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1

[Voluntary testing procedures of farm animal housing equipment according to the Animal Welfare Act of 1998].  

PubMed

Before its broad application in practice, housing equipment should be tested, in particular with regard to animal welfare. The differing positions of the German Federal Council (Bundesrat) and the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag), whether such testing should be mandatory or voluntary, have been conciliated in the amended animal welfare act by empowering the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries (BML) to fix official standards for voluntary testing procedures by regulation. On request of the BML, a report as scientific basis for a draft regulation is currently prepared by the scientific animal welfare committee of the German Agricultural Society (DLG). The scientific animal welfare committee has been appointed by the DLG in order to provide support in the effort to strengthen animal welfare aspects in the DLG-utility testing procedure of housing equipment, which is in place since 1953. The committee elaborates standards concerning testing methods, assessment criteria and the necessary size of investigations. As required, the scientific animal welfare committee may support the DLG-testing bodies in the implementation of the animal welfare part of the testing procedure. It will, moreover, be involved in the welfare assessment based on the testing results. The amendments of the already established testing procedure will help to fulfill the general requirements on an acceptable animal welfare testing procedure. While keeping in mind that there are certain limits in what can be achieved by a voluntary testing procedure, the enhanced consideration of animal welfare aspects within the DLG-utility testing procedure has the advantage to be relatively unbureaucratic and in line with EU legislation, and is, therefore, an appropriate tool for a contibrution to improved animal welfare in livestock housing. PMID:10354641

Hesse, D; Knierim, U; von Borell, E; Herrmann, H; Koch, L; Müller, C; Rauch, H W; Sachser, N; Schwabenbauer, K; Zerbe, F

1999-04-01

2

Welfare Behaviorism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the political movement to alter welfare behavior through changes in welfare reform and discusses the outcomes of several welfare reform initiatives. Explores welfare-to-work; Learnfare; and Learning, Earning, and Parenting. Also discusses research in social engineering efforts involving child support enforcement and time limits.…

Stoesz, David

1997-01-01

3

Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly agreed that social welfare ideas and philosophies emanate from many faith traditions, the complex\\u000a link between religion and social welfare merits careful examination. Prowelfare values only set the overall social expectations;\\u000a they do not create formal social welfare programs. Helping the needy can range from a one-time help for a known neighbor to\\u000a the establishment of

Ram A. Cnaan; Charlene C. McGrew

4

Welfare's End.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the 1920s, progressive women activists invented welfare to help mothers and their children survive when breadwinning fathers either died or abandoned their families. During the 1930s, the local mothers' pension programs of the Progressive Era became part of the emerging national welfare state, which was conceived to relieve poor single…

Mink, Gwendolyn

5

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

6

Family welfare programme.  

PubMed

Tamil Nadu is the first Indian State to recognize the basic relevance of family planning to national planning. It was given national awards for outstanding work in family planning for every year except 1964 from 1961 to 1967, and from 1973 to 1976. Family planning activity was initiated in large maternity hospitals as a postpartum program. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was first implemented in Tamil Nadu. 141 institutions have been certified for the operation. An oral pill program is being implemented in all the rural and urban family welfare centers including the hospitals. The family welfare program has been fully integrated with the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) program which has created confidence among people that their children will be protected from health hazards. The MCH Schemes are conducted through primary health care (PHC) centers, urban family welfare centers, MCH centers, hospitals, and dispensaries. Dais are trained to improve the techniques of midwifery and aid delivery in a hygienic manner. Dais can also use their influence in the local community to further family planning. It is proposed to establish additional subcenters in selected districts to average 1/center/5000 population. The government continues to sponsor and fund equipment, facilities, and infrastructure to facilitate sterilization operations in primary health centers. PMID:12262521

Namadevan, V

1980-07-01

7

Race and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in

Michael Bonds

2006-01-01

8

Women on Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the ASI, a multi-dimensional survey instrument, data were collected on women in Florida's welfare program (WAGES). The women manifested serious problems in terms of physical and mental health, employment skills and childcare needs. Length of time on welfare was strongly associated with the severity of recipients' problems. Women with 2 + years on welfare were significantly more likely to

Jeffrey C. Merrill; Sarah Ring-Kurtz; Delia Olufokunbi; Sherril Aversa; Jennifer Sherker

2001-01-01

9

Zoo animal welfare.  

