihood Protection Act, Mother-child Welfare Act, Child Welfare Act, the Anti-prostitution Act, and the Gender Equal Employment Act, and 4) the direction of revision of the women's welfare related legislation including the revision and legislation of women's welfare related laws, restructuring of the delivery system, and the formation of proper environment conducive to the realization of women's welfare. PMID:12285932

  9. A pivotal year for lab animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Holden, C

    1986-04-11

    Developments in the U.S. during 1985 related to laboratory animal welfare are discussed. The enactment of amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and revisions to the Public Health Service's animal care guidelines are described as major federal moves to tighten standards and to locate responsibility for proper animal care at the institutional level. These regulatory changes will have a significant economic impact on the cost of doing research, but are generally accepted by the scientific community as necessary. Although moderate animal welfare groups see signs of progress, there is a growing number of activists who see recent policy developments as only a step toward the real goal of total elimination of the use of animals in research. It is apparent that the combination of political pressure, financial stringency, and better experimental methodologies will result in a continued reduction in laboratory animal use. PMID:3952503

  10. Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made. PMID:19064447

  11. Autonomy, welfare and the treatment of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, R

    1989-01-01

    Many AIDS-related issues are polarised. At the social level, civil rights or liberties are seen as being in conflict with general utility, and an analogous distinction is often assumed to exist at the one-to-one, individual level at which doctors work. In this paper the latter form of the distinction is argued to be false. By seeing autonomy as part of welfare, doctors can think more directly about such issues as paternalism, confidentiality, and consent. A number of these issues are discussed in the light of the revised conception of welfare, in the form of simplified case studies. PMID:2746606

  12. Essays on the political economy of welfare and redistribution

    E-print Network

    Roh, Jungho

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores two main puzzles. First, why do some countries have more generous welfare policies than others? Second, why do some people support welfare policies more than others? This collection of essays ...

  13. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce

    E-print Network

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12

    This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

  14. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare association revenues may be derived from such sources as snack bars, vending machines, disciplinary fines, etc. (b) Student welfare association activities shall be funded from...

  15. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare association revenues may be derived from such sources as snack bars, vending machines, disciplinary fines, etc. (b) Student welfare association activities shall be funded from...

  16. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare association revenues may be derived from such sources as snack bars, vending machines, disciplinary fines, etc. (b) Student welfare association activities shall be funded from...

  17. Estimating Welfare In Insurance Markets Using Variation in Prices

    E-print Network

    Finkelstein, Amy

    We provide a graphical illustration of how standard consumer and producer theory can be used to quantify the welfare loss associated with inefficient pricing in insurance markets with selection. We then show how this welfare ...

  18. From preference to happiness: Towards a more complete welfare economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yew-Kwang Ng

    2003-01-01

    .   Welfare economics is incomplete as it analyzes preference without going on to analyze welfare (or happiness) which is the\\u000a ultimate objective. Preference and welfare may differ due to imperfect knowledge, imperfect rationality, and\\/or a concern\\u000a for the welfare of others (non-affective altruism). Imperfection in knowledge and rationality has a biological basis and the\\u000a resulting accumulation instinct amplifies with advertising-fostered

  19. Bio-logging and animal welfare: practical refinements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny Hawkins

    2004-01-01

    Although bio-logging can benefit both science and animal welfare, its applica- tion involves procedures that can cause animals pain, suffering and distress. It is essential— for both animal welfare and good science—to identify all sources of potential suffering asso- ciated with bio-logging and then to minimise suffering and improve welfare. This paper sum- marises key welfare concerns regarding wild animal

  20. Class, care, and welfare reform: reading meanings, talking feelings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Haylett

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a way of looking at welfare as a realm of affective well-being, which challenges dominant liberal and rationalist views of welfare as unemployment compensation or support on the route back to 'work'. With reference to welfare-to-work reform in Britain and, the United States, I examine liberal feminist and neoliberal policy discourses on women, work, and welfare. The

  1. The community development approach to animal welfare: an African perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheryl M. E McCrindle

    1998-01-01

    It is difficult to motivate the use of donor funding for animal welfare on a continent where there is human starvation, unless the promotion of animal welfare has spin-offs for human welfare. This paper addresses the possibility of a paradigm shift which would result in animal welfare succeeding in its aims through making it people-centred rather than animal-centred. It looks,

  2. Electrical equipment maintenance 101

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Mendler; Gary D. Osborne; Trey Thevenet; Monty Janak; Marty Janak

    2011-01-01

    This paper will explore the maintenance of electrical equipment. Specifically it will look at: 1) Why maintenance is performed on electrical equipment? 2) What, legal or other, drivers are behind performing electrical equipment maintenance? 3) Electrical equipment maintenance is performed on an interval, but what is the purpose of this interval and how is it determined? 4) What is the

  3. Ethnicity and the Intergenerational Transmission of Welfare Dependency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Borjas; Glenn T. Sueyoshi

    1997-01-01

    There exist sizeable differences in the incidence and duration of welfare spells across ethnic groups, and these differences tend to persist across generations. Using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, we find that children raised in welfare households are themselves more likely to become welfare recipients for longer durations. We also show that growing up in an ethnic environment characterized

  4. Indicators of Welfare Dependence. Annual Report to Congress, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This fourth annual report addresses the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, providing updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. It highlights benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary…

  5. After the Revolution: Welfare Patterns since TANF Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.; Wu, Chi-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Welfare programs changed dramatically in 1996. Caseloads dropped by more than 9 million recipients over an eight-year period, and millions entered the labor market in the wake of these changes. Since the start of the "welfare revolution," research has emerged to document the new ways former welfare recipients are using federal entitlement programs…

  6. Animal Welfare—Scientific Approaches to the Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne T. Millman

    2009-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The concept of animal welfare is consistent with the scientific method because questions are open to deductive reasoning, formation of hypotheses

  7. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  8. Collocation: Integrating Child Welfare and Substance Abuse Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunju Lee; Nina Esaki; Rose Greene

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a process evaluation of a pilot program to address parental substance abuse in the child welfare system. By placing substance abuse counselors in a local child welfare office, the collocation program was designed to facilitate early identification, timely referral to treatment, and improved treatment engagement of substance-abusing parents. Frontline child welfare workers in 6 of

  9. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence against Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Riger; Maryann Krieglstein

    2000-01-01

    Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist “backlash hypothesis” as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases

  10. The Child Welfare Profession's Perception of Residential Care for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry W.

    2008-01-01

    This research study explored the Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) perception of residential care for children, as a reflection of the child welfare profession as a whole. A content analysis of CWLA's national conference programs and the journal "Child Welfare" from 1997 to 2006 found that the profession emphasizes family foster care and…

  11. Managed care and child welfare: Challenges to implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Embry; Paul Buddenhagen; Spencer Bolles

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of managed care principles to the management of child welfare services. Interest to date has focused on application of these management tools to child welfare populations in the most costly segments of out-of-home care. This article is based on a review of the managed care evaluation literature and information gathered from child welfare

  12. After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    , the radical welfare reform of 1996 had transformed the social safety net, requiring work as a condition social welfare policies, implies that child poverty in the U.S., in the foreseeable future, will be much1 After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child poverty still so much higher in the U

  13. Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rick

    West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare

  14. Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

  15. Child Welfare and Media: Teaching Students to Be Advocates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci L. LaLiberte; Anita M. Larson; Nancy J. Johnston

    2011-01-01

    The public image of social workers in the news media is not always positive, but the portrayal of child welfare workers can be especially negative. This article discusses media and child welfare relations and offers several ways to engage students in critical thought and skill development to improve the image of child welfare workers and to educate the public about

  16. Governmental and Nongovernmental Youth Welfare in the New German Lander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlik, Marion; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Survey of the general conditions of youth welfare departments in eastern Germany revealed severe money shortages. Increasing demands on youth welfare, rising social problems, right-wing extremism, and widespread unemployment among youths cause long-term social problems and prohibit effective youth welfare. (RJM)

  17. Outlining a Conception of Animal Welfare for Organic Farming Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Helena Röcklinsberg

    2001-01-01

    The concept of animal welfare refersto the animal's quality of life. The choice ofdefinition always reflects some basicvaluation. This makes a particular conceptionof welfare value-dependent. Also, the animalhusbandry system reflects certain values oraims. The values reflected in the chosenconception of animal welfare ought tocorrespond to values aimed for in the husbandrysystem. The IFOAM Basic Standards and otherwritings dealing with organic

  18. Consumer and worker perceptions of key child welfare competencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett Drake

    1996-01-01

    Understanding key competencies in child welfare practice is a necessary prerequisite to improving practice technology and service delivery. Findings are reported from a series of focus groups which were held in Missouri. Two sets of focus groups were held, five groups consisting of consumers of child welfare services and four groups consisting of child welfare workers. Results show a high

  19. Employment among Current and Former Welfare Recipients: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan; Santhiveeran, Janaki; Lam, Brian Trung

    2006-01-01

    The primary goal of welfare reform is to move recipients from welfare to work. Several factors influence the employment of welfare recipients. The purpose of this content analysis is to offer a comprehensive understanding of employment characteristics and important personal, family, and employment characteristics that either promote or deter…

  20. Welfare effects of congestion pricing in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Wilson

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the Singapore Area License Scheme. Changes in scheduling and choices of transportation mode by commuters are discussed. Although the toll is shown to reduce travel times for many commuters, many commuters are shown to incur scheduling costs as a result of the toll. Using estimated parameters of an indirect utility function, welfare functions are computed to compare

  1. Multiple-Father Families and Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

  2. German collectivism and the welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliot Yale Neaman

    1990-01-01

    In contrast to members of other developed, capitalist societies, Germans still attach some positive connotations to collectivism. In particular, they see the welfare state as a guarantor of collective security and social harmony, and as an agent of national interests by means of macroeconomic planning. The combination of collectivist social goals and statist means can be traced back to the

  3. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  4. Young physicians and the Finnish welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arttu Saarinen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to focus on how young physicians in general and different subpopulations, in particular, see the role of the welfare state. The author seeks to compare young physicians' opinions with those of older physicians, a similar age group in the general population and all physicians. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A random sample was picked from the Finnish Medical

  5. Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    or anaesthesia or anasthesia housing or facility or caging or management welfare or well-being or pain (such as tenses). Pharmaceutical and TechnologicalPharmaceutical and Technological Ei Compendex (file 8) Gale Group Computer Database (file 275) INSPEC (file 2) International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (file

  6. Rats, man, and the welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curt P. Richter

    1959-01-01

    The possible relationship between social securities and the incidence of various noncurable diseases is discussed. Paralleling the development of the welfare state there is a great incidence in the occurrence of a variety of physical and mental diseases. Sometime between 1840 and 1850 albino forms of the Norway rat were introduced into the research laboratory; it thus was subject to

  7. Jobs, Welfare, and Links with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, LeaAnn; Murphrey, Suzanne

    The federally mandated welfare program Jobs Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) was preceded in Kansas by KANWORK, a pilot effort in four counties designed to initiate job preparedness and esteem-building programs. KANWORK, which was to be mandatory for certain public assistance recipients, included education, job skills training, job readiness…

  8. Shaping Child Welfare Policy via Performance Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Performance measurement is generally depicted as a neutral, technical exercise providing objective data for decision-making. But it also has a normative role in framing policy problems and solutions. This article explores the role of indicators in shaping child welfare, comparing stated policy with performance indicator regimes in England. It…

