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1

Chromosome  

MedlinePLUS

... genes . It is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist ... come in pairs. Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). ...

2

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

3

Welfare Reform Briefing Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

4

Deinstitutionalization and Welfare Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before America began creating a federally based welfare state in the 1930s, most publicly funded responses to social problems had an institutional bias. The ways in which the welfare programs initiated 50 years ago have helped to influence institutional trends, and are likely to continue doing so in the future, constitute the major focus of this analysis. Four special problem

Paul Lerman

1985-01-01

5

Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

Einbinder, Susan; And Others

6

Family, welfare, and delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a five-wave panel probability sample of families in the State of Washington were analyzed to test the hypothesis that female headship and welfare experience increased participation in and frequency of juvenile delinquency. Appropriate statistical models of random effect probit and negative binomial were employed. Results indicated that there were no direct effects of female headship and welfare experience

Liqun Cao; Jian Cao; Jihong Zhao

2004-01-01

7

Nutrition And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition has a crucial role in determining the health and welfare of an animal. Owners have a responsibility to ensure that their cats receive a nutritionally complete and safe diet. The food should be offered in accordance with their natural feeding behaviour and physiology. Cats are obligate carnivores, with significantly different nutritional requirements from dogs and humans. As a result

Kit Sturgess; Karyl J. Hurley

8

Child Welfare Policy Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

Administration for Children & Families, 2008

2008-01-01

9

Housing And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way a cat is housed will have a significant impact on its welfare. The range of housing conditions in which cats may be kept include boarding, breeding and quarantine catteries, shelters, research facilities, veterinary practices and the home. Drawing on ethological principles, the evolutionary history of the cat and studies of cats kept in different conditions, the housing requirements

Irene Rochlitz

10

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

11

Off Welfare, into Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

1991-01-01

12

Foreign Influence and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do foreign interests influence the policy determination process? What are the welfare implications of such foreign influence? In this paper we develop a model of foreign influence and apply it to the study of optimal tariffs. We develop a two-country voting model of electoral competition, where we allow the incumbent party in each country to take costly actions that

Pol Antràs; Gerard Padró i Miquel

2008-01-01

13

Foreign influence and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do foreign interests influence policy? How are trade policies and the viability of trade agreements affected? What are the welfare implications of such foreign influence? In this paper we develop a model of foreign influence and apply it to the study of optimal tariffs. In a two-country voting model of electoral competition, we allow the incumbent party in each

Pol Antràs; Gerard Padró i Miquel

2011-01-01

14

Inflation and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

2000-01-01

15

Welfare Reform and Head Start.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the status of social welfare programs in the United States and recent efforts to reform such programs. It proposes key issues that need to be addressed in any attempt to overhaul the federal welfare system. Welfare reform should ensure that: (1) those families on public assistance are able to meet their basic needs in order to…

National Head Start Association, Alexandria, VA.

16

Ethology and animal welfare.  

PubMed

Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

Osterhoff, D R

1981-12-01

17

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

18

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-14

19

Scientific assessment of animal welfare.  

PubMed

Abstract Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

Hemsworth, Ph; Mellor, Dj; Cronin, Gm; Tilbrook, Aj

2015-01-01

20

House Prices and Consumer Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new approach to measuring changes in consumer welfare due to changes in the price of owner-occupied housing. In our approach, an agent's welfare adjustment is defined as the transfer required to keep expected discounted utility constant given a change in current home prices. We demonstrate that, up to a first-order approximation, there is no aggregate change in

Patrick Bajari; C. Lanier Benkard; John Krainer

2003-01-01

21

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

22

The welfare of dairy buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behav - ioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animal- related indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening

Giuseppe De Rosa; Fernando Grasso; Corrado Pacelli; Fabio Napolitano; Christoph Winckler

2009-01-01

23

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

24

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

25

Nash equilibrium and welfare optimality  

Microsoft Academic Search

If is a set of social alternatives, a social choice rule (SCR) assigns a subset of A to each potential profile of individuals' preferences over A, where the subset is interpreted as the set of 'welfare optima.' A game form (or 'mechanism') implements the social choice rule if, for any potential profile of preferences, (1) any welfare optimum can arise

Eric Maskin

1999-01-01

26

The Future of Poultry Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contemplating the future of poultry welfare, one must be aware of the current situation in the context of how this issue\\u000a has evolved. From this perspective, one may project forward to identify opportunities for continued advancements and barriers\\u000a that must be negotiated. In this chapter, we will explore the development of poultry welfare as a topic of public concern

Suzanne T. Millman; Joy A. Mench; Anne E. Malleau

27

Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.  

PubMed

Abstract Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern. PMID:24875152

Mellor, Dj

2015-01-01

28

Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.  

PubMed

While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

2013-01-01

29

Chromosome Shuffle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Role-playing the parts of chromosomes and centrioles, learners use large chromosome models and nylon cords (spindle fibers and cell membranes) to walk through the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Physical manipulation of the chromosomes and their parts in the process of cell division and replication both clarifies and reinforces some very abstract concepts for learners. The activity demonstrates crossing over and gene linkage. It may be extended to illustrate chromosome anomalies such as deletions and trisomies. Models can be used to show other mutation types as well as x-linkage. A large floor space is needed for this activity.

Tamsen Knowlton Meyer

2009-01-01

30

Workfare With Welfare: Recent Reforms of the Danish Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark has recently seen a significant drop in unemployment that has not been matched by any corresponding increase in inflation. This article assumes that this remarkable achievement is rooted in the ongoing transition from the Keynesian welfare state (KWS) to a Schumpeterian workfare regime (SWR). The article compares the main features of the KWS with those of the SWR. It

Jacob Torfing

1999-01-01

31

Chromosomal Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

32

Health and welfare in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

Nordenfelt, Lennart

2011-06-01

33

Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

2002-01-01

34

Assessment of welfare in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the definition given by Appleby (1996), animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry tech - niques and disease control (in which man is directly involved) may satisfy an animal's

Rosanna Scipioni; Giovanna Martelli; Luisa Antonella Volpelli

2009-01-01

35

Higher Education for Welfare Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What impact might higher education have on the economic situation and personal growth of welfare mothers? The results of a study confirm that the large majority of these mothers are able to succeed academically and that this education provided them with improved possibilities for employment and increased personal satisfaction. (Author)

Young, Barbara H.

1977-01-01

36

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

37

MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch Medical Centre Health Check Patient Participation THE RESPONSE. #12;INTRODUCTION The University Medical Centre is a GP Practice on the campus of the University Medical Centre and our practice population is made up of approximately 75% 16-24 year olds. The Medical

Banaji,. Murad

38

Case Advocacy in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides definitions of social advocacy and case advocacy for child advocates, child welfare workers, and social workers so as to clarify the concepts and the roles in the protection of children. Presents a historical account of advocacy efforts, along with an analysis of current advocacy efforts. (RJM)

Litzelfelner, Pat; Petr, Christopher G.

1997-01-01

39

Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

Griffin, Colin

1999-01-01

40

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

41

Child Support and Welfare Caseloads. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report tests the hypothesis that strong child support collection is associated with lower welfare caseloads. It uses annual state panel data from 1980-96 to replicate previous models and incorporate the effects of child support. The primary analysis technique is fixed effects regression of welfare caseloads with welfare caseloads as the…

Huang, Chien-Chung; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

42

Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

Horne, Thomas A.

1990-01-01

43

Perspectives on Women and Welfare Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to alert local and state advocates to the presence of the National Coalition on Women, Work, and Welfare Reform. It shares the Coalition's perspective on the welfare employment issue and proposes several initial strategies local advocates or policymakers might use in considering proposed or ongoing welfare employment…

National Coalition on Women, Work and Welfare Reform, Washington, DC.

44

Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

45

Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

2012-02-01

46

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

47

Chromosome structural aberrations  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 9, discusses chromosome structural aberrations, including chromosome breaks and rearrangements, chromatid breaks and rearrangements, telomeres and telomere associations, dicentric chromosomes, inactivation of the centromere, misdivision, centric fusion, triradial and multiradial chromosomes, and fragile sites. 48 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

48

The Nordic Path of Spain's Mediterranean Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Despite the fact that the Nordic welfare model has become less exceptional in recent times, it con- tinues to offer numerous examples for “best practices” in social policy provision, together with a high degree,of welfare political legitimacy. This paper,explores Nordic “benchmarking”,as refer- ence to the ,case of welfare ,development ,in Spain. In the general process ,of convergence ,of the

Luis Moreno

49

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.  

PubMed

The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

2014-04-01

50

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

51

Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee

Jörgen Hansen; Magnus Löfström

2000-01-01

52

A history of animal welfare science.  

PubMed

Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made. PMID:21347723

Broom, Donald M

2011-06-01

53

43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17.250 Section 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities...

2010-10-01

54

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2013-10-01

55

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2012-10-01

56

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2014-10-01

57

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2011-10-01

58

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2013-10-01

59

Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2009-01-01

60

Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

Cohen, Miriam

2005-01-01

61

Welfare Effects of Global Patent Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a simple model of invention and patent protection to examine the welfare effects of extending patent protection from the country where invention takes place to another country that is only a consumer of invented products. It is shown that, while the welfare of the inventing country certainly rises with the extension of patent protection, that of the

Alan V Deardorff

1992-01-01

62

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

63

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

64

Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

Kaplan, April

1999-01-01

65

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

66

AID and the Single Welfare Mother.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates the issue of voluntary artificial insemination among single women who depend on public assistance. Ooms argues that eligibility for welfare should be based on court defined criteria rather than on moral judgments, while Steinfels suggests that the welfare of the child is most important in any consideration. (Author/AOS)

Ooms, Theodora; Steinfels, Margaret O'Brien

1983-01-01

67

Implementing Welfare Reform in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of a broader study considering effects of welfare reform on households in rural areas. This report describes the findings of qualitative research, which examined welfare reform implementation and availability of services in 12 rural communities in Alabama, Arkansas, California, and Maine. The study sites were diverse in terms of…

Pindus, Nancy M.

68

Pharmaceutical Price Discrimination and Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Price discrimination is an extremely common type of pricing strategy engaged in by virtually every business with some discretionary pricing power. The issue of whether price discrimination reduces or increases social welfare has been considered by economists since at least 1920. At that time, it was demonstrated that, under certain (restrictive) conditions, price discrimination will reduce social welfare. Subsequent research

Frank R. Lichtenberg

2010-01-01

69

Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2000-01-01

70

Chromosome Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

1998-01-01

71

Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.  

PubMed

This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare. Implications for welfare reform policy are discussed. PMID:10368922

Yoshikawa, H

1999-01-01

72

An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.  

PubMed

Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

2013-01-01

73

Solar Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

1983-01-01

74

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

2007-01-01

75

Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses questions concerning the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, offering updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. Chapter 1, "Introduction," reviews specific summary measures of welfare dependence proposed by…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

76

Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. This is the second of those annual reports. A family is defined as dependent on welfare if more than 50% of its total income in a 1-year period comes from welfare programs…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

77

Spurious Welfare Reversals in International Business Cycle Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers on international business cycles have documented spurious welfare reversals: incomplete markets produce a higher level of welfare than the complete market. This paper first demonstrates how conventional linearization, as used in King, Plosser, and Rebelo (1988), can generate approximation errors that can result in welfare reversals. Using a two-country production economy, we argue that spurious welfare reversals are not

Jinill Kim

2001-01-01

78

A Look at Child Welfare from a Homeless Education Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although navigating the child welfare system can be daunting for those working in the field of homeless education, local liaisons and others must determine whether children in the child welfare system are eligible for McKinney-Vento services and collaborate with child welfare staff. This document provides an overview of the U.S. child welfare…

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

2007-01-01

79

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Lists Adoption Assistance by State More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Resources From ... State Child Welfare Workload Compendium More Tools & Resources Logic Model Builders Related Organizations Learning Center Children's Bureau ...

80

Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.

Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

2004-01-01

81

A History of Social Welfare Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University Library's Social Welfare Digital Collection brings together manuscripts, early journals, narratives, reports, letters, photographs, prints, and much more that document the history of social welfare in the United States. The two foci here include the historical development of social welfare services in New York and the history of social welfare provisions by and for African Americans. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Featured Item and then Browse around at their leisure through more than 25 titles, such as "Dangerous Classes of New York, and twenty years' work among them" and "North of Slavery." Visitors can also look over two timelines documenting the parallel foci mentioned above. The siteâÂÂs Search feature allows for a basic search across all items in the collection.

82

Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report is the first in a series of annual reports from the Department of Health and Human Services required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA). The report "presents data on State performance in meeting the needs of children and families who come into contact with the child welfare system, focusing specifically on the "outcomes, or results, for these children." It also examines the condition of child welfare programs nationwide, presents data measuring outcomes, and offers findings and conclusions.

2000-01-01

83

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.  

PubMed

Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade. PMID:25000777

Molomo, M; Mumba, T

2014-04-01

84

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

85

Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

86

Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.  

PubMed

Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and food. Body condition and faeces consistence were worse in summer. Many daily grazing hours (range average above 3 to 9 h) turned out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing hours. PMID:23244468

Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

2013-05-01

87

Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

2010-01-01

88

How is animal welfare addressed in Canada's emergency response plans?  

PubMed

In 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita clearly revealed that even in the United States the welfare of companion animals and nonhuman animals in the wild, zoo, or aquarium was not considered within the evacuation plans for their human caretakers (owners). The lack of proper planning and trained individuals resulted in a huge loss of animal life as well as suffering and trauma to both animals and their owners. The present Canadian Federal Emergency Response Plan does not have adequate procedures for the evacuation of animals together with their owners, nor do Canada or the provinces and territories have a plan in place that consists of properly trained and equipped individuals to respond to this aspect of disaster management. The Canadian Veterinary Reserve (CVR) was thus organized at a national level to respond properly to disasters or emergencies of all types and thereby reduce animal suffering and loss of life. This article describes the formation of the CVR and its anticipated national role in addressing animal welfare during times of catastrophic need. PMID:18444033

Wittnich, Carin; Belanger, Michael

2008-01-01

89

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

90

EQUIPping Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many years, publications such as the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and The Science Teacher (TST) have encouraged teachers to focus science classes more heavily on inquiry-based instructional practice. One way to improve our teaching practice is to use a benchmark assessment to obtain a solid point of reference that honestly reflects what we do in the classroom, and then to design a developmental plan to raise the level of performance. The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) is helpful in providing both a benchmark and a guide to improving the quality of inquiry implemented in our classrooms.

White, Chris; Marshall, Jeff; Horton, Robert

2009-04-01

91

Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted\\/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals were recorded using a purpose-built telemetry-logging system, small enough to be worn by each bird in a spandex backpack. The birds

A. M. L. Coenen; J. A. C. Lankhaar; J. C. Lowe; D. E. F. McKeegan

2009-01-01

92

Linking Chromosome Duplication and Segregation via Sister Chromatid Cohesion  

PubMed Central

DNA replication during S phase generates two identical copies of each chromosome. Each chromosome is destined for a daughter cell, but each daughter must receive one and only one copy of each chromosome. To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells are equipped with a mechanism to pair the chromosomes during chromosome duplication and hold the pairs until a bi-oriented mitotic spindle is formed and the pairs are pulled apart. This mechanism is known as sister chromatid cohesion, and its actions span the entire cell cycle. During G1, before DNA is copied during S phase, proteins termed cohesins are loaded onto DNA. Paired chromosomes are held together through G2 phase, and finally the cohesins are dismantled during mitosis. The processes governing sister chromatid cohesion ensure that newly replicated sisters are held together from the moment they are generated to the metaphase–anaphase transition, when sisters separate. PMID:24906310

Leman, Adam R.; Noguchi, Eishi

2014-01-01

93

Welfare-to-Work Policy: Employer Hiring and Retention of Former Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the new U.S. welfare reform legislation is to move welfare recipients into jobs. There is widespread agreement that at least three components of this transition should be reflected in the measurement of a state's performance with respect to this objective: The percent of eligible TANF recipients who begin work; The percent of those beginning work who retain

David Stevens

2000-01-01

94

Welfare and Immigrants: Restricting the Eligibility of Legal Immigrants for Welfare Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes legal immigrants' participation rates in major welfare programs and discusses several proposals to eliminate or restrict eligibility of legal immigrants for welfare programs, including denying eligibility to long-term legal immigrants whose sponsors' income exceeds the median family income. Competition for low-skill jobs and the limited…

Mont, Daniel

1996-01-01

95

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

96

On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

Burgoon, Brian

2006-01-01

97

An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

2013-01-01

98

The Diversity of Welfare Leavers. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report charts the experiences of women who have done better or worse than average after leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, highlighting differences in: education, health, and other characteristics; whether or not they were sanctioned before leaving; and welfare dependency (amount of time spent on welfare before leaving and off…

Moffitt, Robert; Roff, Jennifer

99

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include the distribution of gifts such as turkeys or hams by an employer to employees at Christmas and other holiday seasons. (e) Sales to employees. For purposes of title I of...

2012-07-01

100

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

...employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include the distribution of gifts such as turkeys or hams by an employer to employees at Christmas and other holiday seasons. (e) Sales to employees. For purposes of title I of...

2014-07-01

101

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce  

E-print Network

This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

Pakdeethai, Pimrak

2010-10-12

102

Estimating Welfare In Insurance Markets Using Variation in Prices  

E-print Network

We provide a graphical illustration of how standard consumer and producer theory can be used to quantify the welfare loss associated with inefficient pricing in insurance markets with selection. We then show how this welfare ...

Finkelstein, Amy

103

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the terms “employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include the distribution of gifts such as turkeys or hams by an employer to employees at Christmas and other holiday seasons. (e) Sales to employees. For purposes of...

2013-07-01

104

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the terms “employee welfare benefit plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include the distribution of gifts such as turkeys or hams by an employer to employees at Christmas and other holiday seasons. (e) Sales to employees. For purposes of...

