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1

Fukushi kiki needs seeds tekigo chosa kenkyu. (Investigational research on welfare equipment needs/seeds adaptation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the advent of the aging society, investigated are images of welfare equipment to be developed. In the range where the use of welfare equipment is to be studied, the following are included: self care, excretion, transfer, and support of work other than ...

1995-01-01

2

1993 nendo fukushi kiki needs seeds tekigo chosa kenkyu hokokusho. (Fiscal 1993 report on investigational research on welfare equipment needs/seeds adaptation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through an investigation on the present status of users of welfare equipment, analyses were conducted of the needs of users and the seeds of industrial technology. As for the environment surrounding the welfare equipment in 2010, described are the present...

1994-01-01

3

Welfare Reform Briefing Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information on the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program in light of efforts at welfare reform. Following a listing of whom to call at the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) regarding various welfare issues, the report's first section, "Basic Facts on Welfare," presents information on the AFDC in a…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

4

Nash social welfare orderings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the problem of description of social welfare orderings (SWOs) on the entire utility (Euclidean) space Rn satisfying Scale Independence. These orderings and the functions representing them are called the Nash social welfare orderings and the Nash social welfare functions (SWFs), respectively. The more properties of the SWOs into consideration are Strong Pareto and two variants of weakening

Natalia Naumova; Elena Yanovskaya

2001-01-01

5

Animal welfare: concepts and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The term “welfare” refers to the state of an individual in relation to its environment, and this can be measured. Both failure to cope with the environment and difficulty in coping are indicators of poor welfare. Suffering and poor welfare often occur together, but welfare can be poor without suffering and welfare should not be defined solely in terms

D. M. Broom

1991-01-01

6

The Assessment Of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter adopts the perspective that welfare is based upon subjective states experienced by the animal, i.e. those equated with emotions and feelings. While current methods do not allow us to access any animal's mental state directly, indirect approaches can be used. One approach attempts to assess the welfare of a cat using behavioural and physiological measures of stress, while

Rachel A. Casey; John W. S. Bradshaw

7

Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996.

Yunju Nam; William Meezan; Sandra K. Danziger

2006-01-01

8

Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

2006-01-01

9

Welfare Policies and Black Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

Trader, Harriet Peat

1979-01-01

10

Animal Welfare and Social Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the standard welfare economics assumption of anthropocentric welfarism, i.e., that only human well-being counts intrinsically. Alternatives where animal welfare matters intrinsically are explored theoretically, based on moral philosophical literature, and empirically where the general public‘s ethical preferences are measured through a survey with a representative sample in Sweden. It is concluded that welfare economics should be generalized

Thomas Aronsson; Olof Johansson-Stenman

2011-01-01

11

Women, Children, and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Who are the targets of welfare reform? How should welfare be reformed? How are the issues of reforming welfare and the national interest in investing in children related, ideologically and strategically? This article sheds light on these questions by discussing the poverty status of female-headed families with children, the impact of public income transfers on reducing the poverty rate of

Martha N. Ozawa

1994-01-01

12

Child Welfare Policy Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

Administration for Children & Families, 2008

2008-01-01

13

Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

14

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

15

Off Welfare, into Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

1991-01-01

16

National Income and Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to appraise from the standpoint of a community's welfare a governmental measure with wide impact, the economist may proceed variously, but almost inevitably he refers to national income data. How such data are to be construed in the appraisal, ho...

A. Bergson

1964-01-01

17

Child Welfare in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

1983-01-01

18

Inflation and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

2000-01-01

19

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

20

Welfare And Macroeconomic Interdependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a baseline model of monetary and fiscal transmission in interdependent economies. The welfare effects of expansionary policies are related to monopolistic supply in production and monopoly power of a country in trade. An unanticipated exchange rate depreciation can be beggar-thyself rather than beggar-thy-neighbor, as gains in domestic output are offset by deteriorating terms of trade. Smaller and more

Giancarlo Corsetti; Paolo Pesenti

2001-01-01

21

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Welfare Information Gateway. (2013). How the child welfare system works. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau. This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when doing so, please credit Child Welfare ...

22

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

23

Social Capital and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines social and economic inequalities in the United Kingdom. Demonstrates how children's welfare and family functioning are crucially dependent upon locally available social support. Argues that building social capital in poor communities is more effective in promoting children's welfare than is present emphasis on formal child-protection and…

Jack, Gordon; Jordan, Bill

1999-01-01

24

Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

Beckman, Carol M.

25

Issues in Rural Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with some of the unique aspects of rural practice in child welfare, such as the interface between juvenile justice agencies and child welfare programs, poverty, and the changing roles (especially economic) of rural women. Demonstrates urban-type programs are often not appropriate in dealing with rural problems. (Author)

Jankovic, Joanne

1981-01-01

26

Chromosome Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature provides a microscopic view of the 24 Human chromosomes. Each chromosome is labeled with the names of some of the genetic conditions and traits associated with particular regions on that chromosome.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

27

Chromosome Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... chromosome has attached to another at the centromere. Inversions: A portion of the chromosome has broken off, ... individual and was not inherited from the parents. Inversions - a portion of the chromosome has broken off, ...

28

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Darryl Leja N:Leja;Darryl ORG:National Human Genome Research Institute REV:2005-04-14 END:VCARD

2005-04-14

29

The Future of Poultry Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contemplating the future of poultry welfare, one must be aware of the current situation in the context of how this issue\\u000a has evolved. From this perspective, one may project forward to identify opportunities for continued advancements and barriers\\u000a that must be negotiated. In this chapter, we will explore the development of poultry welfare as a topic of public concern

Suzanne T. Millman; Joy A. Mench; Anne E. Malleau

30

Sheep Welfare: A Future Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is every indication that animal welfare will continue to be a major issue affecting livestock farming in the future.\\u000a At the same time sheep farming is under pressure worldwide to become a lower-input farming enterprise. The drive to lower\\u000a inputs and, in particular, restrictions on labour could have important implications for animal welfare by reducing levels\\u000a of care and

A. B. Lawrence; J. Conington

31

On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor  

PubMed Central

An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level.

Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

2014-01-01

32

Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.  

PubMed

While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

2013-01-01

33

Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

34

Human Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Representation of the 23 paired chromosomes of the human male. Chromosome: a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism. a. Structure of a chromosome (Typical metaphase chromosome): A chromosome is formed from a single DNA molecule that contains many genes. A chromosomal DNA molecule contains three specific nucleotide sequences which are required for replication: a DNA replication origin; a centromere to attach the DNA to the mitotic spindle.; a telomere located at each end of the linear chromosome. The DNA molecule is highly condensed. The human DNA helix occupy too much space in the cell. Small proteins are responsible for packing the DNA into units called nucleosomes. b. Stained chromosomes: Chromosomes are stained with A-T (G bands) and G-C (R bands) base pair specific dyes. When they are stained, the mitotic chromosomes have a banded structure that unambiguously identifies each chromosome of a karyotype. Each band contains millions of DNA nucleotide pairs which do not correspond to any functional structure. Adapted from K.F. Jorgenson, J.H. van de Sande, and C.C. Lin, Chromosoma 68:287-302, 1978. c. Karyotype of a male: The human haploid genome contains 3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs, divided among twenty two (22) pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence;Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

2005-03-12

35

Welfare Regimes, Welfare Systems and Housing in Southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are housing provision systems in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) different from those in northern Europe? Answering this question requires a way of theorizing housing systems, which locates them within their broader societal contexts. After setting out some of the key empirical differences between northern and southern, the paper reanalyses Esping-Andersen's work on welfare regimes and reviews housing-specific

Judith Allen

2006-01-01

36

Chromosome segregation.  

PubMed

The ability to visualise specific genes and proteins within bacterial cells is revolutionising knowledge of chromosome segregation. The essential elements appear to be the driving force behind DNA replication, which occurs at fixed cellular positions, the condensation of newly replicated DNA by a chromosome condensation machine located at the cell 1/4 and 3/4 positions, and molecular machines that act at midcell to allow chromosome separation after replication and movement of the sister chromosomes away from the division septum prior to cell division. This review attempts to provide a perspective on current views of the bacterial chromosome segregation mechanism and how it relates to other cellular processes. PMID:11731316

Sherratt, D J; Lau, I F; Barre, F X

2001-12-01

37

Welfare traps in Australia: Do they bite?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimising disincentives to employment participation that arise as a consequence of providing welfare has been a major objective of the recent welfare reform agenda in Australia. Of particular concern have been the high effective marginal tax rates (EMTRs) and replacement rates (RRs) facing welfare recipients as a result of the interaction of the tax and benefits system. Based on the

ALFRED M. DOCKERY; RACHEL ONG; GAVIN A. WOOD

38

Barriers to the Employment of Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new survey of a representative sample of single mothers who were welfare recipients in an urban Michigan county, the authors explore how certain employment barriers, often ignored by previous welfare researchers and policy makers, constrain these single mothers' employability. The results the authors present show that welfare recipients in the sample have unusually high levels of some barriers

Sandra K. Danziger; Mary Corcoran; Sheldon Danziger; Colleen M. Heflin; Ariel Kalil; Judith Levine; Daniel Rosen; Kristin S. Seefeldt; Kristine Siefert; Richard M. Tolman

1999-01-01

39

Farm Animal Welfare and Quality Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing empirical evidence suggests that farm animal welfare may not be a top-of-mind issue for many consumers in North America. Nevertheless, there is pressure from animal welfare groups on food retailers and processors to implement more stringent requirements for their suppliers. Is the demand for more stringent animal welfare protocols primarily determined by a subset of consumers with very strong

Adrian D. Uzea; Jill E. Hobbs

2008-01-01

40

Household Welfare and Education in Urban Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the correlates of household welfare in urban Ethiopia with an emphasis on the impact of education. We use household panel data collected between 1994 and 1997. Welfare is approximated by household income. Although non-educated households are found in all income quintiles, education has a significant effect on household welfare. The effect of education is reduced when parental

Karin Kronlid

2001-01-01

41

Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

Horne, Thomas A.

1990-01-01

42

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

43

What Works in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

44

Helping Minor Firms Reduces Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on national welfare of uneven technical progress and eli mination of a firm is analyzed under the existence of a Cournot oligopolistic sector. An increase in the share of an inefficient firm, owing to its innovations, results in a shift of production from more efficient firms to the inefficient firm, causing a less efficie nt allocation of production.

Sajal Lahiri; Yoshiyasu Ono

1988-01-01

45

Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

46

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

47

Data Mining in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

2000-01-01

48

Progressing beyond the Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

1991-01-01

49

Air quality and human welfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

2009-02-01

50

Institutional racism in child welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three reasons are most often provided to explain the persistent overrepresentation of black children in the child welfare system. One, since black families have more risk factors (unemployment, single-parent families, poverty, etc) that cause them to abuse and neglect their children more than white families, the higher representation of blacks is appropriate. Two, since blacks are more highly concentrated among

Robert B. Hill

2004-01-01

51

Purchasing Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates pressure tactics used by salespersons bidding to sell phototypesetting equipment to a university publications operation. Contains a list of 10 recommendations to other small universities entering similar situations. (RL)

Marcello, Lesley Wharton

1981-01-01

52

Aircraft equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex of functionally interconnected instruments and devices for controlling flight, engine operations, electrical systems, communications, and vital systems for passengers and crew is described. The aggregates of the aircraft automatic equipment are also discussed.

1977-01-01

53

Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration  

PubMed Central

Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

Kennan, John; Walker, James R.

2012-01-01

54

Chromosomal Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

55

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

56

Solar Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

1983-01-01

57

Radiographic equipment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns radiographic equipment. The equipment includes a source of substantially mono-energetic fast neutrons produced via the deuterium-tritium or deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions, comprising a sealed-tube or similar generator for producing the neutrons. The equipment further includes a source of X-rays or gamma-rays of sufficient energy to substantially penetrate an object to be imaged and a collimating block surrounding the neutron and gamma-ray sources, apart from the provision of one or more slots emitting substantially fan-shaped radiation beams. Further included is a detector array comprising a multiplicity of individual scintillator pixels to receive radiation energy from the sources and convert the received energy into light pulses, the detector array aligned with the fan-shaped beams emitted from the source collimator and collimated to substantially prevent radiation other than that directly transmitted from the sources reaching the array. Conversion means are included for converting the light pulses produced in the scintillators into electrical signals. Conveying means are included for conveying an object between the sources and the detector array. Computing means are included for determining from the electrical signals the attenuation of the neutrons and the X-ray or gamma-ray beams and to generate output representing the mass distribution and composition of the object interposed between the source and detector array. The equipment further includes a display means for displaying images based on the mass distribution and the composition of the object being scanned.

2007-12-25

58

Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?  

PubMed

We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted. PMID:17668326

Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

2007-01-01

59

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

60

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.  

PubMed

The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

2014-04-01

61

Farm-Animal Welfare, Legislation, and Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US has among the weakest farm-animal-welfare standards in the developed world. Although improvements in farm-animal welfare are economically feasible, nations and states enacting protective regulation are threatened by competition with cheaper, non-compliant imports. Although recognition in trade agreements and restrictions on sale could help to protect animal welfare, they may rarely be politically feasible. Campaigns directed at consumers and

Gaverick Matheny; Cheryl Leahy

2007-01-01

62

Child Welfare Workers: Who They Are and How They View the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the characteristics of child welfare caseworkers, their views of the child welfare system, their clients, their agency of employment, and child welfare policies, and whether these views vary according to caseworkers' characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with…

Zell, Maristela C.

2006-01-01

63

Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and

D. Bowles; R. Paskin; M. Gutiérrez; A. Kasterine

64

Welfare Transitions in the 1990s: The Economy, Welfare Policy, and the EITC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid decline in the welfare caseload remains a subject of keen interest to both policymakers and researchers. In this paper, I use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation spanning the period from 1986 to 1999 to analyze how the economy, welfare reform, the earned income tax credit (EITC), and other factors influence welfare

Grogger, Jeffrey

2004-01-01

65

Breaking the cycle? The effect of education on welfare receipt among children of welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the impact of high school graduation on the probability individuals from welfare backgrounds use welfare themselves. Our data consist of administrative educational records for grade 12 students in a Canadian province linked with their own and their parents' welfare records. We address potential endogeneity problems by: 1) controlling for ability using past test scores; 2) using an instrument

Michael B. Coelli; David A. Green; William P. Warburton

2007-01-01

66

Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

67

[Ten years of the Veterinary Association for Animal Welfare (TVT)].  

PubMed

The Veterinary Association for Animal Welfare was founded in 1985. Within ten specialised working groups scientists, practitioners and veterinary officers prepare answers to actual welfare problems for legislation, administration, and welfare organisations and offer seminars and training programms. PMID:8720794

Goldhorn, W

1996-02-01

68

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant...to the protection of human subjects; and ...Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2010-10-01

69

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant...to the protection of human subjects; and ...Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2009-10-01

70

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...to the protection of human subjects; and ...2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2009-10-01

71

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...to the protection of human subjects; and ...2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2010-10-01

72

Chromosome Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancem...

1998-01-01

73

A history of animal welfare science.  

PubMed

Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made. PMID:21347723

Broom, Donald M

2011-06-01

74

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

75

Mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

Mining equipment for steering the cutting horizon of a mining machine cutter which is mounted on a ranging arm and which in use makes repeated traverses along the working face, comprises a boom urged into contact with the mine roof formed on a previous traverse of the machine. The boom is urged towards the mine roof by a ram hydraulically connected to a piston and cylinder device such that movement of the piston of the device is in accordance with that of the ram. Movement of the piston rod activates a flow control valve controlling operation of a ram controlling ranging of the arm.

Ford, J.A.; Whittaker, R.A.

1985-07-30

76

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

77

EQUIPping Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many years, publications such as the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and The Science Teacher (TST) have encouraged teachers to focus science classes more heavily on inquiry-based instructional practice. One way to improve our teaching practice is to use a benchmark assessment to obtain a solid point of reference that honestly reflects what we do in the classroom, and then to design a developmental plan to raise the level of performance. The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) is helpful in providing both a benchmark and a guide to improving the quality of inquiry implemented in our classrooms.

White, Chris; Marshall, Jeff; Horton, Robert

2009-04-01

78

Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

2009-01-01

79

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

80

Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

81

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

82

Towards a Logic of Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formal logic of social welfare functions. The logical language is syntactically simple, but expressive enough to express interesting and complicated properties of social welfare functions involving, e.g., quan- tification over both preference relations and over individual alternatives, such as Arrow's thorem.

Thomas Ågotnes; Wiebe van der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2006-01-01

83

Welfare Effects of Global Patent Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a simple model of invention and patent protection to examine the welfare effects of extending patent protection from the country where invention takes place to another country that is only a consumer of invented products. It is shown that, while the welfare of the inventing country certainly rises with the extension of patent protection, that of the

Alan V Deardorff

1992-01-01

84

Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

Hjerm, Mikael

2005-01-01

85

Animal Welfare in organic framing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to organic standards. The Freedom from thermal and physical discomfort is challenged as organic

Hans AM Spoolder

2007-01-01

86

The World Veterinary Association and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The World Veterinary Association, as the global representative of the veterinary profession, recognises the global influences on animal welfare and the changing role of the veterinarian in response to the changing attitudes of the human population. While urban populations are now dictating animal welfare standards, many practices still have a cultural and even religious basis. Veterinarians recognise these influences,

J. D. Edwards; H. P. Schneider

87

Designing animal welfare policies and monitoring progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single solution to promote higher animal welfare across the whole EU is unlikely due to significant regional differences and because what is most appropriate for each region depends on many factors. Based on analyses of eight member and candidate EU countries, this paper provides a conceptual framework, an 'animal welfare roadmap', which can be used to assess the stage

L. J. Keeling; V. M. Immink; C. Hubbard; G. Garrod; S. Edwards; P. T. M. Ingenbleek

2012-01-01

88

European agricultural policy and farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a neglected aspect of food policy: the impact of agricultural policy on farm animal welfare. Defining farm animal welfare is difficult but some general standards are now widely accepted and the determinants of these are increasingly seen as being tied up with farm structural and enterprise characteristics. In Europe both of these are heavily influenced by the

M. Winter; C. Fry; S. P. Carruthers

1998-01-01

89

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

90

Finding and Keeping Child Welfare Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administrators in public human services are constantly involved in the exhausting challenge of recruiting and training staff in the child welfare arena. This article describes a program that the Commonwealth of Kentucky developed in order to address the recruitment and retention issue. The Public Child Welfare Certification Program is a special multi-university preparation program designed to recruit excellent workers from

Stephen R. Fox; Viola P. Miller; Anita P. Barbee

2003-01-01

91

AID and the Single Welfare Mother.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Debates the issue of voluntary artificial insemination among single women who depend on public assistance. Ooms argues that eligibility for welfare should be based on court defined criteria rather than on moral judgments, while Steinfels suggests that the welfare of the child is most important in any consideration. (Author/AOS)

Ooms, Theodora; Steinfels, Margaret O'Brien

1983-01-01

92

Self-rated economic welfare in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of those Russian adults who feel that they are poor are not classified as such in the poverty statistics, and most of those who are classified as poor don't feel that way. We study the determinants of peoples’ perceptions of their economic welfare in an unusually rich socioeconomic survey. While income is a highly significant predictor, subjective economic welfare

Martin Ravallion; Michael Lokshin

2002-01-01

93

Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2009-01-01

94

The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

2008-01-01

95

Children's welfare exposure and subsequent development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the extent to which children are exposed to the welfare system through their mother's receipt of benefits and its impact on several developmental outcomes. Using data from the matched mother–child file from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we find that children's welfare exposure is substantial. By age 10, over one-third of all children will have lived

Phillip B. Levine; David J. Zimmerman

2005-01-01

96

Chemically exposed children: The child welfare response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child Welfare Agencies, especially in urban areas, are confronted with multiple problems as they attempt to deal with the complex needs of chemically dependent families. Maternal chemical use places children at an elevated risk of placement and other negative events. This article critiques research on incidence and consequence of maternal chemical use and suggests strategies Child Welfare Agencies can employ

Nora S. Gustavsson

1991-01-01

97

Children's Welfare Exposure and Subsequent Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the extent to which children are exposed to the welfare system through their mother's receipt of benefits and its impact on several developmental outcomes. Using data from the matched mother-child file from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), we find that children's welfare exposure is substantial. By age 10 over one-third of all children will have lived

Phillip B. Levine; David J. Zimmerman

2000-01-01

98

German Children's Welfare Between Economy and Ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to present selected dimensions of child welfare in contemporary Germany. The study's argumentation does not apply descriptive logic, but rather an explicitly analytical perspective. The central thesis is that the welfare and well-being of children in Germany are influenced to a high extent by a clear discrepancy between children's real forms of living (and

Karin Jurczyk; Thomas Olk; Helga Zeiher

99

Effects of Housing Vouchers on Welfare Families.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the HUD Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1999, the Congress enacted the Welfare to Work Voucher Program. This demonstration program funded approximately 50,000 housing vouchers for families receiving or eligible to receive welfare. In the Act, the Co...