  9. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  10. Partnership in Mental Health and Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Sheehan

    2005-01-01

    Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent

  11. PROPERTY RIGHTS, GRAZING PERMITS, AND RANCHER WELFARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David K. Lambert; John Scott Shonkwiler

    1995-01-01

    This study attempts to link factors affecting the demand for Bureau of Land Management grazing to perceived changes in permittee welfare over the 1962-92 period. Annual demand for federal forage is found to be sensitive to active preference, beef cow and breeding ewe inventories, and grazing fees and nonfee allotment utilization costs. No evidence is found to support the notion

  12. THE UNDERGRADUATE GROUP MAJOR IN SOCIAL WELFARE

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    graduate programs in social welfare, social work, family therapy, law, counseling, psychology, sociology the program receive a Bachelor of Arts degree. Undergraduates from our program are well prepared to enter as human service workers, counselors, family life educators, and family specialists, non

  13. Farm Animal Welfare - Testing for Market Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrik Carlsson; Peter Grykblom; Carl Johan Lagerkvist

    2007-01-01

    Many consumers are concerned with animal welfare in the conventional production of farm livestock. This concern can be related both to their own and others’ consumption. In the latter case, there is a negative externality from consumption. We suggest a survey design that enables us to test for a market failure in farm livestock production. Applying this to the question

  14. Stress and the welfare of cultured fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S Conte

    2004-01-01

    Cultured species of aquatic animals span more than five phyla. Animal welfare attention is directed towards the vertebrates because of the their neural complexity, and is currently focused on the finfish because of the size and visibility of that segment of the aquaculture industry. The characteristics of the aquatic environment and their impact on the animal have forced growers to

  15. Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

  16. Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

  17. Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; )

    2003-01-01

    The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

  18. Child Poverty, Public Policies and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra K.; Danziger, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the articles in this special issue on child poverty, policy, and welfare reform. Introduces and discusses the four major themes addressed by these articles: (1) poverty and economic policies affecting children; (2) consequences of poverty for child well-being; (3) qualitative research on family life and child poverty; and (4) programs…

  19. Moral atrophy in the welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Goodin

    1993-01-01

    The welfare state is often accused of being counterproductive: as the scope of public responsibility expands, private morality (especially altruism and benevolence) atrophies. This essay surveys psychological findings for evidence, which turns out to be broadly consistent with either of two models of moral development, each bearing distinct policy implications. The model of ‘morally keeping in practice’ that is implicit

  20. Barriers to the Employment of Welfare Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Danziger; Mary Corcoran; Sheldon Danziger; Colleen Heflin; Ariel Kalil; Judith Levine; Daniel Rosen; Kristin Seefeldt; Kristine Siefert; Richard Tolman

    Dramatic reductions in welfare caseloads since passage of the Personal Responsibility and WorkOpportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 have not allayed policy concerns about the employability of recipients remaining on the rolls. Analysis of potential barriers to employment can address whether current recipients have problems that either singly or in combination make it difficult for them to comply with the new

  1. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  2. Natural resources, rent seeking and welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ragnar Torvik

    2002-01-01

    A new and very simple mechanism to explain why natural resource abundance may lower income and welfare is developed. In a model with rent seeking, a greater amount of natural resources increases the number of entrepreneurs engaged in rent seeking and reduces the number of entrepreneurs running productive firms. With a demand externality, it is shown that the drop in

  3. Welfare Use when Approaching the Time Limit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzolari, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Time limits reduce caseloads directly by cutting off benefits after a time-limited usage, but may also provide families with an incentive to reduce welfare use in order to conserve their benefits. Both effects depend on the stock of remaining months of eligibility. This is the first empirical study to incorporate information on this crucial…

  4. Welfare of cats in a quarantine cattery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rochlitz; A. L. Podberscek; D. M. Broom

    1998-01-01

    The welfare of seven domestic cats housed singly in a quarantine cattery was studied for six months. Behavioural data were obtained with cameras and by time-lapse video recording, and cortisol to creatinine ratios were measured in urine samples collected from litter trays. It took five weeks for the cats to show evidence of adaptation to their new environment. They spent

  5. Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

    Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

  6. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  7. Children's Mental Health in Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Mathiesen; Scottye Cash; Lisa D. Barbanell Johnson; Thomas E. Smith; Pamela Graham

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a child-focused curriculum developed for child welfare workers and social work students. The results from a focus group evaluation are also provided that highlight how the content areas in the curriculum were perceived by participants in terms of interest, practicality, and importance. The major goal of the curriculum was to educate workers and students on assessment of

  8. STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

  9. Constitutional chromosomal breakage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Giraud; S. Ayme; J. F. Mattei; M. G. Mattei

    1976-01-01

    There were 18 individuals found to have a constitutional chromosome fragility causing an increase in break frequency. For each chromosome the breakpoint is always the same, whether it involves chromosomes from the same person, the same family, or different families. The fragile points are bands 10q24, 12q13, 16q21, 17p12, and Xq27. Autosomal constitutional fragility does not seem to have a

  10. DNA, Genes and Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Fomby

    2007-11-07

    Today you will learn about the parts of DNA and what DNA, genes and chromosomes are. Today you will learn what DNA, genes and chromosomes are and the parts of the DNA molecule. Look at all of the websites, take whatever notes you need to. At the end of the assignment, be able to describle DNA, the parts of DNA, genes and chromosomes. Covers Biology Core Curriculum, ...

  11. Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Segner; Henrik Sundh; Kurt Buchmann; Jessica Douxfils; Kristina Snuttan Sundell; Cédric Mathieu; Neil Ruane; Hilde Toften; Lloyd Vaughan

    This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point\\u000a of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby\\u000a maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the\\u000a loss of the coping ability and,

  12. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  13. Chromosome Oscillations in Mitosis

    E-print Network

    Otger Campas; Pierre Sens

    2005-07-29

    Successful cell division requires a tight regulation of chromosome motion via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the movement have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. The protein complex Kinetochore on the chromosome associates with microtubules emanating from one of the spindle poles and drives the chromosome toward the pole. Chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms also interact with microtubules, ejecting the chromosome away from the pole. In animal cells, a monooriented chromosome (associated to a single pole) periodically switches between phases of poleward and away from the pole movement[, a behavior tentatively explained so far by the existence of a complex switching mechanism within the kinetochore itself. Here we show that the interplay between the morphology of the mitotic spindle and the collective kinetics of chromokinesins can account for the highly non-linear periodic chromosome motion. Our analysis provides a natural explanation for the origin of chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes feel their position in space.

  14. Building mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shinya; Wood, Laura; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Rappsilber, Juri; Earnshaw, William C

    2011-02-01

    Mitotic chromosomes are the iconic structures into which the genome is packaged to ensure its accurate segregation during mitosis. Although they have appeared on countless journal cover illustrations, there remains no consensus on how the chromatin fiber is packaged during mitosis. In fact, work in recent years has both added to existing controversies and sparked new ones. By contrast, there has been very significant progress in determining the protein composition of isolated mitotic chromosomes. Here, we discuss recent studies of chromosome organization and provide an in depth description of the latest proteomics studies, which have at last provided us with a definitive proteome for vertebrate chromosomes. PMID:20974528

  15. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  16. Implementing Time-Limited Welfare: Early Experiences in Three States. The Cross-State Study of Time-Limited Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Butler, David

    This report examines time-limited welfare beginning at the broadest level, tracing the rapid emergence of time-limited welfare as a policy approach in part I. Chapter 1 examines the history of time-limited welfare and the key challenges posed by this policy. Part II begins to focus on the three participating states--Florida, Vermont, and…

  17. Maternal work behavior under welfare reform: How does the transition from welfare to work affect child development?

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    on Poverty and Social Welfare Policy, and by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human welfare to work affect child development? Abstract Using data from a longitudinal sample of former welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. We use a fixed-effects regression

  18. Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gayle

    The findings of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) were analyzed to identify ways of improving the process of moving people from welfare to work. Selected lessons from the analysis were as follows: (1) welfare-to-work programs that rely on adult basic education programs for the general population are unlikely to improve…

  19. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  20. Chromosomal differentiation of cells

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 16, discusses the chromosomal differentiation of cells. The chromosomes of differentiated cells have been much less studies than those of meristematic or germline cells, probably because such cells do not usually divide spontaneously. However, in many cases they can be induced to undergo mitosis. 26 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Interspecific Manipulation of Chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    The success of introducing alien variation into crop species from related species depends on the cytogenetic relations between the species. If there are no restrictions on chromosome pairing and recombination in species hybrids, a backcrossing programme can be used to obtain the desired gene transfers. However, when there is a failure of adequate chromosome pairing in species hybrids, techniques of

  2. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  3. Energy Audit Equipment

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    ENERGY AUDIT EQUIPMENT Jim Phillips, P.E., CEM, CEA, GBE Independent Energy Alternatives, Inc. VP - Engineering Dallas, TX 75234 ABSTRACT The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include include those items which assist...

  4. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on any object the patient touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  5. Breeder Welfare: The Past, Present and Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. P. Cloete; I. A. Malecki

    \\u000a The welfare needs of mature ratite breeders are reviewed in this chapter. Ratite reproductive strategies and mate choice are\\u000a discussed with reference to compatibility of breeding males and females housed in pairs. Past and present mating structures\\u000a are discussed in terms of behaviour needs. It was shown that trauma is associated with the majority of cases where mature\\u000a pair-bred ostrich

  6. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Africa.

    PubMed

    Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M

    2005-08-01

    Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in Africa. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated highland and humid coastal belts of Africa, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In Africa, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about, and participation in, animal welfare issues. PMID:16358509

  7. Preparing Social Workers for Child Welfare Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Levy Zlotnik

    2003-01-01

    Spurred on by national and local forces, there are currently an array of strategies underway between social work education programs and public child welfare agencies to educate current and future workers, improve agency working conditions and to develop competency-based education. These partnership efforts are frequently funded by Title IV-E and Title IV-B 426 funds. Although the majority of these efforts

  8. Car Access and Welfare-To-Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Ong

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the role of car access (including but not limited to car ownership) in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. In 1996, Congress enacted the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which dramatically altered this nation’s social policy. TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) replaced the old AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent

  9. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Ong

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses an instrumental variable constructed from insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data comes from a 1999-2000 survey of TANF recipients in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The empirical results

  10. Car ownership and welfare-to-work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Ong

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a 1999-2000 survey of TANF recipients in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

  11. The Welfare Effects of Environmental Taxation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William K. Jaeger

    2011-01-01

    Recent literature has investigated whether the welfare gains from environmental taxation are larger or smaller in a second-best\\u000a setting than in a first-best setting. This question has mainly been addressed indirectly, by asking whether the second-best\\u000a optimal environmental tax is higher or lower than the first-best Pigouvian rate. Even this indirect question has itself been\\u000a approached indirectly, comparing the second-best

  12. Welfare of non-traditional pets.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D; Bacon, H J

    2014-04-01

    The keeping of non-traditional or 'exotic' pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives. The keeping of non-traditional pets also raises ethical concerns about whether the animal poses any danger to others (e.g. transmission of zoonotic diseases) and whether the animal might cause environmental damage (e.g. invading non-native habitats when released). The authors used these considerations to create a checklist, which identifies and organises the various concerns that may arise over keeping non-traditional species as pets. An inability to address these concerns raises questions about how to mitigate them or even whether or not certain species should be kept as pets at all. Thus, the authors propose five categories, which range from relatively unproblematic pet species to species whose keeping poses unacceptable risks to the animals, to humans, or to the environment. This approach to the evaluation and categorisation of species could provide a constructive basis for advocacy and regulatory actions. PMID:25000795

  13. Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare.