PubMed

The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource. PMID:8173098

Kohn, B

1994-03-01

10

Human stewardship and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare must be clearly defined and understood in all languages. Welfare means well-being, so that `bad-welfare' is contradictory. Welfare depends upon the provision of all necessary physiological and psychological requirements and the absence or control of adverse factors. Recognition of animals' sentience led to concerns for their welfare. Since animals can neither obtain nor sustain rights for themselves they

J. H Seamer

1998-01-01

11

Indian Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports descriptive characteristics of Indian child welfare programs organized to deal with new tribal responsibilities following passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Most programs consist of one to five staff with an administrator whose responsibilities also include casework. Program continuity is uncertain since funding comes from competitive grants. Although more than one-third of respondents report

Dale M. Wares; Kenneth R. Wedel; James A. Rosenthal; Antonia Dobrec

1994-01-01

12

Housing, Management and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses tend to be housed in loose boxes, stalls, barns and shelters for ease of management, however these systems present several possible threats to equine health and welfare. These systems are reviewed together with the concerns they raise. A common system for the evaluation of the welfare of contained animals focuses on the provision of five freedoms. These are freedom

D. Mills; A. Clarke

13

Welfare and property crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996 the U.S. federal government enacted a welfare reform bill aimed at reducing public assistance to the poor. This legislation may have implications for future levels of property crime. In this study we examine whether differences in levels of AFDC assistance and rates of welfare participation among 406 large metropolitan counties affected variation in burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle

Lance Hannon; James Defronzo

1998-01-01

14

Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

Einbinder, Susan; And Others

15

The Assessment Of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter adopts the perspective that welfare is based upon subjective states experienced by the animal, i.e. those equated with emotions and feelings. While current methods do not allow us to access any animal's mental state directly, indirect approaches can be used. One approach attempts to assess the welfare of a cat using behavioural and physiological measures of stress, while

Rachel A. Casey; John W. S. Bradshaw

16

45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities. 205.170 Section 205.170 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

2011-10-01

17

Issues in Welfare Reform.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography contains selected abstracts of documents on welfare reform issues. All of the approximately 40 documents are in the SHARE collection; most were published in the late 1970's. Documents range from journal articles to private foundation rep...

1980-01-01

18

Housing, Management and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horses tend to be housed in loose boxes, stalls, barns and shelters for ease of management, however these systems present\\u000a several possible threats to equine health and welfare. These systems are reviewed together with the concerns they raise. A\\u000a common system for the evaluation of the welfare of contained animals focuses on the provision of five freedoms. These are\\u000a freedom

D. S. Mills; A. Clarke

19

Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996.

Yunju Nam; William Meezan; Sandra K. Danziger

2006-01-01

20

Welfare of competition horses.  

PubMed

In the large majority of cases and circumstances, horses benefit from their association with man. However, abuse of horses can occur, due to neglect or through the pressures of competition. The welfare of all animals, including competition horses, has become increasingly topical over the past ten years. Equestrian sport is coming under closer public scrutiny due to reports of apparent abuse. The bodies responsible for regulating these sports strenuously endeavour to protect the welfare of horses which compete under their rules and regulations. The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI: International Equestrian Federation) is the sole authority for all international events in dressage, show-jumping, three-day event, driving, endurance riding and vaulting. The FEI rules illustrate the ways in which the welfare of competing horses is safeguarded. PMID:8173097

Atock, M A; Williams, R B

1994-03-01

21

Teenage Mothers and Welfare DependencyWorking Off Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the process by which teenage mothers work their way off welfare. Data come from the Baltimore Study, which followed a group of Black teenage mothers for 17 years after their first birth. Results revealed extensive labor market activity among the young mothers on welfare. Human capital investments are the key determinants of welfare exits through work. In

KATHLEEN MULLAN HARRIS

1991-01-01

22

Welfare Recipients' Involvement with Child Protective Services after Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method: Data come from the Women's Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city…

Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

2006-01-01

23

Thoughts on farm animal welfare  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Gestating sow welfare remains a complex and contentious issue in the US, and stakeholders keep calling for objective, scientific welfare assessments. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association recently published a Commentary that attempted to compare sow welfare in "the Swedish deep-...

24

Adolescent Outcomes and Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents research that examines potential effects of welfare reform on children in late childhood through adolescence. The research used the Survey of Program Dynamics to examine the links between outcomes for adolescents, source of income, mother's employment, and welfare reform. Specifically, the research examined how poverty status and family welfare receipt during middle childhood interact with current poverty

Eileen Trzcinski; Jerrold Brandell; Lynda Ferro; Deborah Smith

2005-01-01

25

Health insurance coverage after welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This DataWatch examines the health insurance coverage of former welfare recipients who left welfare between January 1995 and mid-1997, using data from the 1997 National Survey of America's Families. Although the major- ity of women who left welfare were working, only 33 percent of these women obtained health coverage through their jobs. Rates of uninsurance increase with the number of

Bowen Garrett; John Holahan

2000-01-01

26

45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...equipment with a current per-unit fair market value of less than...equipment with a current per unit fair market value in excess of...the purchase to the current fair market value of the...