D. Gubits D. Long G. Mills J. Feins L. Orr

2006-01-01

100

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

101

Kinship Caregivers and the Child Welfare System  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 - What to Expect From the Child Welfare System 4 - Services 5 - Involvement of the Courts 6 - Permanent Families for the Children 7 - Conclusion and Resources You are in section: next This material may be freely reproduced and distributed. However, when doing so, please credit Child Welfare ...

102

Helping Families Transition from Welfare to Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extension program, Building Nebraska Families, works with Employment First families, Nebraska's welfare reform program, to teach family management and life skills using an individualized, flexible curriculum to help families make successful transitions from welfare to work. Evaluation strategies include an entry/exit behavior checklist and…

Thayer, Carol E.; Fox, Marilyn; Koszewski, Wanda

2002-01-01

103

CHROMOSOME MICROMANIPULATION  

PubMed Central

Kinetochore reorientation is the critical process ensuring normal chromosome distribution. Reorientation has been studied in living grasshopper spermatocytes, in which bivalents with both chromosomes oriented to the same pole (unipolar orientation) occur but are unstable: sooner or later one chromosome reorients, the stable, bipolar orientation results, and normal anaphase segregation to opposite poles follows. One possible source of stability in bipolar orientations is the normal spindle forces toward opposite poles, which slightly stretch the bivalent. This tension is lacking in unipolar orientations because all the chromosomal spindle fibers and spindle forces are directed toward one pole. The possible role of tension has been tested directly by micromanipulation of bivalents in unipolar orientation to artificially create the missing tension. Without exception, such bivalents never reorient before the tension is released; a total time "under tension" of over 5 hr has been accumulated in experiments on eight bivalents in eight cells. In control experiments these same bivalents reoriented from a unipolar orientation within 16 min, on the average, in the absence of tension. Controlled reorientation and chromosome segregation can be explained from the results of these and related experiments.

Nicklas, R. Bruce; Koch, Carol A.

1969-01-01

104

An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.  

PubMed

Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

2013-01-01

105

International Fund for Animal Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few years, a finely nuanced sensibility about the shared interests and coexistence of human and animals has emerged as a number of international organizations have begun work and advocacy efforts in this area. The work of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) began three decades ago when a group of individuals decided to come together to stop a hunt for white-coat harp seals on the eastern coast of Canada. Since that time, the IFAW has expanded its work across the world, and this site affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the organization's work, read its annual reports from the past several years, and find out more about its different campaigns across different regions. Visitors can click on different parts of an interactive world map to look at this information or browse a list of animals in the "Save Animals" section of the site.

106

Implementing Welfare Reform: Solutions to the Substance Abuse Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing welfare reform will require difficult decisions from states about how to treat welfare clients who have problems with alcohol or other drugs (AOD). The processes by which states may respond to welfare reform are detailed in this guidebook. It is suggested that states begin with values clarification regarding welfare clients who abuse…

Young, Nancy K.; Gardner, Sidney L.

107

Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses questions concerning the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, offering updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. Chapter 1, "Introduction," reviews specific summary measures of welfare dependence proposed by…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

108

Distributive Justice and Attitudes Toward the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates concerning the viability of the welfare state evoke the question of the social bases of support of the welfare state. Past research has documented fairly consistent relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward welfare policies. Yet, the nature of these relationships is not well understood. In the paper we argue that the level of support for the welfare

Noah Lewin-Epstein; Amit Kaplan; Asaf Levanon

2003-01-01

109

A Look at Child Welfare from a Homeless Education Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although navigating the child welfare system can be daunting for those working in the field of homeless education, local liaisons and others must determine whether children in the child welfare system are eligible for McKinney-Vento services and collaborate with child welfare staff. This document provides an overview of the U.S. child welfare

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

2007-01-01

110

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

111

Child Protective Intervention in the Context of Welfare Reform: The Effects of Work and Welfare on Maltreatment Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent changes in welfare policy have produced changes in parental work and welfare receipt. These factors are assessed in relation to investigated reports of child abuse and neglect using survey data on 1998 welfare recipients in nine Illinois counties, in conjunction with longitudinal administrative data on cash welfare benefits, employment, and…

Slack, Kristen Shook; Holl, Jane L.; Lee, Bong Joo; McDaniel, Marla; Altenbernd, Lisa; Stevens, Amy Bush

2003-01-01

112

Does growing up with parents on welfare affect children's future welfare benefit receipt? - Evidence from a sibling comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the project is to investigate if the risk of being a recipient of welfare benefits is higher for children that grow up with parents on welfare. There are several possible reasons for why this may be the case: First, the welfare receipt of the parents may be correlated with other factors, which also affect the future welfare

Karin Edmark; Kajsa Johansson

113

Department of Agriculture's Animal Welfare Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the Animal Welfare Act, the Department of Agriculture inspects sites that handle certain warm-blooded animals to ensure their humane care and treatment. GAO obtained information in six states on (1) training and guidance given to Agriculture's inspe...

1985-01-01

114

The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

Plattner, Marc F.

1979-01-01

115

Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.  

PubMed

Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation. PMID:16358508

Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

2005-08-01

116

Animal welfare training at the Ontario Veterinary College.  

PubMed

The University of Guelph is internationally recognized as a leader in animal welfare and is home to the Colonel K.L. Campbell Centre for the Study of Animal Welfare and to numerous faculty with expertise in the discipline. However, while animal welfare receives significant attention within the agricultural college, its didactic teaching within the veterinary curriculum has been limited. Veterinary students receive four hours of instruction in animal ethics and apply their knowledge within the communication lectures and laboratories, totaling 11-15 hrs. Compulsory coursework explicitly addressing factual components of animal welfare science, welfare assessment, and associated animal-related policy constitute only 12 hrs throughout the four-year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine curriculum. However, an elective final-year clinical rotation and a graduate course specific to animal welfare were offered for the first time in 2004/2005. Student interest in animal welfare is evident through their participation in summer research projects in animal welfare, an animal welfare mentor group, and a student-run animal welfare club that organizes an Animal Welfare Forum each October. Veterinarians have important contributions to make in decision making about animal welfare issues, at clinician and policy levels. Although motivated individuals can seek out opportunities to expand their knowledge of animal welfare, a compulsory senior-level course in animal welfare is needed to develop the necessary depth of understanding of this discipline if veterinarians, as a profession, are to meet society's expectations about animal welfare. PMID:16421826

Millman, Suzanne T; Adams, Cindy L; Turner, Patricia V

2005-01-01

117

Welfare reforms, family resources, and child maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated maltreatment-physical abuse and neglect-and the number of children living in out-of-home

Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

2003-01-01

118

Inflation and Welfare in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows Bailey (J Polit Econ 64:93–110, 1956) and Lucas (Econometrica 68:247–274, 2000) and estimates the welfare cost of inflation for 17 Latin American economies. We use annual data, from 1955 to 2000, and\\u000a recent advances in the field of applied econometrics to estimate the inflation rate elasticity of money demand and report\\u000a significantly high and differential welfare cost

Kazem Yavari; Apostolos Serletis

2011-01-01

119

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

120

Chromosome Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

1998-01-01

121

Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted\\/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals were recorded using a purpose-built telemetry-logging system, small enough to be worn by each bird in a spandex backpack. The birds

A. M. L. Coenen; J. A. C. Lankhaar; J. C. Lowe; D. E. F. McKeegan

2009-01-01

122

Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

2010-01-01

123

Aquatic Equipment Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

Sova, Ruth

124

Chromosomes and cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two prominent features of cancer cells are abnormal numbers of chromosomes (aneuploidy) and large-scale structural rearrangements\\u000a of chromosomes. These chromosome aberrations are caused by genomic instabilities inherent to most cancers. Aneuploidy arises\\u000a through chromosomal instability (CIN) by the persistent loss and gain of whole chromosomes. Chromosomal rearrangements occur\\u000a through chromosome structure instability (CSI) as a consequence of improper repair of

Sarah L. Thompson; Duane A. Compton

2011-01-01

125

WHY PAY FOR WELFARE? A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF REASONS FOR WELFARE SOLmARITYl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fear of a welfare state 1egitimacy crisis due to decreasing popular support bas been expressed by various authors since the 1970s. The early concerned prophets included Illich (1973) and Lasch (1978), who worried about the detri- mental effects of the increasingly bureaucratic and statist aspects of welfare. From a political economy perspective, Rose and Peters (1978) c1aimed that sup-

WIM VAN OORSCHOT

126

Welfare to Wages: Strategies To Assist the Private Sector To Employ Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report explores how private sector employers are reacting to, responding to, and participating in welfare-to-work (WTW) efforts. Chapter 1 explains the study background and approach. Chapter 2 examines the environment, perspectives, experiences, and role of business in the WTW process and presents findings about employment patterns of welfare

Roberts, Brandon; Padden, Jeffrey D.

127

Social Welfare Problems of the Navajo Nation; A Perceptual Study of Social Welfare Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were, first, to identify the ways Navajos have historically met their needs, pointing out ways in which American society has dealt with their social welfare problems, and second, to determine to what extent present day social welfare services have met these needs. The study population consisted of 112 Navajo workers from…

Roanhorse, Evelyn Sharl

128

Methamphetamine and the Changing Face of Child Welfare: Practice Principles for Child Welfare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child…

Connell-Carrick, Kelli

2007-01-01

129

Welfare Monitoring Schemes: Using Research to Safeguard Welfare of Animals on the Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of nonhuman animal welfare monitoring schemes for animals on the farm in Australia and in other countries. Although the majority of such schemes are voluntary rather than legislated, some are nevertheless enforced through a number of customer requirements that industries must meet to gain access to markets. Animal welfare monitoring schemes rely on a number of

John L. Barnett; Paul H. Hemsworth

2009-01-01

130

Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

2006-01-01

131

An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

2013-01-01

132

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

133

Engaging Parents in Child Welfare Services: Bridging Family Needs and Child Welfare Mandates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls for expanded use of tested child mental health interventions in child welfare practice add new urgency to the longstanding question of how to enhance parent engagement in child welfare services, where low and uneven levels of engagement are pervasive, and services to parents and children tend to be separated, leaving important opportunities…

Kemp, Susan P.; Marcenko, Maureen O.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Vesneski, William

2009-01-01

134

Chromosome banding in amphibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin on the chromosomes of Triturus a. alpestris, T. v. vulgaris and T. h. helveticus (Amphibia, Urodela) was investigated. Sex-specific chromosomes were determined in the karyotypes of T. a. alpestris (chromosomes 4) and T. v. vulgaris (chromosomes 5). The male animals have one heteromorphic chromosome pair, of which only one homologue displays heterochromatic telomeres in the

M. Schmid; J. Olert; Christine Klett

1979-01-01

135

Selection of equipment for equipment qualification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the methodology applied in selecting equipment in the special safety systems for equipment qualification in the CANDU 600 MW nuclear generating stations at Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau. Included is an explanation of the selection pro...

K. G. Torr

1989-01-01

136

Demand feeding and welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Following the development of demand-feeding systems, many experiments have been conducted to explore feeding motivation and feed intake in farmed fish. This work aims to review a selection of studies in the field, focusing on three key factors, related to demand feeding and fish welfare. Firstly, we outline how demand feeders should be considered when developing feed management strategies for improving welfare in production conditions. Secondly, via laboratory demand-feeding experiments, we show self-feeding activities depend not only on feeding motivation and social organisation, but also on individual learning capacity and risk-taking behaviour. Thirdly, we report encouraging results demonstrating that when presented with two or more self-feeders containing complementary foods, fish select a diet according to their specific nutritional requirements, suggesting that demand feeders could be used to improve welfare by allowing fish to meet their nutritional needs. PMID:21728053

Attia, Joël; Millot, Sandie; Di-Poï, Carole; Bégout, Marie-Laure; Noble, Chris; Sanchez-Vazquez, F Javier; Terova, Genciana; Saroglia, Marco; Damsgård, Børge

2012-02-01

137

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare....

2013-10-01

138

Drug Testing in Child Welfare: Practice and Policy Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to guide child welfare agency policymakers in developing practice and policy protocols regarding the use of drug testing in child welfare practice. This guidance describes the practice and policy issues that policymakers must ...

N. K. Young

2010-01-01

139

Study of Preprofessionals in the Child Welfare Field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of preprofessionals in the child welfare field is divided into 2 sections: (1) occupational mobility and child welfare workers, which explores the high rate of turnover within the social work profession and (2) professional training and the chil...

D. Shapiro

1973-01-01

140

Nash Social Welfare in Multiagent Resource Allocation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness considerations. We show that the problem of finding an optimal outcome is NP-hard for a number of different languages for representing agent preferences; we establish new results regarding convergence to Nash-optimal outcomes in a distributed negotiation framework; and we design and test algorithms similar to those applied in combinatorial auctions for computing such an outcome directly.

Ramezani, Sara; Endriss, Ulle

141

Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.  

PubMed

The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made. PMID:19064447

D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

2008-01-01

142

Research Equipment Funding  

NSF Publications Database

RESEARCH EQUIPMENT FUNDING CHEMICAL & TRANSPORT SYSTEMS DIVISION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION The ... for significant research equipment expenditures through the Major Research Instrumentation Program ...

143

Chimpanzee Chromosome 12 Is Homologous to Human Chromosome 2Q.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the 46 human chromosomes find their counterparts in the 48 chimpanzee chromosomes except for chromosome 2 which has been hypothesized to have been derived from a centric fusion of two chimpanzee acrocentric chromosomes. These two chromosomes corre...

N. C. Sun C. R. Y. Sun T. Ho

1977-01-01

144

Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

145

Considering the Consequences of Child Welfare Service Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following commentary serves as a response to the article, “That Wall is Around My Heart,” underscoring the importance of decision making in child welfare services. The commentary supports the need for child welfare systems to carefully consider the long-term consequences of various service intervention strategies. Child welfare systems must attend to both the internal external elements of safety, giving

Vincent J. Geremia

2011-01-01

146

Toward a New Vision for Child Welfare in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the major themes that have emerged in this special issue on child welfare in Canada, and presents a critique of the policies and practices now dominating the Canadian child welfare enterprise. Outlines the changes required to move child welfare from its residual stance into an enterprise that develops a capacity for innovative practice.…

Wharf, Brian

1995-01-01

147

State Child Welfare Program Self-Assessment Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a systematic method for administrators and child welfare specialists to assess a child welfare service delivery system. The management of child welfare programs is considered within the framework of five management functions: planning, resource development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The manual contains seven…

Sundel, Martin; And Others

148

Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

1995-01-01

149

After the Revolution: Welfare Patterns since TANF Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Welfare programs changed dramatically in 1996. Caseloads dropped by more than 9 million recipients over an eight-year period, and millions entered the labor market in the wake of these changes. Since the start of the "welfare revolution," research has emerged to document the new ways former welfare recipients are using federal entitlement programs…

Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.; Wu, Chi-Fang

2005-01-01

150

Does it pay to move from welfare to work?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act requires welfare recipients to look for work and has made it more difficult for nonworking recipients to remain on the welfare rolls. In addition, the economic boom of the 1990s and changes in federal and state policies have raised the net income gain associated with moving from welfare to work. This

Sheldon Danziger; Colleen M. Heflin; Mary E. Corcoran; Elizabeth Oltmans; Hui-Chen Wang

2002-01-01

151

PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO ENSURE ANIMAL WELFARE ON FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although animal welfare can be defined in terms of animals' feelings, determining how this is manifested on farms relies on professional judgement. Various guidelines, both general and specific have been developed that provide direction on ensuring good animal welfare on farms. To achieve this, managers must demonstrate that they place a high value on animal welfare through their practices. These

Harold Gonyou

2005-01-01

152

Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has

H. J. Blokhuis; E. D. Ekkel; S. M. Korte; H. Hopster; C. G. van Reenen

2000-01-01

153

Outlining a Conception of Animal Welfare for Organic Farming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of animal welfare refersto the animal's quality of life. The choice ofdefinition always reflects some basicvaluation. This makes a particular conceptionof welfare value-dependent. Also, the animalhusbandry system reflects certain values oraims. The values reflected in the chosenconception of animal welfare ought tocorrespond to values aimed for in the husbandrysystem. The IFOAM Basic Standards and otherwritings dealing with organic

Vonne Lund; Helena Röcklinsberg

2001-01-01

154

Food safety and environmental issues in animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Food safety, protection of the environment and animal welfare are three concerns consumers have about modern food production systems. Standards dealing with these three issues can be in conflict, and finding ways to reduce this conflict is essential as international standards governing animal welfare develop. These conflicts can be reduced if flexible animal welfare standards are animal-based and attempt