    PubMed

    Kimenyi, M S; Mbaku, J M

    1995-07-01

    Female-headed households are at greater risk of slipping into poverty than male-headed households. Indeed, sex and marital status of the head of household are the most important determinants of a family's poverty status in the US. Divorce, separation, death of a husband, and out-of-wedlock births can lead to female headship. Transfer payments, especially the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, are blamed for contributing to increased marital instability and out-of-wedlock births. The authors examined the role of welfare benefits in influencing female headship. Preliminary results using standard estimation procedures indicate that transfers do not significantly influence female headship. Standard estimation procedures are, however, erroneous because they ignore differences in propensities to establish mother-only households. Therefore, adjusting for differences in propensities to establish female-headed households, the level of welfare benefits is indeed an important factor in explaining the variation in the changes in the birth rates to unmarried women. The use of a weighted measure suggests that welfare benefits, by increasing female headship of women who otherwise have low propensities to be female heads, have played a significant role in the feminization of poverty. PMID:12319979

  14. Equipment management system (EMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yurtsever; M. Comerford

    1995-01-01

    Equipment Management System (EMS) is a software tool used to monitor and track equipment states, restrictions and PM schedules in real time. EMS has been designed and customized to support the MOS-2 die production facility. The system provides graphical representation of the entire factory. Color coded icons represent equipment's current state (i.e. qualification, production, unscheduled maintenance, etc.). Preventative maintenance schedules

  15. Recombination and chromosome segregation.

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, David J; Søballe, Britta; Barre, François-Xavier; Filipe, Sergio; Lau, Ivy; Massey, Thomas; Yates, James

    2004-01-01

    The duplication of DNA and faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes at cell division is frequently dependent on recombinational processes. The rebuilding of broken or stalled replication forks is universally dependent on homologous recombination proteins. In bacteria with circular chromosomes, crossing over by homologous recombination can generate dimeric chromosomes, which cannot be segregated to daughter cells unless they are converted to monomers before cell division by the conserved Xer site-specific recombination system. Dimer resolution also requires FtsK, a division septum-located protein, which coordinates chromosome segregation with cell division, and uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to activate the dimer resolution reaction. FtsK can also translocate DNA, facilitate synapsis of sister chromosomes and minimize entanglement and catenation of newly replicated sister chromosomes. The visualization of the replication/recombination-associated proteins, RecQ and RarA, and specific genes within living Escherichia coli cells, reveals further aspects of the processes that link replication with recombination, chromosome segregation and cell division, and provides new insight into how these may be coordinated. PMID:15065657

  16. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  17. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  18. Human chromosome 22.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J C; Aurias, A; Julier, C; Prieur, M; Szajnert, M F

    1987-01-01

    The acrocentric chromosome 22, one of the shortest human chromosomes, carries about 52 000 kb of DNA. The short arm is made up essentially of heterochromatin and, as in other acrocentric chromosomes, it contains ribosomal RNA genes. Ten identified genes have been assigned to the long arm, of which four have already been cloned and documented (the cluster of lambda immunoglobulin genes, myoglobin, the proto-oncogene c-sis, bcr). In addition, about 10 anonymous DNA segments have been cloned from chromosome 22 specific DNA libraries. About a dozen diseases, including at least four different malignancies, are related to an inherited or acquired pathology of chromosome 22. They have been characterised at the phenotypic or chromosome level or both. In chronic myelogenous leukaemia, with the Ph1 chromosome, and Burkitt's lymphoma, with the t(8;22) variant translocation, the molecular pathology is being studied at the DNA level, bridging for the first time the gap between cytogenetics and molecular genetics. PMID:3550088

  19. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global.

    PubMed

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    : Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy). It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual) diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases) as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown. PMID:19032785

  20. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    PubMed Central

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy). It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual) diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases) as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown. PMID:19032785

  1. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  2. Chromosome 20 Sequenced

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists announced Wednesday that they had deciphered chromosome 20, the largest of the three chromosomes to be sequenced thus far. Researchers hope that this latest advance by the Human Genome Project will help explain why some people are more susceptible to diseases such as diabetes or obesity. Also the gene that seems to make some a higher risk for Cruetzfeldt--Jakob Disease, the human version of Mad Cow Disease, is found on chromosome 20. The Human Genome Project is an international research effort to map and sequence the human genome. Scientists at The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England completed the sequencing, and their work is published in Nature magazine.

  3. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    PubMed

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. PMID:22192762

  4. Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants

    E-print Network

    Renner, Susanne

    Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 chromosomes, suppression of recombination Abstract Sex chromosomes in land plants can evolve as a consequence chromosomes in hepatics, mosses, and gymnosperms are morphologically heteromor- phic. In angiosperms

  5. Genetic markers on chromosome 7.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, L C

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome 7 is frequently associated with chromosome aberrations, rearrangements, and deletions. It also contains many important genes, gene families, and disease loci. This brief review attempts to summarise these and other interesting aspects of chromosome 7. With the rapid accumulation of cloned genes and polymorphic DNA fragments, this chromosome has become an excellent substrate for molecular genetic studies. PMID:3290488

  6. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  7. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

  8. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes. PMID:20459749

  9. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F.

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed.

  10. Chromosome doubling method

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  11. Conflicting and complementary ethics of animal welfare considerations in reintroductions.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Lauren A; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Gelling, Merryl; Atkinson, Rob P D; Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W

    2013-06-01

    Despite differences in focus, goals, and strategies between conservation biology and animal welfare, both are inextricably linked in many ways, and greater consideration of animal welfare, although important in its own right, also has considerable potential to contribute to conservation success. Nevertheless, animal welfare and animal ethics are not always considered explicitly within conservation practice. We systematically reviewed the recent scientific peer-reviewed and online gray literature on reintroductions of captive-bred and wild-caught animals (mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles) to quantify the occurrence of animal welfare issues. We considered monitoring that could be indicative of the animal's welfare status and supportive management actions that could improve animal welfare (regardless of whether the aim was explicitly animal-welfare orientated). Potential welfare issues (of variable nature and extent) were recorded in 67% of 199 projects reviewed; the most common were mortality >50%, dispersal or loss of animals, disease, and human conflict. Most (>70%) projects monitored survival, 18% assessed body condition, and 2% monitored stress levels. Animal welfare, explicitly, was referred to in 6% of projects. Supportive actions, most commonly use of on-site prerelease pens and provision of supplemental food or water, were implemented in 79% of projects, although the extent and duration of support varied. Practitioners can address animal-welfare issues in reintroductions by considering the potential implications for individual animals at all stages of the release process using the decision tree presented. We urge practitioners to report potential animal-welfare issues, describe mitigation actions, and evaluate their efficacy to facilitate transparent evaluation of common moral dilemmas and to advance communal strategies for dealing with them. Currently, comparative mortality rates, health risks, postrelease stress, effectiveness of supportive measures, and behavior of individuals warrant further research to improve animal welfare in reintroductions and to increase success of such projects. PMID:23506045

  12. Social Welfare in One-sided Matching Markets without Money

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anand Bhalgat; Deeparnab Chakrabarty; Sanjeev Khanna

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a We study social welfare in one-sided matching markets where the goal is to efficiently allocate n items to n agents that each have a complete, private preference list and a unit demand over the items. Our focus is on allocation mechanisms\\u000a that do not involve any monetary payments. We consider two natural measures of social welfare: the ordinal welfare factor

  13. Path Analysis of Welfare Use: Depression as a Mediating Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa HunnClaudia; Claudia J. Heath

    2011-01-01

    Path analysis was conducted to determine causal effects of life circumstances on depression and effects of these measures\\u000a on employment and welfare use. Data were from the Welfare and Self-Sufficiency Survey conducted in a metropolitan county of\\u000a Kentucky. Direct effects indicate that economic hardships and adverse life events increase depression scores and depression\\u000a reduces earnings and increases welfare use. Indirect

  14. Effects of Welfare Reform on Teenage Parents and Their Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lawrence Aber; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Rebecca A. Maynard

    1995-01-01

    A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test

  15. Child support and welfare dynamics: Evidence from Wisconsin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Meyer

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the effect of child support on exiting and reentering welfare for a sample of divorced women\\u000a in Wisconsin. Modest amounts of child support do not have large effects on exiting welfare in this sample. The percentage\\u000a of women who return to welfare is higher than has been reported previously. Receiving child support significantly decreases\\u000a the

  16. Is Money the Measure of Welfare in Russia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Rose; Ian McAllister

    1996-01-01

    The transformation of a non-market to a market economy ought to change fundamentally the significance of money incomes for welfare. Whereas in a stressful non-market economy such as the former Soviet Union, non-monetized resources could substitute for money income and promote welfare, in a modern market economy money income should be a good proxy for household welfare. This article tests

  17. Participation and Influence in Federal Child Welfare Policymaking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather R. Edwards; Damon U. Bryant; Tricia B. Bent-Goodley

    2011-01-01

    Very little current empirical evidence exists to guide U.S. child welfare policymaking interventions. This article builds on the knowledge base to determine the factors that best predict a witness' level of influence in federal child welfare policymaking. This content analysis of 150 randomly selected congressional child welfare hearings testimonies from the 10-year period covered by the 106th–110th Congresses (1999–2008) uses

  18. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  19. Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

    2004-01-01

    A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

  20. Child Welfare Knowledge Transmission, Practitioner Retention, and University-Community Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin A. Gansle; Alberta J. Ellett

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a Title IV-E child welfare training program in Louisiana. A collaborative arrangement between the state child welfare agency and seven state university social work programs provides for student monetary stipends in return for child welfare training and work as public child welfare employees upon graduation. On a test of child welfare knowledge, students in

  1. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances. PMID:23473873

  2. Revolutionizing Child Welfare with Outcomes Management

    PubMed Central

    Toche-Manley, Linda L.; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes management technology holds great promise for improving the quality of services provided to youth in the child welfare system. Advantages include better detection of behavioral health and trauma-related issues, early indicators of case progress or risk of failure and program- and system-level learning. Yet organizational barriers to implementation persist. Attention is spent in this paper on addressing these barriers so the use of outcomes management technology becomes a common practice. A model for predicting resiliency is presented, along with case examples demonstrating its potential use for treatment planning and monitoring progress. PMID:23460130

  3. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  4. Of Child Welfare and Welfare Reform: the Implications for Children When Contradictory Policies Collide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay P. Kindred

    2003-01-01

    On August 22, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (hereinafter, “PRWORA” or the “welfare reform law”), which replaced the Aid to Families and Dependent Children Program (“AFDC”), the nation’s primary cash-assistance program, with the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Program (“TANF”), funded by block grants to states. PRWORA represented

  5. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  6. Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

    2005-08-01

    Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards. PMID:16358527

  7. Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

    2014-04-01

    The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating pain is a useful entry point. Finally, it is important that the pace of the journey, in terms of public awareness and shifts in understanding, be supported by high-quality science that is rigorously assessed and validated in its practical application to the management of animal welfare. PMID:25000784