2010-10-01

27

45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...equipment with a current per-unit fair market value of less than...equipment with a current per unit fair market value in excess of...the purchase to the current fair market value of the...

2009-10-01

28

Child Welfare Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the problem of children being at risk for placement by public child welfare systems into substitute care. It focuses on one state, Illinois, which has had considerable success in reducing its caseload. Risk factors are hypothesized. It presents research involving regression analysis of data for the city of Chicago. A cross-sectional design is utilized for a division

Arthur Horton

2002-01-01

29

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

30

Specialists in Welfare Offices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many welfare offices, a key component of the Family Violence Option (FVO) of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was the establishment of experts trained in domestic violence and the new policy. This study analyzes the effect an FVO expert has on three outcomes: domestic violence disclosures; administrative documentation of disclosures; and FVO waiver use. Findings

Andrea Hetling; Catherine E. Born

2006-01-01

31

Off Welfare, into Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

1991-01-01

32

Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

33

Child Welfare in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

1983-01-01

34

Multicultural Welfare Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each day, millions of poor men, women and children struggle to make ends meet in the United States. The public assistance system in the United States is designed as a temporary safety net to help the poor survive their bout with poverty as they make the transition back to solvency. Millions of welfare recipients are treated as an entity receiving

Cassie Mannix

1995-01-01

35

Welfare Reform and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

2005-01-01

36

Advertising and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies conventional welfare-theoretic methods to study advertising which changes consumer tastes. In a wide range of empirically plausible circumstances, private profitability is seen to be necessary but not sufficient for the social desirability of a small amount of advertising. The market equilibrium level of such advertising is shown to be socially excessive, even when postadvertising tastes are used

Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

1978-01-01

37

Training for Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1985 mandates training for a wide spectrum of individuals. A profile of each group of individuals requiring training is presented. These groups include students, animal caretakers, research and animal technicians, investigators, and principal investigators. An educational profile is provided for each group. Their educational needs are described, with examples of available training materials. This

Jean Larson

1988-01-01

38

Is Welfare Reform Succeeding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare Reform and the Earned Income Tax Credit have apparently caused a dramatic increase in the labor force participation rates of single parents. Between the first quarters of 1994 and 1998, labor force participation rates rose 25.4 percent for never-married women caring for children, rose 15.5 percent for mothers separated from their spouse and rose 4.9 percent for divorced single

John H. Bishop

1998-01-01

39

Death is a Welfare Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly asserted that “death is not a welfare issue” and this has been reflected in welfare legislation and policy\\u000a in many countries. However, this creates a conflict for many who consider animal welfare to be an appropriate basis for decision-making\\u000a in animal ethics but also consider that an animal’s death is ethically significant. To reconcile these viewpoints, this

James W. Yeates

2010-01-01

40

Keynes and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the question of what influence J.M. Keynes had on the evolution of the welfare state after the Second World War. First it weighs whether his non-utilitarian approach to economic theory and welfare measurement had an impact on the growth of the welfare state. Then it considers whether the influence came through Keynes’s advocacy of deficit spending. After

Roger E. Backhouse; Bradley W. Bateman

2012-01-01

41

Comparing welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparing Welfare States: Britain in International Context. Edited by ALLAN COCHRANE and JOHN CLARKE. London: Sage in association with the Open University, 1993. Pp.xiv + 274, index. £35 (hardback) ISBN 0–8039–8845–1, £12.95 (paperback) 0–8039–8846?X.Women Across Continents: Feminist Comparative Social Policy By LENA DOMINELLI. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. Pp.x + 351, biblio, index. NP (hardback). ISBN 0–7450–0336–2, £12.95 (paperback), 0–7450–0939–5.Divisions of

Chris Pierson

1995-01-01

42

Indian Child Welfare in Montana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

43

Child Welfare Services: A Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This sourcebook makes conveniently available the relevant materials on child welfare that were formerly scattered in conference proceedings, professional journals, government publications, and special meeting reports. The book is a supplementary tool for those interested in teaching and learning about child welfare and emphasizes research in this…

Kadushin, Alfred

44

Welfare Implications of User Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation by users is now understood to be an important part of innovative activity in the economy. In this paper we explore the implications of adding innovation by users to existing models of social welfare that currently assume innovation by manufacturers only. We find this addition removes several inefficiencies, and that social welfare is likely to be increased by the

Joachim Henkel; Eric von Hippel

2004-01-01

45

The Public Secrets of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourses surrounding the abolition of the federal welfare system provide an excellent opportunity to investigate instances in which people cling to erroneous beliefs in the face of clear proof of error. Gendered and racialized stereotypes abound in public discourse about welfare, and it is tempting to assume that those stereotypes remain in play because alternative information is not available.