J. Rushen

2005-01-01

155

The Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing and School Instability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies on the housing outcomes of welfare recipients to examine the potential influence of welfare reform on housing instability, which influences school instability. State studies suggest that welfare reform has increased rates of family mobility, evictions, and sharing housing. Limited research suggests that housing instability and…

Nichols, Laura; Gault, Barbara

2003-01-01

156

WRP: Final Report on Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation was conducted of Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP), one of the earliest statewide welfare reform programs designed to increase work and reduce reliance on welfare. To assess the difference WRP made, parents applying for or receiving cash assistance in Vermont from July 1994 to December 1996 were assigned randomly to one…

Scrivener, Susan; Hendra, Richard; Redcross, Cindy; Bloom, Dan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Walter, Johanna

157

Social Welfare Maximization in Transmission Enhancement Considering Network Congestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission enhancement in a competitive electricity market is analyzed in terms of its impact on the social welfare. A formulation of social welfare and the utility functions are derived in this research. Variations of supply and demand during a year are considered in transmission enhancement decisions. The proposed social welfare optimization problem is solved to determine the transmission congestion status

Hongrui Liu; Yanfang Shen; Zelda B. Zabinsky; Chen-Ching Liu; Alan Courts; Sung-Kwan Joo

2008-01-01

158

Welfare to Temporary Work: Implications for Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the effects of temporary help employment on welfare recipients' subsequent employment and welfare dynamics. We find that any employment-in temporary help services or other sectors-yields substantial benefits compared to no employment. Although welfare recipients who go to work for temporary help service firms have lower initial wages than those with jobs in other sectors, they experience faster subsequent

Carolyn J. Heinrich; Peter R. Mueser; Kenneth R. Troske

2005-01-01

159

Collocation: Integrating Child Welfare and Substance Abuse Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents findings from a process evaluation of a pilot program to address parental substance abuse in the child welfare system. By placing substance abuse counselors in a local child welfare office, the collocation program was designed to facilitate early identification, timely referral to treatment, and improved treatment engagement of substance-abusing parents. Frontline child welfare workers in 6 of

Eunju Lee; Nina Esaki; Rose Greene

2009-01-01

160

Lorenz non-consistent welfare and inequality measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical welfare and inequality measures are required to be Lorenz consistent which guarantees that inequality decreases and welfare increases as a result of a progressive transfer. We explore the implications for welfare and inequality measurement of substituting the weaker absolute differentials and deprivation quasi-orderings for the Lorenz quasi-ordering. Restricting attention to distributions of equal means, we show that the utilitarian

Alain Chateauneuf; Patrick Moyes

2005-01-01

161

Medicaid For Children: Federal Mandates, Welfare Reform, And Policy Backsliding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 federal welfare reform law delinked Medicaid enrollment from welfare participation. This paper estimates the impact of welfare reform on children's Medicaid enrollment using a methodology that both adjusts for in- come and other demographic differences over time and across states, and provides income-specific estimates of enrollment. The results indicate large enrollment declines: Between 1995 and 1998, enrollment probabilities

Karl Kronebusch

2001-01-01

162

Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare

Wilson, Rick

163

Protocols in Child Welfare: An Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of protocols, which are concise, written descriptions of preferred practice principles and procedures to be used by child welfare workers to ameliorate situations where mistakes or omissions may have serious consequences. Explains a procedure for development of protocols and presents an example. (NH)

Horejsi, Charles; And Others

1987-01-01

164

Public Guardians and Welfare Services in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project is to explore and report upon the protection of adults by county Offices of Public Guardian in California and the role of county welfare departments in relationship to these Offices. Offices of Public Guardian are admi...

M. McKeany H. B. Taylor

1970-01-01

165

Finance and Welfare States in Globalizing Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is theoretically clear and may be verified empirically that efficient financial markets can make it less necessary for policy to try and offset the welfare effects of labour income risk and unequal consumption dynamics. The literature has also pointed out that, since international competition exposes workers to new sources of risk at the same time as it makes it

Giuseppe Bertola

2007-01-01

166

Farm animal welfare and food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation has been the main policy approach for protecting the welfare of farm animals. The use of legislation raises issues such as whose preferences the legislation reflects and whether the preferences of some people in society should constrain the food consumption choices of others. The paper outlines a survey in Great Britain which sought to measure people's willingness to pay

R. M. Bennett

1997-01-01

167

Team Leader; Refugee Welfare Field Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preparatory manual is one of a series produced by the Refugee Welfare Training Team in Qui Nhon, Binh-Dinh Province, Vietnam, for use in training teams of government personnel to work with refugees. The purpose was to improve living conditions, overcome lethargy and despair, develop a community structure, engage group action, and prepare for…

Neal, Thomas

168

Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Laboratory Animal Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sixth supplement to a selective annotated bibliography concerns laboratory welfare animal issued in January 1984, Specialized Bibliography Series No. 1984-1. The first supplement was issued in January 1985, SBS No. 1985-1; the second in January 1986, ...

F. P. Gluckstein

1989-01-01

169

Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 2000, from October 1, ...

2001-01-01

170

Animal Welfare Report Fiscal Year 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 1999, from October 1, ...

2000-01-01

171

Welfare Reform: Implications for the Black Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The centerpiece of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA) is the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Act, which directs states to provide a broad range of educational, training, and employment services. FSA offers states an opportunity to design humane and effective programs to assist welfare recipients to move out of poverty. FSA also has…

McLaughlin, Megan E.

172

Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

173

Barriers to the Employment of Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic reductions in welfare caseloads since passage of the Personal Responsibility and WorkOpportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 have not allayed policy concerns about the employability of recipients remaining on the rolls. Analysis of potential barriers to employment can address whether current recipients have problems that either singly or in combination make it difficult for them to comply with the new

Sandra Danziger; Mary Corcoran; Sheldon Danziger; Colleen Heflin; Ariel Kalil; Judith Levine; Daniel Rosen; Kristin Seefeldt; Kristine Siefert; Richard Tolman

174

Partnership in Mental Health and Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent

Rosemary Sheehan

2005-01-01

175

Multiple-Father Families and Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

2012-01-01

176

Welfare: Indicators of Dependency. Policy Information Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to assemble data on the trends that are favorable or unfavorable to independence from welfare. Twelve such conditions are examined in this report, and they are summarized in table form, with an indication of the direction of the trend and comments. The information is also summarized in narrative form to give an idea of what…

Barton, Paul E.

177

Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OIE Welfare Standards on slaughter transport, and killing of animals for disease control are basic minimum standards that every country should follow. The OIE, European Union, and many private standards used by commercial industry have an emphasis on animal based outcome standards instead of engineering based standards. Numerical scoring is used by both private industry and some governments to

Temple Grandin

2010-01-01

178

European approaches to ensure good animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventions to protect domestic animals during transport, farming and slaughter were established by the Council of Europe and approved by many European states. Conventions are followed by recommendations that specify how the general principles of conventions apply for the different species. The European Union (EU) started discussions on animal welfare in the 1980s and adopted a series of Directives to

Isabelle Veissier; Andrew Butterworth; Bettina Bock; Emma Roe

2008-01-01

179

Assuring the welfare of food animals.  

PubMed

There is a plethora of schemes for assuring the welfare of food animals but, with each having different standards and with incomplete coverage of all livestock sectors, consumers are confused about what they all mean. A debate at this year's BVA Congress highlighted the problem, and considered how it might be addressed at a farm and consumer level. Laura Honey reports. PMID:24337085

Honey, Laura

2013-12-14

180

Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents comparative qualitative and quantitative evidence from rural Kenya and Madagascar in an attempt to untangle the causality behind persistent poverty. We find striking differences in welfare dynamics depending on whether one uses total income, including stochastic terms and inevitable measurement error, or the predictable, structural component of income based on a household's asset holdings. Our results suggest

Christopher B. Barrett; Paswel Phiri Marenya; John Mcpeak; Bart Minten; Festus Murithi; Willis Oluoch-Kosura; Jean Claude Randrianarisoa; Jhon Rasambainarivo; Justine Wangila

2006-01-01

181

Price perceptions, merchant incentives, and consumer welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the research demonstrating the consumer's erroneous and unfounded perceptions of prices, which can have severe negative consequences on consumer welfare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review paper of previous research on the price\\/quality relationship and the effects of advertised reference price on consumer's price acceptance. Findings – The major findings

Donald R. Lichtenstein

2005-01-01

182

Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

2011-01-01

183

Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

2008-01-01

184

Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

Ong, Paul M.

2002-01-01

185

European Imperatives and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of social policy within the context of the European Union has mostly been analysed from a supranational view. This thesis will assess the impact of European integration on national welfare state and thus will analyse how the supranational institution affects the social policies of member states. This thesis will discuss the impact of European integration, and more specifically

Patrik Marier

1997-01-01

186

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

187

Welfare effects of congestion pricing in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the Singapore Area License Scheme. Changes in scheduling and choices of transportation mode by commuters are discussed. Although the toll is shown to reduce travel times for many commuters, many commuters are shown to incur scheduling costs as a result of the toll. Using estimated parameters of an indirect utility function, welfare functions are computed to compare

Paul W. Wilson

1988-01-01

188

Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

2009-01-01

189

Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

190

Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

2000-01-01

191

The Effects of a Time-Limited Welfare Program on Children: The Moderating Role of Parents' Risk of Welfare Dependency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined effects of time-limited welfare on children ages 5- to 17-years at a 4-year follow-up. Found that effects were moderated by families' risk of long-term welfare dependency. Found few effects for children of parents most likely to reach the welfare time limit. Found consistent negative effects for children of parents with the largest…

Morris, Pamela; Bloom, Dan; Kemple, James; Hendra, Richard

2003-01-01

192

Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point\\u000a of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby\\u000a maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the\\u000a loss of the coping ability and,

Helmut Segner; Henrik Sundh; Kurt Buchmann; Jessica Douxfils; Kristina Snuttan Sundell; Cédric Mathieu; Neil Ruane; Hilde Toften; Lloyd Vaughan

193

What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

Webster, A. J. F.

1998-06-01

194

Human chromosome 8.  

PubMed Central

The role of human chromosome 8 in genetic disease together with the current status of the genetic linkage map for this chromosome is reviewed. Both hereditary genetic disease attributed to mutant alleles at gene loci on chromosome 8 and neoplastic disease owing to somatic mutation, particularly chromosomal translocations, are discussed.

Wood, S

1988-01-01

195

Chromosome Positioning in Spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Similar to interphase chromosomes, mammalian supercompact and genetically inactive sperm chromatin is arranged in non-overlapping\\u000a chromosome territories. Recent works demonstrate that chromosome territories in sperm have defined and nonrandom intranuclear\\u000a positioning. It is hypothesized that preferred localization of chromosomes in sperm together with well-organized chromosome\\u000a architecture provide epigenetic signature to genome, which might be important at fertilization and early development.

Andrei Zalensky; Olga Mudrak; Irina Zalenskaya

196

B-chromosome evolution.  

PubMed Central

B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes.

Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

2000-01-01

197

Child welfare worker caseload: what's just right?  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods were used.The mixed methods included focus group sessions involving 60 Children, Youth and Families (CYF) workers, analysis of more than 16,000 CYF cases maintained by the CYF information management system, and job shadowing of 34 randomly selected CYF workers for an aggregate of 5,600 work hours. The study was conducted on the CYF located in Pittsburgh. Results indicated that, on average, some CYF workers had been assigned twice as many cases as the 16 to 17 per month suggested as reasonable by the present findings. PMID:19780466

Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

2009-10-01

198

The Impact of Disease on Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Welfare is usually defined in terms either of an animal’s ability to cope (Broom, 1986) or of health and behavioural needs.\\u000a Indeed the very word “dis-ease” implies a state lacking “ease” or well-being. We feel it is important to consider disease\\u000a holistically: that is to consider the animal’s ability to resist stress and the environmental challenges it faces. Whereas\\u000a the

Andrew Butterworth

199

Women on Welfare: A Macroeconomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task here is to outline a general-equilibrium model in which, at any point in time, some individuals will marry, others will divorce, and yet others will choose to have out-of-wedlock births. While the model is still prototypical in nature, it will be shown how such a framework can be used to address public-policy questions, in particular,the impact of welfare

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; John A. Knowles

2000-01-01

200

Cleaning supplies and equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... on any object the patient touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

201

A welfare facility resident care support system.  

PubMed

We have developed a new care support system to monitor the overall health of welfare facility residents who need constant care. The system is designed with wireless sensors, wireless repeaters and a host computer. The wireless sensor, which consists of a piezoelectric sensor, a 2 axis accelerometer, a microcontroller and a low power 303 MHz ASH transceiver. It records respiration, activity and indicators of posture and behavior for 24 hours. These data are transmitted to the wireless repeater by the transceiver. The wireless repeaters, which are installed throughout the welfare facility, send data, including the repeater's ID, to the host computer. The ID is used to detect the resident's location in the welfare facility. The host computer stores the data, which can be used to analyze the resident's overall health condition. When the resident is in an emergency situation, such as falling or in an inactive state for more that the allotted time, the host computer automatically alerts the situation to the care staff by an alarm sound and also by mobile phone. PMID:15134005

Maki, Hiromichi; Yonczawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Sato, Haruhiko; Hahn, Allen W; Caldwell, W Morton

2004-01-01

202

Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

McGough, Robert L.; And Others

1978-01-01

203

Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

Mood, Carina

2010-01-01

204

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

205

Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.  

PubMed

This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

2013-11-01

206

Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths  

PubMed Central

Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

Szucs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

2012-01-01

207

Chromosome Disorder Outreach  

MedlinePLUS

... Support For all those affected by a rare chromosome disorder. Home General Info Family Support Ask The Doctor ... alone. CDO is on Facebook - Join the Cause! Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non–profit organization, founded, ...

208

[Disorders of sex chromosome].  

PubMed

Disorders of sex chromosome, X and Y, consist of abnormality of the number or structure of the sex chromosome. Because sex chromosomes have a variety of genes related to sexual differentiation, disorders of sex chromosome induce a variety of disorders of sexual differentiation. At first, in this title, the process of normal sexual differentiation is shown. Classical disorders of sex chromosome are Klinefelter syndrome, XX male, XYY male, Turner syndrome, XXX female, and XY female. True hermphroiditism, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, and pure gonadal dysgenesis are also included, because most of these disorders have abnormal sex chromosome. Molecular analysis of sex chromosome is clarifying disorders with a minute abnormality of sex chromosome. They include male infertility, premature ovarian failure, and fragile X syndrome. Explanations of the above disorders are given briefly. PMID:9396296

Namiki, M; Koh, E

1997-11-01

209

From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.  

PubMed

There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. PMID:22192762

Woods, Abigail

2012-03-01

210

Do children from welfare families obtain less education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyzed whether parents’ receipt of welfare affects children’s educational attainment in early adulthood,\\u000a independent of its effect through changing family income. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with information\\u000a on parents’ welfare receipt over the first 15 years of childhood. Cross-sectional results show that greater exposure to welfare\\u000a is significantly associated with

Inhoe Ku; Robert Plotnick

2003-01-01

211

Supporting child welfare supervisors to improve worker retention.  

PubMed

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a Midwestern state. Unique to this collaborative effort was involving all child welfare supervisors in identifying needed content components, developing competencies, and conducting self-assessments. PMID:17533775

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

212

Crafting a federal legislative framework for child welfare reform.  

PubMed

The nature and scope of the problems plaguing child welfare systems across the country make federal solutions especially urgent. A decade after enactment of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (PL 96-272), legislation is pending that builds on its framework to enhance services and supports for vulnerable children and their families. The legislation reflects a growing consensus about the nature of the child welfare crisis and about the reform strategies that will be effective. PMID:1746640

Allen, M

1991-10-01

213

Conflicting and complementary ethics of animal welfare considerations in reintroductions.  

PubMed

Despite differences in focus, goals, and strategies between conservation biology and animal welfare, both are inextricably linked in many ways, and greater consideration of animal welfare, although important in its own right, also has considerable potential to contribute to conservation success. Nevertheless, animal welfare and animal ethics are not always considered explicitly within conservation practice. We systematically reviewed the recent scientific peer-reviewed and online gray literature on reintroductions of captive-bred and wild-caught animals (mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles) to quantify the occurrence of animal welfare issues. We considered monitoring that could be indicative of the animal's welfare status and supportive management actions that could improve animal welfare (regardless of whether the aim was explicitly animal-welfare orientated). Potential welfare issues (of variable nature and extent) were recorded in 67% of 199 projects reviewed; the most common were mortality >50%, dispersal or loss of animals, disease, and human conflict. Most (>70%) projects monitored survival, 18% assessed body condition, and 2% monitored stress levels. Animal welfare, explicitly, was referred to in 6% of projects. Supportive actions, most commonly use of on-site prerelease pens and provision of supplemental food or water, were implemented in 79% of projects, although the extent and duration of support varied. Practitioners can address animal-welfare issues in reintroductions by considering the potential implications for individual animals at all stages of the release process using the decision tree presented. We urge practitioners to report potential animal-welfare issues, describe mitigation actions, and evaluate their efficacy to facilitate transparent evaluation of common moral dilemmas and to advance communal strategies for dealing with them. Currently, comparative mortality rates, health risks, postrelease stress, effectiveness of supportive measures, and behavior of individuals warrant further research to improve animal welfare in reintroductions and to increase success of such projects. PMID:23506045

Harrington, Lauren A; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Gelling, Merryl; Atkinson, Rob P D; Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W

2013-06-01

214

A New Format for Learning about Farm Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal welfare is a knowledge domain that can be regarded as a model for new ways of organizing learning and making higher\\u000a education more responsive to the needs of society. Global concern for animal welfare has resulted in a great demand for knowledge.\\u000a As a complement to traditional education in farm animal welfare, higher education can be more demand

Anne Algers; Berner Lindström; Edmond A. Pajor

215

Do children from welfare families obtain less education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the relationship between parental welfare receipt and children’s adulthood educational attainment. Data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Cross-sectional regression results confirm findings from previous studies that greater parental welfare receipt is significantly associated with children’s poorer educational attainment. Fixed-effect regressions indicate that the relationship between parental welfare receipt and children’s educational outcomes becomes weaker

Inhoe Ku; Robert D. Plotnick

2003-01-01

216

Is Money the Measure of Welfare in Russia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of a non-market to a market economy ought to change fundamentally the significance of money incomes for welfare. Whereas in a stressful non-market economy such as the former Soviet Union, non-monetized resources could substitute for money income and promote welfare, in a modern market economy money income should be a good proxy for household welfare. This article tests

Richard Rose; Ian McAllister

1996-01-01

217

Chromosomal evolution in Saccharomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal speciation model invokes chromosomal rearrangements as the primary cause of reproductive isolation. In a heterozygous carrier, chromosomes bearing reciprocal translocations mis-segregate at meiosis, resulting in reduced fertility or complete sterility. Thus, chromosomal rearrangements act as a post-zygotic isolating mechanism. Reproductive isolation in yeast is due to post-zygotic barriers, as many species mate successfully but the hybrids are sterile.