2011-07-01

105

Essays on the political economy of welfare and redistribution  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores two main puzzles. First, why do some countries have more generous welfare policies than others? Second, why do some people support welfare policies more than others? This collection of essays ...

Roh, Jungho

2011-01-01

106

Spurious welfare reversals in international business cycle models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers have documented spurious welfare reversals: incomplete-markets economy produces a higher level of welfare than the complete-markets economy. This paper first demonstrates how conventional linearization can generate approximation errors that can result in welfare reversals. Using a two-country production economy, we argue that spurious welfare reversals are not only possible but also plausible under reasonable values for model parameters.

Jinill Kim; Sunghyun Henry Kim

2003-01-01

107

Rural Public Welfare: Observations from West Virginia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The public welfare agency is a major influence in rural community life. It is the service delivery mechanism for medical care, cash aid, food stamps, and many other kinds of life-or-death assistance. It is significant in local economies and its employees are influential in communities where well-educated people are scarce. (JHZ)

Ginsberg, Leon H.

1984-01-01

108

Welfare Reform: Implications for the Black Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centerpiece of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) is the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Act, which directs states to provide a broad range of educational, training, and employment services. FSA offers states an opportunity to design humane and effective programs to assist welfare recipients to move out of poverty. FSA also has…

McLaughlin, Megan E.

109

Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

110

STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

111

Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents comparative qualitative and quantitative evidence from rural Kenya and Madagascar in an attempt to untangle the causality behind persistent poverty. We find striking differences in welfare dynamics depending on whether one uses total income, including stochastic terms and inevitable measurement error, or the predictable, structural component of income based on a household's asset holdings. Our results suggest

Christopher B. Barrett; Paswel Phiri Marenya; John Mcpeak; Bart Minten; Festus Murithi; Willis Oluoch-Kosura; Jean Claude Randrianarisoa; Jhon Rasambainarivo; Justine Wangila

2006-01-01

112

Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

113

Shaping Child Welfare Policy via Performance Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance measurement is generally depicted as a neutral, technical exercise providing objective data for decision-making. But it also has a normative role in framing policy problems and solutions. This article explores the role of indicators in shaping child welfare, comparing stated policy with performance indicator regimes in England. It…

Tilbury, Clare

2007-01-01

114

SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

115

Welfare and Child Support: Complements, Not Substitutes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most states, child support paid on behalf of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) participants is used to offset TANF and child support administrative expenditures; this policy primarily benefits taxpayers. In contrast, Wisconsin allowed most custodial parents to keep all support paid on their behalf. This policy, which treats welfare…

Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.; Caspar, Emma

2008-01-01

116

Lobbying, information, and private and social welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobbying is potentially welfare improving if it is a form of information transmission. This paper studies when and for whom this is the case. In the model, a government (G) can redistribute income between two interest groups (A and B). Only one of them (A) has the opportunity to lobby. Lobbying is understood as A's acquiring and strategically revealing policy-relevant

Johan Lagerlöf

1997-01-01

117

From Welfare to Work: The Endorsement of the Money Ethic and the Work Ethic among Welfare Recipients, Welfare Recipients in Training Programs, and Employed Past Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work-related attitudes of 164 welfare recipients, 159 recipients in job training, and 158 employed former recipients were compared. Those employed had the highest scores in money ethic, work ethic, and self-esteem; higher education and income; and longer job tenure. Recipients not in training had the least positive money and work ethic. (Contains…

Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Smith-Brandon, Vancie L.

2001-01-01

118

School of Social Welfare The University of  

E-print Network

. Wempe, Little River Deryl Wynn, Kansas City, Kan. Kim A. Wilcox, Executive Director 1000 S.W. Jackson St capital. The Lawrence campus is on Mount Oread, one of several bluffs in the Kansas and Wakarusa riverSchool of Social Welfare 2002-2004 The University of KANSAS This publication is for informational

119

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia;)

2003-01-01

120

Work, Welfare, and Family Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more families move from welfare to work, little is known about the implications of employment for family well-being. This survey and case study examined the effects of employment on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of parents, children, and families. Survey respondents received assistance through Iowa's Family Investment Program…

Sing, Merrile; Hill, Heather; Mendenko, Linda

121

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

122

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

E-print Network

1 Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States Rebecca M. Blank University of Michigan and NBER the United States fundamentally changed the structure of its public assistance programs to low, labor force changes, poverty and income changes, and family formation changes. A growing body

Shyy, Wei

123

School Inequality and the Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book begins with an examination of school inequality in the United States. The discussion focuses successively on the issues of: the paradox of unequal schools in a welfare state, the distribution of educational resources in American cities: some new empirical evidence, inequalities in the allocation of educational resources among cities and…

Owen, John D.

124

APPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM  

E-print Network

controversial social policies of recent times. A Democratic president abandoned welfare reform legislationAPPROACHING THE LIMIT: EARLY NATIONAL LESSONS FROM WELFARE REFORM Sheldon Danziger University of Welfare Reform. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2001. Sheldon Danziger is Henry J

Shyy, Wei

125

Animal welfare concepts in India: Perceptions and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India the concept of Animal Welfare is quite different from the concept of Animal Husbandry. There is paucity of precise information on the animal welfare activities being carried out in practice as compared to policy documents prepared by governmental and non-governmental organizations. During the past 10 years Animal Welfare Societies have been established to take up a number of

Ashok Rathore

126

Will Social Welfare Expenditures Survive Tax Competition&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing economic openness creates demands for social welfare programmes designed to cushion the impact of economic changes, but may also encourage governments to reduce tax rates to attract mobile economic resources. Competitive tax reductions could then prevent governments from being able to finance significant welfare spending. Alternatively, economic globalization might improve the ability of governments to afford social welfare programmes--and

JAMES R. HINES JR

2006-01-01

127

Indicators of Welfare Dependence. Annual Report to Congress, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fourth annual report addresses the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, providing updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. It highlights benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

128

Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

2013-01-01

129

Governmental and Nongovernmental Youth Welfare in the New German Lander.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of the general conditions of youth welfare departments in eastern Germany revealed severe money shortages. Increasing demands on youth welfare, rising social problems, right-wing extremism, and widespread unemployment among youths cause long-term social problems and prohibit effective youth welfare. (RJM)

Gawlik, Marion; And Others

1994-01-01

130

The Legacy of Welfare: Economic Endowments or Cultural Characteristics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the impact of parental welfare history on individuals' current use of welfare by decomposing intergenerational differences using techniques traditionally employed in the race and sex wage discrimination literature. This research extends Rank and Cheng's examination of welfare across generations by including various…

Bartholomae, Suzanne; Fox, Jonathan J.; McKenry, Patrick C.

2004-01-01

131

Chromosome Disorder Outreach  

MedlinePLUS

... alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, founded, supported, and run by parents just ... alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, founded, supported, and run by parents just ...

132

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

133

Chromosome Models: Karyotyping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can have a tactile opportunity to construct a karyotype, an organized model of an organism’s chromosomes, conveying the chromosome’s size and shape. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can learn about the organization of chromosomes which carry the genetic material in all cells that have a nucleus.

2012-06-26

134

Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.  

PubMed

Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice. PMID:21248419

Precin, Patricia

2011-01-01

135

Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) were analyzed to identify ways of improving the process of moving people from welfare to work. Selected lessons from the analysis were as follows: (1) welfare-to-work programs that rely on adult basic education programs for the general population are unlikely to improve…

Hamilton, Gayle

136

Chromosome instability syndromes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 11, discusses chromosome instability syndromes. The focus is on the most extensively studied genotypic chromosomal aberrations which include Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The great interest in these syndromes is out of proportion to their rare occurrence; however, studies of genotypic chromosome breakage have been inspired by the hope of throwing light on chromosome structure and behavior. A table is given which relates chromosomal aberrations in Bloom syndrome which may cause or promote cancer. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

137

A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare  

PubMed Central

Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

2014-01-01

138

When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?  

PubMed

Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. PMID:21887810

Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

2012-11-01

139

Welfare during stunning and slaughter of poultry.  

PubMed

This paper describes research on the electrical stunning of poultry and the problems of achieving an effective humane stun with water bath stunners. The welfare and meat quality advantages of using gas mixtures to stun and kill birds are then described. The evidence strongly suggests that chickens and turkeys can be killed very humanely using either 90% argon in air or a mixture of 30% carbon dioxide and 60% argon in air. PMID:9872584

Raj, M

1998-12-01

140

Pathways to specialising in animal welfare.  

PubMed

Safeguarding animal welfare is an important aspect of the day-to-day work of almost all veterinarians; however, only some choose to pursue specific postgraduate qualifications in this area. Andrew Knight describes some of the routes to specialisation that are available around the world, highlighting in particular how suitably experienced individuals can currently seek accreditation in Europe and the USA without undertaking a formal programme of study. PMID:25377205

Knight, Andrew D

2014-11-01

141

Duke University Laboratory Equipment  

E-print Network

, incubators, chemical fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, and other items potentially contaminated equipment must be free of hazardous materials (i.e. biological, chemical, radiological) prior to equipment

Wolpert, Robert L

142

From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.  

PubMed

There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. PMID:22192762

Woods, Abigail

2012-03-01

143

Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes  

SciTech Connect

In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

2006-03-16

144

Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.  

PubMed

This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

2013-11-01

145

Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths  

PubMed Central

Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

2012-01-01

146

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

147

A Measure of the Welfare Cost of Health Insurance  

PubMed Central

A measure of the economic welfare cost due to excess usage of insured services is presented, illustrated by empirical estimations of the welfare cost of existing insurance in selected years and of the effect on marginal welfare cost if all 1963 physician care had been fully insured. It is argued that no a priori case can be made for either increasing or restricting insurance coverage as a means of reducing excess usage cost, but that empirical investigation, with refined estimates of critical parameters, will allow prediction of the effect of any health insurance package on economic welfare. PMID:5377855

Pauly, Mark V.

1969-01-01

148

The welfare of livestock transported by ship.  

PubMed

The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances. PMID:23473873

Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

2013-06-01

149

Chromosomal rearrangements and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have proposed that speciation frequently occurs when a population becomes fixed for one or more chromosomal rearrangements that reduce fitness when they are heterozygous. This hypothesis has little theoretical support because mutations that cause a large reduction in fitness can be fixed through drift only in small, inbred populations. Moreover, the effects of chromosomal rearrangements on fitness are

Loren H. Rieseberg

2001-01-01

150

Capturing Chromosome Conformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

2002-02-01

151

Drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East.  

PubMed

Religion, ethics and culture are an important group of drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East. In many countries of the region the understanding of animal welfare is expressed more in terms of religious precepts and humane ethics than via regulations and legislation. In fact, regulatory and legislated animal welfare standards are still not well implemented and many animal welfare issues require attention. The Qur'an provides considerable support for conscientiously attending to animal welfare. For example, the Islamic rules on the process of slaughter were intended to provide a quick, humane and relatively painless death. Current practices that are not in accordance with these religious teachings may cause great suffering to animals. Although these rules have been in place for 1,400 years or more, now, in the 21st Century, they are found to closely correspond to the related standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The OIE plays an important role in improving animal welfare by developing global animal welfare standards. These should assist countries in two important ways: first, by helping them to establish new, or to refine existing, animal welfare legislation, and second, at the OIE regional level, by facilitating interactions between Member Countries as they develop and refine a strategic plan for the advancement of animal welfare. As the OIE standards are compatible with the requirements of Islamic law, issuing animal welfare legislation referring to those standards and implementing them at a national level is highly recommended. A dialogue between the OIE and the Veterinary Services and religious leaders in the region should therefore start with the objective of improving animal welfare. PMID:25000780

Aidaros, H

2014-04-01

152

GENERALIZED NUTRIENT TAXES CAN INCREASE CONSUMER WELFARE.  

PubMed

Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25241653

Bishai, David

2014-09-19

153

34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52 Section 104.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

2011-07-01

154

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52 Section 84.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

2010-10-01

155

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

2011-04-01

156

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52 Section 84.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

2011-10-01

157

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

2010-04-01

158

34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52 Section 104.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

2010-07-01

159

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52 Section 605.52...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In...

2011-10-01

160

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...relation to State emergency welfare preparedness...IV-A for providing training in emergency...

2010-10-01

161

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2010-07-01

162

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2011-07-01

163

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare...

2012-10-01

164

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare...

2013-10-01

165

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

...emergency welfare preparedness. Such activities must relate to emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare...

2014-10-01

166

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2014-07-01

167

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2012-07-01

168

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2013-07-01

169

Implementing Welfare-to-Work Services: A Study of Staff Decision-Making  

E-print Network

In the post-welfare reform era, increased discretion has been given to frontline staff for day-today welfare policy implementation. To determine how frontline staff address the complex needs of welfare program participants ...

Johnson, Michelle A.; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Ketch, Virginia; Austin, M. J.

2006-01-01

170

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

Lacks, S.A.

1995-07-18

171

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

1995-07-18

172

Human chromosome 22.  

PubMed Central

The acrocentric chromosome 22, one of the shortest human chromosomes, carries about 52 000 kb of DNA. The short arm is made up essentially of heterochromatin and, as in other acrocentric chromosomes, it contains ribosomal RNA genes. Ten identified genes have been assigned to the long arm, of which four have already been cloned and documented (the cluster of lambda immunoglobulin genes, myoglobin, the proto-oncogene c-sis, bcr). In addition, about 10 anonymous DNA segments have been cloned from chromosome 22 specific DNA libraries. About a dozen diseases, including at least four different malignancies, are related to an inherited or acquired pathology of chromosome 22. They have been characterised at the phenotypic or chromosome level or both. In chronic myelogenous leukaemia, with the Ph1 chromosome, and Burkitt's lymphoma, with the t(8;22) variant translocation, the molecular pathology is being studied at the DNA level, bridging for the first time the gap between cytogenetics and molecular genetics. PMID:3550088

Kaplan, J C; Aurias, A; Julier, C; Prieur, M; Szajnert, M F

1987-01-01

173

Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

Walker, A; Wong, C K

1996-01-01

174

Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

175

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

176

Preslaughter treatment of pigs. Consequences for welfare and meat quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chapter 1 is a general introduction to this thesis. Welfare of slaughter pigs may be impaired by preslaughter treatment. Frequently used welfare indicators are behavioural and physiological responses. The responses to preslaughter treatment may also have an effect on perimortem muscle metabolism and thereby on meat quality. Behavioural and physiological responses to acute stress could lead to properties of PSE

N. A. Geverink

1998-01-01

177

Nonmetro Labor Markets in the Era of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural job growth remains behind that of metro areas, hindering efforts to move welfare recipients into successful employment. Those most in need of public assistance have less education, lower earnings, and higher unemployment than average. Welfare recipients are concentrated in rural areas marked by chronic economic distress and low-skilled,…

Gibbs, Robert

2001-01-01

178

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

179

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

180

Child Welfare Services and Delinquency: The Need to Know More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the need for a better understanding of the moderating effects of child welfare services on delinquency. Although juvenile delinquency is a commonly studied issue, researchers have paid little attention to the degree to which child welfare services may be associated with changes in subsequent delinquency rates. Emerging…

Jonson-Reid, Melissa

2004-01-01

181

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2014-10-01

182

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2011-10-01

183

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2010-10-01

184

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2012-10-01

185

Morbid Obesity and the Transition from Welfare to Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less…

Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

2005-01-01

186

The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

2004-01-01

187

Measuring cognition and emotion of animals to understand their welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major knowledge gap in assessing animal welfare is our inability to measure how animals actually feel in the different situations in which we farm them. As animals are unable to speak, we must find ways of gaining insight into their minds. Our animal welfare research at CSIRO includes a focus on understanding the cognitive abilities of animals in order

Caroline Lee; Rebecca Doyle; Andrew Fisher

188

Acknowledging Different Needs: Developing a Taxonomy of Welfare Leavers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used cluster analysis of survey data for 506 respondents to create a taxonomy of welfare leavers in Illinois based on their self-reported well-being after leaving welfare. Used classification tree analysis to identify factors associated with different types of leavers. Findings highlight the existence of many marginally successful leavers who…

Julnes, George; Hayashi, Kentaro; Anderson, Steven

2001-01-01

189

A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

2007-01-01

190

A Dual Transformation of the German Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the notion of a political blockade making comprehensive reform impossible, this article argues that we have, in fact, witnessed a dual transformation of the German welfare state during the past 25 years. Increasingly, the state reduces its commitment to securing the living standard of former wage earners, which had been the key normative principle of the German welfare

M. Seeleib-Kaiser

2002-01-01

191

Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

Nicholson, Rosetta

1975-01-01

192

Social capital, houshold welfare, and poverty in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author empirically estimates how social capital affects household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. His focus: household memberships in local associations, an aspect of social capital especially relevant to daily household decisions that affect welfare and consumption. The data suggest that households with higher social capital spend more per capita. They also have more assets, more savings, and better access

Christiaan Grootaert

1999-01-01

193

Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare capitalism".…

Jakobsen, Tor Georg

2011-01-01

194

Aboriginal Child Welfare: Framework for a National Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The executive officer, Secretariat of the National Aboriginal and Islander Child Care (Australia), examines the problems confronting aboriginal children in the welfare system and their overrepresentation in foster care and concludes that the system must be examined to identify sources of racism and action needs, as a precursor to child welfare…

D'Souza, Nigel

1993-01-01

195

Potential Welfare Losses from Financial Autarky and Trade Sanctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates frictions in the international financial and goods markets and assesses the welfare implications these frictions have. It is found that the reduction in goods trading, which results from the presence of trade costs, significantly reduces consumer welfare compared to the first best where trade is free and costless. By contrast, a complete prohibition of international financial asset

Alexis Anagnostopoulosy

2004-01-01

196

RESEARCH PAPER Ethical and welfare considerations when using cephalopods  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Ethical and welfare considerations when using cephalopods as experimental animals N as a result of the experiment. Keywords Animal welfare Á Animal ethics Á Capture Á Cephalopods Á Cuttlefish Á+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract When using cephalopods as experimental animals, a number of factors, including

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

197

Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas to examine the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients. Data come from a telephone survey of approximately 750 establishments. Results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients, although such demand appears fairly sensitive to business cycle…

Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.