Robert Pallitto

2010-01-01

46

Death in Public Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare workers are in a unique position to help children and youth in out-of-home care who have experienced the death of a significant person. This article discusses the response of children to death from a developmental perspective and offers suggestions on how child welfare workers can use an ecological perspective to help youngsters cope with their grief.

Nora S. Gustavsson; Ann E. MacEachron

2000-01-01

47

Patent replacement and welfare gains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patents were chosen in an era when modern public finance tools were unavailable. The same innovation outcomes can be achieved with higher welfare, if patent elements are replaced by modern features. This paper constructs two theoretical models of product innovation and simulates the welfare effects of replacing patents with an intertemporal-bounty arrangement. We find that replacing patents with this alternative

Earl L. Grinols; Hwan C. Lin

2011-01-01

48

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

49

The welfare of dairy buffalo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behav - ioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animal- related indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening

Giuseppe De Rosa; Fernando Grasso; Corrado Pacelli; Fabio Napolitano; Christoph Winckler

2009-01-01

50

Welfare Gain of Financial Liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial liberalization is a controversial issue. One of the reasons is that many empirical studies report conflicting views. So far, negligible effects were found in savings and lending, while positive effects in allocating capital efficiently. However, these regression based studies are not suitable to identify the true benefit, that is, welfare gain of the financial liberalization. We compute the welfare

Robert M Townsend; Kenichi Ueda

2006-01-01

51

Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse  

PubMed Central

The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization.

Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

2005-01-01

52

Chromosome Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature provides a microscopic view of the 24 Human chromosomes. Each chromosome is labeled with the names of some of the genetic conditions and traits associated with particular regions on that chromosome.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

53

An authorisation procedure for mass-produced farm animal housing systems with regard to animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, an authorisation procedure regarding animal welfare was introduced in Switzerland for mass-produced housing systems and equipment for farm animals. When asking for an authorisation, the manufacturer or importer of a housing system or equipment must send detailed documentation (plans, measures, technical data) to the Federal Veterinary Office. The authorisation can only be given if the housing system or

Beat Wechsler

2005-01-01

54

Optical Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a method for evaluation of optical equipment operational and functional performance characteristics. It identifies supporting tests, facilities, and equipment required. It provides procedures for safety, visual resolution range, infra...

1972-01-01

55

Welfare standards in hospital mergers.  

PubMed

There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control. PMID:22688439

Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

2012-06-12

56

Green accounting and the welfare gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gross domestic product (GDP) is not intended to be a measure of societal welfare, it is often used as such. One shortcoming as a welfare measure is that it fails to account for the non-marketed value of natural resource flows. The difference between societal welfare and GDP is labelled the ‘welfare gap’. A model that accounts for both market

Paul Turner; John Tschirhart

1999-01-01

57

Chromosome engineering: prospects for gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in chromosome engineering and the potential for downstream applications in gene therapy were presented at the Artificial Chromosome Session of Genome Medicine: Gene Therapy for the Millennium in Rome, Italy in September 2001. This session concentrated primarily on the structure and function of human centromeres and the ongoing challenge of equipping human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with centromeres to

B R Grimes; P E Warburton; C J Farr

2002-01-01

58

Welfare Implications of User Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation by users is now understood to be an important part of innovative activity in the economy. In this paper we explore\\u000a the implications of adding innovation by users to existing models of social welfare that currently assume innovation by manufacturers\\u000a only. We find this addition removes several inefficiencies, and that social welfare is likely to be increased by the

Joachim Henkel

2005-01-01

59

The Future of Poultry Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In contemplating the future of poultry welfare, one must be aware of the current situation in the context of how this issue\\u000a has evolved. From this perspective, one may project forward to identify opportunities for continued advancements and barriers\\u000a that must be negotiated. In this chapter, we will explore the development of poultry welfare as a topic of public concern

Suzanne T. Millman; Joy A. Mench; Anne E. Malleau

60

Sheep Welfare: A Future Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is every indication that animal welfare will continue to be a major issue affecting livestock farming in the future.\\u000a At the same time sheep farming is under pressure worldwide to become a lower-input farming enterprise. The drive to lower\\u000a inputs and, in particular, restrictions on labour could have important implications for animal welfare by reducing levels\\u000a of care and

A. B. Lawrence; J. Conington

61

Leapfrogging, Growth Reversals and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that leapfrogging and growth reversals entail sizeable welfare gains and losses, respectively, in an AK economy that cannot credibly commit to investment when borrowing from international financial markets. Small no-commitment delays originate a trade-off that has an ambiguous effect on welfare: they reduce the long-run consumption growth rate but increase the initial level of consumption that is optimally

Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Patrick-Antoine Pintus

2011-01-01

62

Animal welfare and international trade.  