G. Fischer; S. A. James; I. N. Roberts; S. G. Oliver; E. J. Louis

2000-01-01

218

Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

Gillberg, Christopher

1998-01-01

219

Chromosomal Disorders and Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many cases of autism appear to be caused by several abnormal genes acting in concert. The literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism is reviewed, with a view to finding potential gene markers for the neuropsychiatric disorder. Most of the chromosomes have been implicated in the genesis of autism. However, aberrations on the long arm of Chromosome 15 and numerical and

Christopher Gillberg

1998-01-01

220

Sequential cloning of chromosomes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a...

S. A. Lacks

1991-01-01

221

Low chromosome number angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant with very low chromosome number are of interest for the analysis of the structure of chromosome and chromatin organization. Many studies have been carried out on the evolution of the karyotype in the An- giosperms with only two chromosomes in their haploid complement. The results of these analyses in the five An- giosperms with 2n=4 have been reported with

Cremonini Roberto

222

Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop  

SciTech Connect

The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

Not Available

1989-01-01

223

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2013-07-01

224

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

2009-10-01

225

76 FR 54249 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request for...of information for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report, 25 CFR part...affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators...

2011-08-31

226

76 FR 33340 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report; Request...of information for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report, 25...affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators...

2011-06-08

227

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

2010-10-01

228

Employment Experiences of Welfare Recipients Who Find Jobs: Is Targeting Possible.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report uses national data to examine the employment experiences of welfare recipients who find jobs. It addresses seven broad questions: What are the characteristics of welfare recipients who find jobs; What types of jobs do welfare recipients find; ...

A. Rangarajan P. Schochet D. Chu

1998-01-01

229

Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

2009-01-01

230

Social welfare, genetic welfare? Boundary-work in the IVF\\/PGD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the lens of the ‘welfare of the child’ assessment, this paper explores how staff working in the area of in vitro fertilisation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (IVF\\/PGD) balance reflexive relations of legitimacy and accountability between the public and private spheres, and between medicine, the citizen and the state. The wider research of which this analysis is a part uses

Kathryn Ehrich; Clare Williams; Rosamund Scott; Jane Sandall; Bobbie Farsides

2006-01-01

231

Children and Welfare Reform: A View from an Experimental Welfare Program in Minnesota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a three-group design to determine the effects on child development of the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), a state welfare reform program. Findings showed that MFIP increased employment rates and decreased poverty. According to mother-reports, children were less likely to exhibit problem behaviors and more likely to perform better…

Gennetian, Lisa A.; Miller, Cynthia

2002-01-01

232

Welfare Reform and Child Care: Evidence from 10 Experimental Welfare-to-Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the employment and child care responses of families participating in 10 experimental welfare reform programs conducted in the United States between 1989 and 2002. For the programs analyzed, child care use increases by about the same amount as the increase in employment. Most of the increased child care comprises informal care…

Robins, Philip K.

2007-01-01

233

The Tender Years: Toward Developmentally Sensitive Child Welfare Services for Very Young Children. Child Welfare Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the United States has seen a record influx of infants, toddlers, and preschool-aged children into the foster care system in the past decade, there has not been an accompanying shift in policy or practice to attend to the developmental issues these younger children bring to child welfare. This textbook addresses the spectrum of child…

Berrick, Jill Duerr; Needell, Barbara; Barth, Richard P.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa

234

Welfare Reform: What about the Children? Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief describes children from "Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study," using data from the first wave of the study which involved a random-sample survey of about 2,400 low-income children and their caregivers (mainly mothers) in low-income neighborhoods. Researchers collected information from mothers on their employment,…

Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lohman, Brenda J.; Pittman, Laura D.

235

Welfare to Work: Child Care Assistance Limited; Welfare Reform May Expand Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1991 through 1993, federal and state spending on child care subsidies to help current and former welfare recipients work or go to school grew from just over $600 million to over $1 billion. As the Congress and the states consider and test various app...

1995-01-01

236

The welfare of livestock transported by ship.  

PubMed

The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances. PMID:23473873

Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

2013-06-01

237

Bacterial chromosome segregation.  

PubMed

Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in how the bacterial chromosome is organized and how newly replicated chromosomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells on cell division. In the past, the problem with studying bacterial chromosomes was their lack of any obvious morphology, combined with the lack of ability to readily separate DNA replication and segregation functions into distinct stages like those observed in eukaryotic cells. This was due to the overlapping nature of these events in most bacterial systems used in the laboratory. The situation has now changed as new tools have become available that enable chromosomes and specific chromosomal sites to be labelled and monitored throughout the cell cycle, and this has led to rapid progress and the discovery of many unexpected results. Historically, chromosome segregation was thought to be achieved through passive processes where chromosomes were separated through some kind of membrane/cell wall attachment and were moved apart as the cell grew (Jacob et al., 1963). We now know that this is not the case and that there are specific mechanisms to actively partition chromosomes. This review will focus principally on the Gram-positive sporulating bacterium Bacillus subtilis, but will also cover work carried out on Escherichia coli, in which valuable information has been obtained, and will cover the events that occur on termination of chromosome replication, chromosome decatenation and chromosome separation. PMID:11238959

Lewis, P J

2001-03-01

238

Drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East.  

PubMed

Religion, ethics and culture are an important group of drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East. In many countries of the region the understanding of animal welfare is expressed more in terms of religious precepts and humane ethics than via regulations and legislation. In fact, regulatory and legislated animal welfare standards are still not well implemented and many animal welfare issues require attention. The Qur'an provides considerable support for conscientiously attending to animal welfare. For example, the Islamic rules on the process of slaughter were intended to provide a quick, humane and relatively painless death. Current practices that are not in accordance with these religious teachings may cause great suffering to animals. Although these rules have been in place for 1,400 years or more, now, in the 21st Century, they are found to closely correspond to the related standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The OIE plays an important role in improving animal welfare by developing global animal welfare standards. These should assist countries in two important ways: first, by helping them to establish new, or to refine existing, animal welfare legislation, and second, at the OIE regional level, by facilitating interactions between Member Countries as they develop and refine a strategic plan for the advancement of animal welfare. As the OIE standards are compatible with the requirements of Islamic law, issuing animal welfare legislation referring to those standards and implementing them at a national level is highly recommended. A dialogue between the OIE and the Veterinary Services and religious leaders in the region should therefore start with the objective of improving animal welfare. PMID:25000780

Aidaros, H

2014-04-01

239

Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.  

PubMed

The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating pain is a useful entry point. Finally, it is important that the pace of the journey, in terms of public awareness and shifts in understanding, be supported by high-quality science that is rigorously assessed and validated in its practical application to the management of animal welfare. PMID:25000784

Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

2014-04-01

240

Revolutionizing Child Welfare with Outcomes Management  

PubMed Central

Outcomes management technology holds great promise for improving the quality of services provided to youth in the child welfare system. Advantages include better detection of behavioral health and trauma-related issues, early indicators of case progress or risk of failure and program- and system-level learning. Yet organizational barriers to implementation persist. Attention is spent in this paper on addressing these barriers so the use of outcomes management technology becomes a common practice. A model for predicting resiliency is presented, along with case examples demonstrating its potential use for treatment planning and monitoring progress.

Toche-Manley, Linda L.; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid

2013-01-01

241

Revolutionizing child welfare with outcomes management.  

PubMed

Outcomes management technology holds great promise for improving the quality of services provided to youth in the child welfare system. Advantages include better detection of behavioral health and trauma-related issues, early indicators of case progress or risk of failure, and program- and system-level learning. Yet organizational barriers to implementation persist. Attention is spent in this paper on addressing these barriers so the use of outcomes management technology becomes a common practice. A model for predicting resiliency is presented, along with case examples demonstrating its potential use for treatment planning and monitoring progress. PMID:23460130

Toche-Manley, Linda L; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid

2013-07-01

242

Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator.  

PubMed

This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the loss of the coping ability and, thus, to impaired health. In the first part of the review, the physiological processes through which stressful husbandry conditions modulate health of farmed fish are examined. If fish are subjected to unfavourable husbandry conditions, the resulting disruption of internal homeostasis necessitates energy-demanding physiological adjustments (allostasis/acclimation). The ensuing energy drain leads to trade-offs with other energy-demanding processes such as the functioning of the primary epithelial barriers (gut, skin, gills) and the immune system. Understanding of the relation between husbandry conditions, allostatic responses and fish health provides the basis for the second theme developed in this review, the potential use of biological function and health parameters as operational welfare indicators (OWIs). Advantages of function- and health-related parameters are that they are relatively straightforward to recognize and to measure and are routinely monitored in most aquaculture units, thereby providing feasible tools to assess fish welfare under practical farming conditions. As the efforts to improve fish welfare and environmental sustainability lead to increasingly diverse solutions, in particular integrated production, it is imperative that we have objective OWIs to compare with other production forms, such as high-density aquaculture. However, to receive the necessary acceptance for legislation, more robust scientific backing of the health- and function-related OWIs is urgently needed. PMID:21681416

Segner, Helmut; Sundh, Henrik; Buchmann, Kurt; Douxfils, Jessica; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan; Mathieu, Cédric; Ruane, Neil; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Toften, Hilde; Vaughan, Lloyd

2012-02-01

243

45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

2013-10-01

244

Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005. Report to Congress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005: Report to Congress" (Child Welfare Outcomes Report) is the seventh in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the Department). The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997)…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008

2008-01-01

245

Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

246

Workfare and Trade Unions: Labor Market Repercussions of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workfare proposals concentrate on the work incentives for welfare recipients, thus focusing on the labor supply side. This paper analyzes the effects workfare has on labor demand when the labor market is unionized. As workfare reduces the number of recipients of public financial assistance, a workfare regime, as opposed to a welfare system, weakens the outside option of trade unions

Ronnie Schöb

2003-01-01

247

Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interactions between taxes on work-related traffic congestion and pre-existing distortionary taxes in the labor market. A congestion tax raises the overall costs of commuting to work and discourages labor force participation. The resulting welfare loss in the labor market can easily exceed the Pigouvian welfare gain from internalizing the congestion externality. However, if congestion tax revenues

Ian W. H. Parry; Antonio Bento

2001-01-01

248

The Benefits of Learning Social Welfare: Lessons from Student Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely assumed that most entering MSW students exhibit a primary interest in individual clinical practice but minimal understanding of or interest in welfare policy knowledge. However, this assumption is mostly based on attitudes before and at the beginning of encountering social welfare courses. Using a mixed-methods approach of both…

Dichter, Melissa E.; Cnaan, Ram A.

2010-01-01

249

Work and Welfare Patterns in Low Income Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's objective were: (1) to describe the patterns of work and welfare experience in low-income families and to explain their causes, and (2) to apply the findings to the policy problem of deciding which groups of welfare recipients should be required to work and provided with what mix of manpower services. The effectiveness of work…

Friedman, Barry L.; Hausman, Leonard J.

250

Indian Family Law and Child Welfare: A Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first part of the text concentrates on the legal aspects of Indian family law and child welfare. Its four sections include the topics of marriage and the termination of marriage; adoption; child abuse and neglect; the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978;...

N. N. Harden T. Grossman N. M. Tuthill B. Chen N. Evans

1982-01-01

251

Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of welfare time limits on families in different states was examined in a comprehensive study that involved the following activities: (1) a survey of state welfare administrators regarding states' time-limit policies and experiences to date; (2) site visits to five states; and (3) a synthesis of research on time limits. The following…

Bloom, Dan; Farrell, Mary; Fink, Barbara

252

Roundup Ready Soybeans and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-region world model for the soybean complex is developed to evaluate the welfare effects of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean adoption. The structural modeling of the innovation accounts for farmers' adoption incentives and for the observed pricing of RR soybean seeds as a proprietary technology. The calibrated model is solved for various scenarios to evaluate the production, price, and welfare

GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan; Andrei Sobolevsky

2000-01-01

253

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

254

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2013-10-01

255

Cambodian Refugee Families in the Shadows of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisions in the 1996 Federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, commonly known as welfare reform, sought to limit refugees and other legal immigrants’ access to government services and assistance. Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act restored some benefits to those who arrived before the law was passed, little is known about how refugee families navigated the new welfare

Karen Quintiliani

2009-01-01

256

Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

2010-01-01

257

Informed decisions in child welfare: The use of attachment theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to help child welfare workers better understand and utilize attachment theory in their decision making with abused and neglected children. The authors review attachment theory, research on the effects of maltreatment on attachment, and research on foster care and attachment. Guidelines and specific interventions supporting children's secure attachments during involvement with the child welfare

Ferol E. Mennen; Maura O'Keefe

2005-01-01

258

Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protocol on Animal Welfare annexed to the EC Treaty in 1999 obliges the European Institutions to fully consider animal welfare in the drafting and implementation of Community legislation. The reform of the common agricultural policies (CAP) foreseen by Agenda 2000 follows the trend of more market oriented measures decoupling subsidies from production. Farming is seen as fundamental to other

H. J. Blokhuis

2004-01-01

259

Farm Animal Welfare: the Five Freedoms and the Free Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses the scientific, ethical and economic factors that impact on the welfare of farm animals. Respect for animals within the food chain is considered within the context of an ethical matrix that affords respect according to the principles of wellbeing, autonomy and justice to consumers, farm animals, farmers and the living environment. The welfare of a farm animal

A. J. F. WEBSTER

2001-01-01

260

Animal welfare standards in organic farming in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a literature survey recently performed on the animal welfare status in organic farming in The Netherlands. It is shown that for several aspects of animal welfare, mostly related to behavior, comfort, and feeding level, Dutch organiclivestock production performs well. However, several other (mainly health) aspects arestill a major point of concern. The results are used for communication

M. A. W. Ruis; J. B. Pinxterhuis

2009-01-01

261

Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804\\/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations

Karl-Erik Hammarberg

2002-01-01

262

Animal welfare: the role of non-governmental organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The welfare of animals is of interest to many people in most parts of the world. Concern about the way that animals are treated will depend on many factors, including socio-economic conditions, culture, religion and tradition. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is committed to ensuring that all animal welfare standards are science-based, but recognises that these other

D. B. Wilkins; C. Houseman; R. Allan; M. C. Appleby; P. Stevenson

263

Liability considerations in child welfare: lessons from Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent years have been fraught with investigations into the deaths of children receiving child welfare services throughout North America, Europe, and Australia. These inquiries have attracted considerable media attention and public outrage. Added to this have been increases in attempts to hold social workers in child welfare responsible for the abuse and deaths of children through the criminal and

Karima Kanani; Cheryl Regehr; Marvin M Bernstein

2002-01-01

264

Parent Education Groups with Mexican-American Child Welfare Clients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five papers are presented which address the issues surrounding parent education for Mexican-American child welfare clients. An overview is provided of the various approaches to parent education, and ways to meet the needs of child welfare clients are disc...

R. L. Hegar

1982-01-01

265

A Stock-Flow Analysis of the Welfare Caseload  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reconsiders the methods used in previous studies to assess the welfare caseload movements during the 1990s. We develop a model in which the welfare caseload is the net outcome of past flows onto and off of the caseload and show that such a stock-flow model can explain some of the anomalous findings in previous studies. We then estimate

Jacob Alex Klerman; Steven J. Haider

2004-01-01

266

A Stock-Flow Analysis of the Welfare Caseload  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reconsideration of the methods used to access the welfare caseload movements during the 1990s is done. A model is developed in which the welfare caseload is the net outcome of past flows onto and off of the caseloads and it is shown that such a stock-flow model could explain some of the anomalous findings of the earlier studies.

Klerman, Jacob Alex; Haider, Steven J.

2004-01-01

267

Welfare Returns and Temporary Time Limits: A Proportional Hazard Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes welfare returns for families who leave welfare for a "sit-out" period of 12 months in response to a temporary time limit requirement in Nevada. Findings reveal that relatively few families return for cash assistance after sitting out and that the majority who do return soon after their sit-out period is complete. Results also…

Albert, Vicky N.; King, William C.; Iaci, Ross

2007-01-01

268

Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2004-01-01

269

Local Governance of Child Welfare Services in Alberta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the provision of child welfare services in Alberta over the course of the 20th century. Focuses on the trend toward centralization during most of this period and current efforts by a local citizens' organization to decentralize services and return control of child welfare to the community level. (MDM)

Rothery, Michael; And Others

1995-01-01

270

Peer Effects in Welfare Dependence: Quasi-Experimental Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines peer effects in welfare use among refugees. We exploit a Swedish refugee placement policy, which generated exogenous variation in peer group composition. Our analysis distinguishes between the quantity of contacts--the number of individuals of the same ethnicity--and the quality of contacts--welfare use among members of the…

Aslund, Olof; Fredriksson, Peter

2009-01-01

271

Money Metrics Welfare Measures in Imperfect Markets under Growth1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how utility based welfare measures in dynamic general equilibrium under imperfect markets can be transferred into a money metrics. In order to do this, we need to price forward looking components measured in units of utility. The typical comprehensive quasi-static welfare measure contains a core that looks like a comprehensive (green) NNP component, as well as additional

Chuan Zhong Li; Karl-Gustaf Löfgren

272

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

273

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2012-01-01

274

The effects of welfare vehicle asset rules on vehicle assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1996, households were typically ineligible for welfare if they had assets worth more than $1000, where $1500 from each vehicle's value was excluded from this determination. However, the 1996 welfare reform act began allowing states to increase their asset limits and vehicle exclusions. This may prompt low-income households to reallocate resources to or from vehicles. We examine the effects

Mark F. Owens; Charles L. Baum

2011-01-01

275

Welfare to Work. Employment and Training Programs Annual Report 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the programs provided by the Illinois Department of Public Aid and the initiatives that the department has begun to help welfare recipients find work and get off welfare rolls. Programs described include the following: (1) AFDC (Aid for Families with Dependent Children) Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program (JOBS), which…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

276

Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

2014-01-01

277

Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

2011-01-01

278

Do Children from Welfare Families Obtain Less Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed whether parents' receipt of welfare affected children's educational attainment in early adulthood, independent of its effect through changing family income. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics indicated that greater exposure to welfare significantly associated with children's poorer educational attainment. Although exposure to…

Ku, Inhoe; Plotnick, Robert

2003-01-01

279

Child Welfare Services and Delinquency: The Need to Know More  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the need for a better understanding of the moderating effects of child welfare services on delinquency. Although juvenile delinquency is a commonly studied issue, researchers have paid little attention to the degree to which child welfare services may be associated with changes in subsequent delinquency rates. Emerging…

Jonson-Reid, Melissa

2004-01-01

280

Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

Landsman, Miriam

2007-01-01

281

Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

282

Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

2004-01-01

283

Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

2004-01-01

284

Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

285

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... and Gowns FDA's Role in Regulating PPE About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) On this page: What is personal protective ... protective equipment with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective equipment is any type of ...