198

Social Welfare History Archives: A Source for the Urban Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Social Welfare History Archives at the University of Minnesota were established with the intent of gathering the records of the diverse agencies and national associations that make up the private or independent social welfare sector. The collection documents life in urban settings and focuses on social behavior that is often neglected in…

Stadum, Beverly

199

Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

200

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

201

Beyond 'Work First': An Empowering Approach to Welfare Programs  

E-print Network

education, job skills training, and the child care and transportationtransportation, and other reimbursements Social Capital Trusting relations among women and between women and welfare workers Cultural Capital Education/training;transportation, or other reimbursements Distrust and dissociation among women and between women and welfare workers No education/training;

Woodward, Kerry C.

2009-01-01

202

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

203

The impact of welfare reform on local labor markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a local labor market information system to assess the labor market effects of recently adopted welfare reform laws. Using the Cleveland-Akron metropolitan area as a prototype, we develop an occupationally and geographically specific inventory of projected job openings and measure the skill mismatch between projected job openings and the welfare population likely to enter the labor market. We

Laura Leete; Neil Bania

1999-01-01

204

Local Labor Markets And Welfare Spells: Do Demand Conditions Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of changes in labor market conditions on participation in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in California. Transitions off welfare and transitions back onto welfare are estimated using discrete duration models that control for local labor market conditions, demographic and neighborhood characteristics, duration effects, county-fixed effects, time effects, and county-specific time trends.

Hilary Williamson Hoynes

2000-01-01

205

Strategies to promote farm animal welfare in Latin America and their effects on carcass and meat quality traits.  

PubMed

Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs. PMID:22503613

da Costa, Mateus J R Paranhos; Huertas, Stella M; Gallo, Carmen; Dalla Costa, Osmar A

2012-11-01

206

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, S.A.

1991-12-31

207

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... dashboard . Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

208

Mapping the phytoplasma chromosome.  

PubMed

Physical and genetic mapping of the phytoplasma chromosome can be a useful tool in a genome sequencing project in order to assemble the in silico-predicted contigs robustly. Mapping consists of four distinct steps: preparation of phytoplasma chromosomes from infected plants, single- and double-digestion of chromosomes with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, separation of large DNA fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with various genetic markers. Materials and methods needed for each step are described and the technique is illustrated using the flavescence dorée phytoplasma genome map as an example. PMID:22987434

Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Carle, Patricia

2013-01-01

209

Women Students with Dependent Children on Welfare: Educational Impact of Welfare Policy and Practice. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey conducted at University of Wisconsin System institutions was designed to help decision makers determine how many women students were on welfare and to find out the interaction between welfare and student financial aid in relation to expenses incurred in higher education. Women students vary in financial, marital, and parental status, and…

Nash, Nancy S.; And Others

210

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

211

Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

212

Genetic markers on chromosome 7.  

PubMed Central

Chromosome 7 is frequently associated with chromosome aberrations, rearrangements, and deletions. It also contains many important genes, gene families, and disease loci. This brief review attempts to summarise these and other interesting aspects of chromosome 7. With the rapid accumulation of cloned genes and polymorphic DNA fragments, this chromosome has become an excellent substrate for molecular genetic studies. PMID:3290488

Tsui, L C

1988-01-01

213

Welfare to what? A policy agenda.  

PubMed

The Ohio Works First Program went into effect on October 1, 1997. In October 2000 the first round of individuals will be terminated from receiving cash assistance due to passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers/hindrances to self-sufficiency among a selected sample of welfare consumers. Describing a portion of those who are in a self-sufficiency program in Northeast Ohio, the study indicates specific obstacles to self-sufficiency such as unemployment and underemployment, transportation, housing, child care, self-efficacy, and county sanctions. Recommendations for policy makers along with a policy agenda and recommendations for service agencies are included. PMID:12943334

Perry-Burney, Gwendolyn D; Jennings, Alyce

2003-01-01

214

On the Logic of 'New' Welfare Practice: An Ethnographic Case Study of the 'New Welfare Intermediaries'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The joined-up working research literature consistently emphasizes inter- professional barriers to co-operation, and presents joined-up work as a worthwhile though largely unproductive activity. This reflects the extent to which it uses the sociology of professions literature, which construes 'social closure' goals and 'boundary maintenance' activities as key elements of welfare professional work, as its epistemological reference point. It also reflects

Chris Allen

2003-01-01

215

Chromosome Doubling in Monocots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of efficient chromosome doubling protocols is essential for the useful application of doubled haploid (DH)\\u000a plants in breeding programs, since frequency of spontaneous doubling is most of the time too low. Chromosome doubling has\\u000a been traditionally applied to plantlets, being the colchicine the most widely anti-microtubule agent used in vivo and in vitro. However during the last 15

A. M. Castillo; L. Cistué; M. P. Vallés; M. Soriano

216

Children and welfare reform: a view from an experimental welfare program in Minnesota.  

PubMed

Little is known about the effects of the most recent welfare reform initiatives--which include work mandates, time limits, and enhanced earnings disregards--on children's outcomes. This is partly because the ways in which maternal employment and income affect children more generally are not well understood. This article describes the effects on child development of the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), a welfare program that began prior to 1996 federal welfare reform legislation. The present study utilized MFIP's unique, three-group research design to untangle the effects of different components of the program, and, in turn, discover how each component's effects on parents' income or employment affected children's development. This study's findings showed that MFIP increased employment rates and decreased poverty and, according to reports from mothers, children were less likely to exhibit problem behaviors and more likely to perform better and be more highly engaged in school. These findings, based on a total of 879 participants, bolster the long-standing literature that has associated poverty with worse outcomes for children by confirming, in a rigorous experiment, that incremental increases in income for working poor parents bring benefits to children. PMID:11949911

Gennetian, Lisa A; Miller, Cynthia

2002-01-01

217

Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research.  

PubMed

Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

Metzger, Mitchell M

2015-01-01

218

Renewal of radiological equipment.  

PubMed

In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updating. PMID:25230589

2014-10-01

219

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

220

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS  

E-print Network

EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Colleen on an earlier draft. #12;1 EXIT ROUTES FROM WELFARE: EXAMINING PSYCHO-SOCIAL, DEMOGRAPHIC AND HUMAN CAPITAL FACTORS Concern over welfare dependency fueled the push for welfare reform in the form of the Personal

Shyy, Wei

221

DEVELOPING PARTICIPATORY WELFARE STATE. CAN SERVICE USERS PRODUCE SOME ESSENTIAL LOCAL KNOWLEDGE ON  

E-print Network

social welfare is too much centralized on local authorities. The development of social welfare services OF DEVELOPMENT The following analysis is meant to help clarify the direction of the development of social welfare of development. Development of either the activities or the structure of social welfare can be considered another

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Welfare, The Earned Income Tax Credit, And The Labor Supply Of Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added, and welfare cases were terminated. Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

2001-01-01

223

Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and welfare cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

1998-01-01

224

Maximising canine welfare in veterinary practice and research: a review.  

PubMed

This article looks at the existing evidence-base by which veterinary surgeons can make welfare-focused treatment choices. Narrative and structured reviews were conducted. Papers were categorised under headings based on (1) themes in the UK Animal Welfare Act (AWA 2006) - behaviour, environment, nutrition, company and health; (2) iatrogenic harm induced by treatment; (3) decision-making methods, and (4) the subjects' context (e.g. home versus laboratory). There is more information available about 'overt' problems (e.g. acute disease), than 'covert' issues (e.g. chronic pain, lack of company and obesity). Forty of 109 papers covered pain, suffering, injury and disease, compared to 69 across four other themes in the AWA. Twelve papers were identified as focusing on welfare assessment and clinical decision-making. Veterinary surgeons should consider each of the five welfare themes described in the AWA in both veterinary practice and in determining veterinary research priorities. PMID:22196830

Yeates, James W

2012-06-01

225

The Complexity of Welfare Maximization in Congestion Games  

E-print Network

We investigate issues of complexity related to welfare maximization in congestion games. In particular, we provide a full classification of complexity results for the problem of finding a minimum cost solution to a congestion ...

Meyers, Carol A.

226

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2014-10-01

227

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2010-10-01

228

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2011-10-01

229

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2012-10-01

230

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2013-10-01

231

Welfare reform: advocacy and intervention in the health care setting.  

PubMed Central

Welfare reform has drastically altered the lives of poor families in the US. In its wake, many former recipients are not receiving whatever transitional benefits and other safeguards to which they remain entitled under federal and state laws. Families are losing access to Medicaid and are not receiving the child care assistance or Food Stamps for which they continue to be eligible. Ill-served by stringent time limits and work requirements, lack of child care assistance, and lack of training and educational opportunities for the development of skills that will lead to better jobs, families need help to navigate the complexities of the new welfare system. Boston Medical Center's Department of Pediatrics has instituted a welfare screening project to educate families about their rights under welfare reform and assist them in advocating for themselves and their children. PMID:10670622

Lawton, E; Leiter, K; Todd, J; Smith, L

1999-01-01

232

Vibrio chromosome-specific families  

PubMed Central

We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different “Molecular Function” GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many “housekeeping systems” encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising. PMID:24672511

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

2014-01-01

233

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

234

Phenylbutazone and chromosomal damage.  

PubMed Central

Investigation of 44 paired test and control patients, all suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, following exposure to phenylbutazone (PBZ) and/or oxyphenbutazone (OPB), suggests that there is no significant increase in the level of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes. The control subjects comprised two series, one previously exposed to PBZ and/or OPB, but not for at least 1-5 years, and the other never exposed to PBZ or OPB. No significant difference in the level of chromosome damage was found between patients never exposed, previously exposed, or now receiving PBZ and/or OPB. PMID:769706

Walker, S; Price Evans, A; Benn, P A; Littler, T R; Halliday, L D

1975-01-01

235

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

236

Shipboard Electronic Equipments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

237

Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

238

Equipment Operator 1 & C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

239

Technology Equipment Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

Day, C. William

2001-01-01

240

Nuclear Structure and Chromosome Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Powerpoint slides for two classes, the first on principles of nuclear structure, and the second on chromosome evolution in the context of nuclear structure, segmental duplications, and other mechanisms that permit chromosome evolution.

Dr. Lindsay Shopland (The Jackson Laboratory)

2010-05-19

241

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

2012-01-01

242

Condensin: Architect of mitotic chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensin is a highly conserved pentameric complex consisting of two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) ATPase subunits\\u000a and three auxiliary components. While initially regarded as a key driver of mitotic chromosome condensation, condensin is\\u000a increasingly viewed as having a more subtle influence on chromosome architecture. The two condensin complexes are required\\u000a to direct the correct folding and organization of chromosomes

Damien F. Hudson; Kathryn M. Marshall; William C. Earnshaw

2009-01-01

243

Mutation of Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the mutation of chromosomes. A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, such DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation can improve an organism's chance of surviving and passing the beneficial change on to its descendants.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

2005-03-12

244

Chromosome Aberrations and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer may be defined as a progressive series of genetic events that occur in a single clone of cells because of alterations in a limited number of specific genes: the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The association of consistent chromosome aberrations with particular types of cancer has led to the identification of some of these genes and the elucidation of

Ellen Solomon; Julian Borrow; Audrey D. Goddard

1991-01-01

245

The Y Chromosome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

Offner, Susan

2010-01-01

246

Chromosome structure In prokaryotes  

E-print Network

for centromere structure Figure 6.35 Telomeres are long arrays of 5-8 bp repeats and have a 3' overhang Telomeres are essential for stability of linear chromosomes Telomeres form t-loops and D-loops to protect the 3' overhang Figure 6.37 #12;9/3/14 8 Several proteins protect the telomeres Figure 6.38 #12;

Dever, Jennifer A.

247

Why Chromosome Palindromes?  

PubMed Central

We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W) evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1) genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2) under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes. PMID:22844637

Betrán, Esther; Demuth, Jeffery P.; Williford, Anna

2012-01-01

248

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

249

Comparative painting of mammalian chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative chromosome painting has shown that synteny has been conserved for large segments of the genome in various placental mammals. Advances such as spectral karyotyping and multicolour ‘bar coding’ lend speed and precision to comparative molecular cytogenetics. Reciprocal chromosome painting and hybridisations with probes such as yeast artificial chromosomes, cosmids, and fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation allow subchromosomal assignments of

Johannes Wienberg; Roscoe Stanyon

1997-01-01

250

Chromosomal evolution of the Canidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Giemsa-banding patterns of chromosomes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis), and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are compared. Despite their traditional placement in different genera, the arctic fox and the kit fox have an identical chromosome morphology and G-banding pattern. The red fox has extensive chromosome arm homoeology with

R. K. Wayne; W. G. Nash; S. J. O’Brien

1987-01-01

251

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

EVOLUTION OF SEX CHROMOSOMES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 SEX CHROMOSOMES IN LAND PLANTSSex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 reserved 1543-5008/11/0602-0485$20.00 Keywords land plants, pseudoautosomal region, sex determination, sex

Renner, Susanne

252

How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 5-year impacts of mandatory welfare-to-work programs on welfare recipients and their children were examined by using a rigorous research design called a social experiment to examine 11 welfare-to-work programs in 6 states (California, Georgia, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Oregon). Four employment-focused and seven education-focused programs…

Hamilton, Gayle; Freedman, Stephen; et al.

253

Born of Blood: Craft Stick Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in groups to match craft sticks that represent chromosomes. Learners must define critical attributes of their chromosomes as they look for matching chromosomes. When learners find their matches, they use a chromosome key card to number their chromosome pairs. Learners then create a karyotype of their chromosomes.

Texas, University O.

2007-01-01

254

Oral Gavage in Rats: Animal Welfare Evaluation  

PubMed Central

The effect of chronic daily orogastric gavage with water (5 mL/kg) on behavior and physiology was evaluated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Treatment groups included: unmanipulated control, restraint control, dry gavage, and gavage, with all rats singly housed (n = 9 or 10 per group). In addition, a group of pair-housed rats (n = 18) was included to determine whether social housing affected response to gavage. Weekly body weights and food consumption were recorded as well as use of a nylon chew toy for enrichment. Feces were collected biweekly at the end of the light and dark phases for fecal corticoid metabolite determinations. After 28 d of treatment, animals underwent conditioned place preference testing to evaluate sensitivity to motivational properties of the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5.6 mg/kg SC). Brain and paired adrenal gland weights were collected at necropsy. Week 2 total fecal corticosterone levels were elevated in all groups and attributed to a fire alarm accidentally tripped during building renovations. No differences occurred in body weight or food consumption between any groups. All groups used a nylon chew toy given for enrichment and demonstrated mild preference for the drug-associated chamber. Fecal weights and corticoid metabolite levels were similar between all groups at week 4 and showed normal diurnal variation. No biologically significant variations were noted in brain or paired adrenal gland to body weight ratios. We conclude that orogastric gavage of aqueous solutions at 5 mL/kg does not negatively affect the welfare of laboratory rats acclimated to handling. PMID:22330864

Turner, Patricia V; Vaughn, Elizabeth; Sunohara-Neilson, Janet; Ovari, Jelena; Leri, Francesco

2012-01-01

255

Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.  

PubMed

Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities. PMID:25000778

Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

2014-04-01

256

A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.  

PubMed

This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late. PMID:22165158

Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

2011-01-01

257

Degeneration of a Nonrecombining Chromosome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies suggest that sex chromosomes begin as ordinary autosomes that happen to carry a major sex determining locus. Over evolutionary time the Y chromosome is selected to stop recombining with the X chromosome, perhaps in response to accumulation of alleles beneficial to the heterogametic but harmful to the homogametic sex. Population genetic theory predicts that a nonrecombining Y chromosome should degenerate. Here this prediction is tested by application of specific selection pressures to Drosophila melanogaster populations. Results demonstrate the decay of a nonrecombining, nascent Y chromosome and the capacity for recombination to ameliorate such decay.

Rice, William R.