PubMed

Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards. PMID:16358524

Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

2005-08-01

63

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-14

64

Intet-Generational Transfer of Welfare Dependency: Program Effects on Future Welfare Recipiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes how parental welfare participation affects the fertility and schooling decisions of children in welfare families (fertility and low earning potential are prerequisites for welfare dependency). Data from the National Longitudinal Survey...

J. J. Antel

1986-01-01

65

Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.  

PubMed

While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

2013-01-01

66

Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

67

Fungal chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are now four well-established methods to examine the chromosomes of filamentous fungi: mapping genes to linkage groups\\u000a by recombination analyses, light-microscopic observation of chromosomes in meiotic divisions, electron-microscopic observation\\u000a of the synaptonemal complexes between homologous chromosomes in prophase of meiosis, and separation of chromosomes as individual\\u000a bands by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. These techniques and their contributions are described

Edward G. Barry

1996-01-01

68

Health and welfare in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

Nordenfelt, Lennart

2011-02-05

69

Welfare Regimes, Welfare Systems and Housing in Southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are housing provision systems in southern Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece) different from those in northern Europe? Answering this question requires a way of theorizing housing systems, which locates them within their broader societal contexts. After setting out some of the key empirical differences between northern and southern, the paper reanalyses Esping-Andersen's work on welfare regimes and reviews housing-specific

Judith Allen

2006-01-01

70

Human Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Representation of the 23 paired chromosomes of the human male. Chromosome: a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism. a. Structure of a chromosome (Typical metaphase chromosome): A chromosome is formed from a single DNA molecule that contains many genes. A chromosomal DNA molecule contains three specific nucleotide sequences which are required for replication: a DNA replication origin; a centromere to attach the DNA to the mitotic spindle.; a telomere located at each end of the linear chromosome. The DNA molecule is highly condensed. The human DNA helix occupy too much space in the cell. Small proteins are responsible for packing the DNA into units called nucleosomes. b. Stained chromosomes: Chromosomes are stained with A-T (G bands) and G-C (R bands) base pair specific dyes. When they are stained, the mitotic chromosomes have a banded structure that unambiguously identifies each chromosome of a karyotype. Each band contains millions of DNA nucleotide pairs which do not correspond to any functional structure. Adapted from K.F. Jorgenson, J.H. van de Sande, and C.C. Lin, Chromosoma 68:287-302, 1978. c. Karyotype of a male: The human haploid genome contains 3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs, divided among twenty two (22) pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence;Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

2005-03-12

71

Corporate Welfare: The Third Stage of Welfare in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. Examining health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care,…

Stoesz, David

1986-01-01

72

Initial Welfare Spells: Trends, Events, and Duration, with Implications for Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mother's initiation of welfare receipt is a key event for understanding the dynamics of welfare receipt and the likely consequences of welfare reform legislation passed in 1996. Using 28 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we conduct a number of related analyses of first welfare spells. We first examine trends in the number and

Johanne Boisjoly; Kathleen Mullan Harris; Greg J. Duncan

73

Gaining Ground? Measuring the Impact of Welfare Reform on Welfare and Work. Civic Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is the first in a series documenting the actual results of welfare reform, examining changes in the welfare and work participation of single mothers. Data come from the annual March supplement to the U.S. Current Population Survey. Results find that the number of families on welfare declined by 50 percent between passage of welfare

O'Neill, June E.; Hill, M. Anne

74

Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

2002-01-01

75

Lost Ground: Poverty, Welfare Reform and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid-1980s, the popularity of Charles Murray's anti-welfare treatise Losing Ground signaled the rising influence of the right-wing critique of welfare. In Lost Ground: Welfare Reform, Poverty and Beyond, a respected array of social scientists buck the conservative trend established by Murray and his cohorts, exposing welfare reform as a sham and positing new strategies to end poverty.\\u000aSince

Randy Albelda; Ann Withorn

2002-01-01

76

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

77

Welfare Reform and the Caseload Decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay Douglas J. Besharov and Peter Germanis trace what is known about the large decrease in welfare recipiency and what families are doing after they leave welfare. According to them, welfare offices have been transformed from places where mothers are automatically signed up for benefits to places where mothers are helped (and at times pressured) to get a

Douglas J. Besharov; Peter Germanis

2007-01-01

78

Transitions in welfare participation and female headship  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the 1990, 1992, 1993 and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to examine how welfare policies and local economic conditions contribute to women's transitions into and out of female headship and into and out of welfare participation. It also examines whether welfare participation is directly associated with longer spells of headship.