286

Patients' mobility across borders: a welfare analysis.  

PubMed

Welfare systems are designed on geographical and membership boundaries. In terms of access to health care this implies that, as a general rule, only individuals residing in their national territory can obtain health care from providers located there. However, in the past few years medical tourism has grown at an explosive pace throughout the world and in Europe. Each year in fact a small, but significant number of European citizens seek medical treatment that is financed by their public insurer in another EU country. From an economic point of view, it is important to distinguish between the two following sources of patients' mobility: a regulated mobility, where the third payer decides to send patients abroad and patients' choice, where the patient himself decides to seek care abroad. In this article we show how the combined effect of restrictions to the use of health care, transfer prices, and mobility rules determine social welfare and its allocation between Regions. The results are quite interesting: if the price set for these patients is equal to the marginal cost of the more efficient Region, patients' mobility should be preferred to patients' choice. On the other hand, if the price is equal to the marginal cost of the less efficient Region, patient choice should be preferred. The other interesting result is a possible trade off between a static model where each Region chooses its level of cost/effectiveness and a more long-term situation, where patient mobility determines a common level for this parameter. PMID:24864387

Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

2014-01-01

287

Technology Equipment Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

Day, C. William

2001-01-01

288

Equipment for Rural Workshops.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book is a guide to anyone who wishes to equip a workshop from the basic tools required for a one or two man carpentry workshop without power to the more sophisticated establishment requiring power equipment for both wood and metal working. Only well-k...

J. E. L. Boyd S. A. Bonnist J. R. Collett A. Mallett H. S. Pearson

1978-01-01

289

Equipment qualification maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, the nuclear power industry has devoted a great deal of attention to achieving equipment qualification. As this goal approaches, the attention of prudent utilities is now being directed toward maintaining that qualification throughout the useful life of the equipment. This paper presents a Qualification Maintenance Program (QMP), which is designed to meet the Nuclear Regulatory

Scates

1982-01-01

290

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

291

Shipboard Electronic Equipments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

292

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1977-01-01

293

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

294

Women Students with Dependent Children on Welfare: Educational Impact of Welfare Policy and Practice. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey conducted at University of Wisconsin System institutions was designed to help decision makers determine how many women students were on welfare and to find out the interaction between welfare and student financial aid in relation to expenses incurred in higher education. Women students vary in financial, marital, and parental status, and…

Nash, Nancy S.; And Others

295

The role of welfare and work in predicting foster care reunification rates for children of welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on children's experiences in foster care has focused on child and system level factors related to length of stay and returns home. This article reports results from an analysis of family factors—welfare and work activities—that predict foster care reunification. The sample is 133 children of welfare recipients in California who entered foster care after December 1, 1992. In

Katherine Kortenkamp; Rob Geen; Matthew Stagner

2004-01-01

296

Medicine As a Corporate Enterprise, Patient Welfare Centered Profession, or Patient Welfare Centered Professional Enterprise?  

PubMed Central

There is an alarming trend in the field of medicine, whose portents are ominous but do not seem to shake the complacency and merry making doing the rounds. The wants of the medical man have multiplied beyond imagination. The cost of organizing conferences is no longer possible on delegate fees. The bottom-line is: Crores for a Conference Millions for a Mid-Term. However, the problem is that sponsors keep a discreet but careful tab on docs. All in all, costs of medicines escalate, and quality medical care becomes a luxury. The whole brunt of this movement is borne by the patient. Companies like GlaxoSmithKline, Bayer, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Schering-Plough, Abbott Labs, TAP Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth and Merck have paid millions of dollars each as compensation in the last few years. The financial condition of many pharmaceutical majors is not buoyant either. Price deflation, increased Rand D spending, and litigation costs are the main reasons. In the future, the messy lawsuits situation would no longer be restricted to industry. It would involve academia and practising doctors as well. Indian pharma industry captains, who were busy raking in the profits at present, would also come under the scanner. If nothing else, it means industry and docs will have to sit down and do some soul searching. Both short and long-term measures will have to be put into place. Short-term measures involve reduction in i) pharma spending over junkets and trinkets; ii) hype over ‘me too’ drugs; iii) manipulation of drug trials; iv) getting pliant researchers into drug trials; iv) manipulation of Journal Editors to publish positive findings about their drug trials and launches; v) and for Indian Pharma, to conduct their own unbiased clinical trial of the latest drug projected as a blockbuster in the West, before pumping in their millions. The long-term measures are related to the way biomedical advance is to be charted. We have to decide whether medicine is to become a corporate enterprise or remain a patient welfare centered profession. A third approach involves an eclectic resolution of the two. Such amount of patient welfare as also ensures profit, and such amount of profit as also ensures patient welfare is to be forwarded. For, profit, without patient welfare, is blind. And patient welfare, without profit, is lame. According to this approach, medicine becomes a patient welfare centered professional enterprise. The various ramifications of each of these approaches are discussed in this monograph.

Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

2005-01-01

297

DNA, Genes and Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you will learn about the parts of DNA and what DNA, genes and chromosomes are. Today you will learn what DNA, genes and chromosomes are and the parts of the DNA molecule. Look at all of the websites, take whatever notes you need to. At the end of the assignment, be able to describle DNA, the parts of DNA, genes and chromosomes. Covers Biology Core Curriculum, ...

Fomby, Mrs.

2007-11-07

298

Chromosomal evolution within Piperaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosome numbers for 26 different species of the generaPiper, Peperomia andPothomorphe (Piperaceae) are reported. The basic chromosome numbers are 2n = 26, x = 13 (Piper, Pothomorphe) and 2n = 22, x = 11 (Peperomia), polyploid series are characteristic forPiper andPeperomia. Piper has the smallest chromosomes and prochromosomal interphase nuclei,Peperomia the largest ones and mostly reticulate to euchromatic nuclei.Pothomorphe is

Rosabelle Samuel; Wilfried Morawetz

1989-01-01

299

Bacterial chromosome segregation.  

PubMed

Recent studies have made great strides toward our understanding of the mechanisms of microbial chromosome segregation and partitioning. This review first describes the mechanisms that function to segregate newly replicated chromosomes, generating daughter molecules that are viable substrates for partitioning. Then experiments that address the mechanisms of bulk chromosome movement are summarized. Recent evidence indicates that a stationary DNA replication factory may be responsible for supplying the force necessary to move newly duplicated DNA toward the cell poles. Some factors contributing to the directionality of chromosome movement probably include centromere-like-binding proteins, DNA condensation proteins, and DNA translocation proteins. PMID:12142478

Draper, Geoffrey C; Gober, James W

2002-01-01

300

Bacterial chromosome segregation.  

PubMed

Dividing cells have mechanisms to ensure that their genomes are faithfully segregated into daughter cells. In bacteria, the description of these mechanisms has been considerably improved in the recent years. This review focuses on the different aspects of bacterial chromosome segregation that can be understood thanks to the studies performed with model organisms: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Caulobacter crescentus and Vibrio cholerae. We describe the global positionning of the nucleoid in the cell and the specific localization and dynamics of different chromosomal loci, kinetic and biophysic aspects of chromosome segregation are presented. Finally, a presentation of the key proteins involved in the chromosome segregation is made. PMID:22201788

Possoz, Christophe; Junier, Ivan; Espeli, Olivier

2012-01-01

301

Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes  

SciTech Connect

In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

2006-03-16

302

Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society.  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has gradually gained more impact in the total quality concept of the product. This will encourage scientists to continue to analyse the welfare status of animals and to come up with innovative solutions for the remaining problems. At ID-Lelystad much effort is put into farm animal welfare research. This research includes for example, the development of behavioural tests for quantifying and interpreting fear in cattle, investigations into the effects of dietary iron supply and a lack of roughage on behaviour, immunology, stress physiology, and pathology in veal calves, studies of the ontogeny of tail biting in finishing pigs and feather pecking in laying hens as well as evaluation of the welfare effects of automatic milking in dairy cows. The results of these projects contribute to concrete improvements in animal husbandry and expertise and support policy making and legislation. The animal industry as well as retailers should aim at the further implementation of this knowledge and to specify welfare standards to guarantee consumer acceptance of animal production. PMID:11087134

Blokhuis, H J; Ekkel, E D; Korte, S M; Hopster, H; van Reenen, C G

2000-10-01

303

Introduction to the special issue on zoo animal welfare.  

PubMed

In May 2008, the Chicago Zoological Society's Center for the Science of Animal Welfare (CSAW) held a two-day international workshop designed to establish and foster new connections between zoo animal welfare scientists and welfare scientists in other fields, and to take the first step toward the development of a research agenda for zoo animal welfare science. Such a research agenda by its very nature would need to be highly multi-disciplinary and collaborative. In support of this purpose this article serves as an introduction for a collection of invited papers presented at the workshop. Workshop themes included the investigation of welfare metrics currently used and in development, elucidating gaps and determining needs for zoo welfare research, and gaining a deeper understanding of the value that understanding animals in the wild can bring to zoo animal welfare. Here we discuss some of the most relevant points made at the workshop and describe the seven most salient research needs that were suggested in consensus. PMID:19885912

Watters, Jason V; Wielebnowski, Nadja

2009-11-01

304

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce the number and severity of farmwork related injuries and illnesses. Personal protective equipment not only helps ... repairing machinery, and doing other jobs with head injury risks. • Use a sun safety hat (one with ...

305

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1979-01-01

306

Fuze Jammer Countermeasures Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Materiel Test Procedure is to describe the procedures required to determine the technical performance characteristics of electronic countermeasures, (ECM) equipment designed to operate against electronic proximity-fuzed enemy projecti...

1968-01-01

307

Equipment qualification maintenance  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years, the nuclear power industry has devoted a great deal of attention to achieving equipment qualification. As this goal approaches, the attention of prudent utilities is now being directed toward maintaining that qualification throughout the useful life of the equipment. This paper presents a Qualification Maintenance Program (QMP), which is designed to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for ongoing qualification maintenance of safety-related equipment. This paper describes this program by answering the following four questions: What is QMP. Why is a QMP necessary. What are the benefits of a QMP. How can QMP best be achieved. Following the discussion of the above questions, an example is presented that illustrates a typical application of QMP in defining plant equipment maintenance requirements.

Scates, R.

1982-05-01

308

Digital Equipment Susceptibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of the third-quarter effort of a 22-month investigation into the measurement procedures and techniques for electromagnetic susceptibility testing of digital receiving equipment. The period covered is from 1 March 1971 to 30...

D. D. Baxter S. A. Leslie J. L. Wilson

1971-01-01

309

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of a project aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment, specifically the development of a commercial open top section employing powered burners and the development of means for ap...

R. L. Himmel

1983-01-01

310

Russian Stenotype Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Russian Stenotype program is concerned with the development of a stenotype input system for automatic translation of spoken and written Russian. Under this program an engineering model of the Russian stenotype equipment is being developed to demonstra...

D. Loeb R. Markus P. Novic

1964-01-01

311

Welfare consequences of mulesing of sheep.  

PubMed

Mulesing is traditionally performed on approximately 80% of Merino wool-producing sheep in Australia. Mulesing produces a stress response that persists for 24 to 48 hours. Behavioural changes indicative of pain and discomfort resolve within 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Reductions in weight gain may persist for 14 days. The acute stress response to mulesing has been shown to be similar to that produced by shearing, castration and mild flystrike, but mulesing has a longer duration of response (24 to 48 hours) than shearing (1 hour) or knife castration (8 to 24 hours), whereas flystrike response persists for the duration of infection. Theoretically, if mulesing were not used, with Merino sheep of existing genetics, increased chemical use and flock inspections could keep flystrike rates to approximately equivalent to present levels in some production systems. Increased handling events for chemical preventative application would represent a mild stressor for sheep, but cumulatively not more than that of mulesing. If producers were able and prepared to sufficiently increase resources into alternative anti-flystrike methods, then the welfare of Merino sheep would probably be equivalent or better to that of today. If constraints such as property size or finances dictate a sub-optimal level of flystrike prevention and treatment, then animal welfare will unquestionably be worse. The result of that equation would depend on individual flock managers, the physical characteristics of their production system, the profitability of their business, and seasonal variations in flystrike risk. It is likely that there would be some occasions when flystrike would increase. This highlights the need for alternative strategies, such as genetic selection, to reduce the susceptibility of Australian Merino sheep to flystrike. PMID:17359305

Lee, C; Fisher, A D

2007-03-01

312

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes.

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

313

Tracking equipment on hire  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

Not Available

1985-06-01

314

A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for welfare assessment in laying hens was constructed. This model, named FOWEL (fowl welfare], uses a description of the production system as input and produces a welfare score as output. To assess the welfare status a formalized procedure based on scientific knowledge is applied. In FOWEL the production system is described using 25 attributes (space per hen,

R. M. De Mol; W. G. P. Schouten; E. Evers; H. Drost; H. W. J. Houwers; A. C. Smits

2006-01-01

315

Economic optimization of pork production-marketing chains: I. Model input on animal welfare and costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years animal welfare has become a major concern for consumers. In developing product differentiation policies to respond to this type of concerns, animal welfare preferences have to be related to the cost of production. This paper reports on an application of conjoint analysis to evaluate pig welfare perceptions of both consumer-related respondents and pig welfare experts. Economics of

M. Den Ouden; J. T. Nijsing; A. A. Dijkhuizen; R. B. M. Huirne

1997-01-01

316

Defining Welfare Spells: Coping with Problems of Survey Responses and Administrative Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to define a welfare spell (period on welfare) and how well surveys measure welfare spells. A look at survey and administrative data from two studies shows that a substantial amount of administrative churning occurs in administrative data. A single definition of a welfare spell does not appear applicable to all respondents. (SLD)

Luks, Samantha; Brady, Henry E.

2003-01-01

317

Public Views on Welfare Reform and Children in the Current Economy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent national survey of U.S. adults examined public opinion about welfare reform and measured support for specific policy recommendations. Respondents report ambivalence about the success of welfare reform, though they agree on what the goals of welfare should be and what shape future reforms should take. They favor welfare policies that help…

Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

318

Proximity to service providers and service utilization among welfare recipients: The interaction of place and race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, welfare programs coordinate a range of services to support work among welfare recipients and help them overcome barriers to employment. This paper considers the relationship between spatial proximity to and utilization of support services among welfare recipients. Accessibility of mental health and substance abuse service providers among welfare recipients is examined in the three-county Detroit metropolitan area and the

Scott W. Allard; Richard M. Tolman; Daniel Rosen

2003-01-01

319

Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

320

Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and welfare cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

1998-01-01

321

Welfare, The Earned Income Tax Credit, And The Labor Supply Of Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added, and welfare cases were terminated. Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

2001-01-01

322

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

323

Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

Klein, Rachel.

1999-01-01

324

Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.  

PubMed

The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

2014-02-01

325

Chromosome banding in Amphibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and quantity of constitutive heterochromatin and of the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) on the chromosomes of 22 species of bufonids and hylids (Amphibia, Anura) was investigated. Three different kinds of constitutive heterochromatin were found and the frequency of brightly fluorescing heterochromatic regions was remarkably high. On almost all chromosomes there is centric and telomeric heterochromatin. Quantitative estimates of

M. Schmid

1978-01-01

326

Chromosome banding in amphibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the chromosomes of 12 frog species of the suborder Diplasiocoela (Amphibia, Anura), the constitutive heterochromatin and the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) have been specifically stained. On most of the chromosomes, aside from the centric heterochromatin, telomeric and interstitial C-bands were also found. The various C-bands display a very variable reaction to alkaline pretreatment; this indicates heterogeneity in the constitutive

M. Schmid

1978-01-01

327

Chromosome Models: Karyotyping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can have a tactile opportunity to construct a karyotype, an organized model of an organismâs chromosomes, conveying the chromosomeâs size and shape. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can learn about the organization of chromosomes which carry the genetic material in all cells that have a nucleus.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

328

Bacterial chromosome segregation.  

PubMed

In most bacteria two vital processes of the cell cycle: DNA replication and chromosome segregation overlap temporally. The action of replication machinery in a fixed location in the cell leads to the duplication of oriC regions, their rapid separation to the opposite halves of the cell and the duplicated chromosomes gradually moving to the same locations prior to cell division. Numerous proteins are implicated in co-replicational DNA segregation and they will be characterized in this review. The proteins SeqA, SMC/MukB, MinCDE, MreB/Mbl, RacA, FtsK/SpoIIIE playing different roles in bacterial cells are also involved in chromosome segregation. The chromosomally encoded ParAB homologs of active partitioning proteins of low-copy number plasmids are also players, not always indispensable, in the segregation of bacterial chromosomes. PMID:15827603

Bartosik, Aneta A; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2005-01-01

329

Internal ultrastructure of human chromosomes.  

PubMed

By preparing metaphase chromosome spreads on Aclar (polychlorotrifluoroethylene fluoropolymer) film and incorporating a conventional karyotyping system, it was possible to observe the internal ultrastructure of individual chromosomes with known karyotype by means of transmission electron microscopy. Essentially, all 46 chromosomes per human cell could be examined. Application of this method to chromosome research may provide comprehensive information on ultrastructural morphology of chromosomes from various cell types and on the fine structure of different chromosomal regions in relation to function. PMID:19155566

Ghazizadeh, Mohammad

2008-12-01

330

Equipment Profiles for Major Items of Engineer Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost of equipping modern military forces has risen at almost exponential rates over the past decade. The increased reliance on sophisticated equipment to improve combat effectiveness and the initiation of the largest equipment modernization program in...

B. W. Springfield

1984-01-01

331

Listing of Food Service Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

332

Wellhead equipment support  

SciTech Connect

A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

Nichols, R.P.

1987-03-24

333

Animal welfare and the 3Rs in European biomedical research.  

PubMed

The new Directive 2010/63/EU to ensure harmonization of animal experimentation rules has potential to increase implementation of the 3Rs (reduce, refine, replace) and improve animal welfare across Europe. PMID:22211967

Wells, Dominic J

2011-12-01

334

Training Social Welfare Managers: Social Work-Business School Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This group of papers on joint programs of social work and business schools, designed to train social welfare managers, describes the program at Columbia University in New York; reviews critical issues generated by joint ventures of this kind; and discusse...

G. Brager M. McLaughlin

1978-01-01

335

Welfare Reform: Outcomes for TANF Recipients with Impairments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), the Congress made sweeping changes to federal welfare policy for needy families. PRWORA created the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) ...

2002-01-01

336

Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

Tata, Robert J.

1977-01-01

337

The 110 Percent Solution: Building Private Alternatives to Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to reform welfare will fail if steps are not taken to increase the involvement of local private charities. Ohio should adopt a 110 percent tax credit for donations contributed to qualified private support organizations.