1994-01-01

258

Cleaning supplies and equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... something means to clean it to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... each solution. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

259

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1979-01-01

260

The chromosome cycle of prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

Summary In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, chromosomal DNA undergoes replication, condensation-decondensation and segregation, sequentially, in some fixed order. Other conditions, like sister-chromatid cohesion (SCC), may span several chromosomal events. One set of these chromosomal transactions within a single cell cycle constitutes the “chromosome cycle”. For many years it was generally assumed that the prokaryotic chromosome cycle follows major phases of the eukaryotic one: -replication-condensation-segregation-(cell division)-decondensation-, with SCC of unspecified length. Eventually it became evident that, in contrast to the strictly consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes, all stages of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle run concurrently. Thus, prokaryotes practice “progressive” chromosome segregation separated from replication by a brief SCC, and all three transactions move along the chromosome at the same fast rate. In other words, in addition to replication forks, there are “segregation forks” in prokaryotic chromosomes. Moreover, the bulk of prokaryotic DNA outside the replication-segregation transition stays compacted. I consider possible origins of this concurrent replication-segregation and outline the “nucleoid administration” system that organizes the dynamic part of the prokaryotic chromosome cycle. PMID:23962352

Kuzminov, Andrei

2013-01-01

261

Tracking equipment on hire  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

Not Available

1985-06-01

262

Listing of Food Service Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

263

The Animal Welfare Act: From Enactment to Enforcement  

PubMed Central

Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the ‘Age of Enforcement.’ As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection. PMID:22776186

Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

2012-01-01

264

Getting beyond the welfare of the child in assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

The welfare of the child is the prevailing principle and concern regarding access to assisted reproduction in Western countries today, and there is a wish to avoid harm to future children. New research fields have developed in order to provide scientific evidence on the welfare of children living with different "types" of parents. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) seems to be heading in a responsible direction where the care and concern for future children is vital. However, the claim of this article is that the principle of the welfare of the child confuses the ethical framing of ART. Several philosophers in the past have argued that potential people must be regarded as outside the moral domain, and therefore cannot be harmed or benefitted. This message has not reached the policymakers, probably because the welfare of the child principle seems to fit so elegantly with common sense. In this article a different ethical framing of ART is proposed. The author argues that "futile care" and not "the welfare of the child" should be the guiding principle for eventually rejecting access to ART. The desired goal of ART treatment should be understood to be the production of functional families. Assisted reproduction is primarily about us, actual people in an actual society, and how potential children may affect us. PMID:19482982

Solberg, B

2009-06-01

265

Construction of human chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been constructed by a method that performs all steps in agarose, allowing size selection by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the use of nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA. The DNA sources used were hybrid cell line WAV-17, containing chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome and flow-sorted chromosome 21. The transformation efficiency of ligation products was similar to that obtained in aqueous transformations and yielded YACs with sizes ranging from 100 kilobases (kb) to > 1 megabase when polyamines were included in the transformation procedure. Twenty-five YACs containing human DNA have been obtained from a mouse-human hybrid, ranging in size from 200 to > 1000 kb, with an average size of 410 kb. Ten of these YACs were localized to subregions of chromosome 21 by hybridization of RNA probes to a panel of somatic cell hybrid DNA. Twenty-one human YACs, ranging in size from 100 to 500 kb, with an average size of 150 kb, were obtained from {approx} 50 ng of flow-sorted chromosome 21 DNA. Three were localized to subregions of chromosome 21. YACs will aid the construction of a physical map of human chromosome 21 and the study of disorders associated with chromosome 21 such as Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.

McCormick, M.K.; Shero, J.H.; Hieter, P.A.; Antonarakis, S.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA)); Cheung, Meichi; Kan, Yuetwai (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1989-12-01

266

Mapping of human chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 31, is devoted to the mapping of human chromosomes. In 1990, a useful progress report appeared in the journal Science along with a beautiful wall chart of the Human Genome Map, which right now is only about 1% complete. The Human Genome Project launched by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy aims at producing a complete sequence of the 3 x 10{sup 9} base pairs of DNA in the human genome within the next 15 years. This chapter describes identifying map sites, family studies, somatic cell genetics, chromosome rearrangements, other uses of deletions and translocations in mapping, in situ hybridization, and recombinant DNA gene mapping methods. 51 refs., 4 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

267

Automated Chromosome Breakage Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated karyotyping machine was built at JPL in 1972. It does computerized karyotyping, but it has some hardware limitations. The image processing hardware that was available at a reasonable price in 1972 was marginal, at best, for this job. In the meantime, NASA has developed an interest in longer term spaceflights and an interest in using chromosome breakage studies as a dosimeter for radiation or perhaps other damage that might occur to the tissues. This uses circulating lymphocytes as a physiological dosimeter looking for chromosome breakage on long-term spaceflights. For that reason, we have reactivated the automated karyotyping work at JPL. An update on that work, and a description of where it appears to be headed is presented.

Castleman, Kenneth

1985-01-01

268

Chromosome 19 International Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-01-04

269

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... FDA's Role in Regulating PPE About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) On this page: What is personal protective ... with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective equipment is any type of ...

270

Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

Kikuchi, Toshiko

271

The Urban Institute: Issues in Focus: Child Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute has been actively involved in research on urban-themed policy issues and related matters for over four decades. One of their thematic research programs covers child welfare. On this site, visitors can learn about this program, look over recent research reports, and sign up to receive their electronic newsletter. The "About the Program" is a fine place to start, and here visitors will learn that their work includes research on the finances of child welfare programs, adoption, and kinship care. Further on down the homepage, users will find recent reports like "Who Will Adopt the Foster Care Children Left Behind?" and "Trends in U.S. Foster Care Adoption Legislation: A State by State Analysis". The site is rounded out by information on the program team and an area where visitors can sign up to receive the Child Welfare Research Program's quarterly electronic newsletter.

2008-01-01

272

The effects of a time-limited welfare program on children: the moderating role of parents' risk of welfare dependency.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of a time-limited welfare program on school-age children using data on almost 3,000 children (ages 5-17 at the four year follow up-point) from the random assignment evaluation of Florida's Family Transition Program (FTP). FTP was one of the first welfare reform initiatives to impose a time limit on the receipt of cash assistance, and it combined the time limit with a rich array of mandatory services. The effects of FTP on children were moderated by families' risk of long-term welfare dependency. Contrary to predictions laid out at the outset, there were few effects of FTP on middle childhood and adolescent children for children of parents most likely to be long-term welfare dependent (those most likely to hit the time limit). However, consistent negative effects on this same age group of children were found for children of parents least likely to be long-term welfare dependent--parents who had the largest employment gains--and effects of FTP were most strongly negative for the oldest adolescent children. The findings suggest a different theoretical model for movements into employment than the one suggested in the previous literature for job loss. The findings are discussed in terms of their contribution to research and policy. PMID:12795394

Morris, Pamela; Bloom, Dan; Kemple, James; Hendra, Richard

2003-01-01

273

Wellhead equipment support  

SciTech Connect

A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

Nichols, R.P.

1987-03-24

274

24 CFR 5.615 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit...  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit reduction... Families who receive welfare assistance or other public assistance benefits (“welfare...

2014-04-01

275

24 CFR 5.615 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit reduction... Families who receive welfare assistance or other public assistance benefits (“welfare...

2013-04-01

276

24 CFR 5.615 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit reduction... Families who receive welfare assistance or other public assistance benefits (“welfare...

2010-04-01

277

24 CFR 5.615 - Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public housing program and Section 8 tenant-based assistance program: How welfare benefit reduction... Families who receive welfare assistance or other public assistance benefits (“welfare...

2012-04-01

278

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2012-01-01

279

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2011-01-01

280

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2010-01-01

281

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2013-01-01

282

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2014-01-01

283

Welfare to work: the role of general practice.  

PubMed Central

This paper considers the potential effects of the government's Welfare to Work policy on general practitioner (GP) working patterns, and aims to explore the relationship between unemployment, ill health, and GP sickness certification. Social security and employment policy initiatives are discussed in relation to the literature on the relationship between unemployment and ill health, sociological and psychological perspectives on work and unemployment, medicalisation of unemployment, adjudication of fitness for work, re-employment and health, and treatment of barriers to employment. The authors postulate that Welfare to Work policy may depend for its success on the crucial role of general practice in sickness certification. PMID:10962795

Ford, F M; Ford, J; Dowrick, C

2000-01-01

284

Animal welfare and society concerns finding the missing link.  

PubMed

Young adults in developed countries are distanced from agriculture and the meat industry needs to do a better job of communicating with them. A major welfare concern is slaughter without stunning. Other concerns, such as poor stunning or high levels of bruising, can be easily corrected by management who is committed to maintaining high standards. Another concern is biological system overload, occurring when animals are bred for more productivity. Researchers and industry need to determine optimum production levels instead of maximums. Retailers are major drivers of animal welfare standards enforcement and they respond to pressure from both activists and consumers. PMID:24928166

Grandin, Temple

2014-11-01

285

Chromosome painting with human chromosome-specific DNA libraries reveals the extent and distribution of conserved segments in bovine chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercially available human chromosome-specific DNA libraries covering the whole karyotype were hybridized to normal bovine metaphase spreads to characterize the conserved chromosomal segments between man and cattle. All chromosome libraries except the Y chromosome library displayed a signal on at least part of one or more bovine chromosomes. The labeling was clearly visualized and permitted precise delineation of the hybridized

H. Hayes

1995-01-01

286

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11

287

SILEX Beacon equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

1990-07-01

288

Standard laboratory equipment.  

PubMed

This appendix lists pieces of equipment that are standard in the modern toxicology laboratory, i.e., items used extensively in this manual and thus not usually included in the individual materials lists. No attempt has been made to list all items required for each procedure in the Materials list of each protocol; rather, those lists note those items that might not be readily available in the laboratory or that require special preparation. See SUPPLIERS APPENDIX for contact information for commercial vendors of laboratory equipment. PMID:20972961

2001-05-01

289

Equipment Management Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

1992-01-01

290

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-print Network

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system ...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07

291

76 FR 10379 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption...animal activities base their animal care and use programs on the...as applicable, with the Animal Welfare Act and other Federal...relating [[Page 10380

2011-02-24

292

Women's Work, Care-GivingandTwo Traditions in SocialWelfare  

E-print Network

This paper analyzes differences between social welfare emanating from a reciprocity orientation that had its roots in charity and the church and social welfare emanating from a pooling orientation that had its roots in work relegated to women...

Margolis, Diane Rothbard

1992-04-01

293

EOC Title: Animal Welfare Liaison (Emergency Support Function #11) Coordinating Campus Unit: OLAC  

E-print Network

OPERATIONS EOC Title: Animal Welfare Liaison (Emergency Support Function #11) Coordinating Campus Unit: OLAC General Description The Animal Welfare Emergency Support Function coordinates the humane handling, treatment, transportation, housing, and care of laboratory and sheltered animals in the event

Walker, Matthew P.

294

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2010-10-01

295

The Importance of Postsecondary Training for Welfare To Work: Initiatives at the Community College of Aurora.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that academic skills, in addition to job skills, are crucial for taking people off the welfare rolls. Discusses postsecondary training programs and services for welfare recipients at the Community College of Aurora in Colorado. (NB)

Higgins, Daniela

2001-01-01

296

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2011-10-01

297

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

... 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2014-10-01

298

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2012-10-01

299

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2013-10-01

300

Chromosome dynamics in multichromosome bacteria.  

PubMed

On the basis of limited information, bacteria were once assumed to have no more than one chromosome. In the era of genomics, it has become clear that some, like eukaryotes, have more than one chromosome. Multichromosome bacteria provide opportunities to investigate how split genomes emerged, whether the individual chromosomes communicate to coordinate their replication and segregation, and what selective advantages split genomes might provide. Our current knowledge of these topics comes mostly from studies in Vibrio cholerae, which has two chromosomes, chr1 and chr2. Chr1 carries out most of the house-keeping functions and is considered the main chromosome, whereas chr2 appears to have originated from a plasmid and has acquired genes of mostly unknown origin and function. Nevertheless, unlike plasmids, chr2 replicates once and only once per cell cycle, like a bona fide chromosome. The two chromosomes replicate and segregate using separate programs, unlike eukaryotic chromosomes. They terminate replication synchronously, suggesting that there might be communication between them. Replication of the chromosomes is affected by segregation genes but in a chromosome specific fashion, a new development in the field of DNA replication control. The split genome allows genome duplication to complete in less time and with fewer replication forks, which could be beneficial for genome maintenance during rapid growth, which is the norm for V. cholerae in broth cultures and in the human host. In the latter, the expression of chr2 genes increases preferentially. Studies of chromosome maintenance in multichromosomal bacteria, although in their infancy, are already broadening our view of chromosome biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space. PMID:22306663

Jha, Jyoti K; Baek, Jong Hwan; Venkova-Canova, Tatiana; Chattoraj, Dhruba K

2012-07-01

301

Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

Flammer, Larry

2013-01-01

302

B chromosomes in Brazilian rodents.  

PubMed

B chromosomes are now known in eight Brazilian rodent species: Akodon montensis, Holochilus brasiliensis, Nectomys rattus, N. squamipes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, Oryzomys angouya, Proechimys sp. 2 and Trinomys iheringi. Typically these chromosomes are heterogeneous relative to size, morphology, banding patterns, presence/absence of NORs, and presence/absence of interstitial telomeric signals after FISH. In most cases, Bs are heterochromatic and late replicating. Active NORs were detected in two species: Akodon montensis and Oryzomys angouya. As a rule, Bs behave as uni or bivalents in meiosis, there is no pairing between Bs and autosomes or sex chromosomes and also their synaptonemal complexes are isopycnotic with those in A chromosomes. PMID:15292600

Silva, M J J; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y

2004-01-01

303

Rethinking the social development approach in the context of East Asian social welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

James Midgley's work on the ‘social development approach’ to social welfare made a significant contribution to the debate on social welfare in the 1990s. However, his conception of ‘positive welfare’ and the investment function of social welfare have been hijacked by neo-liberalists championing a ‘work-first’ social policy. This paper attempts to extend the debate on the ‘social development approach’, to

Chan Kam Wah; James Lee

2010-01-01

304

Genes, chromosomes, and rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Rhabdomyosarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors and are the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of childhood. Rhabdomyosarcomas resemble developing skeletal muscle, notably in their expression of the MRF family of transcription factors and the PAX3 and PAX7 genes. These PAX genes are also involved through specific translocations, t(2;13)(q35;q14) and variant t(1;13)(p36;q14) in the alveolar subtype, which result in PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion genes, respectively. The fusion genes are thought critically to affect downstream targets of PAX3 and PAX7 or possibly have novel targets. Similar downstream changes may also be involved in embryonal and fusion gene negative cases. Genomic amplification of such genes as MYCN, MDM2, CDK4, and PAX7-FKHR is a feature mainly of the alveolar subtype, while specific chromosomal gains, including chromosomes 2, 8, 12, and 13, are associated with the embryonal subtype. Loss of alleles and imprinting at 11p15.5 and disruption of genes such as IGF2, ATR, PTC, P16, and TP53 have also been implicated in rhabdomyosarcoma development. Whereas there is now a realistic possibility of cure in the majority of cases, there remains a subset that is resistant to multimodality therapy, including high-dose chemotherapy. Characterization of the defining molecular features of tumors that are likely to behave aggressively represents a particular challenge. Current research is leading toward a better understanding of rhabdomyosarcoma tumorigenesis, which may ultimately result in novel therapeutic strategies that increase the overall cure. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 26:275-285, 1999. PMID:10534762

Anderson, J; Gordon, A; Pritchard-Jones, K; Shipley, J

1999-12-01

305

Engineer Equipment Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

306

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1977-01-01

307

Engineer Equipment Chief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

308

AFBITS experimental equipment evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Base Information Transfer System (AFBITS) is a broadband, multimode communications system for the transfer of audio, digital, and video information over coaxial cable on Air Force Bases. An experimental equipment configuration was established in order to facilitate the laboratory evaluation of the concept and the problems that may be encountered in the system implementation. This paper discusses

W. T. Grinnell

1975-01-01

309

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

310

STDN ranging equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

Jones, C. E.

1975-01-01

311

Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

312

WHY SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Market driven demands for verification that animals used to produce food receive humane care, have resulted in welfare audits becoming a reality for beef and chicken products sold to fast food chains. Dairy is targeted for similar audits and the Dairy Quality Assurance Center was approved by the re...

313

Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

Pimpare, Stephen

2013-01-01

314

The Europeanization of welfare Paradigm shifts and social policy reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of Eur opeanization implies a confluence of resources and outputs by the EU member states. This is mainly due to both structural economic harmonisation and institutional system-building. This paper deals with welfare developments in the European social model in c ontemporary times. After identifying major changes affecting European countries both functionally and territorially, EU initiatives in social policy-making

Luis Moreno; Bruno Palier

2005-01-01

315

Taking Action on Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mirroring national trends, children of color in Washington state's King County are overrepresented at every point in the child welfare system and fare worse by most measures than are Caucasian children. The King County Coalition on Racial Disproportionality was formed to reduce and ultimately eliminate racial disproportionality in the county's…

Clark, Patricia; Buchanan, Jackie; Legters, Lyman

2008-01-01

316

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

317

Measuring Performance in Child Welfare: Secondary Effects of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on findings from evaluations of recent reform initiatives in Alabama, North Carolina, and Ohio to suggest that performance-measurement systems for state child-welfare programs must adapt to changing circumstances, especially when improvements in one area can influence standards and expectations in others. (Author/KB)

Usher, Charles L.; Gibbs, Deborah A.; Wildfire, Judith B.

1999-01-01

318

The Risk Climate and the Delivery of Child Welfare Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the assumption that a relationship exists between public county-based child welfare agencies in Pennsylvania and their environments, this study draws clues as to the nature of this relationship from (1) a review of the literature, and (2) a multivariate analysis of agency service delivery measures and social and demographic variables.…

Cornelius, Sandra; Baker, Timothy

319

Children and AIDS: The Challenge for Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relating findings to child welfare, this monograph discusses the description of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the background and history of the affliction, and its transmission and treatment. The review of the brief history of AIDS addresses the serious and emotionally charged issues associated with the disease, public and…

Anderson, Gary R.

320

Agriculture and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This six-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on agriculture and the teaching of this subject area. Major topic areas considered in the first five chapters are: (1) the development of agriculture; (2) agricosystems (considering agriculture as an ecosystem, land utilization and soils, soils and food production,…

Rao, A. N.; Pritchard, Alan J.