  8. Drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Aidaros, H

    2014-04-01

    Religion, ethics and culture are an important group of drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East. In many countries of the region the understanding of animal welfare is expressed more in terms of religious precepts and humane ethics than via regulations and legislation. In fact, regulatory and legislated animal welfare standards are still not well implemented and many animal welfare issues require attention. The Qur'an provides considerable support for conscientiously attending to animal welfare. For example, the Islamic rules on the process of slaughter were intended to provide a quick, humane and relatively painless death. Current practices that are not in accordance with these religious teachings may cause great suffering to animals. Although these rules have been in place for 1,400 years or more, now, in the 21st Century, they are found to closely correspond to the related standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The OIE plays an important role in improving animal welfare by developing global animal welfare standards. These should assist countries in two important ways: first, by helping them to establish new, or to refine existing, animal welfare legislation, and second, at the OIE regional level, by facilitating interactions between Member Countries as they develop and refine a strategic plan for the advancement of animal welfare. As the OIE standards are compatible with the requirements of Islamic law, issuing animal welfare legislation referring to those standards and implementing them at a national level is highly recommended. A dialogue between the OIE and the Veterinary Services and religious leaders in the region should therefore start with the objective of improving animal welfare. PMID:25000780

  9. A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouallegue, K.

    Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

  10. Patients' mobility across borders: a welfare analysis.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2014-01-01

    Welfare systems are designed on geographical and membership boundaries. In terms of access to health care this implies that, as a general rule, only individuals residing in their national territory can obtain health care from providers located there. However, in the past few years medical tourism has grown at an explosive pace throughout the world and in Europe. Each year in fact a small, but significant number of European citizens seek medical treatment that is financed by their public insurer in another EU country. From an economic point of view, it is important to distinguish between the two following sources of patients' mobility: a regulated mobility, where the third payer decides to send patients abroad and patients' choice, where the patient himself decides to seek care abroad. In this article we show how the combined effect of restrictions to the use of health care, transfer prices, and mobility rules determine social welfare and its allocation between Regions. The results are quite interesting: if the price set for these patients is equal to the marginal cost of the more efficient Region, patients' mobility should be preferred to patients' choice. On the other hand, if the price is equal to the marginal cost of the less efficient Region, patient choice should be preferred. The other interesting result is a possible trade off between a static model where each Region chooses its level of cost/effectiveness and a more long-term situation, where patient mobility determines a common level for this parameter. PMID:24864387

  11. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  12. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  13. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  14. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  15. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  16. 77 FR 69629 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY...under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program...under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...

  17. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  18. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  20. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  1. 76 FR 33340 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report; Request...of information for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report, 25...affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators...

  2. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  3. 75 FR 71710 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY...under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program...under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...

  4. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...installation of a statewide automated child welfare information system, to the...

  5. 76 FR 54249 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request for...of information for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report, 25 CFR part...affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators...

  6. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  7. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 76 FR 9788 - Notice of Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...Allotment Percentages to States for Child Welfare Services State Grants AGENCY...under the Title IV-B subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants Program...under the Title IV-B Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services State Grants...

  12. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied...

  13. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied...

  14. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a...providing health, welfare, social and other services or benefits...impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...

  15. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied...

  16. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52 Section 605.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  17. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52 Section 104.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  18. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52 Section 605.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  19. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

  20. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52 Section 104.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  1. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52 Section 605.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  2. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

  3. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52 Section 84.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  4. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52 Section 84.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  5. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52 Section 104.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  6. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52 Section 84.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

  7. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

  8. Selecting WP Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Mona J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggestions for schools considering the purchase of word processing equipment are presented. Procedures for selecting equipment include getting information on prices, servicing, warranties, training, speed of printing, and quality of output. Choices to make include brand vs. service, price vs. service, and variety vs. limitations of brands. (CT)

  9. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  10. Equip a Biotechnology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology labs need specialized equipment for different types of processes and activities. The list on this site contains links to photos, SOPs, and information about different pieces of equipment. The content is divided by type of laboratory: Core Facilities, Media/Buffer/Reagent/Solution Preparation, Molecular Biology, and Downstream Processing.

  11. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  12. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  13. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  14. Welfare Reform when Recipients Are Forward-Looking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    By studying recipients of aid under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) welfare scheme, the effect of time limits of welfare schemes on forward looking recipients is assessed using a discrete-choice dynamic programming framework model. The policy simulations for the preferred specification of utility reveal that two year time limits…

  15. How does the welfare state influence individuals’ social capital?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. T. M. Gelissen; Wim J. H. van Oorschot; Ellen Finsveen

    2012-01-01

    In the current literature there is emerging consensus about a positive correlation between countries' welfare efforts and the social capital of their inhabitants: the larger the welfare state, the more social capital its inhabitants have. This paper pulls the discussion an important step further by asking what mechanisms can be responsible for this correlation. Based on theory and previous findings,

  16. ‘Subversive liberalism’: Market integration, globalization and the European welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Rhodes

    1995-01-01

    European welfare state autonomy is being eroded by both European integration and ‘globalization’. The attempted creation of a European ‘social’ area, the completion of the internal market, the competitive effects of trade liberalization and the impact on policy autonomy of greater international capital mobility all have implications for the future of welfare states. This article argues that, in combination with

  17. Caring During Crisis: Animal Welfare During Pandemics and Natural Disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne T. Millman

    2008-01-01

    From April 29 to May 1, 2007, the University of Guelph hosted a symposium, Caring During Crisis: Animal Welfare During Pandemics and Natural Disasters, with the objectives (a) of raising awareness about how nonhuman animals and the people who care for them are affected during emergencies and (b) of sharing knowledge about how animal welfare may be addressed during these

  18. Literacy, Welfare & Work: Longitudinal Research Project. Final Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    The 3-year Literacy, Welfare, and Work Longitudinal Research Project explored the complex relationship between literacy and employment within the context of welfare reform in Manitoba, in an attempt to identify the barriers to education and employment that adult learners experience, as well as the policies, programs, and support services that best…

  19. Can transportation strategies help meet the welfare challenge?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Wachs; Brian Taylor

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, nearly fourteen million Americans received welfare benefits which was developed originally to allow widowed or divorced women to stay at home with their children. The 1996 welfare reform package aimed to do just the opposite. The many changes seek to move recipients out of the home and into wage work. While inadequate access to employment clearly contributes to

  20. The Role of Social Workers in Welfare to Work Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Millar; Michael J. Austin

    2006-01-01

    Welfare to work is an important arena for understanding the changing nature of social policy and practice in Australia, the UK, Hong Kong, and the United States. This article discusses some key policy and practice issues in respect to social work professional training and practice. Welfare to work programs focus on “active” measures and stress the importance of “responsibilities” for

  1. RESEARCH PAPER Ethical and welfare considerations when using cephalopods

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    RESEARCH PAPER Ethical and welfare considerations when using cephalopods as experimental animals N+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract When using cephalopods as experimental animals, a number of factors, including of cephalopod welfare in both laboratory and field studies. To this end, existing literature that provides

  2. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  3. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

    2007-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

  5. Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

  6. Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael

    This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

  7. Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Farrell, Mary; Fink, Barbara

    The effect of welfare time limits on families in different states was examined in a comprehensive study that involved the following activities: (1) a survey of state welfare administrators regarding states' time-limit policies and experiences to date; (2) site visits to five states; and (3) a synthesis of research on time limits. The following…

  8. SUBCHAPTER A--ANIMAL WELFARE PART 1--DEFINITION OF TERMS

    E-print Network

    Wood, Stephen L.

    direct or delegated au- thority for activities involving animals at a facility subject7 SUBCHAPTER A--ANIMAL WELFARE PART 1--DEFINITION OF TERMS AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131­2159; 7 CFR 2­544), (commonly known as the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act), as amended by the Act of December 24, 1970 (Pub. L

  9. Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Wong, C K

    1996-01-01

    This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

  10. The Welfare State and Family Breakup: The Mythical Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Shirley L.

    1991-01-01

    Drawing on Durkheim's theory of social integration, an analysis of states' spending for public welfare and their divorce rates for 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1985 showed that the welfare state is not a destabilizing influence on family life as critics have charged. Past divorce rates were shown to have the most significant influence on current divorce…

  11. Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

  12. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  13. Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005. Report to Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005: Report to Congress" (Child Welfare Outcomes Report) is the seventh in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the Department). The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997)…

  14. Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

  15. Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

  16. Organizational Constructs as Predictors of Effectiveness in Child Welfare Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jane; Brooks, Devon; Patti, Rino

    2007-01-01

    Organizational context, including line worker characteristics and service settings, may help explain the equivocal findings of intervention studies in the field of child welfare. Yet organizational context has been largely ignored in studies of child welfare interventions. The purpose of this article is to expound upon the likely role of the…

  17. Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

  18. Child Welfare Worker Characteristics and Job Satisfaction: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.; Lloyd, E. Christopher; Christ, Sharon L.; Chapman, Mimi V.; Dickinson, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    The education, recruitment, training, and retention of a quality child welfare workforce is critical to the successful implementation of public policy and programs for the nation's most vulnerable children. Yet, national information about child welfare workers has never been collected. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being is a…

  19. FACTORS RELATED TO STUDENT SATISFACTION WITH CHILD WELFARE FIELD PLACEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Elias Alperin

    1998-01-01

    One objective of partnerships between schools of social work and public human services is to increase the number of graduates who work in child welfare agencies. The study reported here surveyed 206 BSW and MSW students at 7 accredited Florida social work programs on their level of satisfaction with placements in child welfare agencies. The study measured satisfaction with 5

  20. Environmental Correlates of Public Child Welfare Worker Turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gingi M. Fulcher; Richard J. Smith

    2010-01-01

    In the field of child welfare, the research indicates that turnover negatively affects outcomes for the children and families served by the workers. Empirical research documents that individual, organizational, and environmental factors influence worker turnover decisions. Yet, most research only explores individual and organizational level explanations of variations in child welfare worker turnover. To address this gap in the literature,

  1. Factors Influencing MSW Students' Interest in Public Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Perry

    2005-01-01

    Public child welfare agencies have long been perceived as key training and employment settings for professional social workers in the United States. Nonetheless, within the last 30 years, concern has been raised with respect to the perceived “de-professionalization” of many public social service jobs, making a large portion of social work positions in public child welfare unappealing to the professionally

  2. Child Welfare Worker Characteristics and Job Satisfaction: A National Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Christopher Lloyd; Sharon L. Christ; Mimi V. Chapman; Nancy S. Dickinson

    The education, recruitment, training, and retention of a quality child welfare workforce is critical to the successful implementation of public policy and programs for the nations most vulnerable children.Yet, national information about child welfare workers has never been collected. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Weil-Being is a study of children who are investigated for child maltreatment that also

  3. MATERNAL WELFARE AND WORK COMBINATIONS AND ADOLESCENTS' SCHOOL PROGRESS

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    to the Program on Poverty and Social Welfare Policy, and by grants from the National Institute of Child Health1 MATERNAL WELFARE AND WORK COMBINATIONS AND ADOLESCENTS' SCHOOL PROGRESS Rachel E. Dunifon Cornell and the National Institute of Mental Health (R24-MH51363) to the Social Work Research Development Center on Poverty

  4. Child Welfare Privatization: Reform Efforts in the States. Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, Julia K.