David F Forte

1995-01-01

338

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the terms âemployee welfare benefit planâ and âwelfare planâ shall not include the distribution of gifts such as turkeys or hams by an employer to employees at Christmas and other holiday seasons. (e) Sales to employees. For purposes of...

2013-07-01

339

State Welfare ADP Application. System Number 120019, Pilot Federal Reporting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the Pilot Federal Reporting System provides a variable length record tape containing all of the data elements required to fulfill federal reporting requirements in four areas: Welfare Assistance, Personnel Staffing, Child Adoption, and Youth...

D. A. Bangert

1972-01-01

340

Welfare Reform. Final National Summary Report on Regional Outreach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DHEW's regional offices conducted a national welfare reform outreach effort in 1977, gathering the views of over 10,000 individuals and organizations, conducting 145 conferences and public meetings in all States, and reaching many people through 300 newsp...

1977-01-01

341

Equipment Safety. An International Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: International rules--The International Labor Office; Model code of safety regulations of ILO; Agreement No. 119 on equipment safety; Recommendation No. 118 on equipment safety; Ergonomics and equipment safety. CIS Information Sheet 10; Further d...

1977-01-01

342

Taking the First Steps: Helping Welfare Recipients Who Get Jobs Keep Them. Off Welfare and into Work: A Report Series of the Postemployment Services Demonstration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To collect information about employment paths out of welfare and to test innovative ways to promote job retention, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) initiated the Postemployment Services Demonstration (PESD). Newly employed welfare r...

A. Rangarajan

1996-01-01

343

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

1995-07-18

344

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

Lacks, S.A.

1995-07-18

345

United States: Social Welfare Policy and Privatization in Postindustrial Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely acknowledged that the US welfare state evolved differently from those of other industrialized nations (Karger\\u000a & Stoesz, 2002; Chatterjee, 1996). Pragmatic, rather than ideological, in origin, it relied less on the national government\\u000a and more on the private sector than its European counterparts (Midgley, 1997). In comparison to the welfare states of Western\\u000a Europe, the US version

Michael Reisch

346

Welfare Dental Intervention Improves Employment and Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic, untreated oral disease adversely affects one's systemic health, quality of life, and economic productivity. This study evaluated the effect of rehabilitative dental treatment on the oral-health-related quality of life and employment of welfare recipients. Three hundred and seventy-seven participants in a novel welfare dental program received oral examinations, questionnaires, and rehabilitative dental treatment. Seventy-nine percent of participants exhibited improvement

S. Hyde; W. A. Satariano; J. A. Weintraub

2006-01-01

347

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, S.A.

1991-12-31

348

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11

349

A specific chromosome element, the telomere of Drosophila polytene chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The submicroscopic organization of terminal chromosome regions of Drosophila hydei polytene chromosomes is described. A compact region composed of tightly packed fibrils of 100 to 125 Å diameter embedded in an amorphous material is located at each of the chromosome ends of the 5 long chromosome arms. From this compact region, sometimes containing cavities, fibrils extend onto the nearest normal

H. D. Berendes; G. F. Meyer

1968-01-01

350

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation.

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

351

Equipment Management Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

1992-01-01

352

Mapping the phytoplasma chromosome.  

PubMed

Physical and genetic mapping of the phytoplasma chromosome can be a useful tool in a genome sequencing project in order to assemble the in silico-predicted contigs robustly. Mapping consists of four distinct steps: preparation of phytoplasma chromosomes from infected plants, single- and double-digestion of chromosomes with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, separation of large DNA fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with various genetic markers. Materials and methods needed for each step are described and the technique is illustrated using the flavescence dorée phytoplasma genome map as an example. PMID:22987434

Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Carle, Patricia

2013-01-01

353

Chromosome 20 Sequenced  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists announced Wednesday that they had deciphered chromosome 20, the largest of the three chromosomes to be sequenced thus far. Researchers hope that this latest advance by the Human Genome Project will help explain why some people are more susceptible to diseases such as diabetes or obesity. Also the gene that seems to make some a higher risk for Cruetzfeldt--Jakob Disease, the human version of Mad Cow Disease, is found on chromosome 20. The Human Genome Project is an international research effort to map and sequence the human genome. Scientists at The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England completed the sequencing, and their work is published in Nature magazine.

2001-01-01

354

Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

2012-01-01

355

Welfare to Work: Reaching a New Workforce. A Guide of Welfare to Work Resources and Services for Puget Sound Area Employers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The guide is a listing of welfare to work resoures and services for Puget Sound area employers seeking to hire welfare recipients. This guide will assist you in your efforts to meet welfare to work goals and coordinate services for your business by employ...

1999-01-01

356

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.  

PubMed

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

2012-01-01

357

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

2012-01-01

358

Profiles of Victimized Women Among the Child Welfare Population: Implications for Targeted Child Welfare Policy and Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the call to address domestic violence along with child maltreatment, little information exists to guide services for\\u000a victimized women involved with child welfare. Research shows that victimized women contend with multiple problems stemming\\u000a from violent victimization. Unfortunately less is known about combinations of needs and resources among victimized women,\\u000a especially for those involved with child welfare. Through an examination

Patricia L. Kohl; Rebecca J. Macy

2008-01-01

359

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

360

Commiphora molmol in human welfare (review article).  

PubMed

The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon ... the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus writes, in the second half of the first century BC, that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance; even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." He also mentioned gold mines so pure that no smelting was necessary. The Magi, carrying myrrh, frankincense, and gold, came from the East: Arabia. The frankincense trade route, with transport by donkeys and later by camel caravans, reached Jerusalem and Egypt from the Dhofar region of what is today Oman, through Yemen, turning north to follow the Red Sea coast. It is likely that the same or similar species of the resin-bearing plants grew across the Red Sea in the area that is now Somalia and Ethiopia, while the collection of the gum resins was initiated in Arabia. Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. This review selected some but not all of the value application of myrrh (Commiphora molmol). PMID:17985580

Al-Mathal, Ebtsam M

2007-08-01

361

Generic drug names and social welfare.  

PubMed

This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling. PMID:23418366

Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

2013-06-01

362

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

363

The EQUIP Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. This article recaps some key points about EQUIP, a Positive Peer Culture (PPC)-based cognitive behavioral intervention program for behaviorally at-risk youth, and notes how the program has…

Gibbs, John C.; Potter, Granville Bud; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Devlin, Renee

2008-01-01

364

Lennox - Student Training Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

365

Wet ash removal equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet ash removal equipment in which a trough is filled with quenching water. An immersion member attached to the ash funnel is immersed into the quenching water. A side wall of the trough is sealed by a plate. The plate is supported upon a height-adjustable rod linkage and is guided in its movement on the side of the trough arrangements

H. Buchmuller; B. Michelbrink

1985-01-01

366

Personal Protective Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To have an effective safety program one manager must be responsible for its coordination First-line supervisors must be convinced of the hazard and must be held accountable for their employees use of personal protective equipment A safety program for new ...

1998-01-01

367

STDN ranging equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

Jones, C. E.

1975-01-01

368

SEX CHROMOSOME ACTIVATION DURING SPERMATOGENESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

INACTIVATION of chromosomal elements is a process which takes place in various organisms, cell types, and cell cycle stages. The reasons for chromosome inactivation, which is superimposed on the more specific level of gene control, are different for the various systems. Dosage compensation in female mammals us. mitotic chromosome shut-off are the extreme cases. Since in many systems every chromosome

E. LIFSCHYTZ

1974-01-01

369

Genetic markers on chromosome 7.  

PubMed Central

Chromosome 7 is frequently associated with chromosome aberrations, rearrangements, and deletions. It also contains many important genes, gene families, and disease loci. This brief review attempts to summarise these and other interesting aspects of chromosome 7. With the rapid accumulation of cloned genes and polymorphic DNA fragments, this chromosome has become an excellent substrate for molecular genetic studies.

Tsui, L C

1988-01-01

370

Incidence of Chromosome Disorders  

PubMed Central

A minority of conceptions result in live births. Of recognized conceptions, 15% result in spontaneous abortions, up to 60% of which are due to chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of the different disorders is given. Of live births, one in 200 suffers a chromosome abnormality. The common abnormalities are described with their incidence. The effect of maternal age on this incidence is pronounced, but even so must be kept in proportion for counselling purposes.

Valentine, G. H.

1979-01-01

371

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

PubMed Central

Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II) were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

2010-01-01

372

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.

BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

2011-01-01

373

Public welfare agenda or corporate research agenda?  

PubMed

As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict.There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests.Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers.Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research.It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to be resisted at all costs. In this even pliant researchers need have no fear, for if they indeed publish what will work, the concerned sponsor will benefit in the long run. The only decision academia has to make is refuse to comply with predestined conclusions of sponsors for the 'thirty pieces of silver'. Instead do genuine research and make sixty for themselves.The useful rule of thumb is: Keep the critical antenna on, especially with regard to drug trials, and more especially their methodology, and study closely the conflict of interest disclosed, and if possible undisclosed, before you jump on the band wagon to herald the next great wonder drug.There are three important lessons to be learnt by academia in all academia-industry relationships:i)LESSON NUMBER ONE: incorporate the right to publish contrary findings in the research contract itself. Which means, it makes great sense for academia to concentrate on the language and contractual provisions of sponsored research, to read the fine print very closely, and protect their research interests in case of conflict.ii)LESSON NUMBER TWO: a number of lawsuits successfully brought up against industry recently reflect earnest attempts by patient welfare bodies and others to remedy the tilt. It will result in a newfound confidence in academia that augurs well for academia industry relationship in the long run. Hence the second lesson for academia: do not get browbeaten by threats of legal actioniii)LESSON NUMBER THREE: Academia should keep itself involved right from inception of the clinical trial through to ultimate publication. And this must be an integral part of the written contract.The time to repeat cliches about the exciting future of the academia-industry connect is past. A concerted effort to lay a strong foundation of the relationship on practical ethical grounds has become mandatory. PMID:22679348

Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

2005-03-01

374

Everything about Construction Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

375

GPS Equipped Sonobuoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonobuoys equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) prove extremely useful when calibrating underwater sonar systems. Hermes Electronics Inc., in collaboration with Defence Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA) has developed such a buoy. The sonobuoy is a modified version of Hermes AN\\/SSQ53D(2) DIFAR sonobuoy. Modifications include de-sensitizing the acoustic r eceiver, installing a commercial GPS engine, and providing an electronic interface

Gregory J. Baker; Y. R. M. Bonin

376

Policy Manual - Other Equipment  

Cancer.gov

Ultraviolet light (UV) is defined as electromagnetic radiation in the spectral region between 180 and 400 nanometers (nm). Immediate or prolonged exposure to UV light can result in painful eye injury, skin burn, premature skin aging, or skin cancer. Typical laboratory equipment with the capacity to emit non-ionizing UV wavelengths includes biological safety cabinets (BSCs), transilluminator boxes and UV crosslinkers. Exposure to UV light possess a serious threat to both the eye and skin.

377

Advanced service equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter-based service equipment needs/usage are identified by considering a broad spectrum of on-orbit operational scenarios associated with three primary mission events: initial launch, revisits, and Earth return. Nominal and alternate modes of operation, contingency situations (as remote manipulator system inoperative), and Orbiter close proximity operations are included. Satellite classes considered are direct delivery and servicing of the orbiter, low Earth orbiter/propulsion, sorties and DOD, geosatellites, and planetary and other satellites.

Mockovciak, J., Jr.

1982-01-01

378

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2009-10-01

379

45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section...requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope...and local appropriated funds for child welfare services under title...

2010-10-01

380

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2010-01-01

381

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures... Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures. (a) After-the-fact notice of public welfare...

2009-01-01

382

Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?  

PubMed

Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden. PMID:11155559

Bergmark, A

2000-01-01

383

The Animal Welfare Act: From Enactment to Enforcement  

PubMed Central

Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the ‘Age of Enforcement.’ As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection.

Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

2012-01-01

384

Associations Between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development Among Young Children in Child Welfare  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12–47 months old investigated by CW agencies for possible abuse or neglect. Analyses used descriptive statistics to characterize developmental and behavioral status across four domains (developmental/cognitive, language, adaptive functioning, and behavior) by intensity of CW involvement (in-home with CW services, in-home with no CW services or out-of-home care) over time. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between independent variables (age, gender, home environment, race/ethnicity, maltreatment history, intensity of CW involvement) and follow-up domain scores. Results On average, children improved in developmental/cognitive, communication/language status over time, but these improvements did not differ by intensity of CW involvement. Analyses revealed a positive relationship between the home environment and change in language and adaptive behavior standard scores over time, and few predictors of change in behavioral status. An interaction between intensity of CW involvement and initial developmental/cognitive status was present. Conclusions Across domains, intensity of CW involvement does not appear to have a significant effect on change in developmental and behavioral status, although out-of-home care does have differential relationships with children’s developmental/cognitive status for those with very low initial cognitive/developmental status. Facilitating development in children in CW may require supportive, enriched care environments both for children remaining at home and those in foster care. Practice Implications Toddler and preschool age children known to child welfare are likely to have difficulties with development whether they are removed from their homes or not. It would be helpful if child welfare workers were trained to screen for developmental, language, adaptive behavior and behavioral difficulties in children in foster care, and those remaining at home. Additional support for biological, foster, and kinship caregivers in encouraging development is important for the attainment of critical developmental skills, especially for children with developmental difficulties.

Stahmer, Aubyn C; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K

2009-01-01

385

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

386

8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT RIGHT AND ENTRANCE AT LEFT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

387

A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.  

PubMed

A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development. PMID:24555902

Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

2014-03-01

388

Taking action on racial disproportionality in the child welfare system.  

PubMed

Mirroring national trends, children of color in Washington state's King County are overrepresented at every point in the child welfare system and fare worse by most measures than are Caucasian children. The King County Coalition on Racial Disproportionality was formed to reduce and ultimately eliminate racial disproportionality in the county's child welfare system. The research-based strategies implemented to address the issue focused on children in care longer than two years. They included participation in the Breakthrough Series Collaborative on Racial Disproportionality, implementation of benchmark hearings, and development of Champions for Permanence. Now in the beginning stages, perhaps the most significant success is heightened awareness within the community of the disparate outcomes for children of color in the child welfare system. PMID:18972945

Clark, Patricia; Buchanan, Jackie; Legters, Lyman

2008-01-01

389

Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.  

PubMed

This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor. PMID:20845585

Soares, Jorge

2010-01-01

390

Welfare, Tax Burden and Fiscal Balance in Artificial Societies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan's social security system is facing a crisis by short-sighted policies to balance of the accounts in a financial crisis. However, such a balance of accounts does not necessarily bring remedy of financial difficulties. If it is possible to reduce the social security payments because the weak become independent, it is considered that short-sighted reforms cause a further financial crisis. This study explores how welfare and tax burden influence fiscal balance using multi-agent simulations. The results of simulation show that fiscal balance is improved by high-welfare than a cut in fiscal expenditures, and that welfare reducing is impossible unless the three relations of social configuration (market, obligatory, and communal relations) function in balance with each other.

Kikuchi, Toshiko

391

Chimpanzee Chromosome 13 Is Homologous to Human Chromosome 2P.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes are shown by chromosome banding techniques and somatic cell hybridization techniques. Cell hybrids were obtained from the chimpanzee lymphocyte LE-7, and the Chinese hamster mutant cell, Gal-2. Experim...

N. C. Sun C. R. Y. Sun T. Ho

1977-01-01

392

Evaluating Privatized Child Welfare Programs: A Guide for Program Managers. Topical Paper Number 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fourth paper in a series of topical papers on the privatization of child welfare services. In 2006, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation funded the Child Welfare Privatization Initiatives Project to provide informa...

2008-01-01

393

The Importance of Postsecondary Training for Welfare To Work: Initiatives at the Community College of Aurora.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that academic skills, in addition to job skills, are crucial for taking people off the welfare rolls. Discusses postsecondary training programs and services for welfare recipients at the Community College of Aurora in Colorado. (NB)

Higgins, Daniela

2001-01-01

394

76 FR 30437 - Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents for Service of Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Traditional Tribe of Texas, Connie Valenzuela, Director Indian Child Welfare, 286...E-mail: tribe.org">connie.valenzuela@ktttribe.org. Kickapoo Tribe of...Traditional Tribe of Texas, Connie Valenzuela, Indian Child Welfare Director,...

2011-05-25

395

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

396

Chromothripsis: Chromosomes in Crisis  

PubMed Central

Summary During oncogenesis, cells acquire multiple genetic alterations that confer essential tumor-specific traits, including immortalization, escape from anti-mitogenic signaling, neovascularization, invasiveness, and metastatic potential. In most instances, these alterations are thought to arise incrementally over years if not decades. However, recent progress in sequencing cancer genomes has begun to challenge this paradigm, as a radically different phenomenon, termed chromothripsis, has been suggested to cause complex intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements on short timescales. In this article, we review established pathways crucial for genome integrity and discuss how their dysfunction could precipitate widespread chromosome breakage and rearrangement in the course of malignancy.

Jones, Mathew J.K.; Jallepalli, Prasad V.

2012-01-01

397

Getting Equipped and Staying Equipped, Part 2: Finding the Funds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how school libraries can fund computer equipment; gain assistance from high-tech businesses; develop business partnerships and foundations; lease equipment; accept equipment donations; fund raise; build money into the budget; and communicate school needs with budget voters. Sidebars include leasing advice; resources for parent-teacher…

Jordahl, Gregory; Orwig, Ann

1995-01-01

398

Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and\\/or with low-informative\\u000a C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea.\\u000a To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on\\u000a chromosomes and for artificial impairment

O. V. Muravenko; A. V. Zelenin

2009-01-01

399

Animal welfare and society concerns finding the missing link.  

PubMed

Young adults in developed countries are distanced from agriculture and the meat industry needs to do a better job of communicating with them. A major welfare concern is slaughter without stunning. Other concerns, such as poor stunning or high levels of bruising, can be easily corrected by management who is committed to maintaining high standards. Another concern is biological system overload, occurring when animals are bred for more productivity. Researchers and industry need to determine optimum production levels instead of maximums. Retailers are major drivers of animal welfare standards enforcement and they respond to pressure from both activists and consumers. PMID:24928166

Grandin, Temple

2014-11-01

400

Characterization of chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis by chromosome conformation capture  

PubMed Central

Background The packaging of long chromatin fibers in the nucleus poses a major challenge, as it must fulfill both physical and functional requirements. Until recently, insights into the chromosomal architecture of plants were mainly provided by cytogenetic studies. Complementary to these analyses, chromosome conformation capture technologies promise to refine and improve our view on chromosomal architecture and to provide a more generalized description of nuclear organization. Results Employing circular chromosome conformation capture, this study describes chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis nuclei from a genome-wide perspective. Surprisingly, the linear organization of chromosomes is reflected in the genome-wide interactome. In addition, we study the interplay of the interactome and epigenetic marks and report that the heterochromatic knob on the short arm of chromosome 4 maintains a pericentromere-like interaction profile and interactome despite its euchromatic surrounding. Conclusion Despite the extreme condensation that is necessary to pack the chromosomes into the nucleus, the Arabidopsis genome appears to be packed in a predictive manner, according to the following criteria: heterochromatin and euchromatin represent two distinct interactomes; interactions between chromosomes correlate with the linear position on the chromosome arm; and distal chromosome regions have a higher potential to interact with other chromosomes.