321

THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social work as a profession grew chiefly out of the development of social welfare policies and programs in the United States, Europe, and Muslim countries. Judeo-Christian and Muslim practices and beliefs underlie many of the early attempts to provide help to the poor, the sick, widows, orphans, the \\

Leslie Leighninger

2007-01-01

322

Human Welfare and Technological Innovation. Open Grants Papers No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication on human welfare and technological innovation contains two sections. The first section examines the objectives and functions of technological innovation while the second section discusses the direction and analysis of technology transfer between Japan and other nations. Subtopics within the first section include: (1)…

Hayashi, Yujiro

323

Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

324

Toward Education for Effective Social Welfare Administrative Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation of the feasibility of a project designed to improve the effectiveness of social welfare administration is described. The study sought to determine what action might be taken for the development and implementation of curricula in social service management at interested graduate schools of social work. Literature in the field was…

Dumpson, James R.; And Others

325

Economic welfare impacts from renewable energy consumption: The China experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last years renewable energy sources have increased their share on electricity generation of China due to environmental and security of supply concerns. In this work author assesses the role of both the amount and share of renewable energy consumption in economic welfare using Cobb–Douglas type production functions. This assessment is carried out by multivariate OLS and SPSS software

Yiping Fang

2011-01-01

326

School of Social Welfare -Assistant Professor About University at Albany  

E-print Network

in social work, social welfare, or a related field from a college or university accredited by a U Centers and Institutes such as the Center for the Elimination of Minority Health Disparities. A university Report is available in portable document format [PDF] by clicking this link http://police

Azevedo, Ricardo

327

Three Perspectives on Welfare-to-Work Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the extent to which three groups of stakeholders in the welfare-to-work process judge a selected list of workplace topics as important for inclusion in the curriculum. Topics were derived from the 1991 report of the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). A 45-item survey…

Kilgos, Ellen; Valentine, Thomas

2006-01-01

328

Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform and changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, we use the Current Population Survey (CPS) to compare receipt of public benefit programs, earnings, and income among vulnerable households, defined as those households with low education or single mothers in 1994–95 and 1997–99. Over this period, the CPS shows a

Howard Chernick; Cordelia Reimers

2002-01-01

329

Welfare and Work: Complementary Strategies for Low-Income Women?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of mothers' strategies of combining employment and welfare receipt during the first three years of their child's life on the child's cognitive development, behavior problems, and home learning environment at ages five and six. No negative association was found on most child outcomes with a mother's employment whether or not it…

Smith, Judith R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeane; Klebanov, Pamela K.; Lee, Kyunghee

2000-01-01

330

Social Workers in Child Welfare: Ready for Duty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article responds to "Do Social Workers Make Better Child Welfare Workers than Non-Social Workers?" by Dr. Robin E. Perry. The article articulates National Association of Social Workers' support for a professional social work labor force to serve children and their families and for continued federal investment in the training of these workers.…

Whitaker, Tracy; Clark, Elizabeth J.

2006-01-01

331

Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients.  

PubMed

Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40% of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95% CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience-specifically of out-of-home care-in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services. PMID:23296473

Björkenstam, C; Björkenstam, E; Ljung, R; Vinnerljung, B; Tuvblad, C

2013-06-01

332

From the Front Lines: Milwaukee's Child Welfare Community Speaks Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, the State of Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services assumed responsibility for the Milwaukee County child welfare system. The Wisconsin Council on Children and Families has undertaken a multi-year, qualitative research project to monitor the state takeover. The three questions that this project seeks to answer are: (1) What…

Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

333

Extent and Consequences of Welfare Dependence among America's Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the consequences for children of life in families that receive at least part of their income from welfare. Suggests these children appear to complete less schooling, even after adjustment for other differences between recipient and nonrecipient families. Low family income and maternal employment are also found to reduce completed…

Duncan, Greg J.; Wei-Jun, Yeung J.

1995-01-01

334

From Welfare to Work: Lessons for ESL Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan guide is designed to be used by English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers to help their learners deal with new welfare legislation--Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)--and to prepare them for the world of work. Learners at the high beginner to low intermediate level and above will benefit from this instruction. All…

Green, Elaine

335

Evaluating Child Welfare Training in Public Agencies: Status and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although staff training in public child welfare agencies is thought to be a critical component of effective practice, little is known about the delivery and effectiveness of training interventions. Few evaluations are published in the literature and it is uncertain how much evaluation activity is being conducted and utilized. This study collected…

Collins, Mary Elizabeth

2008-01-01

336

January 18, 2001 Welfare Gains under Tradable CO2 Permits*  

E-print Network

alerts us to the possibility that in a world with distortions, opening a new market may lower welfare;2 Introduction It is easy to understand the opposition to liberalized trade in established markets: Domestic markets, including international markets, where they currently do not exist. Many economists

Karp, Larry S.

337

Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.  

PubMed

In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. PMID:21899562

Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

2011-09-01

338

Balance of revenue and social welfare in FCC's spectrum allocation  

E-print Network

Balance of revenue and social welfare in FCC's spectrum allocation Yanjiao Chen, Lingjie Duan services, the Federal Communications Com- mission (FCC) in the U.S. is considering allocating additional allocation, prior studies only focused on revenue maximization. However, one of FCC's missions is to better

Huang, Jianwei

339

Approaches to evaluation in Australian child and family welfare organizations.  

PubMed

Child and family welfare organizations around the world aspire to achieve missions that will improve outcomes for vulnerable children and families and ultimately reduce the prevalence and impact of child maltreatment. In Australia, this work is currently being influenced by an increasingly turbulent political and economic climate; one that is requiring organizations to engage with evaluation in new and advanced ways so that they are not left behind in the increasingly complex and competitive environment that they now operate in. Despite the apparent awareness and understanding of the essential place of evaluation in quality and effective service delivery, it is also understood that evaluation of the human services work that child and family welfare organizations undertake is extremely challenging due to its intricate, ever-changing and often innovative nature. Embedding evaluation within such organizations therefore requires a tailored and planned decision-making and implementation process. This paper will briefly describe the recent socio-political history and environment that Australian child and family welfare organizations operate in and how this has impacted on engagement with evaluation. With consideration to this, it will describe the evaluation approaches available to organizations and the factors that may influence selection of a specific approach. It will then explore the benefits and challenges of these evaluation approaches, and consider the implications for child and family welfare agencies more broadly. PMID:24607886

McCoy, Alicia; Rose, David; Connolly, Marie

2014-06-01

340

76 FR 54392 - Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0579-AD23 Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...restrict the importation of certain live dogs. Consistent with this amendment, this...exceptions, prohibit the importation of dogs from any part of the world into the...

2011-09-01

341

Community-Based Welfare Support in China: 1949-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the endeavor by the Chinese Communist Party to construct a community-based, urban welfare system that would cater to the needs of urban dwellers who were not under the protection of the workers' social assistance system or whose needs could not be met entirely by it. (CT)

Dixon, John

1981-01-01

342

Risposte alla crisi Esperienze, proposte e politiche di welfare  

E-print Network

corso di stampa) · Enrico Pugliese, La terza età. Anziani e società in Italia, Il Mulino, 2011 12 Paci, Enrico Pugliese (a cura di), Welfare e promozione delle capacità, 12 Il Mulino, 2011 · Fabio Berton, Matteo Richiardi, Stefano Sacchi, The Political Economy 13 of Work Security and Flexibility

Di Pillo, Gianni

343

Drug testing and mandatory treatment for welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

One province in Canada, Ontario, is considering the use of drug tests for welfare recipients. Those with positive tests could be required to receive treatment and abstain from drug use or risk losing their benefits. Several experts from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) reviewed the scientific strengths and weaknesses of this proposal. Strengths included possible increases in

Scott Macdonald; Christine Bois; Bruna Brands; Diane Dempsey; Patricia Erickson; David Marsh; Stephen Meredith; Martin Shain; Wayne Skinner; Angelina Chiu

2001-01-01

344

Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

345

Toward Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on the authors' experience in the international Campbell Collaboration, this essay presents a principled and pragmatic approach to evidence-informed decisions about child welfare. This approach takes into account the growing body of empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of various methods of research synthesis. It also…

Littell, Julia H.; Shlonsky, Aron

2010-01-01

346

Methods and Welfare Considerations in Behavioral Research with Animals  

E-print Network

Methods and Welfare Considerations in Behavioral Research with Animals R E P O R T O F A N A T I O in Behavioral Research with Animals REPORT OF A NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH WORKSHOP Editors Adrian R ...................................................................................... 15 CHAPTER 2 Contributions of Behavioral Research with Animals ........................ 19 Animal

Bandettini, Peter A.

347

Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

348

Veterinary education and students' attitudes towards animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary students at two British universities in their first preclinical, first clinical and final years of study, completed questionnaires designed to assess their attitudes towards the welfare of animals. These attitudes were divided into their two constituent components: emotional (emotional empathy with animals) and cognitive (belief in the sentience of animals). Analyses of variance revealed that the year of study

E. S. Paul; A. L. Podberscek

2000-01-01

349

Employee Benefits and Facilities Work Life Balance Health and Welfare  

E-print Network

** and sports facilities*** · Flu immunisation programme · Health promotion programmes · Occupational healthEmployee Benefits and Facilities Work Life Balance Health and Welfare · Annual leave of up to 30 Use Policy) · Cycle-2-Work scheme · Discounts to local leisure facilities · On-site health club

Crowther, Paul

350

Ethical considerations and animal welfare in ecological field studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses some of the ethical and welfare considerations implicit in the application of general techniques in common use during the course of collecting data in ecological field work. Even if they are not explicitly constructed as manipulative experiments, many field studies involve some degree of intervention during routine monitoring programmes: through disturbance caused merely by the presence of

R. J. Putman

1995-01-01

351

ESTIMATING WELFARE IN INSURANCE MARKETS USING VARIATION IN PRICES*  

PubMed Central

We provide a graphical illustration of how standard consumer and producer theory can be used to quantify the welfare loss associated with inefficient pricing in insurance markets with selection. We then show how this welfare loss can be estimated empirically using identifying variation in the price of insurance. Such variation, together with quantity data, allows us to estimate the demand for insurance. The same variation, together with cost data, allows us to estimate how insurer’s costs vary as market participants endogenously respond to price. The slope of this estimated cost curve provides a direct test for both the existence and nature of selection, and the combination of demand and cost curves can be used to estimate welfare. We illustrate our approach by applying it to data on employer-provided health insurance from one specific company. We detect adverse selection but estimate that the quantitative welfare implications associated with inefficient pricing in our particular application are small, in both absolute and relative terms. PMID:21218182

Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Cullen, Mark R.

2009-01-01

352

Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

2011-01-01

353

Disclosure Quality, Cost of Capital, and Investor Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that disclosure quality improves investors' welfare by reducing cost of capital in a competitive market. This paper examines this conventional wisdom by studying a production economy in which disclosure influences a firm's investment decisions. I demonstrate three points. First, cost of capital could increase with disclosure quality when new investment is sufficiently elastic. Second, there are

Pingyang Gao

2010-01-01

354

Head Start: Helping Families Move from Welfare to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes some of the ways in which Head Start agencies are helping to set parents on the path to self-sufficiency. The report is intended to illustrate the variety of initiatives that are underway and to highlight the important work all Head Start agencies are doing to support parents as they move from welfare to work. The…

Finlay, Belva; Blank, Helen; Poersch, Nicole Oxendine

355

Part-Time Social Workers in Public Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A demonstration project in Boston, Massachusetts, designed to meet critical needs in public service by providing part-time jobs for able women with families, chose 50 mature women college graduates from over 1,500 who were interested and 173 who were interviewed. Working half-time for 2 years in the State Department of Public Welfare, they…

Catalyst, New York, NY.

356

Assessment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now widely accepted that good welfare is not simply the absence of negative experiences, but rather is primarily the presence of positive experiences such as pleasure. However scientific investigation of positive emotions has long been neglected. This paper addresses two main issues: first, it reviews the current state of scientific knowledge that supports the existence of positive affective

Alain Boissy; Gerhard Manteuffel; Margit Bak Jensen; Randi Oppermann Moe; Berry Spruijt; Linda J. Keeling; Christoph Winckler; Björn Forkman; Ivan Dimitrov; Jan Langbein; Morten Bakken; Isabelle Veissier; Arnaud Aubert

2007-01-01

357

Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sixth annual report provides welfare dependence indicators through 2000, reflecting changes since enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act in 1996 and highlighting benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); the Food Stamp program; and Supplement…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

358

University patents, R&D competition, and social welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although university patenting has increased dramatically over the past three decades, debates persist regarding the broad economic implications of the phenomenon. This article examines the social welfare implications of university patenting in a model of R&D competition in which firms develop innovations on the basis of the disclosure of a university invention. When such disclosure does not preempt the patenting

Roberto Mazzoleni

2005-01-01

359

Psychological Stress and Welfare in Fish Leonor Galhardo1*  

E-print Network

Psychological Stress and Welfare in Fish Leonor Galhardo1* , Rui F Oliveira 1, 2 1 Unidade de Gulbenkian de Ciência, R. Quinta Grande 6, 2780- 156 Oeiras, Portugal. E-mail: leonor_galhardo@ispa.pt Rui F Oliveira: rui.oliveira@ispa.pt ARBS Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences pdf freely available at http

360

Mountain Promise page 1 The welfare train has been racing  

E-print Network

eliminated. These programs have been replaced by block grants to the states, to be used at each state will be penalized. · Welfare recipients who are convicted of felony drug charges will be denied benefits and food counties with high unemployment and poverty rates. Proponents of TANF note that states now have greater

Baltisberger, Jay H.

361

After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child  

E-print Network

, Sweden, June 2001. Economic conditions in the United States in 1999 (the latest year for which data1 After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child poverty still so much higher in the U on poverty are currently available) were excellent. Inflation and unemployment were low (2.2 percent and 4

Shyy, Wei

362

Assessment of yeast chromosome XII instability: single chromosome comet assay.  

PubMed

The tools and techniques used in single-cell analysis of DNA damage in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are limited. In this study, we modified the single cell gel electrophoresis assay, namely, the single chromosome comet assay based on DNA break analysis, at the chromosomal level. We studied the largest yeast chromosome XII, which contains the rDNA locus, and we investigated its instability using cell cycle checkpoint-, DNA damage- and antioxidative defence-deficient, and lifespan-deregulated yeast mutant strains. Moreover, we compared chromosome XII instability with the variability of nucleolar rDNA fluorescence signals. Three single-gene-deletion strains, cells lacking single-stranded DNA endonuclease, Rad1p; NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2p; and gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase, Gsh1p, were more prone to chromosome XII instability compared to corresponding wildtype strains, indicating that DNA damage repair machinery, chromatin silencing and redox homeostasis may contribute to genome stability. Elevation in the number of DNA breaks was correlated with a high variability in the levels of nucleolar rDNA in the ?rad1 background, while unaffected chromosome XII and low variability in nucleolar rDNA fluorescence signals were observed in the ?tor1 longevity mutant. Taken together, the single chromosome comet assay may be successfully used to study DNA damage at the chromosomal level, which might be overlooked using whole population analysis on DNA breaks with PFGE separation. PMID:24333410

Lewinska, Anna; Miedziak, Beata; Wnuk, Maciej

2014-02-01

363

Labor Market and Policy Constraints on the Work Disincentive Effect of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular image of U.S. welfare assistance is that it reduces the motivation to work by offering an alternative to employment. This study examines the work disincentive effect of welfare under spatially variant conditions in the labor market and in the public assistance system. The contention is that the decision between work and welfare, and therefore the work disincentive effect

Janet E. Kodras

1986-01-01

364

Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

2011-01-01

365

‘Marx’ or the Market? Intra-party Power and Social Democratic Welfare State Retrenchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in the intra-party balance of power explain variation in social democratic responses to the economic crisis of the late 1970s. This article evidences this claim by analysing the case of welfare state retrenchment by social democratic parties. Welfare state retrenchment is electorally risky for social democrats and often contrary to their principles. Therefore cases of welfare state retrenchment by

Gijs Schumacher

2012-01-01

366

Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

2014-01-01

367

A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

2004-01-01

368

Caseworker-Recipient Interaction: Welfare Office Differences, Economic Trajectories, and Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on developmental and policy research, this study examined whether 3 dimensions of caseworker-recipient interaction in welfare offices functioned as critical ecological contexts for recipient families. The sample consisted of 1,098 families from 10 welfare offices in National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies (NEWWS). In multilevel…

Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

369

Steps to Success: Helping Women with Alcohol and Drug Problems Move from Welfare to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report helps state and local decision makers understand the range of services ordinarily needed and provided in alcohol and drug treatment programs serving women and families receiving welfare and how those services support the goals of welfare reform. The model programs profiled here tend to the needs of women on welfare and their families…

Rubinstein, Gwen

370

Hybrid or Unique?: the Japanese Welfare State Between Europe and America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the contemporary welfare state literature, both Japan and Southern Europe are often held to be distinct regimes. A comparative examination of the evidence for Japan suggests that this is not true. Japan's fusion of key el ements of catholic-conservative welfare states (occupational segmentation and familialism) with a liberal, American-style dominance of private welfare plans gives the appearance of a

Gøsta Esping-Andersen

1997-01-01

371

Multiple Family Groups: An Engaging Intervention for Child Welfare-Involved Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between child welfare- and nonchild welfare-involved families regarding barriers to child mental health care, attendance, program satisfaction, and relationship with facilitators are examined for a multiple family group service delivery model aimed at reducing childhood disruptive behaviors. Although child welfare-involved caregivers…

Gopalan, Geetha; Bannon, William; Dean-Assael, Kara; Fuss, Ashley; Gardner, Lauren; LaBarbera, Brooke; McKay, Mary

2011-01-01

372

For Mommy and Me: Toward a Child Development Policy for Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report defines policy and practices for child care assistance for welfare recipients in New York, and explores ways in which the state could use the newly enacted federal welfare reform legislation to create opportunities for children of welfare recipients. The six sections of the report are based on a survey of child care policies and…

Brooks, Eve E.; Hurley, Brigit

373

Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

2007-01-01

374

The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 5, Number 2, Fall 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Link" is a periodical published by the Child Welfare League. The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization. They are committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families and protecting every child from harm. This issue of…

Child Welfare League of America (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

375

Science-based management of livestock welfare in intensive systems: looking to the future.  