    The number of children in foster care has nearly doubled in recent years. Despite reform efforts, the U.S. child welfare system is not increasing the number of children who get adopted. The federal government spends over $12 billion annually on child welfare programs, but the growing government bureaucracy has allowed the problems to worsen. The…

  5. Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

    2005-01-01

    Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

  6. Social Welfare in One-Sided Matching Markets without Money

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    any monetary payments. We consider two natural measures of social welfare: the ordinal welfare factor which measures the number of agents that are at least as happy as in some unknown, arbitrary benchmark non-trivial performance guarantees for these natural mechanisms. 1 Introduction In the one

  7. Childcare Subsidies and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra K.; Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Browning, Kimberly G.

    2004-01-01

    We address how childcare subsidies help in the welfare-to-work transition relative to other factors. We examine how the policy operates, whether childcare problems differ by subsidy receipt, and the effect of subsidy on work. Data are from a random sample panel study of welfare recipients after 1996. Findings show that subsidy receipt reduces…

  8. Family Group Conferencing in Child Welfare: Responsive and Regulatory Interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Pennell

    A regulatory approach compels the child welfare worker to make decisions according to set procedures and prevents responding flexibly to families. Differential response is a way that child welfare is departing from legal formalism. One means is convening a family group conference (FGC) to develop a plan. John Braithwaite's regulatory pyramid assists in concep- tualizing differential response. This article reports

  9. Film Portrayals of Social Workers Doing Child Welfare Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah P. Valentine; Miriam Freeman

    2002-01-01

    This article reports on research that investigated the images of social workers engaged in child welfare work as portrayed in movies, a major medium of popular culture. Findings from an analysis of 27 movies spanning from 1938 to 1999 are presented with particular attention to themes about how children are depicted as recipients of child welfare services and how child

  10. A comprehensive model for child welfare training evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky F. Antle; Anita P. Barbee; Michiel A. van Zyl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a comprehensive theoretical model for child welfare training evaluation. Drawing upon the theoretical work in training evaluation as well as empirical research in child welfare, this study proposed a model of training evaluation that included individual and organizational predictors of outcomes; training satisfaction, learning and transfer; as well as federally

  11. “The law cannot terminate bloodlines”: Families and child welfare decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corey Shdaimah

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare professionals are called to make determinations that affect whether children can stay or reunify with their families. These decisions are framed by policies that inform and constrain their professional and personal understanding of risk and relationships. This manuscript explores themes related to children's relationships with their families that emerged from a qualitative study with 18 child welfare professionals,

  12. Liability considerations in child welfare: lessons from Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karima Kanani; Cheryl Regehr; Marvin M Bernstein

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Recent years have been fraught with investigations into the deaths of children receiving child welfare services throughout North America, Europe, and Australia. These inquiries have attracted considerable media attention and public outrage. Added to this have been increases in attempts to hold social workers in child welfare responsible for the abuse and deaths of children through the criminal and

  13. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

  14. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

  15. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

  16. Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rosetta

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

  17. A House Divided: Party Polarization on Social Welfare Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AmyStewart

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the general public and the media have paid much attention to an increasing polarization on welfare issues. As Everett Carll Ladd's (1995) survey illustrates in Figure 1, three quarters of the general population agreed on the role of government in welfare in 1988. However, this consensus had disintegrated into a near polar split by 1994. Because the U.S. House

  18. Demystifying Welfare: Its Feminization and Its Effect on Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    Welfare is misunderstood, mystified, and feminized by many stakeholders (i.e. government, media, majoritarian culture, etc.). This text analysis will assess how well the text achieved the following: (1) articulate why the current U.S. welfare state is based upon myths or false assumptions, (2) analyze what these false assumptions mean for…

  19. Cambodian Refugee Families in the Shadows of Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Quintiliani

    2009-01-01

    Provisions in the 1996 Federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, commonly known as welfare reform, sought to limit refugees and other legal immigrants’ access to government services and assistance. Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act restored some benefits to those who arrived before the law was passed, little is known about how refugee families navigated the new welfare

  20. Morbid Obesity and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less…

  1. Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian W. H. Parry; Antonio Bento

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the interactions between taxes on work-related traffic congestion and pre-existing distortionary taxes in the labor market. A congestion tax raises the overall costs of commuting to work and discourages labor force participation. The resulting welfare loss in the labor market can easily exceed the Pigouvian welfare gain from internalizing the congestion externality. However, if congestion tax revenues

  2. Why do they leave? Modeling child welfare workers' turnover intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michàlle E. Mor Barak; Amy Levin; Jan A. Nissly

    2006-01-01

    The high rates of turnover in the child welfare field have grave implications for service provision to vulnerable populations. Using mixed methods with SEM and constant comparative content analyses, the study tested a theoretical model of intention to leave among child welfare workers. The theoretical model was found to fit the data well, indicating that diversity, together with a stressful,

  3. Child welfare as a gateway to domestic violence services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Kohl; Richard P. Barth; Andrea L. Hazen; John A. Landsverk

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well Being to examine the identification of domestic violence (DV) by child welfare workers during investigations of maltreatment and determine how this contributes to the receipt of DV services. The study focuses on female caregivers of children remaining in the home following the investigation (n=3165). While child welfare

  4. Integrating Couple Teamwork Conversations Into Child Welfare Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Christensen; Becky Antle; Lisa Johnson

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple relationships in child welfare. These barriers include diverse family configurations

  5. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

    An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

  6. Chromosomal speciation and molecular divergence - Accelerated evolution in rearranged chromosomes 

    E-print Network

    Navarro, Arcadi; Barton, Nick

    2003-01-01

    changes should accumulate in chromosomes that present fixed structural differences, such as inversions, between the two species. Protein evolution was more than 2.2 times faster in chromosomes that had undergone structural rearrangements compared...

  7. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    PubMed Central

    Pinton, Alain; Ducos, Alain; Yerle, Martine

    2003-01-01

    A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+) translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5) were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2) from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases. PMID:14604515

  8. Medicine As a Corporate Enterprise, Patient Welfare Centered Profession, or Patient Welfare Centered Professional Enterprise?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    There is an alarming trend in the field of medicine, whose portents are ominous but do not seem to shake the complacency and merry making doing the rounds. The wants of the medical man have multiplied beyond imagination. The cost of organizing conferences is no longer possible on delegate fees. The bottom-line is: Crores for a Conference Millions for a Mid-Term. However, the problem is that sponsors keep a discreet but careful tab on docs. All in all, costs of medicines escalate, and quality medical care becomes a luxury. The whole brunt of this movement is borne by the patient. Companies like GlaxoSmithKline, Bayer, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Schering-Plough, Abbott Labs, TAP Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth and Merck have paid millions of dollars each as compensation in the last few years. The financial condition of many pharmaceutical majors is not buoyant either. Price deflation, increased Rand D spending, and litigation costs are the main reasons. In the future, the messy lawsuits situation would no longer be restricted to industry. It would involve academia and practising doctors as well. Indian pharma industry captains, who were busy raking in the profits at present, would also come under the scanner. If nothing else, it means industry and docs will have to sit down and do some soul searching. Both short and long-term measures will have to be put into place. Short-term measures involve reduction in i) pharma spending over junkets and trinkets; ii) hype over ‘me too’ drugs; iii) manipulation of drug trials; iv) getting pliant researchers into drug trials; iv) manipulation of Journal Editors to publish positive findings about their drug trials and launches; v) and for Indian Pharma, to conduct their own unbiased clinical trial of the latest drug projected as a blockbuster in the West, before pumping in their millions. The long-term measures are related to the way biomedical advance is to be charted. We have to decide whether medicine is to become a corporate enterprise or remain a patient welfare centered profession. A third approach involves an eclectic resolution of the two. Such amount of patient welfare as also ensures profit, and such amount of profit as also ensures patient welfare is to be forwarded. For, profit, without patient welfare, is blind. And patient welfare, without profit, is lame. According to this approach, medicine becomes a patient welfare centered professional enterprise. The various ramifications of each of these approaches are discussed in this monograph. PMID:22679354

  9. Vibrio chromosome-specific families

    PubMed Central

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different “Molecular Function” GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many “housekeeping systems” encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising. PMID:24672511

  10. Vibrio chromosome-specific families.

    PubMed

    Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W

    2014-01-01

    We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different "Molecular Function" GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many "housekeeping systems" encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising. PMID:24672511

  11. Mathematics of Chromosome Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C. J.; Gordon, G. H.; Kimber, G.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of frequencies of chromosome configurations in wheat-related species hybrids is extended to include cases involving homoeologous groups of size six. Further, the expected frequencies of the various configurations emanating from homologous and homoeologous pairing events have been determined for groups consisting of two and three homoeologous pairs of homologous chromosomes. Analysis of configuration frequencies of nullisomic 5B of wheat, in which both homologous and homoeologous pairing occurs, led to estimation of the relative frequencies of homologous and homoeologous pairing events as 17.9:1. In the samples analyzed, slightly less than one homoeologous exchange occurred per gamete. PMID:17249031

  12. Phenylbutazone and chromosomal damage.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S; Price Evans, A; Benn, P A; Littler, T R; Halliday, L D

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of 44 paired test and control patients, all suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, following exposure to phenylbutazone (PBZ) and/or oxyphenbutazone (OPB), suggests that there is no significant increase in the level of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes. The control subjects comprised two series, one previously exposed to PBZ and/or OPB, but not for at least 1-5 years, and the other never exposed to PBZ or OPB. No significant difference in the level of chromosome damage was found between patients never exposed, previously exposed, or now receiving PBZ and/or OPB. PMID:769706

  13. Chromothripsis: Chromosomes in Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Mathew J.K.; Jallepalli, Prasad V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary During oncogenesis, cells acquire multiple genetic alterations that confer essential tumor-specific traits, including immortalization, escape from anti-mitogenic signaling, neovascularization, invasiveness, and metastatic potential. In most instances, these alterations are thought to arise incrementally over years if not decades. However, recent progress in sequencing cancer genomes has begun to challenge this paradigm, as a radically different phenomenon, termed chromothripsis, has been suggested to cause complex intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements on short timescales. In this article, we review established pathways crucial for genome integrity and discuss how their dysfunction could precipitate widespread chromosome breakage and rearrangement in the course of malignancy. PMID:23153487

  14. Characterization of chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis by chromosome conformation capture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The packaging of long chromatin fibers in the nucleus poses a major challenge, as it must fulfill both physical and functional requirements. Until recently, insights into the chromosomal architecture of plants were mainly provided by cytogenetic studies. Complementary to these analyses, chromosome conformation capture technologies promise to refine and improve our view on chromosomal architecture and to provide a more generalized description of nuclear organization. Results Employing circular chromosome conformation capture, this study describes chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis nuclei from a genome-wide perspective. Surprisingly, the linear organization of chromosomes is reflected in the genome-wide interactome. In addition, we study the interplay of the interactome and epigenetic marks and report that the heterochromatic knob on the short arm of chromosome 4 maintains a pericentromere-like interaction profile and interactome despite its euchromatic surrounding. Conclusion Despite the extreme condensation that is necessary to pack the chromosomes into the nucleus, the Arabidopsis genome appears to be packed in a predictive manner, according to the following criteria: heterochromatin and euchromatin represent two distinct interactomes; interactions between chromosomes correlate with the linear position on the chromosome arm; and distal chromosome regions have a higher potential to interact with other chromosomes. PMID:24267747

  15. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  16. Child Welfare: Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrowiak, Diana; Schibanoff, Sara L.