2013-01-01

401

Swedish pig producers and their perspectives on animal welfare: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the views of Swedish pig producers concerning animal welfare, the schemes practised for animal welfare in Sweden, and the ramifications of animal welfare for Swedish retailers and consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Swedish study for animal welfare covers a pig-production sector of 2,794 producers (2005). The pig production study was one

Karl Bruckmeier; Madeleine Prutzer

2007-01-01

402

Animal based parameters are no panacea for on-farm monitoring of animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

On-farm monitoring of animal welfare is an important, present-day objective in animal welfare science. Scientists tend to focus exclusively on animal-based parameters, possibly because using environment-based parameters could be begging the question why welfare has been affected and because animal-based parameters would be better indicators of welfare. However, selection of even the best animal-based parameters that have conventionally been used

M. B. M. Bracke

2007-01-01

403

The Mental Health Benefits of Work: Do They Apply to Welfare Mothers with a Drinking Problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A longstanding tradition of employment-related research has shown the mental health advantages of employment. However, given\\u000a welfare reform mandates for employment and a welfare population with disproportionately high rates of depression and co-occurring\\u000a substance abuse problems, it is unclear if women on welfare reap this advantage. This analysis draws on 4 years of data from\\u000a the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study to

Denise Zabkiewicz; Laura A. Schmidt

2009-01-01

404

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

405

Automotive Maintenance Equipment in Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study contains the market potential in Thailand for mechanical equipment and hand tools used in the testing and repairing of automotive equipment. No attempt has been made for a definitive survey outside the capital city, but motor vehicle registratio...

1965-01-01

406

Automotive Maintenance Equipment in Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This survey assesses the market potential in Thailand for mechanical equipment and hand tools used in the testing and repairing of automotive equipment. No attempt has been made for a definitive survey outside the capital city, but motor vehicle registrat...

1964-01-01

407

Financial Aspects of Equipment Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are many financial and equipment choices available today for agencies to satisfy the level and duration of equipment needs for key maintenance operations. Before applying the financial acquisition methods discussed in this Circular, it is important ...

2002-01-01

408

Chromosome Mapping in Staphylococcus Aureus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genome of Staphylococcus aureus was mapped by enumerating mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine during synchronous chromosomal replication following release from phenethanol inhibition. Both chromosomal replication time and cell division time were 120 m...

R. A. Altenbern

1968-01-01

409

Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

Soudek, D.

1974-01-01

410

Science-based management of livestock welfare in intensive systems: looking to the future.  

PubMed

As welfare is a multidimensional concept, its assessment should be a multidisciplinary process, providing a comprehensive assessment of animal welfare in any given system. The different measurable aspects of welfare may be turned into welfare indicators and assessed in a scientific manner. Assessment of welfare may combine different approaches that include the assessment of the production system and measurement of animal-based welfare indicators. With both approaches, however, risk managers face difficulties related to the availability of resources for implementing regulations and training staff. Most animal-based welfare indicators have the advantage that they can be measured whatever the production system; they relate to the animal's experience of its own state. It is essential to confirm the reliability of the measures and their robustness to ensure valid welfare assessment, especially for a science-based management approach. Many welfare indicators, even those measured at the individual level, are expressed at group level, as a proportion of the animals. This allows benchmarking and following of trends over time. The decision on what is or is not acceptable from a welfare point of view is an ethical or managerial one. The advantage of a graded welfare indicator is that it allows different thresholds to be set by different people, countries or organisations, depending on the purpose of the assessment. The development of a set of harmonised international welfare indicators for global trade is also discussed. PMID:25000787

Vannier, P; Michel, V; Keeling, L J

2014-04-01

411

The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 4, Number 2, Fall/Summer 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Link" is a periodical published by the Child Welfare League. The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization, committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families, and protecting every child from harm. This issue of "The…

Child Welfare League of America (NJ-L1), 2005

2005-01-01

412

Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

413

Work, welfare, and young children's health and behavior in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we investigate the effects of welfare receipt and employment on the health and behavioral outcomes of 3-year-old children whose mothers received welfare during the course of the child's life. Employed mothers who are no longer receiving welfare report better health and behavioral outcomes for their children; however, OLS and instrumental

Cynthia Osborne; Jean Knab

2007-01-01

414

A Study on the Effects of Education Welfare Action Zone Policy in Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to analyze the effects of the support programs provided in education welfare action zones. Education welfare action zone policy came into effect by government from 2003 to guarantee actual educational opportunity to disadvantaged children in urban areas by providing educational, cultural, and welfare service. Education…

Lee, Hae-young

2008-01-01

415

A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic, political, technological and socio-cultural factors which interact with each other. This creates enormous complexity, generates a

P. T. M. Ingenbleek; H. J. Blokhuis; A. Butterworth; L. J. Keeling

2011-01-01

416

Measuring and monitoring animal welfare: Transparency in the food product quality chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare is of increasing significance for European consumers and citizens. Previously, agricultural production focused mainly on supply, price and competition but consumers now expect their food to be produced and processed with greater respect for the welfare of the animals. Food quality is therefore determined by the welfare status of the animals from which it was produced as well

H. J. Blokhuis; R. B. Jones; R. Geers; M. Miele; I. Veissier

2003-01-01

417

The expanding role of animal welfare within EU legislation and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare is being accorded an increasingly important role in today's civil society. Within the EU, this has been enshrined within the specific “Protocol on Protection and Welfare of Animals” annexed to the EC Treaty, obliging Member States and the EU Institutions to pay full regard to the welfare of animals when formulating and implementing Community legislation. There is a

R. Horgan; A. Gavinelli

2006-01-01

418

Impact of Animal Welfare on Costs and Viability of Pig Production in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union welfare standardsfor intensively kept pigs have steadilyincreased over the past few years and areproposed to continue in the future. It isimportant that the cost implications of thesechanges in welfare standards are assessed. Theaim of this study was to determine theprofitability of rearing pigs in a range ofhousing systems with different standards forpig welfare. Models were constructed tocalculate

H. L. I. Bornett; J. H. Guy; P. J. Cain

2003-01-01

419

Ethics, domestic food policy and trade law: assessing the EU animal welfare proposal to the WTO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to rising consumer interest in the well-being of animals used in commercial food production, the European Union (EU) has been increasing its animal welfare standards. This does nothing, however, to inform consumers of the welfare standards that have been applied to food that is imported. Satisfying consumers’ desire to know about foreign animal welfare standards, however, will require

A. L. Hobbs; J. E. Hobbs; G. E. Isaac; W. A. Kerr

2002-01-01

420

Animal welfare in poultry production systems: impact of EU standards on world trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare receives more legislative attention in the European Union (EU) than in many other regions of the world. Animal welfare standards for poultry are generally taken to be higher in the EU than in producing countries exporting to the EU, particularly developing countries. The recent action plan for animal welfare introduced by the European Commission aims to further expand

Horne van P. L. M; T. J. Achterbosch

2008-01-01

421

Evaluation of minimum animal welfare conditions in national standards and farm certification schemes for pig fattening  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at assessing the status of animal welfare in Austria and Germany as it is regulated by private, national, and European animal welfare legislation. In order to achieve this, an inventory of existing private and state-driven animal welfare certification schemes that are relevant for fattening pigs in Austria and Germany is done, and the overlap between legislative and

D. N. Annen; C. Wieck; M. Kempen

2011-01-01

422

Farmer attitude toward improvement of animal welfare is correlated with piglet production parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of stockmanship has a major influence on farm animal welfare and productivity. Farmers' attitudes are reflected in their behavior toward animals which, in turn, affects animal behavior, welfare and productivity. Yet attitudes toward behaviors that are positive for the animal's welfare have been neglected in previous studies on farmers' attitudes. Our objective was to examine the relationship between

Tiina Kauppinen; Kari Mikko Vesala; Anna Valros

423

Animal welfare in poultry production systems: impact of European Union standards on world trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Animal welfare receives more legislative attention in the European Union (EU) than in many other regions of the world. Animal welfare standards for poultry are generally taken to be higher in the EU than in producing countries exporting to the EU, particularly developing countries. The recent action plan for animal welfare introduced by the European Commis- sion aims to

P. L. M. Van Horne; T. J. Achterbosch

424

Attitudes to Farm Animal Welfare: Factor Structure and Personality Correlates in Farmers and Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have

Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey

2005-01-01

425

Fluctuating asymmetry as an animal welfare indicator — A review of methodology and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) reflects an animal's ability to cope with the sum of challenges during its growing period and, thus, is a potential welfare indicator. In this review we investigate the evidence of associations between FA and other welfare indicators measured at the level of the individual and of effects of welfare-relevant environmental conditions on

U. Knierim; S. Van Dongen; B. Forkman; F. A. M. Tuyttens; M. Špinka; J. L. Campo; G. E. Weissengruber

2007-01-01

426

Attitudes to Farm Animal Welfare Factor Structure and Personality Correlates in Farmers and Agriculture Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the there is considerable public interest in farm animal welfare, relatively little work has been done on the welfare attitudes of farmers. We describe the development of a welfare attitude scale, the EFAWS. The factor structure and correlates of this scale were examined in Scottish pig and sheep farmers, and in agriculture students. The EFAWS was found to have

Elizabeth J. Austin; Ian J. Deary; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Dale Arey

427

Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1984-96, welfare and tax policy changed dramatically. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, training programs were redirected, and subsidized or free child care was expanded. Many of the program changes were intended to encourage low income women to

Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

1999-01-01

428

A Stock-Flow Analysis of the Welfare Caseload: Insights from California Economic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, the welfare caseload peaked and then declined by about half. The decline occurred simultaneously with a robust economic expansion and a series of major welfare reforms. This paper reconsiders the methods used in the previous studies to explain these changes. The authors explicitly model the welfare caseload as the net outcome of past flows onto and off

Jacob A. Klerman; Steven J. Haider

2001-01-01

429

Characteristics of Young Parents Investigated and Opened for Ongoing Services in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses a national child welfare dataset to examine the profile of young parents who are the subject of maltreatment-related investigation and to identify which factors determine service provision from the child welfare system at the conclusion of the investigation. Specifically, it examines how workers in the child welfare system decide…

Fallon, Barbara; Ma, Jennifer; Black, Tara; Wekerle, Chris

2011-01-01

430

The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 4, Number 3, Winter 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Link" is a periodical published by the Child Welfare League. The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization, committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families, and protecting every child from harm. This issue of "The…

Child Welfare League of America (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

431

Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

2009-01-01

432

Welfare: Who Should be Entitled to Public Help? 1985 National Issues Forum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appropriate for secondary school social studies or community programs, this publication considers the issue of welfare in the United States. The first of five sections, "Reassessing the Welfare State," looks at the history of welfare in America since Franklin Roosevelt and assesses the need for reexamining policy. "The Generous Revolution" looks…

Melville, Keith; Longman, Phillip

433

Evaluation of an Innovative Social Work Education Model: The Kentucky Public Child Welfare Certification Program (PCWCP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated the effectiveness of the Public Child Welfare Certification Program, a specialized child welfare program delivered in bachelor of social work (BSW) curricula across the state of Kentucky. This evaluation gathered data for 10 years on satisfaction with the program, preparation for work in the state's child welfare agency,…

Barbee, Anita; Sullivan, Dana; Borders, Kevin; Antle, Becky; Hall, J. Christopher; Fox, Steve; Moran, Erin Beth

2009-01-01

434

Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

2007-01-01

435

Enabling Access to Welfare Services - the Place of Social Solidarity and Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The welfare state in the UK presents immigrant communities with a set of institutions, which are potentially new and unknown. What is the best way to ensure that the questions of access tothe welfare institutions are best managed? Trusting, understanding and feeling solidarity with the welfare state will obviously help with this problem. In order to shed ,light on

Rachana Patni

436

Working with Me, Working at Me: Fathers' Narratives of Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the experiences of fathers involved in the child welfare system. Fathers who were interviewed as part of a multiyear Canadian project were atypical in that they were actively engaged with the child welfare system. Their stories show how, although not always physically present, child welfare's ghostly form is still very much a part of the daily lives

Susan Strega; Leslie Brown; Marilyn Callahan; Lena Dominelli; Christopher Walmsley

2009-01-01

437

The Role of Interagency Collaboration for Substance-Abusing Families Involved with Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meeting the needs of families who are involved with the child welfare system because of a substance abuse issue remains a challenge for child welfare practitioners. In order to improve services to these families, there has been an increasing focus on improving collaboration between child welfare, treatment providers, and the court systems. This…

Green, Beth L.; Rockhill, Anna; Burrus, Scott

2008-01-01

438

A "Third Way" in Welfare Reform? Evidence from the United Kingdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. welfare reforms, whether promoting work first or human capital development, have had in common an emphasis on employment as the key to improving the life chances of children living in single-mother families. We describe in this article a different type of reform--a "third way" in welfare reform. The welfare reforms carried out in the United…

Hills, John; Waldfogel, Jane

2004-01-01

439

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.240 Section...PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program and...requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? (a) General...linkpages/tegltein.htm. The Internet reporting system for WtW...

2009-04-01

440

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.240 Section...PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program and...requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? (a) General...linkpages/tegltein.htm. The Internet reporting system for WtW...

2013-04-01

441

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645.240 Section...PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General Program and...requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? (a) General...linkpages/tegltein.htm. The Internet reporting system for WtW...

2010-04-01

442

Caseworker-Recipient Interaction: Welfare Office Differences, Economic Trajectories, and Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on developmental and policy research, this study examined whether 3 dimensions of caseworker-recipient interaction in welfare offices functioned as critical ecological contexts for recipient families. The sample consisted of 1,098 families from 10 welfare offices in National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies (NEWWS). In multilevel…

Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

443

Repeatability of lameness, fear and slipping scores to assess animal welfare upon arrival in pig slaughterhouses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EU project Welfare Quality (R) proposes an overall assessment system for animal welfare based on animal outcomes. The objective of this study was to test inter-observer reliability (IOR) when assessing lameness, fear and slipping and falling scores as parameters for monitoring the welfare of killing pigs during arrival at the slaughterhouse. Two Belgian and two Spanish slaughterhouses were visited

A. Dalmau; N. A. Geverink; A. Van Nuffel; L. van Steenbergen; Reenen van C. G; V. Hautekiet; K. Vermeulen; A. Velarde; F. A. M. Tuyttens

2010-01-01

444

For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

445

Welfare to Well-Being Framework for Research, Education, and Outreach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a systems approach to reframe welfare assistance as well-being for the many, not welfare for the few. The framework outlines the state of family economic functioning (crisis, at risk, safe, thriving), type of welfare assistance (entitlement, subsidy, self-sufficiency, sustainability), poverty levels (below, at, 150%, 200%), and supports…

Bauer, Jean W.; Braun, Bonnie; Olson, Patricia D.

2000-01-01

446

Fish welfare: a challenge to the feelings-based approach, with implications for recreational fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish welfare issues are increasingly appearing on social and political agendas and have recently gained prominence in fisheries literature. By focusing on examples from recreational fishing, this paper challenges some of the previous accounts of fish welfare. Issues of concern encompass: (1) the feelings-based approach to fish welfare; (2) the artificial divide between human beings and nature; and (3) ways

Robert Arlinghaus; Steven J. Cooke; Alexander Schwab; Ian G. Cowx

2007-01-01

447

Chromosome banding in Amphibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA flow cytophotometric measurements demonstrate that the quantity of nuclear DNA of the South American leptodactylid frog Pleurodema brachyops is 3.4 times greater than that of P. thaul. Nevertheless, the conventionally stained karyotypes of both species are nearly identical. In the metaphase chromosomes of P. brachyops, the chromatin has a distinctly higher degree of packaging than in those of P.

M. Schmid; C. Steinlein; W. Feichtinger; M. Poot

1993-01-01

448

Mutation of Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the mutation of chromosomes. A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, such DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation can improve an organism's chance of surviving and passing the beneficial change on to its descendants.

Excellence, Access

2005-03-12

449

Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

Samouhos, E.

1983-08-01

450

Sex Chromosomes and Speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of reproductive isolation between animal species have shown (i) that if one sex of the hybrids between two species is sterile or inviable, it is usually the heterogametic sex (Haldane's rule), and (ii) the genes on the sex chromosomes play a particularly large role in hybrid sterility and inviability. We propose an explanation for these two observations which is

Eva Jablonka; Marion J. Lamb

1991-01-01

451

The Y Chromosome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

Offner, Susan

2010-01-01

452

Fully automatic chromosome segmentation.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with automatic segmentation of high resolution digitized metaphases. This includes automatic detection and rejection of interphase nuclei, stain debris, and other "noise"; automatic detection and segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosome clusters; and automatic rejection of cells which are evaluated as being incomplete, or incorrectly segmented, or where the cell is otherwise unsuitable for further analysis. In this paper, a rule-based approach is described which treats the cell as a whole rather than as a series of individual chromosomes or clusters. The rules adapt classification and segmentation parameters for each cell. Initially, different sets of parameters are chosen according to the staining method of the cells, and the goal of the segmentation. A chromosome number predictor is used to guide the adaptation of the parameters and to estimate the performance. The adaptation is iterative, and the self-adjustment will stop when either a satisfactory result is achieved or if the cell is rejected. The method was implemented on both a Sun workstation and a Cytoscan, a commercial machine for chromosome analysis. Seven hundred and thirteen cells from real data have been tested. A success rate of 90-95% has been achieved. The procedure has been implemented in an automatic aberration scoring system for routine use. PMID:7851156

Ji, L

1994-11-01

453

Sex chromosomes and human growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on tooth crown size and structure of individuals with various sex chromosome anomalies and their normal male and\\u000a female relatives have demonstrated differential direct effects on growth of genes on the human X and Y chromosomes. The Y\\u000a chromosome promotes growth of both tooth enamel and dentin, whereas the effect of the X chromosome on tooth growth seems to

Lassi Alvesalo

1997-01-01

454

Image Completion for Overlapping Chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a novel approach to image completion for overlapping chromosomes. In our system, only given missing regions, the task can be performed automatically without human intervention. We address the problem of image completion for overlapping chromosomes in the context of a discrete global optimization problem. In order to reconstruct the original chromosome image as faithfully as

Xiuzhuang Zhou; Yao Lu; Ziye Yan

2008-01-01

455

Chromosomal abnormalities and mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linkage studies of mental illness have provided suggestive evidence of susceptibility loci over many broad chromosomal regions. Pinpointing causative gene mutations by conventional linkage strategies alone is problematic. The breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities occurring in patients with mental illness may be more direct pointers to the relevant gene locus. Publications that describe patients where chromosomal abnormalities co-exist with mental illness

D J MacIntyre; D H R Blackwood; D J Porteous; B S Pickard; W J Muir

2003-01-01

456

Comparative painting of mammalian chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative chromosome painting has shown that synteny has been conserved for large segments of the genome in various placental mammals. Advances such as spectral karyotyping and multicolour ‘bar coding’ lend speed and precision to comparative molecular cytogenetics. Reciprocal chromosome painting and hybridisations with probes such as yeast artificial chromosomes, cosmids, and fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation allow subchromosomal assignments of

Johannes Wienberg; Roscoe Stanyon

1997-01-01

457

Lunar mining equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains preliminary concepts for mining and beneficiation of lunar regolith from a 50 metric ton/day mine. Assumptions for the design are outlined below. Lunar regolith is the material to be mined. Since it is already a fine-grained material, the two steps of crushing and breakup from a rock surface are eliminated. The size of the operation was set at 50 metric tons of regolith/day for a three-year period. Operations will occur around the clock to make most efficient use of equipment, thus we assume 24 hr/day. For simplicity we have assumed that the lunar regolith has a uniform density of 1.68 and that it can be mined to a depth of 6 m. No research was done on power supply or distribution. It was left to others to consider the various trade-offs between nuclear and solar power and to design the needed utility system.