PubMed

As welfare is a multidimensional concept, its assessment should be a multidisciplinary process, providing a comprehensive assessment of animal welfare in any given system. The different measurable aspects of welfare may be turned into welfare indicators and assessed in a scientific manner. Assessment of welfare may combine different approaches that include the assessment of the production system and measurement of animal-based welfare indicators. With both approaches, however, risk managers face difficulties related to the availability of resources for implementing regulations and training staff. Most animal-based welfare indicators have the advantage that they can be measured whatever the production system; they relate to the animal's experience of its own state. It is essential to confirm the reliability of the measures and their robustness to ensure valid welfare assessment, especially for a science-based management approach. Many welfare indicators, even those measured at the individual level, are expressed at group level, as a proportion of the animals. This allows benchmarking and following of trends over time. The decision on what is or is not acceptable from a welfare point of view is an ethical or managerial one. The advantage of a graded welfare indicator is that it allows different thresholds to be set by different people, countries or organisations, depending on the purpose of the assessment. The development of a set of harmonised international welfare indicators for global trade is also discussed. PMID:25000787

Vannier, P; Michel, V; Keeling, L J

2014-04-01

376

Sex chromosome polymorphism in guppies.  

PubMed

Sex chromosomes differ from autosomes by dissimilar gene content and, at a more advanced stage of their evolution, also in structure and size. This is driven by the divergence of the Y or W from their counterparts, X and Z, due to reduced recombination and the resulting degeneration as well as the accumulation of sex-specific and sexually antagonistic genes. A paradigmatic example for Y-chromosome evolution is found in guppies. In these fishes, conflicting data exist for a morphological and molecular differentiation of sex chromosomes. Using molecular probes and the previously established linkage map, we performed a cytogenetic analysis of sex chromosomes. We show that the Y chromosome has a very large pseudoautosomal region, which is followed by a heterochromatin block (HCY) separating the subtelomeric male-specific region from the rest of the chromosome. Interestingly, the size of the HCY is highly variable between individuals from different population. The largest HCY was found in one population of Poecilia wingei, making the Y almost double the size of the X and the largest chromosome of the complement. Comparative analysis revealed that the Y chromosomes of different guppy species are homologous and share the same structure and organization. The observed size differences are explained by an expansion of the HCY, which is due to increased amounts of repetitive DNA. In one population, we observed also a polymorphism of the X chromosome. We suggest that sex chromosome-linked color patterns and other sexually selected genes are important for maintaining the observed structural polymorphism of sex chromosomes. PMID:24676866

Nanda, Indrajit; Schories, Susanne; Tripathi, Namita; Dreyer, Christine; Haaf, Thomas; Schmid, Michael; Schartl, Manfred

2014-08-01

377

Trans-chromosomal methylation.  

PubMed

The epigenome plays a vital role in helping to maintain and regulate cell functions in all organisms. Alleles with differing epigenetic marks in the same nucleus do not function in isolation but can interact in trans to modify the epigenetic state of one or both alleles. This is particularly evident when two divergent epigenomes come together in a hybrid resulting in thousands of alterations to the methylome. These changes mainly involve the methylation patterns at one allele being changed to resemble the methylation patterns of the other allele, in processes we have termed trans-chromosomal methylation (TCM) and trans-chromosomal demethylation (TCdM). These processes are primarily modulated by siRNAs and the RNA directed DNA methylation pathway. Drawing from other examples of trans-allelic interactions, we describe the process of TCM and TCdM and the effect such changes can have on genome activity. Trans-allelic epigenetic interactions may be a common occurrence in many biological systems. PMID:22705969

Greaves, Ian; Groszmann, Michael; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Peacock, W James

2012-08-01

378

Introducing breathlessness as a significant animal welfare issue.  

PubMed

Abstract Breathlessness is a negative affective experience relating to respiration, the animal welfare significance of which has largely been underestimated in the veterinary and animal welfare sciences. In this review, we draw attention to the negative impact that breathlessness can have on the welfare of individual animals and to the wide range of situations in which mammals may experience breathlessness. At least three qualitatively distinct sensations of breathlessness are recognised in human medicine - respiratory effort, air hunger and chest tightness - and each of these reflects comparison by cerebral cortical processing of some combination of heightened ventilatory drive and/or impaired respiratory function. Each one occurs in a variety of pathological conditions and other situations, and more than one may be experienced simultaneously or in succession. However, the three qualities vary in terms of their unpleasantness, with air hunger reported to be the most unpleasant. We emphasise the important interplay among various primary stimuli to breathlessness and other physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as animal management practices. For example, asphyxia/drowning of healthy mammals or killing those with respiratory disease using gases containing high carbon dioxide tensions is likely to lead to severe air hunger, while brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in modern dog and cat breeds increases respiratory effort at rest and likely leads to air hunger during exertion. Using this information as a guide, we encourage animal welfare scientists, veterinarians, laboratory scientists, regulatory bodies and others involved in evaluations of animal welfare to consider whether or not breathlessness contributes to any compromise they may observe or wish to avoid or mitigate. PMID:25004795

Beausoleil, Nj; Mellor, Dj

2015-01-01

379

Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Y chromosome infertility On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed January 2009 What is Y chromosome infertility? Y chromosome infertility is a condition that affects ...

380

Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes  

E-print Network

Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

Bellott, Daniel W.

381

Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

2012-01-01

382

Chromosome Numbers of Cerastium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chromosomes of four species of Cerastium, namely, C. vulgatum, C. alpinum (including C. alpinum lanatum), C. arvense and C. perfoliatum, have been counted from root-tips of young seedlings. I give here a list of chromosome counts made by previous workers, none of which is of British material, together with my own counts.

O. E. Brett

1950-01-01

383

Sex chromosomes and their abnormalities  

E-print Network

to the age of the mother #12;Jacobs syndrome XYY Apparently normal phenotype with possibly increased height is indicated in such patients #12;Sex chromosome anuploidies #12;Klinefelter Syndrome XXY Underdeveloped 2 Barr bodies 1/1000 female births #12;Turner Syndrome XO Missing X chromosome Sexually

Dellaire, Graham

384

Micromechanics of chromatin and chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymes that transcribe, recombine, package, and duplicate the eukaryotic genome all are highly processive and capable of generating large forces. Understanding chromosome function therefore will require analysis of mechanics as well as biochemistry. Here we review development of new biophysical-biochemical techniques for studying the mechanical properties of isolated chromatin fibers and chromosomes. We also discuss microscopy-based experiments on cells

John F. Marko; Michael G. Poirier

2003-01-01

385

Chromosomes of Peromyscus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The somatic metaphase chromosome constitutions of 20 Peromjscus species (188 specimens) were described and compared. Peromyscus (Ochrotomys) nuttalli, which has been considered by many mammalogists as a member of a separate genus, Ochroiomys, has a diploid number of 52. All other 19 species possess a diploid number of 48. The lowest number of total chromosome arms is 56 (P. crinitus

T. C. Hsu; Frances E Arrighi

1968-01-01

386

Equipment cost optimization  

SciTech Connect

Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results.

Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-12-01

387

Induction of human lampbrush chromosomes  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that sperm heads from amphibians (Xenopus and Rana) and zebrafish (Danio) could form giant lampbrush chromosomes when injected into the nucleus of amphibian oocytes. However, similar experiments with mammalian sperm heads were unsuccessful. Here we describe a slightly modified procedure and demonstrate that human sperm heads can form giant lampbrush chromosomes when injected into the oocyte nucleus of the frog Xenopus laevis or the newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Human and other mammalian chromosomes do not form recognizable lampbrush chromosomes in their own oocytes or in any somatic cells. These experiments thus demonstrate that the lampbrush condition is an inducible state and that the amphibian oocyte nucleus contains all factors required to remodel the inactive chromatin of a mammalian sperm into a transcriptionally active state. They also demonstrate that absence of lampbrush chromosomes from human oocytes must relate to specific features of mammalian oogenesis, not to permanent genetic or epigenetic changes in the chromatin. PMID:23296495

Liu, Ji-Long; Gall, Joseph G.

2013-01-01

388

Chromosome Choreography: The Meiotic Ballet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a review of the current understanding as well as unanswered questions in the study of meiosis. The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

Scott Page (Stowers Institute for Medical Research;); R. Scott Hawley (Stowers Institute for Medical Research;)

2003-08-08

389

Equipment Failure Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tennessee Eastman uses NASTRAN to minimize lost production by pinpointing the causes of equipment failures and preventing recurrences. An example of the program's utility involves a large centrifugal fan which developed cracks during start-ups and shutdowns. This information prompted redesign of the fan. Tennessee Eastman has made extensive use of NASTRAN, both as failure analysis tool and as an aid in redesigning production hardware.

1980-01-01

390

GPS Equipped Sonobuoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonobuoys equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) prove extremely useful when calibrating underwater sonar systems. Hermes Electronics Inc., in collaboration with Defence Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA) has developed such a buoy. The sonobuoy is a modified version of Hermes AN\\/SSQ53D(2) DIFAR sonobuoy. Modifications include de-sensitizing the acoustic r eceiver, installing a commercial GPS engine, and providing an electronic interface

Gregory J. Baker; Y. R. M. Bonin

391

Everything about Construction Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

392

Secure authenticated video equipment  

SciTech Connect

In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

Doren, N.E.

1993-07-01

393

Recent Changes in Wisconsin Welfare and Work, Child Care, and Child Welfare Systems. State Update No. 8. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisconsin's new welfare program was a dramatic departure from the old income maintenance system of welfare and moved beyond other states' work-based welfare reform programs. This report describes Wisconsin's approach to welfare reform, using data collected in 1999 and 2000 from state and local administrators, direct service providers, and, in some…

Ehrle, Jennifer; Seefeldt, Kristin; Snyder, Kathleen; McMahon, Pat

394

Evaluating Two Approaches to Case Management: Implementation, Participation Patterns, Costs, and Three-Year Impacts of the Columbus Welfare-to-Work Program. National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A random assignment study evaluated two welfare program case management approaches, traditional and integrated, and was conducted as part of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work (WTW) Strategies, an evaluation of 11 welfare-to-work programs in 7 sites nationwide. More that 7,000 single parent welfare applicants and recipients deemed…

Scrivener, Susan; Walter, Johanna

395

Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums.  

PubMed

There continues to be intense public, professional, and scientific focus on the welfare of animals in zoos and aquariums, but implementing welfare assessment tools consistently throughout this community remains challenging. Indirect measures can be used to assess "welfare potential"-the potential that animals will experience good welfare based on the care that they are provided with. Zoos and aquariums focus on welfare potential with their continued commitment to develop animal care guidelines (e.g. Animal Care Manuals) that can play a role within institutional accreditation or certification. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Animal Welfare Committee has been pursuing approaches to maximize welfare potential by developing the concept of an integrated welfare approach or framework-an attempt to identify recommended animal care programs (e.g. enrichment, nutrition, veterinary care, research, and animal training programs) and their programmatic components. Objectively assessing the influence that animal care recommendations have on the welfare of individual animals is important to determine the efficacy of programmatic approaches. The future of welfare assessment within zoos and aquariums will include population-level evaluations-tracking emerging trends in health and behavior that come from both formal and informal institutional animal reports. Sharing this information, and performing meta-analyses of the data using epidemiological approaches, will become easier with advances in technology and database management software. Identifying welfare "red/green flags" throughout captive populations will provide direction for more focused assessments that will ultimately inform the design of more effective animal care programs. PMID:19593774

Barber, Joseph C E

2009-11-01

396

Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions  

SciTech Connect

Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

397

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

398

Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

399

Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Miscellaneous Equipment. Training Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes six units of instruction covering the small, specialized equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance…

Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

400

Getting Equipped and Staying Equipped, Part 2: Finding the Funds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how school libraries can fund computer equipment; gain assistance from high-tech businesses; develop business partnerships and foundations; lease equipment; accept equipment donations; fund raise; build money into the budget; and communicate school needs with budget voters. Sidebars include leasing advice; resources for parent-teacher…

Jordahl, Gregory; Orwig, Ann

1995-01-01

401

A chromosome 11 YAC library  

SciTech Connect

A targeted yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) library for chromosome 11 has been constructed from the J1 cell line that carries a single human chromosome 11 within a hamster DNA background. Interspecies chimeric clones generated during construction of the library were detected during the screening process and eliminated from the library. Contig assembly becomes much less difficult using such a library as the complexity is decreased and the ends of the clone inserts can be rescued for walking to neighboring clones. The library contains > 1824 clones with an average insert length of 337 kb. This represents a fourfold coverage of chromosome 11 or a >95% chance of recovering a unique single-copy sequence from the library. Two hundred YAC clones were localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization and found to be randomly distributed along the chromosome. The library has been screened with probes for the chromosome 11 markers HBB, GLUR4, H19, and D11S193. Corresponding YAC clones have been isolated for each locus. This analysis has indicated that the library is unbiased, that cognate YAC clones can be recovered with chromosome 11 markers, and that extensive contig assembly should be feasible. 31 refs., 5 figs.

Qin, S.; Zhang, J.; Isaacs, C.M.; Nagafuchi, S.; Jani Sait, S.N.; Abel, K.J.; Higgins, M.J.; Nowak, N.J.; Shows, T.B. (Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-06-01

402

Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

403

Pricing schemes for new drugs: a welfare analysis.  

PubMed

Drug price regulation is acquiring increasing significance in the investment choices of the pharmaceutical sector. The overall objective is to determine an optimal trade-off between the incentives for innovation, consumer protection, and value for money. However, price regulation is itself a source of distortion. In this study, we examine the welfare properties of listing through a bargaining process and value-based pricing schemes. The latter are superior instruments to uncertain listing processes for maximising total welfare, but the distribution of the benefits between consumers and the industry depends on rate of rebate chosen by the regulator. However, through an appropriate choice, it is always possible to define a value-based pricing scheme with risk sharing, which both consumers and the industry prefer to an uncertain bargaining process. PMID:24565143

Levaggi, Rosella

2014-02-01

404

Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span >100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total [approximately]6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. 48 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Tassone, F. (Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States) A. Gemelli School of Medicine, Rome (Italy)); Cheng, S.; Gardiner, K. (Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States))

1992-12-01

405

Equipment fragility data base  

SciTech Connect

Part of the effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has been directed at generating a fragility data base for equipment used in control and safety systems in commercial nuclear power plants. Component fragility data exist in various forms, depending on their content, intended use, and level of reduction. Th data are stored in a relational data base on the LLNL CDC 7600 computers; this provides easy accessibility for LLNL computer users. This report describes the present structure of the data base and presents its contents through the use of tables.

Cover, L.E.

1982-03-01

406

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

407

China production equipment sourcing strategy  

E-print Network

This thesis recommends a China business and equipment strategy for the Controls Conveyor Robotics Welding (CCRW) group at General Motors. The current strategy is to use globally common equipment through predetermined global ...

Chouinard, Natalie, 1979-

2009-01-01

408

How to correct chromosomal trisomy.  

PubMed

Trisomy 21 in human causes Down syndrome, a common chromosome disorder with devastating phenotypes ranging from early death in utero to intellectual disability together with an array of physical anomalies and late-onset diseases. In a recent study published in Nature, Jeanne Lawrence and her colleagues restored normal gene expression in trisomy 21 cells by silencing the extra chromosome using XIST, the non-coding RNA that normally silences one X chromosome in females; this improved growth and differentiation of neural cells, which offers hope that some deleterious effects of the trisomy could be reversed to improve this incurable disease. PMID:24080727

Disteche, Christine M

2013-12-01

409

A clinical consultation model for child welfare supervisors.  

PubMed

This article presents findings from a consultation project conducted by faculty from six schools of social work with approximately 150 child welfare supervisors over a two-year period. The purpose of the program was to assist supervisors with their roles as educators, mentors, and coaches for casework staff, specifically in relationship to case practice decisions. The consultation model, the development of the curriculum, the project implementation, and the results of the initial assessment are described. PMID:17408011

Strand, Virginia C; Badger, Lee

2007-01-01

410

Effects of Coral Reef Attribute Damage on Recreational Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an economic valuation of coral reef degradation at Eilat, Israeli Red Sea. We estimate the marginal prices of coral and fish diversity and water visibility at US$2.60 and US$1.20 per dive, respec- tively. From the standpoint of recreational diving welfare, the annual social costs of activities contributing to coral reef degradation are approximately US$2.86

JEFFREY WIELGUS; NANETTE E. CHADWICK-FURMAN; NAOMI ZEITOUNI; MORDECHAI SHECHTER

411

Flows of Air Pollution, Ill Health and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a theoretical framework for measuring welfare when pollution influences economic growth by impairing health and\\u000a driving up defensive medical expenditures. We demonstrate the usefulness of our framework in practice by applying it to data\\u000a from Swedish valuation studies designed according to the accounting principles suggested here. We estimate that the negative\\u000a health effects of nitrogen dioxide emissions amount

Anni Huhtala; Eva Samakovlis

2007-01-01

412

Tax structure, growth, and welfare in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the quantitative implications of changes in the composition of taxes for long-run growth and welfare in the UK economy. Our results suggest that if the goal of tax policy is to promote long-run growth by altering relative tax rates in a budget neutral fashion, then it should reduce labour taxes and increase capital and-or consumption taxes. In

Konstantinos Angelopoulos; James Malley; Apostolis Philippopoulos

2012-01-01

413

Poverty Estimates and the Welfare State: the case of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an attempt to critique the positivist neo-liberal orthodoxy in the measurement of poverty. I have argued that this orthodox approach systematically underestimates the extent of poverty and undermines welfare-oriented developmental policies. Taking Nepal as an illustration, this article demonstrates that the emergence of multiple poverty estimates has provided a choice to the development policy-makers and practitioners in

Lok Nath Bhusal

2012-01-01

414

The dynamics of immigrant welfare and labor market behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes transitions into and out of social assistance, unemployment, and employment. We estimate a dynamic multinomial\\u000a logit model, controlling for endogenous initial condition and unobserved heterogeneity, using a large representative Swedish\\u000a panel data set. The empirical results suggest that particularly refugee immigrants display a greater degree of “structural”\\u000a state dependence than natives. The high welfare participation rates among

Jorgen Hansen; Magnus Lofstrom

2009-01-01

415

Welfare Implications of Heterogeneous Labor Markets in a Currency Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the role of labor markets heterogeneity in a monetary union and especially what are the welfare gains\\/costs of labor market reforms for each member of the area. To this end, we develop a medium-scale two-country model representing a currency union characterized by price and wage stickiness, real rigidities and labor market frictions. We make various scenarios of

C. Poilly; J. G. Sahuc

2008-01-01

416

Repetitive telomeric sequences in chromosomal translocations involving chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

Telomeres perform key functions in maintaining chromosome integrity. In some structural rearrangements the structure and polymorphism in human telomeres may play a significant role. However, of all the telomeric and subtelomeric sequences, only the terminal TTAGGG repeats are believed essential for telomere function. During the course of a study on the role of telomere structure and polymorphism in chromosomal rearrangements observed in families referred for prenatal diagnosis, we studied three cases in which chromosome 21 was involved. Repetitive TTAGGG sequences for all human chromosomes were used as probes (Oncor). Case 1, a de novo cryptic translocation (2;21) was initially identified as monosomy 21 in a child with psychomotor delay and mild dysmorphism. Using a cosmid probe specific for region 21q22.3 and whole chromosome 21 specific painting probe, the long arm of 21 was found on the short arm of chromosome 2 with an interstitial telomere at the breakpoint junction. All the cells were monosomic for 21pter{yields}q21. Case 2 is a familial (19;21) translocation. GTG-banding and FISH with a satellite probe showed no apparent loss of material at the end of either 19q or 21q, with an interstitial telomere at the fusion site of the two intact chromosomes. In case 3, a four generation reciprocal (20;21) translocation, there was no interstitial telomere. The persistence of an interstitial telomere is a relatively rare event which can now be observed with in situ hybridization. Its study may lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of translocations and of chromosome imbalance.