    To better monitor children and families served by state child welfare agencies, Congress authorized matching funds for the development of statewide automatic child welfare information systems (SACWIS) and required that U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) compile information on children served by state agencies. This report to…

  17. Synaptonemal complex analysis of reciprocal chromosome translocations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synaptonemal complex analysis of reciprocal chromosome translocations in the domestic pig DAF analysis/ reciprocal chromosome translocation/ domestic pig One main feature of chromosome translocations especially when acrocentric chromosomes are involved and unpaired segments of the translocation configuration

  18. Nuclear Structure and Chromosome Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Lindsay Shopland (The Jackson Laboratory)

    2010-05-19

    Powerpoint slides for two classes, the first on principles of nuclear structure, and the second on chromosome evolution in the context of nuclear structure, segmental duplications, and other mechanisms that permit chromosome evolution.

  19. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    E-print Network

    Kirkup, Benjamin C.

    Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

  20. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    E-print Network

    Kirkup, Benjamin C.

    Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

  1. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  2. Targeted chromosome elimination from ES-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Targeted chromosome elimination from ES- somatic hybrid cells Hiroyuki Matsumura1,6, Masako Tada1 cell genome, we developed a technology for targeted elimination of chromosomes from mouse embryonic stem (ES)­somatic hybrid cells. Here we demonstrate the use of a universal chromosome elimination

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

    2003-01-01

    Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

  4. Applications Parallel computing for chromosome

    E-print Network

    Bhandarkar, Suchendra "Suchi" M.

    Applications Parallel computing for chromosome reconstruction via ordering of DNA sequences and implementation of a suite of parallel algorithms called PARODS, for chromosome reconstruction via ordering of DNA.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Clone ordering; DNA sequencing; Chromosome reconstruction; Simulated

  5. Comparative painting of mammalian chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Wienberg; Roscoe Stanyon

    1997-01-01

    Comparative chromosome painting has shown that synteny has been conserved for large segments of the genome in various placental mammals. Advances such as spectral karyotyping and multicolour ‘bar coding’ lend speed and precision to comparative molecular cytogenetics. Reciprocal chromosome painting and hybridisations with probes such as yeast artificial chromosomes, cosmids, and fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation allow subchromosomal assignments of

  6. The Y Chromosome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  7. Mutation of Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

    2005-03-12

    Illustration of the mutation of chromosomes. A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, such DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation can improve an organism's chance of surviving and passing the beneficial change on to its descendants.

  8. Chromosome banding in Amphibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Schmid; C. G. Almeida

    1988-01-01

    Fixed metaphase chromosomes of several species of Amphibia were treated with various restriction endonucleases and subsequently stained with Giemsa. Metaphases of man and chicken were examined in parallel under the same experimental conditions for comparison. The restriction enzymes always induce subsets of the C-banding patterns present in the amphibian karyotypes. The heterochromatic regions can be either resistant or sensitive to

  9. Why Chromosome Palindromes?

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Esther; Demuth, Jeffery P.; Williford, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W) evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1) genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2) under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes. PMID:22844637

  10. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  11. Defining, assessing and promoting the welfare of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

    2014-04-01

    As currently practised, the culture of fish for food potentially raises concerns about the welfare of farmed fish, and this is a topic that has received considerable attention. As vertebrates, fish share a number of features with the birds and mammals that are more commonly farmed, so many welfare principles derived from consideration of these groups may also be applied to fish. However, fish have a long, separate evolutionary history and are also adapted to a very different, aquatic environment. For these reasons, they have a number of special features that are relevant to how welfare is defined, assessed and promoted and these are discussed. The various methods that are available to researchers for identifying and assessing good and bad welfare in fish are considered, including assessment of physical health and physiological, behavioural and genomic status. The subset of practical welfare indicators that can be used on working farms is also reviewed. Various aspects of intensive aquaculture that can potentially compromise fish welfare are outlined, as are some strategies available for mitigating such adverse effects. Finally, the paper ends by looking briefly to the future, identifying likely changes in aquaculture practices and how these might affect the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:25000796

  12. Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klein, Rachel.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

  13. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

  14. Using Conjoint Analysis to Weight Broiler Welfare Variables Based on Slaughterhouse Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Tuunainen; Jarmo Valaja; Eija Valkonen; Helena Hepola

    2012-01-01

    The Council of the European Union adopted the welfare directive for broiler chickens in 2007 (Commission of the European Communities, 2007). The directive defines minimum demands and objectives for broiler production ranging from stocking density to welfare. This study found that the level of nonhuman animal welfare can be determined, for example, with welfare indexes that have different weight values

  15. Mental Health and Welfare Transitions: Depression and Alcohol Abuse in AFDC Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Dooley; JoAnn Prause

    2002-01-01

    From a selection perspective, does prior dysfunction select women into welfare or serve as a barrier to leaving welfare? From a social causation perspective, does entering or exiting welfare lead to changes in well being? These questions were analyzed in panel data for over 3,600 women drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the period 1992–94. Welfare is

  16. Myths and Facts About Welfare and the Scheme of Things Economic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Detroit Welfare Reform Coalition, MI.

    This pamphlet restates commonly held ideas about welfare and presents facts and figures in refutation. (1) The myth that welfare is the good life--color TV's and Cadillacs; argues that welfare is the "good life" only for those who have not experienced it. (2) The myth that most welfare recipients are cheaters; studies are said to show that only…

  17. Willingness to Pay: Animal Welfare and Related Influencing Factors in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingjie Zhao; Shasha Wu

    2011-01-01

    Personal willingness to pay, an important research aspect on nonhuman animal welfare, is the foundation of animal welfare legislation. As China has no special laws on the issue, it is important to study animal welfare. This article assesses personal willingness to pay for animal welfare in China, using the Contingent Valuation Method. Based on collected data of 229 visitors from

  18. A Framework for Cultivating and Increasing Child Welfare Workers’ Empathy Toward Parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Mullins

    2011-01-01

    Much emphasis has been placed on child welfare workers’ skills and attributes when working with parents involved in the child welfare system; however, few studies have examined the potential benefits of using an empathic approach to interacting with parents. Child welfare workers may have negative perceptions of parents involved in the child welfare system and might have a tendency to

  19. Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

    1998-01-01

    During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and welfare cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

  20. Welfare, The Earned Income Tax Credit, And The Labor Supply Of Single Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

    2001-01-01

    During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added, and welfare cases were terminated. Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

  1. Wellhead equipment support

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.P.

    1987-03-24

    A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

  2. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  3. Automated Chromosome Breakage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    An automated karyotyping machine was built at JPL in 1972. It does computerized karyotyping, but it has some hardware limitations. The image processing hardware that was available at a reasonable price in 1972 was marginal, at best, for this job. In the meantime, NASA has developed an interest in longer term spaceflights and an interest in using chromosome breakage studies as a dosimeter for radiation or perhaps other damage that might occur to the tissues. This uses circulating lymphocytes as a physiological dosimeter looking for chromosome breakage on long-term spaceflights. For that reason, we have reactivated the automated karyotyping work at JPL. An update on that work, and a description of where it appears to be headed is presented.

  4. Human Chromosome Spread Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-22

    The Biotechnology Education & Training Sequence Investment (BETSI) Project was established in 2004, funded by a National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant and built on the foundation of the Southwestern College Biotechnology Program. The BETSI Project was designed as "an educational cascade that starts with high school teacher training and student outreach, followed by the completion of the SWC Biotechnology Certification Program and internship opportunities, culminating with facilitation of jobs in the biotechnology industry." The BETSI Project has made several classroom activities available online including the activity featured here, "Human Chromosome Lab Procedures". This activity includes a basic introduction, a materials list, background information, procedures (step-by-step and including illustrations), and a results area. This exercise should prove useful to any educator interested in Human Chromosome instruction and lab activities.

  5. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

  6. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

  7. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

  8. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

  9. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

  10. The Complexity of Welfare Maximization in Congestion Games

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Carol A.

    We investigate issues of complexity related to welfare maximization in congestion games. In particular, we provide a full classification of complexity results for the problem of finding a minimum cost solution to a congestion ...

  11. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include a program under which contributions are made to provide remembrances such as flowers, an obituary notice in a newspaper or a small gift on occasions such as the sickness, hospitalization, death or...

  12. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include a program under which contributions are made to provide remembrances such as flowers, an obituary notice in a newspaper or a small gift on occasions such as the sickness, hospitalization, death or...

  13. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include a program under which contributions are made to provide remembrances such as flowers, an obituary notice in a newspaper or a small gift on occasions such as the sickness, hospitalization, death or...

  14. Safeguarding the welfare of farmed fish at harvest.

    PubMed

    Lines, J A; Spence, J

    2012-02-01

    Fish welfare at harvest is easily compromised by poor choice of handling and slaughter methods, lack of attention to detail and by unnecessary adherence to fish farming traditions. The harvest process comprises fasting the fish to empty the gut, crowding the fish, gathering and moving the fish using brails, fish pumps, and sometimes also road or boat transport and finally stunning and killing the fish. The harvesting processes commonly used for bass, bream, carp, catfish, cod, eel, halibut, pangasius, salmon, tilapia, trout, tuna and turbot are outlined. These harvesting processes are discussed; the consequences for fish welfare identified and practical tests which can be made at the harvest site highlighted. Welfare at harvest for the majority of farmed fish species can be improved by adopting and adapting existing procedures already known to be beneficial for fish welfare through their use in other fish farming systems or with other species. It is seldom necessary to develop completely new concepts or methods. PMID:21989953

  15. Social Welfare in One-sided Matching Markets without Money

    E-print Network

    Bhalgat, Anand; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    We study social welfare in one-sided matching markets where the goal is to efficiently allocate n items to n agents that each have a complete, private preference list and a unit demand over the items. Our focus is on allocation mechanisms that do not involve any monetary payments. We consider two natural measures of social welfare: the ordinal welfare factor which measures the number of agents that are at least as happy as in some unknown, arbitrary benchmark allocation, and the linear welfare factor which assumes an agent's utility linearly decreases down his preference lists, and measures the total utility to that achieved by an optimal allocation. We analyze two matching mechanisms which have been extensively studied by economists. The first mechanism is the random serial dictatorship (RSD) where agents are ordered in accordance with a randomly chosen permutation, and are successively allocated their best choice among the unallocated items. The second mechanism is the probabilistic serial (PS) mechanism of...

  16. Genetic selection for health and welfare traits in lambs 

    E-print Network

    Matheson, Stephanie

    2012-06-22

    Lamb mortality remains a significant welfare and economic issue for sheep production. Two significant causes of mortality are dystocia and low lamb vigour; both requiring high levels of human care to ensure lamb survival. ...