Bekkedahl, S.; Breidenbach, T.; Brown, M.; Francis, C.; Freeman, J.; Scharnott, M.; Thon, R.

1989-01-01

458

Orbital construction support equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements. The scenarios were used to perform a functional analysis, which resulted in the definition of 100 distinct SPS elements. These elements are the components, parts, subsystems, or assemblies upon which construction activities take place. The major SPS elements for each configuration are shown. For those elements, 300 functional requirements were identified in seven generic processes. Cumulatively, these processes encompass all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. Individually each process is defined such that it includes a specific type of activity. Each SPS element may involve activities relating to any or all of the generic processes. The processes are listed, and examples of the requirements defined for a typical element are given.

1977-01-01

459

Characterization equipment essential drawing plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed.

WILSON, G.W.

1999-05-18

460

Welfare Regimes for Aging Populations: No Single Path for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider recent trends in pension policies in OECD countries in light of demographic aging associated with welfare regime type (Liberal, Social Democratic, Continental, and Southern European). These regime types represent different responsibilities assumed for social security on the part of the market, the state, and the family. While there are significant differences in labor market characteristics, the demographic similarities

Mehmet F. Aysan; Roderic Beaujot

2009-01-01

461

Work and Welfare Patterns in Low Income Families.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using data from the New Jersey Graduated Work Incentive Experiment and from the University of Michigan Panel Study on Income Dynamics, this study investigates the work and welfare patterns of low income persons. Types of patterns are identified and an att...

B. L. Friedman L. J. Hausman

1975-01-01

462

Barriers to Effective Financial Management among Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 35 welfare recipients determined perceptions of internal and external barriers to effective financial management. External barriers include policies that do not allow earnings and savings to go above a certain level. Internal barriers may include feelings of helplessness and loss of control. (JOW)

Marlowe, Julia; And Others

1996-01-01

463

The Risk Climate and the Delivery of Child Welfare Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the assumption that a relationship exists between public county-based child welfare agencies in Pennsylvania and their environments, this study draws clues as to the nature of this relationship from (1) a review of the literature, and (2) a multivariate analysis of agency service delivery measures and social and demographic variables.…

Cornelius, Sandra; Baker, Timothy

464

Welfare Reform on Rosebud Reservation: Challenges for Tribal Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with low-income, American Indian, single parents on the Rosebud Reservation in Todd County, South Dakota, included families who were on and who had left Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. Welfare reform issues discussed included transportation problems; access to affordable, quality child care; food insecurity; and the scarcity of…

Biolsi, Thomas; Cordier, Rose; Two Eagle, Marvine Douville; Weil, Melinda

2002-01-01

465

Food insecurity among psychiatric patients and welfare clients in Israel.  

PubMed

Background: Twenty-two percent of households in Israel experience food insecurity, and it is especially widespread in socio-economically distressed strata. Although their low socio-economic status renders psychiatric patients at risk for food insecurity, this issue has thus far been ignored in both practice and research. Objective: To explore food insecurity among psychiatric patients in comparison with welfare-services clients in order to raise awareness of food insecurity in this population. Method: 114 respondents were recruited from among patients admitted to the emergency room and hospitalized in a mental health center in Beer Sheva; 555 respondents were recruited from among low-income clients of welfare service agencies in the Beer Sheva area. All respondents were surveyed with a self-report questionnaire and with the Food Security Core Survey Module (FSCSM). Results: Forty percent of psychiatric patients and 59% of welfare-services clients reported food insecurity. The use of formal and informal support systems was lower among food-insecure psychiatric patients than among food-insecure welfare clients. Conclusions: Psychiatric patients appear to be a risk population for food insecurity; therefore planned interventions and specific food programs are called for. PMID:24622478

Kaufman, Roni; Mirsky, Julia; Witztum, Eliezer; Grisaru, Nimrod

2013-01-01

466

The Welfare Reform Debate: Implications for Child Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shifts in child care policies are on the horizon. Congress has passed landmark changes in federal welfare programs that will have a major impact on the demand for child care and require states to re-examine many of their current child care policies. This paper by the Children's Defense Fund is intended to help child care advocates understand the…

Blank, Helen

467

Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

468

Child Welfare, the Private Sector, and Community-Based Corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

After more than a decade of carrying out a community-based juvenile correctional policy, it is useful to stand back and gain perspective on how this policy has been implemented. From national data the following facts about implementation are readily apparent: Implementation is strongly associated with private sector dominance; alternatives are linked to the child welfare system, as well as the

Paul Lerman

1984-01-01

469

Evaluation of advanced transit alternatives using consumer welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various combinations of advanced public transportation systems (APTS), including advanced transit information, demand responsive transit, and personal rapid transit, are evaluated by applying traditional travel and emissions criteria as well as consumer welfare and equity criteria. A state-of-the-practice regional travel demand model is used to simulate the travel effects of the APTS technologies in the Sacramento region for the year

Caroline J. Rodier; Robert A. Johnston; David R. Shabazian

1998-01-01

470

Welfare of extensively farmed animals: principles and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1994 a meeting was held in Edinburgh, UK, on the welfare of extensively farmed animals and this paper is an overview of that meeting including summaries of the discussions, workshops and conclusions. First the general principles involved were considered, and then the practice in two contrasting areas: the European Community and New Zealand. Workshops then considered Theoretical frameworks,

A. B. Lawrence; M. C. Appleby

1996-01-01

471

Animal welfare: the attitudes and behaviour of European pig farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the behaviour and attitudes of European pig producers towards animal welfare. It looks at the relationship of these factors with farmers' understanding of good farming and production logic, together with national characteristics of production, and market and policy arrangements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article synthesises the results of six

B. B. Bock; M. M. van Huik

2007-01-01

472

Animal Welfare and the Sustainable Use of the Vicuña  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter addresses the topics of animal welfare (which is based on the wellbeing of the individual animal) and sustainability of use (which is based on population level effects on the species in question). Sustainability in a wider context also embraces social, economic and cultural issues that influence management and con

Cristian Bonacic; Jessica Gimpel; Pete Goddard

473

Definition of criteria for overall assessment of animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare is multidimensional, comprising good health, comfort, expression of behaviour, and so on. Its overall assessment therefore requires a multicriteria evaluation. The set of criteria shall be exhaustive (no missing item), minimal (only necessary items), agreed by stakeholders, and legible (a limited number of criteria). Furthermore, the interpretation from one criterion shall not depend on that from another. We propose

R. Botreau; I. Veissier; A. Butterworth; M. B. M. Bracke; L. J. Keeling

2007-01-01

474

Animal welfare and colony management in cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of animals in cancer research continues to be important for the study of tumor biology, the development and testing of new therapies, and risk assessment. The new knowledge generated from this research contributes to the health and welfare not only of human beings, but also of animals which develop cancer. However, the use of animals for cancer research

Stephen P. Schiffer

1997-01-01

475

Effects of animal welfare standards on consumers' food choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, besides the food quality characteristics – the nutritional content, hygienic standards of foods, food additives, agrochemicals – that continue to attract the interest of the consumers, additional ethical factors like animal welfare, animal rearing and origin, and environmentally friendly production are playing an important and determinant role in consumers' food choices.Thus, the main aim of this paper is to

Efthimia Tsakiridou; Helen Tsakiridou; Konstadinos Mattas; Evdoxia Arvaniti

2010-01-01

476

Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is derived from a larger scale project investigating consumer attitudes towards organic food in the UK. Presents focus group results on consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to two key interrelated food trends: organic food and animal welfare. The results indicate that consumers often confuse organic and free-range products because they believe that “organic” is equivalent to

Gemma C. Harper; Aikaterini Makatouni

2002-01-01

477

Impacts of confinement and research needs to underpin welfare standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confinement and its impacts The meaning of the term confinement requires some consideration, as like the term welfare, it is open to interpretation. Wild animals are generally considered to be free- roaming and in that sense are not usually considered to be confined. However, this may not be the case for wildlife living in isolated fragments of habitat or wildlife

John L. Barnett

478

Animal Welfare Beyond the Cage … and Beyond the Evidence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In “Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside the Cage,” Balcombe (2010\\/this issue) suggests that laboratory cage housing is damaging to rats and mice because it does not meet their evolved needs and may damage their psychological and physical health. The article also indicates that larger and more enriched spaces reduce aggression and mortality and improve the health and friendliness of rodents

Robert J. Blanchard

2010-01-01

479

Journal Editorial Policies, Animal Welfare, and the 3Rs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the editorial policies of a randomized sample of English language peer-reviewed journals that publish original research involving the use of animals. The aim is to identify whether journals have editorial policies relating to the use of animals in the research that they are prepared to publish and whether any policies are likely to promote animal welfare and

Nicola J. Osborne; Daisy Payne; Michael L. Newman

2009-01-01

480

Animal behaviour, animal welfare and the scientific study of affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many questions about animal welfare involve the affective states of animals (pain, fear, distress) and people look to science to clarify these issues as a basis for practices, policies and standards. However, the science of the mid twentieth century tended to be silent on matters of animal affect for both philosophical and methodological reasons. Philosophically, under the influence of Positivism

David Fraser

2009-01-01

481

FOB OR UNIFORM DELIVERED PRICING: STRATEGIC CHOICE AND WELFARE EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most spatial markets, firms use either FOB or uniform delivered pricing, so the competitive factors motivating this choice and its welfare implications are important research questions. Prior work on duopoly using inelastic demands leads to biased results and our model on duopsony with elastic supply eliminates the bias.

Mingxia Zhang; Richard J. Sexton

1999-01-01

482

Incontinence Pad Usage in Medical Welfare Facilities in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose The prevalence of urinary incontinence and the usage of incontinence pads by elderly residents in Korean medical welfare facilities were investigated. Methods From a total of 1,832 facilities, 33 medical welfare facilities in the capital area were randomly selected; all nursing homes were excluded. All data were collected by questionnaires to investigate the residents' age and sex, the presence or absence of urinary incontinence, incontinence pad usage per month, and management methods for urinary incontinence. Surveys were also conducted from January 2010 to August 2010. Results A total number of residents in medical welfare facilities were 2,783, and all of them were selected for this study. Approximately, 65.3% of residents (1,816 individuals) had incontinence. The mean usage was 75 incontinence pads per month. Only 15.6% of residents received proper management for urinary incontinence, while the remaining 84.4% of residents did not have any experience in evaluating or managing their urinary symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of urinary incontinence in medical welfare facilities in Korea was about 65.3%. However, the management of urinary incontinence was insufficient. Urologists should make further efforts for the proper management of urinary incontinence in elders in these facilities.

Lee, Sang Hyub; Kang, Ji Soon; Kim, Jeong-Wha

2013-01-01

483

The Child Welfare Response to Serious Nonaccidental Head Trauma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serious nonaccidental head trauma (NHT) can leave permanent neurological damage in children who survive abuse. This study reports on child welfare's handling of NHT cases compared with cases of physical abuse and head trauma due to neglect with regard to placement in foster care, reunification with family, and safety issues. The results show that…

Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Bilaver, Lucy A.

2004-01-01

484

Case reopening: an emerging issue in child welfare services.  

PubMed

A retrospective longitudinal study of the frequency and correlates of case reopening in a child welfare population revealed that one-third of all closed cases were reopened. Predictors of reopening were the child's age, ethnicity and prior agency experience. PMID:590043

Claburn, W E; Magura, S; Chizeck, S P

1977-12-01

485

Behaviors of Youth Involved in the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Using data from a nationally representative panel study, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), we address the following questions: (a) What are the youth, family, community, and child welfare system risk factors that place youth (ages 11-14 years) living at home, who are referred for maltreatment, at increased…

Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Ortega, Robert M.; Clarke, Jenell

2008-01-01

486

Child Welfare Involvement among Children in Homeless Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of 8,251 homeless children in New York City found that 18% of them received child welfare services over the five-year period following their first shelter admission, and an additional 6% had a history of having received such services before their first shelter admission. Recurrent use of public shelters, exposure to domestic violence,…

Park, Jung Min; Metraux, Stephen; Brodbar, Gabriel; Culhane, Dennis P.

2004-01-01

487

From Welfare to Work: Lessons for ESL Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan guide is designed to be used by English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers to help their learners deal with new welfare legislation--Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)--and to prepare them for the world of work. Learners at the high beginner to low intermediate level and above will benefit from this instruction. All…

Green, Elaine

488

Will employers hire welfare recipients? Recent survey evidence from Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present data from a survey of 900 employers in Michigan during 1997. The survey was designed to gauge employer demand for welfare recipients. The results show that, given the tightness of labor markets there, the prospective demand for recipients is quite high-employers report that 3 percent of all jobs currently, and almost 9 percent over the

Harry J. Holzer

1999-01-01

489

Taking Action on Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mirroring national trends, children of color in Washington state's King County are overrepresented at every point in the child welfare system and fare worse by most measures than are Caucasian children. The King County Coalition on Racial Disproportionality was formed to reduce and ultimately eliminate racial disproportionality in the county's…

Clark, Patricia; Buchanan, Jackie; Legters, Lyman

2008-01-01

490

Economic and Welfare Impacts of Climate Change on Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of

Paul Winters; Rinku Murgai; Elisabeth Sadoulet; Alain de Janvry; George Frisvold

1998-01-01

491

The effect of groundwater allocation on economic welfare loss.  

PubMed

Water scarcity has become a constraint for regional economic development in many cities and regions. Water rationing serves as one instrument to constrain water consumption to persuade users to save water and to moderate their consumption. When the supply of water is unable to satisfy demand, a loss of welfare for the water users will usually occur. This paper conducts an empirical case study on a Chicago suburban county, McHenry County, to evaluate effective water allocation strategies under possible water scarcity scenarios, by specifically taking into consideration of the economic welfare loss under water rationing. It points out the inefficiency of equal rationing and tests a more effective optimal rationing regime which could significantly lower the overall welfare loss for McHenry County. Instead of a conventional watershed-based approach that would provide little advantage for an area that mostly relies on groundwater, this study adopts regional planning/political boundaries as its spatial analytical units. The outcomes suggest that municipality-level water resources management models, powered under economic welfare objective functions, are both possible and practical. The planning strategy drawn under such optimization models suggests a variety of promising approaches to manage groundwater resources at county scales. PMID:23036236

Wan, Jun; Yang, Yi-Chen E; Lin, Yu-Feng F

2013-01-01

492

Measuring Performance in Child Welfare: Secondary Effects of Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Draws on findings from evaluations of recent reform initiatives in Alabama, North Carolina, and Ohio to suggest that performance-measurement systems for state child-welfare programs must adapt to changing circumstances, especially when improvements in one area can influence standards and expectations in others. (Author/KB)

Usher, Charles L.; Gibbs, Deborah A.; Wildfire, Judith B.

1999-01-01

493

Mental Health Problems among Child Welfare Clients Living at Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The great majority of children receiving intervention from child welfare and protection services (CWS) in Norway live at home. The purpose of this study was to assess mental health problems among these children. Data stem from a population-based study, the Bergen child study, conducted in 2006. Of a sample consisting of 4,162 children in the fifth…

Iversen, Anette Christine; Jakobsen, Reidar; Havik, Toril; Hysing, Mari; Stormark, Kjell Morten

2007-01-01

494

Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.  

PubMed

In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. PMID:21899562

Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

2011-09-01

495

Does Welfare Reform Affect Fertility? Evidence from the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents evidence on the fertility effect of welfare from a set of reforms that took place in the UK in 1999 and that substantially increased support for poorer families with children. The reforms, including the introduction of the Working Families Tax Credit and an increase in means-tested income support, raised benefits by up to 10 per cent of

Mike Brewer; Anita Ratcliffe; Sarah Smith

2007-01-01

496

Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

497

Governing welfare reform symbolically: evidence based or iconic policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports findings from an ethnographic study of welfare reform in which the discursive negotiation of policy implementation at the local level was key to understanding the phenomenon of unintended consequences. Using policy give-aways or ‘freebies’ as a primary source of data, the article demonstrates how, despite the rhetoric of evidence based policy and practice, the meanings of policy

Pam Carter

2011-01-01

498

Parents in substance abuse treatment: Implications for child welfare practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse treatment in parents of young children is an important element of child welfare services. This study compares the predictive factors of post-treatment drug use in organizational, service and individual characteristics between parents and non-parents, mothers and fathers. The analysis sample is derived from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), a longitudinal study designed to evaluate the implementation

Jeanne C. Marsh; Dingcai Cao

2005-01-01

499

A Welfare Analysis of Climate Change Mitigation Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses some welfare consequences of climate change mitigation policies. In the same vein as Becker, Philipson and Soares (2005), a simple index of economic progress weighs in the monetary cost induced by mitigation policies as well as the health benefits arising from the reduction in local air pollution. The shadow price of pollution is calculated indirectly through its

Alain de Serres; Fabrice Murtin

2011-01-01

500

Work, Income, and Material Hardship after Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of women who went off welfare between 1997 and 1998 (n=753, 693) showed that those with the most work involvement over the year had higher levels of financial and subjective well-being. Regardless of work involvement, substantial numbers reported serious economic difficulties and financial strain. Many still needed income supplements and…

Danziger, Sandra; Corcoran, Mary; Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.

2000-01-01