Qu, J.; Dallaire, L.; Fetni, R. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

417

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since its establishment in 1996, Connecticut's Job First Welfare Reform Program has been under rigorous evaluation. As a result, under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) decided to study the effects of the Job First Program. During the study, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in Manchester and New Haven were randomly assigned to either the Jobs First Program or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group (which operated under the prior welfare rules). The effects of the Jobs First Program were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a four-year period, and the results are revealed in this report. Users may choose to view the Executive Summary (a short review in HTML), the Summary Report (52 pages), or the Full Report (406 pages). In addition, the Web page provides access to the report's press release (issued February 20, 2002) and a description of Connecticut's Job First Program.

Adams-Ciardullo, Diana.; Bloom, Dan.; Hendra, Richard.; Michalopoulos, Charles.; Morris, Pamela.; Scrivener, Susan.

2002-01-01

418

Patents, Innovation, and the Welfare Effects of Medicare Part D*  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficiency consequences of the Medicare Part D program. Methods We develop and empirically calibrate a simple theoretical model to examine the static and dynamic welfare effects of Medicare Part D. Findings We show that Medicare Part D can simultaneously reduce static deadweight loss from monopoly pricing of drugs and improve incentives for innovation. We estimate that even after excluding the insurance value of the program, the welfare gain of Medicare Part D roughly equals its social costs. The program generates $5.11 billion of annual static deadweight loss reduction, and at least $3.0 billion of annual value from extra innovation. Implications Medicare Part D and other public prescription drug programs can be welfare-improving, even for risk-neutral and purely self-interested consumers. Furthermore, negotiation for lower branded drug prices may further increase the social return to the program. Originality This study demonstrates that pure efficiency motives, which do not even surface in the policy debate over Medicare Part D, can nearly justify the program on their own merits. PMID:20575239

Gailey, Adam; Lakdawalla, Darius; Sood, Neeraj

2013-01-01

419

Lean advanced equipment supplier training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2008, facing a severe worldwide recession, a key strategy by senior Intel corporation management was reducing discretionary and wasteful spending by 50%. One of the largest discretionary spending categories is the cost of technical training provided by our equipment suppliers and the travel associated with sending senior equipment maintenance technicians and equipment engineers to lengthy training classes at

Joey Cavaleri

2010-01-01

420

Scientist Using Terrestrial Lidar Equipment  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Chris Soulard using the Terrestrial Lidar to scan study area in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ.  Note the bag of ice on the equipment.  High temperates can cause equipment to overheat, requiring scientists to be creative in protecting equipment....

421

Economic Equipment Policies: An Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper summarizes the results of a detailed empirical investigation of the theory of economic equipment policy as applied to one important kind of industrial equipment, viz line-haul truck-tractor power units. The objective of this research was to ascertain, for a type of equipment which is perhaps best suited to exact replacement analysis, the quantitative importance to the firm

Vernon L. Smith

1957-01-01

422

Purchasing Department Equipment Evaluation Request  

E-print Network

Purchasing Department Equipment Evaluation Request Complete this form, obtain the required generated by the evaluation is subject to existing Capital Equipment request procedures and current for the condition or use of equipment during the evaluation. AUTHORIZED SIGNATURES REQUIRED PRIOR TO EVALUATION

Tipple, Brett

423

Evaluating Alternative Welfare-to-Work Approaches: Two-Year Impacts for Eleven Programs. National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2-year impacts of 11 welfare-to-work programs across the United States were evaluated to determine the relative effectiveness of different approaches to moving individuals from welfare to work. All 11 programs operated under the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills Program. Four programs were employment focused (three low-enforcement and one…

Freedman, Stephen; Friedlander, Daniel; Hamilton, Gayle; Rock, JoAnn; Mitchell, Marisa; Nudelman, Jodi; Schweder, Amanda; Storto, Laura

424

Do Family Caps on Welfare Affect Births among Welfare Recipients? Reconciling Efficacy and Effectiveness Estimates of Impact through a Blended Design Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a blended experimental and quasi-experimental research strategy which we believe will help improve the external validity of evaluations of welfare reform and other social policies. We draw upon data from New Jersey's imposition of a family cap, where welfare benefits instead of increasing remained the same for women who…

Jagannathan, Radha; Camasso, Michael J.; Killingsworth, Mark R.

2004-01-01

425

Collaboration between child welfare agencies and domestic violence service providers: Relationship with child welfare policies and practices for addressing domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to examine collaborative activities occurring between child welfare agencies and domestic violence service providers and to investigate whether there was a relationship between collaborative efforts and domestic violence policy and practice in child welfare agencies. Data were derived from the Children and Domestic Violence Services study, which obtained cross-sectional data from a large sample

Duren Banks; Andrea L. Hazen; Jeffrey H. Coben; Kathleen Wang; Janet D. Griffith

2009-01-01

426

THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON  

E-print Network

THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON Sutton, W. S. 1903. The chromosomes in heredity or redistributed for commercial purposes without permission. Sutton, W. S. 1903. The chromosomes in heredity. Biological Bulletin, 4:231-251. THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON IN A RECENT ANNOUNCEMENT of some

Batzoglou, Serafim

427

An uncertainty principle in chromosome positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomes are non-randomly positioned in the mammalian interphase nucleus. It is not known how patterns of chromosome positions are established or to what degree spatial arrangements of chromosomes change during the cell cycle, especially during mitosis. Two reports have applied in vivo microscopy to track chromosomes in space and time. The results highlight the inherently imperfect and probabilistic nature of

Luis A Parada; Jeffrey J Roix; Tom Misteli

2003-01-01

428

Methods for chromosome-specific staining  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

1995-01-01

429

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.  

PubMed

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

2004-08-16

430

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

431

X chromosome evolution in Drosophila   

E-print Network

Although the X chromosome is usually similar to the autosomes in size, gene density and cytogenetic appearance, theoretical models predict that its hemizygosity in males may cause unusual patterns of evolution. The ...

Vicoso, Beatriz

2008-01-01

432

PLANT SCIENCES: Promiscuous Maize Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The intricate chromosome dance that characterizes meiotic cell division involves careful coordination of chromosome pairing, recombination, and synapsis. In their Perspective, Martinez-Perez and Moore discuss new work that identifies the PHS1 protein in maize as being a key player in the coordination of these three events (Pawlowski et al.).

Enrique Martinez-Perez (Stanford University;Department of Developmental Biology); Graham Moore (John Innes Centre;)

2004-01-02

433

Cytogenetics and Chromosomal Structural Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytogenetics of maize can be traced to the pioneering work of Barbara McClintock, who first defined the ten chromosomes\\u000a of maize at the pachytene stage of meiosis (McClintock 1929). The chromosomes at this stage are not as condensed as in somatic\\u000a cells and have many distinguishing characteristics such as knob heterochromatin, chromomere patterns and arm ratios that permit\\u000a each

James A. Birchler; Hank W. Bass

434

Chromosome studies in the Scilleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary and Conclusions  The chromosome types of three species,Hyacinthus orientalis,Bellevallia romana andScilla nutans, have been examined at various stages; the inter-relation of tlie complements does not point to any affinity between the\\u000a species or to any common descent from a three-chromosome ancestor. The complement of the Hyacinth is not capable of a purely\\u000a tetraploid interpretation because one of the four long

C. D. Darlington; Innes Horticultural

1926-01-01

435

Chromosomes of Peromyscus (Rodentia, Cricetidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

All species in the genus Peromyscus possess a diploid number of 48, but the number of total chromosome arms varies from 56 (e.g., P. crinitus) to 96 (e.g., P. eremicus). Data are presented, using these two extreme cases, to illustrate that all short arms of biarmed chromosomes are made of constitutive heterochromatin. G-banding preparations revealed that the long arms (euchromatin)

S. Pathak; T. C. Hsu; Frances E. Arrighi

1973-01-01

436

Characterization equipment essential drawing plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed.

WILSON, G.W.

1999-05-18

437

Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

438

Chromosome aberrations in mesoblastic nephroma.  

PubMed Central

Mesoblastic nephroma (MN) is the most common renal tumor diagnosed in infancy. Histologically, MNs are designated as classic, cellular, or mixed type based upon variations in cellularity. Recent karyotypic reports have suggested that extra copies of chromosome 11 are a nonrandom occurrence in MNs. We analyzed nuclear suspensions prepared from a group of 17 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors to determine the possible role of chromosome 11 copy number in the genesis of MN. Extra copies of D11Z1 (a probe for the centromeric region of chromosome 11) were detected in seven out of 10 MNs with cellular or mixed histology, whereas each of six classic histology MNs were disomic for D11Z1 (P < 0.05). Additional fluorescence in situ hybridization studies utilizing the probes for the alpha satellite, centromeric regions of chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 12, 17, and 20 were then carried out on all cases with cellular or mixed histology. Five out of 10 cellular or mixed MNs had extra copies of D8Z1, and four out of 10 had extra copies of D17Z1, suggesting that gains of chromosomes 8 and 17 may be additional nonrandom cytogenetic events associated with the evolution of MNs. DNA aneuploidy, as determined by image analysis, was detected in three tumors: all had greater than four chromosomal aberrations documented by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8395771

Schofield, D. E.; Yunis, E. J.; Fletcher, J. A.

1993-01-01

439

Mechanisms of oncogenic chromosomal translocations.  

PubMed

Chromosome translocations are caused by inappropriate religation of two DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in heterologous chromosomes. These DSBs can be generated by endogenous or exogenous sources. Endogenous sources of DSBs leading to translocations include inappropriate recombination activating gene (RAG) or activation-induced deaminase (AID) activity during immune receptor maturation. Endogenous DSBs can also occur at noncanonical DNA structures or at collapsed replication forks. Exogenous sources of DSBs leading to translocations include ionizing radiation (IR) and cancer chemotherapy. Spatial proximity of the heterologous chromosomes is also important for translocations. While three distinct pathways for DNA DSB repair exist, mounting evidence supports alternative nonhomologous end joining (aNHEJ) as the predominant pathway through which the majority of translocations occur. Initiated by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), aNHEJ is utilized less frequently in DNA DSB repair than other forms of DSB repair. We recently found that PARP1 is essential for chromosomal translocations to occur and that small molecule PARP1 inhibitors, already in clinical use, can inhibit translocations generated by IR or topoisomerase II inhibition. These data confirm the central role of PARP1 in aNHEJ-mediated chromosomal translocations and raise the possibility of using clinically available PARP1 inhibitors in patients who are at high risk for secondary oncogenic chromosomal translocations. PMID:24528169

Byrne, Michael; Wray, Justin; Reinert, Brian; Wu, Yuehan; Nickoloff, Jac; Lee, Suk-Hee; Hromas, Robert; Williamson, Elizabeth

2014-03-01

440

Microelasticity of Single Mitotic Chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The force-extension behavior of mitotic chromosomes from the newt TVI tumor cell line was studied using micropipette manipulation and force measuring techniques. Reversible, linear elastic response was observed for extensions up to 5 times the native length; the force required to double chromosome length was 1 nanonewton (nN). For further elongations, the linear response teminates at a force plateau of 15 nN and at an extension of 20x. Beyond this extension, the chromosome breaks at elongations between 20x and 70x. These results will be compared to the similar behavior of mitotic chromosomes from explanted newt cells (Poirier, Eroglu, Chatenay and Marko, Mol. Biol. Cell, in press). Also, the effect of biochemical modifications on the elasticity was studied. Ethidium Bromide, which binds to DNA, induces up to a 10 times increase in the Young's modulus. Anti-XCAP-E, which binds to a putative chromosome folding protein, induces up to a 2 times increase in the Young's modulus. Preliminary results on the dynamical relaxation of chromosomes will also be presented. Support of this research through a Biomedical Engineering Research Grant from The Whitaker Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

Poirier, Michael; Eroglu, Sertac; Chatenay, Didier; Marko, John F.; Hirano, Tatsuya

2000-03-01

441

Chromosome analysis of 894 patients.  

PubMed

Metaphase chromosome analysis from cultured blood lymphocytes was performed in 894 consecutive patients from the year 1981 to early 1989. G-bands by trypsin using Giemsa (GTG) was routinely employed during the last five years supplemented with other banding techniques if required. High resolution chromosome banding was performed in cases suspected of structural chromosome abnormality. Successful studies were obtained in 862 (96.4%). Out of the successful cases, 232 (26.9%) had informative results, and 193 (22.4%) had chromosome abnormalities. Down's syndrome was found in 110 cases. Edwards' and Patau's syndromes were found in 4 and 7 cases respectively. A case of trisomy 14 mosaic was found. There were 2 cases of trisomy 22 syndrome, one case with 46,XX/47,XX,+mar(22) and another case with 46,XX/47,XX,+r(22) karyotype. There were 39 cases of sex chromosome abnormalities, 27 of which had Turner's syndrome. Kline-felter syndrome was found in 8 patients. Triple X syndrome and true hermaphrodite (46,XX/46,XY) was each found in one case. Autosomal deletions were found in 19 patients. Autosomal duplications were found in 4 patients, and autosomal translocations were found in 10 patients. Some of these autosomal structural abnormal cases have been included in the chromosomal syndromes mentioned above. PMID:1861129

Panich, V; Jinorose, U

1991-03-01

442

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

DOEpatents

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

443

Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects  

SciTech Connect

The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

Therman, E.; Susman, M.

1993-12-31

444

Orbital construction support equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements. The scenarios were used to perform a functional analysis, which resulted in the definition of 100 distinct SPS elements. These elements are the components, parts, subsystems, or assemblies upon which construction activities take place. The major SPS elements for each configuration are shown. For those elements, 300 functional requirements were identified in seven generic processes. Cumulatively, these processes encompass all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. Individually each process is defined such that it includes a specific type of activity. Each SPS element may involve activities relating to any or all of the generic processes. The processes are listed, and examples of the requirements defined for a typical element are given.

1977-01-01

445

School Equipment--Repair or Replace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective evaluations of whether to repair or replace existing school equipment depend on an equipment inventory, evaluation of equipment suitability, and knowledge of repair possibilities and costs. (MLF)

Patterson, Don E.

1983-01-01

446

Welfare Policies and Adolescents: Exploring the Roles of Sibling Care, Maternal Work Schedules, and Economic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from three longitudinal experimental evaluations of US state welfare reform programs to examine whether\\u000a program-induced changes in families’ reliance on sibling care are linked with the effects of welfare programs on selected\\u000a schooling outcomes of high risk, low-income adolescents. The findings from two of the welfare programs indicate that increased\\u000a reliance on sibling care was concomitant

JoAnn Hsueh; Lisa A. Gennetian

447

Fifty Years of British Housing Policy: Leaving or Leading the Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to develop a new perspective on the housing–welfare state relationship in Britain. Housing is conventionally seen as part of the post-war welfare state, but as different from other core services because of the persistence of a large market sector. Housing is also seen as having been targeted for change in the post-1975 restructuring of the welfare state,

Peter Malpass

2004-01-01

448

Fifty Years of British Housing Policy: Leaving or Leading the Welfare State?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to develop a new perspective on the housing-welfare state relationship in Britain. Housing is conventionally seen as part of the post-war welfare state, but as different from other core services because of the persistence of a large market sector. Housing is also seen as having been targeted for change in the post-1975 restructuring of the welfare state,

Peter Malpass

2001-01-01

449

Concepts of animal welfare in relation to positions in animal ethics.  