  17. THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF WELFARE KEGON TENG KOK TAN

    E-print Network

    May, J. Peter

    . Introduction The First Welfare Theorem is really a mathematical restatement of Adam Smith's famous "invisible hand" result. It relates competitive equilibria and Pareto opti- mality, which we will define more

  18. Transportation Center Seminar "Flight Delays, Capacity Investment and Welfare under

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    various system components such as passenger demand, air fare, flight traffic, operational performanceTransportation Center Seminar "Flight Delays, Capacity Investment and Welfare under Air Transport Supply-Demand Equilibrium" Bo Zou Assistant Professor Department of Civil and Materials Engineering

  19. APPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM

    E-print Network

    Shyy, Wei

    (PRWORA) of 1996, crafted by a Republican Congress. The PRWORA ended the entitlement to cash assistance conditions, federal government policy changes, and state welfare policy changes in the last few years have

  20. SUMMARY ANNUAL REPORT FOR WELFARE BENEFIT WRAP PLAN

    E-print Network

    of the WELFARE BENEFIT WRAP PLAN, a health, dental, and vision plan (employer identification number 62 of the plan. Insurance Information The plan has insurance contracts with Magellan Health Services and Vision

  1. Plant sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, D

    2008-01-01

    Dioecious species are known in plants and, as in many animals, some have distinguishable sex chromosomes. Genetic maps have identified sex-determining regions in several plants, and mapped male-specific Y (MSY) regions of the chromosome in which crossing over and genetic recombination do not occur, allowing sequence divergence between the X and Y. Divergence values of the few X-Y gene pairs so far available show that recombination between different genes of Silene latifolia stopped at different times. Once recombination stops, MSY genome regions are predicted to accumulate repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, resulting in low gene density. This has been documented in papaya but not yet in other plants. Y-linked genes should also accumulate deleterious mutations, eventually being lost as dosage compensation evolves. The few available data suggest that many plant MSY genes are functional, perhaps because genes required for male gametophyte functions degenerate slowly. Detailed studies of sex-linked genes are needed to test for deleterious substitutions in Y genes, and to date the origins of plant sex chromosomes. PMID:18756079

  2. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  3. An economic analysis of the welfare crisis in Texas

    E-print Network

    Ledbetter, Harry Laughlin

    1972-01-01

    AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE CRISIS IN TEXAS A Thesis by Harry Laughlin Ledbetter Submitted. to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972... Major Subject: Economics AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE WELFARE CRISIS IN TEXAS A Thesis by Harry Laughlin Ledbetter Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Head of Department) (Member) August 1972 A B S T R A C...

  4. Welfare of the Racehorse During Exercise Training and Racing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Evans

    The welfare of horses in training for racing and competition can be compromised by errors of management of many processes.\\u000a Lameness is usually identified, as the major problem facing horse trainers and high lameness rates in racehorses is a major\\u000a welfare concern. Recent epidemiological studies have shed light on important environmental risk factors for lameness and catastrophic\\u000a incidents during training

  5. Assessing the Importance of Natural Behavior for Animal Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. M. Bracke; H. Hopster

    2006-01-01

    The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals\\u000a need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the\\u000a context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have\\u000a a tendency to exhibit

  6. Child support and welfare dependence: A multinomial logit analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip K. Robins; Katherine P. Dickinson

    1985-01-01

    The relation between welfare dependency and receipt of child support is investigated with data from a special supplement to\\u000a the Current Population Survey. The impact of receiving child support on a family’s welfare status is estimated and the types\\u000a of families for which child support enforcement policies may have the great est impact are identified. Overall, the results\\u000a indicate that

  7. THE GLOBAL VORTEX: SOCIAL WELFARE IN A NETWORKED WORLD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel Elliott

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of economic globalization on the organization and delivery of social welfare services. Sennett's analysis of the modern networked organization is linked to psychodynamic theory in relation to the loss of ‘containment’ resulting from the demise of the post?war welfare bureaucracies. This changing environment has generated an anxiety?ridden and risk?obsessed society that features surveillance, control and

  8. Beyond GDP: The Quest for a Measure of Social Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. FLEURBAEY

    2011-01-01

    Part II The second part of the paper is devoted to the non-monetary indicators of social welfare. Various approaches to the study of subjective well-being and happiness are described. The author shows what problems a researcher would encounter trying to analyze welfare on the micro-level and to take account of the cognitive and affective aspects of the individuals assessment of

  9. Child Maltreatment Fatalities: Perspectives from the Child Welfare Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Annually, more than 2,000 children die from maltreatment in the U.S. About 30%-50% of those who suffer a child maltreatment fatality (CMF) are known to child welfare agencies. Yet, we know little about the professional decisions that surround CMFs and the effect that client death has on child welfare workers. The purpose of this proposed study is to pilot an

  10. Demographic Profiles of Children Reported to the Child Welfare System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassandra Simmel

    2011-01-01

    Specific demographic attributes of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system are important to examine so that targeted and appropriate interventions can be developed. This study, using data from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being longitudinal data set, explored key characteristics—developmental stage, gender, and ethnic status—in the child welfare reports of the participants (n

  11. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  12. Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices

    PubMed Central

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

  13. Rieger syndrome with multiple chromosomal breaks and chromosome 4 deletion.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Mukesh; Kumar, Rakesh; Goyal, Amita; Kumar, Manoj; Dada, Tanuj; Singh, Gurdeep; Sihota, Ramanjit; Dada, Rima

    2009-01-01

    Rieger syndrome (RS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with variable expressivity and complete penetrance. Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) shows genetic heterogeneity with mutations in several chromosomal loci being implicated including PITX2, FOXC1 and PAX6. Cytogenetic analysis was done in this case. Patient had de novo 46,XY,del(4q25-q27) karyotype with a high percentage (>35%) of chromosomal breaks. The breaks were on different chromosomes and not related to disease phenotype of RS. Such chromosomal breaks are diagnostic of chromosomal instability syndromes. Available literature does not report chromosomal breaks in RS or due to culture condition. Such a high percentage of chromosomal breaks are associated with development of certain cancers. In the present case we did not find any features consistent with any of the chromosomal instability syndromes like Fanconi's anaemia and Blooms syndrome, but such cases need to be under regular follow-up. Thus RS cases with multiple chromosomal breaks need regular follow-up and genetic counselling. PMID:21686867

  14. Chromosome painting with human chromosome-specific DNA libraries reveals the extent and distribution of conserved segments in bovine chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    Commercially available human chromosome-specific DNA libraries covering the whole karyotype were hybridized to normal bovine metaphase spreads to characterize the conserved chromosomal segments between man and cattle. All chromosome libraries except the Y chromosome library displayed a signal on at least part of one or more bovine chromosomes. The labeling was clearly visualized and permitted precise delineation of the hybridized

  15. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  16. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  17. Early Equipment Management

    E-print Network

    Schlie, Michelle

    2007-05-18

    . The continuous improvement program was implemented in twelve steps because of its complexity. Early Equipment Management (EEM) is one of the eight pillars of TPM and is the eighth step in the implementation program. EEM is a structured process that evaluates...

  18. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  19. Profiles of Victimized Women Among the Child Welfare Population: Implications for Targeted Child Welfare Policy and Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Kohl; Rebecca J. Macy

    2008-01-01

    Despite the call to address domestic violence along with child maltreatment, little information exists to guide services for\\u000a victimized women involved with child welfare. Research shows that victimized women contend with multiple problems stemming\\u000a from violent victimization. Unfortunately less is known about combinations of needs and resources among victimized women,\\u000a especially for those involved with child welfare. Through an examination

  20. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

    2012-01-01

    During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

  1. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

  2. Polymer Models of Interphase Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Kondev, Jané; Bressen, Debra; Haber, James

    2006-03-01

    Experiments during interphase, the growth phase of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, have shown that parts of chromosomes are tethered to the nuclear periphery[1]. Using a simple polymer model of interphase chromosomes that includes tethering, we compute the probability distribution for the distance between two marked points on the chromosome. These calculations are inspired by recent experiments with two or more fluorescent markers placed along the chromosome[2]. We demonstrate how experiments of this kind, in conjunction with simpe polymer models, can be used to systematically dissect the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes in the nucleus of living cells. This comparison of theory with experiments has lead to the conclusion that the structure of chromosome III in yeast is consistent with a 10nm-fiber model of chromatin. [1]Wallace F. Marshall. Current Biology, 12, 2002. [2] Kerstin Bystricky, Patrick Heun, Lutz Gehlen, Jörg Langowski and Susan M. Gasser. PNAS, 101(47) 2004

  3. Social disorganization and the profile of child welfare: Explaining child welfare activity by the community-level factors.

    PubMed

    Harrikari, Timo

    2014-10-01

    This article addresses the question of the structure of local child welfare activities in light of community-level factors. It poses the following research questions: how are different community-level factors related to child welfare client structures in communities and what is the extent to which these factors explain structural differences? The applied theoretical framework is based on social disorganization and strain theories as well as human developmental approach. The data has been collected from two Finnish national databases and it consists of variables containing 257 Finnish municipalities. The method of analysis is multinomial logistic regression. The results suggest that the local child welfare structures are tied to social disorganization, policing and culture as well as to the intensity of control in the communities. In general, the more fragile the communal structures, the more last-resort child welfare there is in the community. Combining fragile communal structures with weak dependency ratio and high proportion of social workers, the more intense the level of child welfare statistics indicated. The results indicate that the theoretical framework for the application of child welfare activity analysis is justified, but they also suggest that it requires further development through both context-bound reflection and application. PMID:25082431

  4. Update on Chromosome Organization and Dynamics Chromosome Organization and Dynamics during

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Update on Chromosome Organization and Dynamics Chromosome Organization and Dynamics during* Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 Chromosomes are key building blocks of eukaryotic genomes. Studies on chromosome organization and dynamics not only address

  5. Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

  6. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  7. Public Welfare Agenda or Corporate Research Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict. There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests. Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers. Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research. It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to be resisted at all costs. In this even pliant researchers need have no fear, for if they indeed publish what will work, the concerned sponsor will benefit in the long run. The only decision academia has to make is refuse to comply with predestined conclusions of sponsors for the ‘thirty pieces of silver’. Instead do genuine research and make sixty for themselves. The useful rule of thumb is: Keep the critical antenna on, especially with regard to drug trials, and more especially their methodology, and study closely the conflict of interest disclosed, and if possible undisclosed, before you jump on the band wagon to herald the next great wonder drug. There are three important lessons to be learnt by academia in all academia-industry relationships: i)Lesson number one: incorporate the right to publish contrary findings in the research contract itself. Which means, it makes great sense for academia to concentrate on the language and contractual provisions of sponsored research, to read the fine print very closely, and protect their research interests in case of conflict.ii)Lesson number two: a number of lawsuits successfully brought up against industry recently reflect earnest attempts by patient welfare bodies and others to remedy the tilt. It will result in a newfound confidence in academia that augurs well for academia industry relationship in the long run. Hence the second lesson for academia: do not get browbeaten by threats of legal actioniii)Lesson number three: Academia should keep itself involved right from inception of the clinical trial through to ultimate publication. And this must be an integral part of the written contract. The time to repeat cliches about the exciting future of the academia-industry connect is past. A concerted effort to lay a strong foundation of the relationship on practical ethical grounds has become mandatory. PMID:22679348

  8. Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

    2012-01-01

    Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution. PMID:22086076

  9. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

  10. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities. PMID:25000778

  11. Phosphorylation of Chromosome Core Components May Serve as Axis Marks for the Status of Chromosomal

    E-print Network

    Nachman, Michael

    Phosphorylation of Chromosome Core Components May Serve as Axis Marks for the Status of Chromosomal recombination and chromosome synapsis between homologous chromosomes are essential for proper chromosome that monitor these two events, take place in the context of a prophase I-specific axial chromosome structure

  12. OATS WITH MAIZE CHROMOSOME AND CHROMOSOME SEGMENT ADDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) plants crossed with maize (Zea mays L., 2n = 2x = 20) yields both haploid oat plants and plants with one or more maize chromosomes added to a haploid oat genome. Recovery of plants requires embryo rescue following partial or full elimination of the maize chromosom...