John M. Fitzgerald; David C. Ribar

2005-01-01

79

The policy context of the welfare debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an examination of whether welfare program use is more responsive to economic conditions of need or to characteristics of program supply. The results of an analysis of growth in a major US welfare program illustrate that these forces do not operate independently of one another. Instead, welfare participation dynamics reflect economic need only in those jurisdictions where

J P Jones III; J E Kodras

1986-01-01

80

Welfare programs and the state economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare policy has been controversial and support is often drawn along political affiliation lines, the economic return of investment in welfare programs is frequently cited as a justification for new and expanded policies. To investigate the direct and indirect effects of welfare programs on economic performance, the authors develop a multilink approach, through employment and investment. The relationship is then

Bruce D. McDonald; D. Ryan Miller

2010-01-01

81

Assessment of pain and welfare in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare is the combination of subjective and objective (qualitative and quantitative) aspects of the conditions of life for animals, including health and disease, behaviour, husbandry and management, and is thus, a complex and abstract construct. Many definitions of farm animal welfare exist, but it is recognized that many prevalent inflammatory diseases are a major contributor to adverse welfare worldwide.

J. Fitzpatrick; M. Scott; A. Nolan

2006-01-01

82

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

83

Internet Advertising, Game Theory and Consumer Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to consider the implications of Internet advertising, for prospective consumer welfare gains\\/losses. The implications of imperfect information among buyers are discussed to highlight the role of intermediaries and search agents in enhancing consumer welfare in a world of complex products and uncertainty. The argument demonstrates that despite possessing welfare enhancing potential the retailing of

Marcus Chi-hung Ling; Kevin Lawler

2001-01-01

84

Animal Welfare Assessment in Cattle Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different methodologies to evaluate animal welfare in cattle farms were proposed in last years. An Italian research team has recently developed a new methodology to assess animal welfare in dairy and beef cattle farms. The system called FWI (Farm Welfare Index, Italian letters IBA) is based on a specific check list for each different category of animal. The check list

Matteo Barbari; Alessandro Gastaldo; Paolo Rossi; Paolo Zappavigna

85

Immigration and income redistribution in welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sets out a political economy model where median voters who benefit from local income redistribution are affected by the fiscal burden of welfare payments to immigrants. The median voters also have cultural preferences. Immigrants are influenced in their relocation decision by welfare benefits in host countries. Uncoordinated, coordinated and leader–follower domestic welfare policies are compared. In the last

Jørgen Drud Hansen

2003-01-01

86

Literacy, Welfare & Work: Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between literacy, welfare, and work was examined in an exploratory study that included a literature review and focus group interviews with a total of 17 literacy instructors and 10 literacy students from two locations in Manitoba: Winnipeg and Brandon with the rural area surrounding it. Particular attention was paid to the…

Smith, Janet

87

The Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

Steward, Katy Jo

88

What Works in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

89

Work and Welfare: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report observes that the economic outlook for the nation appears dim and that the continuing recession is driving more clients onto welfare while inflation is magnifying the cost to the government and diminishing the value of payments to the recipient...

M. Lowenthal

1971-01-01

90

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

91

Class, Culture, Poverty, and Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper seeks to assess the extent to which the concepts of social class and culture are useful in understanding poverty and welfare dependency, and in particular for understanding the inheritance of poverty and dependency from one generation to the nex...

L. Rainwater

1987-01-01

92

Dietary nitrogen and fish welfare.  

PubMed

Little research has been done in optimizing the nitrogenous fraction of the fish diets in order to minimize welfare problems. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on how amino acid (AA) metabolism may be affected when fish are under stress and the possible effects on fish welfare when sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations are used to feed fish. In addition, it intends to evaluate the current possibilities, and future prospects, of using improved dietary nitrogen formulations to help fish coping with predictable stressful periods. Both metabolomic and genomic evidence show that stressful husbandry conditions affect AA metabolism in fish and may bring an increase in the requirement of indispensable AA. Supplementation in arginine and leucine, but also eventually in lysine, methionine, threonine and glutamine, may have an important role in enhancing the innate immune system. Tryptophan, as precursor for serotonin, modulates aggressive behaviour and feed intake in fish. Bioactive peptides may bring important advances in immunocompetence, disease control and other aspects of welfare of cultured fish. Fishmeal replacement may reduce immune competence, and the full nutritional potential of plant-protein ingredients is attained only after the removal or inactivation of some antinutritional factors. This review shows that AA metabolism is affected when fish are under stress, and this together with sub-optimal dietary nitrogen formulations may affect fish welfare. Furthermore, improved dietary nitrogen formulations may help fish coping with predictable stressful events. PMID:22212981

Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Dias, Jorge; Costas, Benjamín; Terova, Genciana; Martins, Catarina; Tort, Lluis