PubMed

When animal ethicists deal with welfare they seem to face a dilemma: On the one hand, they recognize the necessity of welfare concepts for their ethical approaches. On the other hand, many animal ethicists do not want to be considered reformist welfarists. Moreover, animal welfare scientists may feel pressed by moral demands for a fundamental change in our attitude towards animals. The analysis of this conflict from the perspective of animal ethics shows that animal welfare science and animal ethics highly depend on each other. Welfare concepts are indispensable in the whole field of animal ethics. Evidence for this can be found by analyzing the structure of theories of animal ethics and the different ways in which these theories employ welfare concepts. Furthermore, the background of values underneath every welfare theory is essential to pursue animal welfare science. Animal ethics can make important contributions to the clarification of underlying normative assumptions with regard to the value of the animal, with regard to ideas about what is valuable for the animal, and with regard to the actions that should follow from the results of animal welfare science. PMID:21312052

Schmidt, Kirsten

2011-06-01

450

Chromosome photoinactivation, a new method for high speed chromosome sorting  

SciTech Connect

A new optical high-speed chromosome sorting concept is under development which relies on chromosome inactivation rather than droplet sorting to meet the demands of large volume sorting for cloning into large insert vectors. Inactivation can be achieved by photosensitizing and cross-linking metaphase chromosomes. By eliminating the need to create droplets, sorting rates 50 to 100 times faster than the sorting rates of commercial sorters will be achieved. Preliminary experiments using 8-methoxy psoralen in combination with UV doses of about 20 kJ/m2 have shown that: (1) DNA is cross-linked and remains double stranded even under denaturing conditions, (2) the ability of psoralen treated plasmid DNA to transect E. coli XL1-Blue cells is totally blocked following UV exposure, and (3) an average of one interstrand cross-link per 6 kb is produced with these UV doses.

Martin, J.C.; Park, M.; Han, K.T.; Cram, L.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

451

Public social welfare expenditures, fiscal years 1965-87.  

PubMed

The years from 1965 to 1976 were a period of great expansion in social welfare expenditures under public law. The entry of the Federal Government into the fields of health care and education was responsible for much of the growth in the first part of this period; high inflation produced increased spending in the later years. From 1977 to 1987, the rate of growth in social welfare spending slowed considerably. In fact, since 1983 the dominant characteristic of such expenditures has been their stability. Although the amount of money spent was higher in each year, little change occurred in the relative size or the apportionment of the funds. The 1987 expenditures continued this pattern. The total amount spent, $834.4 billion, represented an increase of 6.6 percent over the previous year. This amount equaled 18.8 percent of the gross national product. In constant dollar terms, the increase from 1986 to 1987 was 1.7 percent. The Federal Government provided 60-62 percent of all social welfare funding from 1980 to 1986. In 1987, this share fell slightly--to 59.9 percent. The programs for social insurance, public aid, veterans, and housing were primarily Federally funded, while education was largely a State and local responsibility. Governments at all levels spent 53.4 percent of their funds for social insurance purposes in 1987, slightly more than in 1986. However, the experience at different levels of government varied considerably. Federal spending increased 2 percent as a percent of all Federal expenditures, while State and local spending decreased about 1 percent. PMID:2315818

Bixby, A K

1990-02-01

452

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01

453

Air pollution: Household soiling and consumer welfare losses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper uses demand and supply functions for cleanliness to estimate household benefits from reduced particulate matter soiling. A demand curve for household cleanliness is estimated, based upon the assumption that households prefer more cleanliness to less. Empirical coefficients, related to particulate pollution levels, for shifting the cleanliness supply curve, are taken from available studies. Consumer welfare gains, aggregated across 123 SMSAs, from achieving the Federal primary particulate standard, are estimated to range from $0.9 to $3.2 million per year (1971 dollars). ?? 1982.

Watson, W.D.; Jaksch, J.A.

1982-01-01

454

Information technology equipment cooling system  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

Schultz, Mark D.

2014-06-10

455

Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

1980-01-01

456

VIEW OF ULTRASONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF ULTRA-SONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT NON-DESTRUCTIVELY TESTS WEAPONS COMPONENTS FOR FLAWS AND CRACKS. (9/11/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

457

141. ARAIII Equipment location plan. Includes list of equipment and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

141. ARA-III Equipment location plan. Includes list of equipment and location in reactor, control, and other buildings. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-101-U-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0101-65-013-192508. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

458

Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

Hilley, Robert

459

7 CFR 58.319 - Printing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Printing equipment. 58.319 Section 58.319 Agriculture...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.319 Printing equipment. All printing equipment shall be designed so as to...

2011-01-01

460

7 CFR 58.319 - Printing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Printing equipment. 58.319 Section 58.319 Agriculture...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.319 Printing equipment. All printing equipment shall be designed so as to...

2012-01-01

461

7 CFR 58.319 - Printing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Printing equipment. 58.319 Section 58.319 Agriculture...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.319 Printing equipment. All printing equipment shall be designed so as to...

2013-01-01

462

7 CFR 58.319 - Printing equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Printing equipment. 58.319 Section 58.319 Agriculture...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.319 Printing equipment. All printing equipment shall be designed so as to...

2010-01-01

463

7 CFR 58.319 - Printing equipment.  

... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Printing equipment. 58.319 Section 58.319 Agriculture...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.319 Printing equipment. All printing equipment shall be designed so as to...

2014-01-01

464

Surnames and the Y Chromosome  

PubMed Central

A randomly ascertained sample of males with the surname “Sykes” was typed with four Y-chromosome microsatellites. Almost half the sample shared the same Y-chromosome haplotype, which has not been observed in control samples either from the same geographic region or from the United Kingdom as a whole. This points to a single surname founder for extant Sykes males, even though written sources had predicted multiple origins. The distribution of other Sykes Y-chromosome haplotypes were not significantly different from those in controls and may be accounted for by the historical accumulation of nonpaternity during the past 700 years, in which case the average rate estimate is 1.3%/generation. If this pattern is reproduced with other surnames, it may have important forensic and genealogical applications. PMID:10739766

Sykes, Bryan; Irven, Catherine

2000-01-01

465

Surnames and the Y chromosome.  

PubMed

A randomly ascertained sample of males with the surname "Sykes" was typed with four Y-chromosome microsatellites. Almost half the sample shared the same Y-chromosome haplotype, which has not been observed in control samples either from the same geographic region or from the United Kingdom as a whole. This points to a single surname founder for extant Sykes males, even though written sources had predicted multiple origins. The distribution of other Sykes Y-chromosome haplotypes were not significantly different from those in controls and may be accounted for by the historical accumulation of nonpaternity during the past 700 years, in which case the average rate estimate is 1.3%/generation. If this pattern is reproduced with other surnames, it may have important forensic and genealogical applications. PMID:10739766

Sykes, B; Irven, C

2000-04-01

466

Topological origins of chromosomal territories.  

PubMed

Using freely jointed polymer model we compare equilibrium properties of crowded polymer chains whose segments are either permeable or not permeable for other segments to pass through. In particular, we addressed the question whether non-permeability of long chain molecules, in the absence of excluded volume effect, is sufficient to compartmentalize highly crowded polymer chains, similarly to what happens during formation of chromosomal territories in interphase nuclei. Our results indicate that even polymers without excluded volume compartmentalize and show strongly reduced intermingling when they are mutually non-permeable. Judging from the known fact that chromatin fibres originating from different chromosomes show very limited intermingling in interphase nuclei, we propose that regular chromatin fibres during chromosome decondensation can hardly serve as a substrate of cellular type II DNA topoisomerases. PMID:19726582

Dorier, Julien; Stasiak, Andrzej

2009-10-01

467

Laptop image transmission equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

Mocenter, Michael M.

1991-12-01

468

Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.  

PubMed

The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child. PMID:25403900

Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

2014-11-19

469

Multiscale image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual examination of chromosome banding patterns is an important means of chromosome analysis. Cytogeneticists compare their patient's chromosome image against the prototype normal/abnormal human chromosome banding patterns. Automated chromosome analysis instruments facilitate this by digitally enhancing the chromosome images. Currently available systems employing traditional highpass/bandpass filtering and/or histogram equalization are approximately equivalent to photomicroscopy in their ability to support the detection of band pattern alterations. Improvements in chromosome image display quality, particularly in the detail of the banding pattern, would significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these systems. In this paper we present our work on the use of multiscale transform and derivative filtering for image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns. A steerable pyramid representation of the chromosome image is generated by a multiscale transform. The derivative filters are designed to detect the bands of a chromosome, and the steerable pyramid transform is chosen based on its desirable properties of shift and rotation invariance. By processing the transform coefficients that correspond to the bands of the chromosome in the pyramid representation, contrast enhancement of the chromosome bands can be achieved with designed flexibility in scale, orientation and location. Compared with existing chromosome image enhancement techniques, this new approach offers the advantage of selective chromosome banding pattern enhancement that allows designated detail analysis. Experimental results indicate improved enhancement capabilities and promise more effective visual aid to comparison of chromosomes to the prototypes and to each other. This will increase the ability of automated chromosome analysis instruments to assist the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities in clinical samples.

Wu, Qiang; Castleman, Kenneth R.

1996-10-01

470

Expert opinion as 'validation' of risk assessment applied to calf welfare  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, a Risk Assessment methodology was applied to animal welfare issues in a report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on intensively housed calves. Methods Because this is a new and potentially influential approach to derive conclusions on animal welfare issues, a so-called semantic-modelling type 'validation' study was conducted by asking expert scientists, who had been involved or quoted in the report, to give welfare scores for housing systems and for welfare hazards. Results Kendall's coefficient of concordance among experts (n = 24) was highly significant (P < 0.001), but low (0.29 and 0.18 for housing systems and hazards respectively). Overall correlations with EFSA scores were significant only for experts with a veterinary or mixed (veterinary and applied ethological) background. Significant differences in welfare scores were found between housing systems, between hazards, and between experts with different backgrounds. For example, veterinarians gave higher overall welfare scores for housing systems than ethologists did, probably reflecting a difference in their perception of animal welfare. Systems with the lowest scores were veal calves kept individually in so-called "baby boxes" (veal crates) or in small groups, and feedlots. A suckler herd on pasture was rated as the best for calf welfare. The main hazards were related to underfeeding, inadequate colostrum intake, poor stockperson education, insufficient space, inadequate roughage, iron deficiency, inadequate ventilation, poor floor conditions and no bedding. Points for improvement of the Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare include linking information, reporting uncertainty and transparency about underlying values. Conclusion The study provides novel information on expert opinion in relation to calf welfare and shows that Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare can benefit from a semantic modelling approach. PMID:18625048

Bracke, Marc BM; Edwards, Sandra A; Engel, Bas; Buist, Willem G; Algers, Bo

2008-01-01

471

45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...date of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be taken and the results...

2013-10-01

472

45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...date of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be taken and the results...

2010-10-01

473

45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...date of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be taken and the results...

2011-10-01

474

45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...date of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be taken and the results...

2012-10-01

475

A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.  

PubMed

New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers. PMID:14746056

Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

2003-12-01

476

Teenage childbearing and welfare: preventive and ameliorative strategies.  

PubMed

The results of seven computer simulations suggest that strategies to prevent teenage childbearing may be more effective in reducing the number of young women who require welfare assistance than are strategies to improve the circumstances of teenagers who have already given birth. The first simulation constitutes a baseline projection, in which current levels and patterns of adolescent childbearing are assumed to continue to 1990. Three "preventive" simulations assume that no births or fewer births occur among teenagers during the projection period; and three "ameliorative" simulations assume that changes occur in the completed family size, marriage rate and educational attainment of teenage childbearers. Compared with the baseline projection, the three preventive strategies are estimated to reduce by 22-48 percent the number of adolescent childbearers who, as 20-24-year-olds in 1990, will be receiving welfare payments; the three ameliorative strategies cause only a 6-12 percent drop. The strategy with the least impact is the education scenario, in which adolescent mothers are assumed to be no more likely to drop out of school than are other comparable teenagers. The primary reason for the surprisingly small effect appears to be the relatively low earnings of women--even when they are high school graduates. All of the experimental scenarios tested, however, bring about at least some reduction in projected government spending for the three major public assistance programs considered (Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid and Food Stamps). PMID:6519240

Moore, K A; Wertheimer, R F

1984-01-01

477

Using Chromosomes to Teach Evolution: Chromosomal Rearrangements in Speciation Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses diagrams to aid in discussing how the English map of the human chromosomes, published by Offner in 1993, can be used to illustrate some important questions in evolution, as well as give students a glimpse into some of the mechanisms underlying evolutionary change. (ZWH)

Offner, Susan

1994-01-01

478

FITNESS BALCONY EQUIPMENT Woodway treadmills  

E-print Network

lbs · Medicine balls and exercise balls · Stretching equipment After entering the RPAC turnstiles C L strength machine cardio machine abs/stretching dumbells A arms B back C chest L legs S shoulders circuit · Abdominal area with exercise and medicine balls CARDIO CANYON EQUIPMENT · Cybex and Woodway

Jones, Michelle

479

Equipment Investment and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the United Nations Comparison Project and the Penn World Table, we find that machinery and equipment investment has a strong association with growth: over 1960-85 each extra percent of GDP invested in equipment is associated with an increase in GDP growth of one third of a percentage point per year. This is a much stronger association than

J. Bradford De Long; Lawrence H. Summers

1991-01-01

480

Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

481

Food Service Equipment. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides information that will help in purchasing the kind of food service equipment most useful in any given facility. Hence, it should be of value to architects, contractors, administrators, dietitians, managers, and others involved in remodeling a facility, replacing equipment, and/or improving the efficiency of food service…

Jernigan, Anna Katherine; Ross, Lynne Nannen

482

Heavy Equipment Mechanic. Instructor Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist heavy equipment instructors in teaching the latest concepts and functions of heavy equipment. It includes 7 sections and 27 instructional units. Sections (and units) are: orientation (shop safety and first aid, hand tools and miscellaneous tools, measuring, basic rigging and hoisting), engines (basic engine…

Hendrix, Laborn J.; And Others

483

45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time... 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2011-10-01

484

45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time... 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2010-10-01

485

45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time... 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2013-10-01

486

45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?  

...of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time... 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2014-10-01

487

45 CFR 286.130 - Does the receipt of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time limit?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Welfare-to-Work (WtW) cash assistance count towards a Tribe's TANF time... 286.130 Section 286.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2012-10-01

488

Chromosome diversity and similarity within the Actinomycetales.  

PubMed

Many chromosomes from Actinomycetales, an order within the Actinobacteria, have been sequenced over the last 10 years and the pace is increasing. This group of Gram-positive and high G+C% bacteria is economically and medically important. However, this group of organisms also is just about the only order in the kingdom Bacteria to have a relatively high proportion of linear chromosomes. Chromosome topology varies within the order according to the genera. Streptomyces, Kitasatospora and Rhodococcus, at least as chromosome sequencing stands at present, have a very high proportion of linear chromosomes, whereas most other genera seem to have circular chromosomes. This review examines chromosome topology across the Actinomycetales and how this affects our concepts of chromosome evolution. PMID:21320158

Kirby, Ralph

2011-06-01

489

Architecture and function of the eukaryotic chromosome  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 8, discusses the architecture and function of the eukaryotic chromosome. The chromosomal architecture is described in detail and related to regulation of gene function and nuclear architecture. 36 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

490

An automated system for chromosome analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, construction, and testing of a complete system to produce karyotypes and chromosome measurement data from human blood samples, and to provide a basis for statistical analysis of quantitative chromosome measurement data are described.

Castleman, K. R.; Melnyk, J. H.

1976-01-01

491

Gallery 31: mys inserted in chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Repetitive DNA can have preferred insertion sites. In this example, yellow represents the distribution of mys (a type of LINE) over a mouse genome where chromosomes are orange. There are more mys inserted in the sex (X) chromosomes.

2009-12-26

492

Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

1995-12-05

493

How to be a mitotic chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper mitotic chromosome structure is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mounting evidence suggests that mitotic\\u000a chromosome assembly is a progressive, dynamic process that requires topoisomerase II, condensins and cohesin and the activity\\u000a of several signalling molecules. Current results suggest how these different activities might interact to achieve the familiar\\u000a form of the mitotic chromosome.

Sandra C. Moser; Jason R. Swedlow

2011-01-01

494

Methods for chromosome-specific staining  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

1995-09-05

495

Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science?  

E-print Network

1 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Sheldon Danziger on the conference draft. #12;2 Welfare Reform Policy From Nixon to Clinton: What Role for Social Science? Social* University of Michigan Revised December 1999 Paper prepared for Conference, "The Social Sciences and Policy

Shyy, Wei

496

Families Struggling To Make It in the Workforce: A Post Welfare Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies of the well-being of families who have left welfare since 1996 leave out families who are not faring well and have been forced to turn to emergency service providers for help. In response to this gap, the Community Monitoring Project (CMP) examined families who had left welfare since 1996 and sought help from 180 local community…

Amey, Cheryl

497

Ideology in the US Welfare Debate: Neo-Liberal Representations of Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the political ideologies underlying the welfare debate in the US. It argues that conservative arguments and rhetoric, that were in the margin of the political debate in the early 1980s, have been naturalized in the mainstream discussion on welfare and poverty in the US. A sample of 11 articles taken from the relatively liberal news magazine Newsweek

Marieke de Goede

1996-01-01

498

The Health, Education and Welfare of Children: Proceedinqs of an Interdisciplinary Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document contains papers from an interdisciplinary seminar on collaboration between medicine, education, and social welfare in the interests of the handicapped child. Section I contains 12 papers focusing on parent involvement; an historical review of treatment; medical, educational, and social welfare viewpoints; viewpoints on the legal…

Cochrane, Kathleen J., Ed.; Andrews, Robert J., Ed.

499

Welfare Systems, Support Networks and Subjective Well-Being among Retired Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article welfare systems and support networks are empirically analyzed to determine which generate the highest level of subjective well-being among retired persons. Propositions derived from support network theories and national welfare system typologies have been analyzed using causal models that indicate the influence of the various…

Requena, Felix

2010-01-01

500

The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services: A Program Description  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quality improvement centers were created by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau beginning in 2001 to promote knowledge development through an innovative approach to applied collaborative research in child welfare. The National Quality Improvement Center on the Privatization of Child Welfare Services was funded to…

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Ensign, Karl; Flaherty, Chris

2008-01-01