  13. Ring chromosome 2: Clinical, chromosomal, and biochemical aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jansen; F. A. Beemer; C. Heiden; J. O. Hemel; J. L. Brande

    1982-01-01

    A new case of ring chromosome 2 is described and compared with the five cases hitherto reported. The clinical picture includes a severe pre- and postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and some minor dysmorphic features. Cytogenetic studies revealed a ring 2 structure and aneuploidy. Banding analysis failed to demonstrate a substantial loss of chromosomal material. Enzymologic studies revealed a

  14. Everything about Construction Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

  15. Ultrahigh vacuum equipment described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhi; Jing, Shiqun; Peng, Xianhui

    1985-10-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum equipment for filming with a blockade value and a substrate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The equipment has the following characteristics: (1) the vacuum chamber is exposed to the atmosphere, the lockade valve can maintain a vacuum of 1 to 10 to the -9 power torr for a long period of time; (2) it greatly reduces the working cycle compared to before the blockade valve was installed; and (3) the temperature of the sample substrate in the vacuum chamber can be adjusted continuously between 77 K and room temperature. The ultrahigh vacuum filming equipment China now produces does not have an ultrahigh vacuum valve, when inserting and removing samples, the pump casing is exposed to the atmosphere so that even after the pump has operated for a time, its limited vacuum is 10 to the -8 power torr. A bakeable metallic blockade valve is installed between the vacuum pump intake and the vacuum chamber to form a fliming device. The device is simple, the vacuum is increased several levels, and it can make samples at different substrate temperatures.

  16. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  17. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  18. X chromosome and suicide.

    PubMed

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90 ?kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers. PMID:20010893

  19. Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Bellott, Daniel W.

    Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

  20. Organization of the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Krawiec, S; Riley, M

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in studies on the bacterial chromosome is summarized. Although the greatest amount of information comes from studies on Escherichia coli, reports on studies of many other bacteria are also included. A compilation of the sizes of chromosomal DNAs as determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis is given, as well as a discussion of factors that affect gene dosage, including redundancy of chromosomes on the one hand and inactivation of chromosomes on the other hand. The distinction between a large plasmid and a second chromosome is discussed. Recent information on repeated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements is presented. The growing understanding of limitations on the rearrangements that can be tolerated by bacteria and those that cannot is summarized, and the sensitive region flanking the terminator loci is described. Sources and types of genetic variation in bacteria are listed, from simple single nucleotide mutations to intragenic and intergenic recombinations. A model depicting the dynamics of the evolution and genetic activity of the bacterial chromosome is described which entails acquisition by recombination of clonal segments within the chromosome. The model is consistent with the existence of only a few genetic types of E. coli worldwide. Finally, there is a summary of recent reports on lateral genetic exchange across great taxonomic distances, yet another source of genetic variation and innovation. PMID:2087223

  1. Micromechanics of chromatin and chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Marko; Michael G. Poirier

    2003-01-01

    The enzymes that transcribe, recombine, package, and duplicate the eukaryotic genome all are highly processive and capable of generating large forces. Understanding chromosome function therefore will require analysis of mechanics as well as biochemistry. Here we review development of new biophysical-biochemical techniques for studying the mechanical properties of isolated chromatin fibers and chromosomes. We also discuss microscopy-based experiments on cells

  2. Advances in plant chromosome genomics.

    PubMed

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Simková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing genomics and is providing novel insights into genome organization, evolution and function. The number of plant genomes targeted for sequencing is rising. For the moment, however, the acquisition of full genome sequences in large genome species remains difficult, largely because the short reads produced by NGS platforms are inadequate to cope with repeat-rich DNA, which forms a large part of these genomes. The problem of sequence redundancy is compounded in polyploids, which dominate the plant kingdom. An approach to overcoming some of these difficulties is to reduce the full nuclear genome to its individual chromosomes using flow-sorting. The DNA acquired in this way has proven to be suitable for many applications, including PCR-based physical mapping, in situ hybridization, forming DNA arrays, the development of DNA markers, the construction of BAC libraries and positional cloning. Coupling chromosome sorting with NGS offers opportunities for the study of genome organization at the single chromosomal level, for comparative analyses between related species and for the validation of whole genome assemblies. Apart from the primary aim of reducing the complexity of the template, taking a chromosome-based approach enables independent teams to work in parallel, each tasked with the analysis of a different chromosome(s). Given that the number of plant species tractable for chromosome sorting is increasing, the likelihood is that chromosome genomics - the marriage of cytology and genomics - will make a significant contribution to the field of plant genetics. PMID:24406816

  3. Chromosome Numbers of Cerastium Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. Brett

    1950-01-01

    THE chromosomes of four species of Cerastium, namely, C. vulgatum, C. alpinum (including C. alpinum lanatum), C. arvense and C. perfoliatum, have been counted from root-tips of young seedlings. I give here a list of chromosome counts made by previous workers, none of which is of British material, together with my own counts.

  4. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  5. Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosome number

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Lecture 5 Mitosis and Meiosis #12;Chromosome number Early improvements in our ability to look look at normal chromosomes as they go through mitosis and meiosis #12; Mitosis The biologic function until the daughter cell in its turn reaches the S phase of the new cell cycle #12; Meiosis Biological

  6. SEX CHROMOSOMES IN FLOWERING PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in dioecious and polygamous plants evolved as a mechanism for ensuring outcrossing to increase genetic variation in the offspring. Sex specificity has evolved in 75% of plant families by male sterile or female sterile mutations, but well defined heteromorphic sex chromosomes are know...

  7. Field-flow fractionation of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.C.

    1990-09-01

    Research continued on field flow fractionation of chromosomes. Progress in the past year can be organized into three main categories: (1) chromosome sample preparation; (2) preliminary chromosome fractionation; (3) fractionation of a polystyrene aggregate model which approximates the chromosome shape. We have been successful in isolating metaphase chromosomes from the Chinese hamster. We also received a human chromosome sample from Dr. Carolyn Bell-Prince of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results are discussed. 2 figs.

  8. 12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Induction of human lampbrush chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Long; Gall, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that sperm heads from amphibians (Xenopus and Rana) and zebrafish (Danio) could form giant lampbrush chromosomes when injected into the nucleus of amphibian oocytes. However, similar experiments with mammalian sperm heads were unsuccessful. Here we describe a slightly modified procedure and demonstrate that human sperm heads can form giant lampbrush chromosomes when injected into the oocyte nucleus of the frog Xenopus laevis or the newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Human and other mammalian chromosomes do not form recognizable lampbrush chromosomes in their own oocytes or in any somatic cells. These experiments thus demonstrate that the lampbrush condition is an inducible state and that the amphibian oocyte nucleus contains all factors required to remodel the inactive chromatin of a mammalian sperm into a transcriptionally active state. They also demonstrate that absence of lampbrush chromosomes from human oocytes must relate to specific features of mammalian oogenesis, not to permanent genetic or epigenetic changes in the chromatin. PMID:23296495

  10. Chromosome Choreography: The Meiotic Ballet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Page (Stowers Institute for Medical Research; )

    2003-08-08

    This article provides a review of the current understanding as well as unanswered questions in the study of meiosis. The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

  11. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Miscellaneous Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes six units of instruction covering the small, specialized equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance…

  12. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

  13. Control of communication networks: welfare maximization and multipath transfers.

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Massoulié, Laurent

    2008-06-13

    We discuss control strategies for communication networks such as the Internet. We advocate the goal of welfare maximization as a paradigm for network resource allocation. We explore the application of this paradigm to the case of parallel network paths. We show that welfare maximization requires active balancing across paths by data sources, and potentially requires implementation of novel transport protocols. However, the only requirement from the underlying 'network layer' is to expose the marginal congestion cost of network paths to the 'transport layer'. We further illustrate the versatility of the corresponding layered architecture by describing transport protocols with the following properties: they welfare maximization, each communication may use an arbitrary collection of paths, where paths may be from an overlay, and paths may be combined in series and parallel. We conclude by commenting on incentives, pricing and open problems. PMID:18325871

  14. Stunning and animal welfare from Islamic and scientific perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, K; Man, Y B Che; Aghwan, Zeiad A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Abu Bakar, F; Al-Kahtani, H A; Sazili, A Q

    2013-10-01

    The transformation of an animal into pieces fit for human consumption is a very important operation. Rather than argue about halal slaughter without stunning being inhumane or stunning being controversial from the Islamic point of view, we discuss slaughter, stunning and animal welfare considering both Islamic and animal welfare legislation requirements. With the world Muslim population close to two billion, the provision of halal meat for the Muslim community is important both ethically and economically. However, from the animal welfare standard point of view, a number of issues have been raised about halal slaughter without stunning, particularly, about stressful methods of restraint and the latency of the onset of unconsciousness. This paper sets out to, discuss the methods of stunning that are acceptable by Islamic authorities, highlight the requirements for stunning to be acceptable in Islam and suggest practical ways to improve the humanness of slaughter. PMID:23747629

  15. The Urban Institute: Issues in Focus: Child Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The Urban Institute has been actively involved in research on urban-themed policy issues and related matters for over four decades. One of their thematic research programs covers child welfare. On this site, visitors can learn about this program, look over recent research reports, and sign up to receive their electronic newsletter. The "About the Program" is a fine place to start, and here visitors will learn that their work includes research on the finances of child welfare programs, adoption, and kinship care. Further on down the homepage, users will find recent reports like "Who Will Adopt the Foster Care Children Left Behind?" and "Trends in U.S. Foster Care Adoption Legislation: A State by State Analysis". The site is rounded out by information on the program team and an area where visitors can sign up to receive the Child Welfare Research Program's quarterly electronic newsletter.

  16. Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

  17. Innovative pediatric nursing role: public health nurses in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U

    2006-01-01

    The role of a pediatric public health nurse (PHN) practicing health case management in a child welfare agency was developed to meet the increasing health care demands and severe health problems of children in foster care. Federal and state government appropriated monies to fund this role to alleviate the difficulties in coordinating health care between the child welfare system and health care providers. Informal observations of the PHN in a large metropolitan child welfare agency in California were categorized using the Minnesota Public Health Intervention Model. Nurses functioning in this role are part of a team, with social workers, to promote the safety of children in foster care and to assure that health is part of a safe environment. PMID:16927724

  18. Tools and Equipment

    E-print Network

    Ugursal, A.

    2014-01-01

    Break 6. Continuous Commissioning Measures 7. Measurement and Verification 2 ESL-KT-14-11-37 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Tools and Equipment Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko Masuda, Juan... 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Questions? ESL-KT-14-11-37 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Joseph Martinez jtmartinez@tamu.edu Carlos Yagua carlosyagua...

  19. DISPLAY SCREEN EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS 1992

    E-print Network

    Screen Equipment can be defined as any conventional cathode ray tube screen and other display screen and possibly mental stress. These conditions are not unique to working with display screen equipment

  20. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  1. China production equipment sourcing strategy

    E-print Network

    Chouinard, Natalie, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    This thesis recommends a China business and equipment strategy for the Controls Conveyor Robotics Welding (CCRW) group at General Motors. The current strategy is to use globally common equipment through predetermined global ...

  2. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  3. 12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval...DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.5 Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior...

  4. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...for statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information system, to the...

  5. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

  6. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

  7. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  8. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

  9. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect...

  10. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

  11. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

  12. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

  13. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

  14. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  15. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

  16. 45 CFR 261.80 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect a State's penalty liability under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 261.80 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT...THAT RECIPIENTS WORK How Do Welfare Reform Waivers Affect...

  17. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  18. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...

  19. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...for statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS...statewide or Tribal automated child welfare information system, to the...

  20. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the... Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE...PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES,...