2012-01-03

93

Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

94

What Works in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

95

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue as there is little empirical evidence for its positive effects on economic growth. However, we find sizable welfare gains, 1 to 28 percent of permanent consumption though, consistent with the literature, the gain in the economic growth is ambiguous, -0.2 to 0.7 percent. We apply a canonical growth model with endogenous financial deepening

Robert M. Townsend; Kenichi Ueda

2007-01-01

96

Welfare Dynamics under Time Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model

Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

2000-01-01

97

Welfare Dynamics Under Time Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model

Jeffrey Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

1999-01-01

98

Literacy, Welfare & Work: Preliminary Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relationship between literacy, welfare, and work was examined in an exploratory study that included a literature review and focus group interviews with a total of 17 literacy instructors and 10 literacy students from two locations in Manitoba: Winnipeg and Brandon with the rural area surrounding it. Particular attention was paid to the…

Smith, Janet

99

Popular paradigms and welfare values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on the results of a recently completed ESRC research project, this article advances three principal arguments. First, unprecedented social polarization in Britain and other liberal democracies in the last quarter of the 20th century now constitute poverty and wealth as socially constructed forms of exclusion from the realm of 'ordinary' citizenship. Second, that as the welfare state gives way

Hartley Dean

1998-01-01

100

Network Effects and Welfare Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the role of social networks in welfare participation. Social theorists from across the political spectrum have argued that network effects have given rise to a culture of poverty. Empirical work, however, has found it difficult to distinguish the effect of networks from unobservable characteristics of individuals and areas. We use data on language spoken to better

Marianne Bertrand; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Sendhil Mullainathan

1998-01-01

101

Network Effects and Welfare Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper empirically examines the role of social networks in welfare participation. Social theorists from across the political spectrum have argued that network effects have given rise to a culture of poverty. Empirical work, however, has found it difficult to distinguish the effect of networks from unobservable characteristics of individuals and areas. We use data on language spoken to better

Marianne Bertrand; Erzo F. P. Luttmer; Sendhil Mullainathan

1999-01-01

102

Data Mining in Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

2000-01-01

103

Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.  

PubMed

This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners. PMID:23409340

Pimpare, Stephen

2013-01-01

104

Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.  

PubMed

Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

2011-07-28

105

Improvement of the Welfare of Broilers by Changes to a Mechanical Unloading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Assessing the impact on broiler welfare of mechanized poultry-handling equipment in commercial plants is not readily amenable to normal research techniques. This study, comparing 2 versions of a tipping-type unloader for broiler transport containers, has successfully compared qualitative and quantitative techniques. Closed circuit television was used to record images of broilers during the unloading process. For the quantitative analysis,

D. Tinker; P. Berry; R. White; N. Prescott; S. Welch; J. Lankhaar

106

Welfare Dynamics under Time Limits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 are time limits, which provide consumers with an incentive to conserve their welfare benefits for future use. Among forward-looking, expected-utility-maximizing consumers who face liquidity constraints and earnings uncertainty, economic theory predicts that the incentive to conserve should be strongest among families with

Jeffrey Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

2003-01-01

107

Welfare effects of illegal immigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the welfare effect of illegal immigration on the host country within a dynamic general equilibrium framework\\u000a and shows that it is positive for two reasons. First, immigrants are paid less than their marginal product, and second, after\\u000a an increase in immigration, domestic households find it optimal to increase their holdings of capital. It is also shown that

Theodore Palivos

2009-01-01

108

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

109

Chromosomal Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

110

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

111

Glossary Term Detail : Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare and Animal Welfare Assurance  

Cancer.gov

Skip navigation.. Extramural Glossary Advanced Search Quick Nav: Terms Terms (PDF Format) Acronyms Help About Contact Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare and Animal Welfare Assurance NIH office overseeing compliance with the PHS Policy on Humane

112

Survey of Social Welfare Personnel in Public and Private Social Welfare Organizations in Kentucky.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A questionnaire on present and future recruitment and staffing patterns in 142 social welfare organizations indicated that public agencies employed more Master of Social Work degree holders than private agencies, that both types had more non-social welfar...

D. McClure

1971-01-01

113

Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?  

PubMed

We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted. PMID:17668326

Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

2007-01-01

114

Fallacies of Welfare-to-Work Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One main effort of welfare reform is to replace public assistance with earnings. To date, politicians and welfare reform advocates have applauded the efforts and claimed success. However, lurking at the surface of welfare-to-work policies are serious problems and structural impediments. Lack of jobs, low pay, job-readiness, and difficulties in securing ancillary supports like transportation and child care are obvious

Randy Albelda

2001-01-01

115

Terrorism in the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution investigates the link between welfare policies and domestic terrorism for 15 Western European countries during 1984-2003. We argue that welfare policies improve national socio-economic conditions and thus increase the opportunity costs of terrorism. We investigate whether spending in certain policy fields translates into a reduction of terrorism, and whether certain worlds of welfare capitalism [Esping-Andersen (1990)] are more

Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

2009-01-01

116

Terrorism in the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution investigates the link between welfare policies and do- mestic terrorism for 15 Western European countries during 1984-2003. We argue that welfare policies improve national socio-economic condi- tions and thus increase the opportunity costs of terrorism. We investigate whether spending in certain policy …elds translates into a reduction of ter- rorism, and whether certain worlds of welfare capitalism (Esping-Andersen

Tim KriegerDaniel Meierrieksy

117

Welfare Issues Associated with Ratite Husbandry Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter examines some of the methods being used to assess welfare in ratites, identifies the welfare issues associated\\u000a with declawing and highlights concerns with stockperson skills and brooder house management. Partial amputation of the toes\\u000a of ratites has welfare implications. It causes ratites acute pain; they become flatfooted and change their gait and they can\\u000a slip and fall over

P. C. Glatz

118

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

119

Mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

Mining equipment for steering the cutting horizon of a mining machine cutter which is mounted on a ranging arm and which in use makes repeated traverses along the working face, comprises a boom urged into contact with the mine roof formed on a previous traverse of the machine. The boom is urged towards the mine roof by a ram hydraulically connected to a piston and cylinder device such that movement of the piston of the device is in accordance with that of the ram. Movement of the piston rod activates a flow control valve controlling operation of a ram controlling ranging of the arm.

Ford, J.A.; Whittaker, R.A.

1985-07-30

120

Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage  

PubMed Central

We investigate the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 3,219), we employ an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a non-marital birth. We find that welfare participation reduces the likelihood of transitioning to marriage (hazard ratio is .67, p < .01), but only while the mother is receiving benefits. Once the mother leaves welfare, past receipt has little effect on marriage. We infer that the negative association between welfare participation and subsequent marriage reflects temporary economic disincentives rather than an erosion of values.

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2011-01-01

121

Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

122

Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as proposed by Esping-Andersen, to the field of higher education. The article tests whether there are

Nienke Willemse; Paul de Beer

2012-01-01

123

Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee

Jörgen Hansen; Magnus Löfström

2000-01-01

124

Client Evaluation of Three Welfare ProgramsA Comparison of Three Welfare Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three welfare programs—Social Security, Public Welfare, and Unemployment Compensation—are compared with respect to client evaluations of services received. To structure this comparison, an independent variable of administrative program is derived from three components, namely, climate, technology, and clientele. Data on client evaluation are obtained from exit interviews of clients as they leave welfare offices. A hypothesized order of client satisfaction

Charles T. Goodsell

1980-01-01

125

The Perceptions of Welfare Reform by Michigan Families Whose Children Have Disabilities and Welfare Caseworkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines family and caseworker perceptions of welfare reform and services as they relate to families who have a child with a disability. Interviews were conducted with 39 families and 77 caseworkers. Family questions addressed their perceptions of the welfare system, factors impacting their self-sufficiency, and their perceptions of needed program changes. Caseworker questions addressed their perceptions of welfare

Barbara W. Leroy; Donna M. Johnson; Nathaniel Israel

2004-01-01

126

Images of Welfare in Law and Society: The British Welfare State in Comparative Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post?war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship

Daniel Wincott

2011-01-01

127

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization.  

PubMed

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

Townsend, Robert M; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-08-01

128

Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization  

PubMed Central

Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996.

Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

2010-01-01

129

[Quality management in animal welfare].  

PubMed

In the EC since Jan. 1st 2006 the Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 requires also in the field of animal welfare uniform official controls of a consistently high quality on the basis of documented procedures. Rised demands for the administration necessitate nowadays an all-embracing conception and controlling of the system. Therefore the land of Lower Saxony developed an uniform process-oriented conception for all involved official authorities based on ISO 9001 (EQUINO -Uniform Quality Management in Official Organisations for Consumer Protection in Lower Saxony) and implemented it including a system of internal audits. PMID:17484501

Stehr, D; Baumgarte, J

2007-04-01

130

43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies...health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient...of providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-10-01

131

43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies...health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient...of providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2011-10-01

132

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...to the protection of human subjects; and ...2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2010-10-01

133

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...to the protection of human subjects; and ...2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2009-10-01

134

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant...to the protection of human subjects; and ...Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2009-10-01

135

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant...to the protection of human subjects; and ...Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2...

2010-10-01

136

A history of animal welfare science.  

PubMed

Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made. PMID:21347723

Broom, Donald M

2011-02-24

137

Chromosome Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancem...

1998-01-01

138

Analysis of chromosomal equipment in spermatozoa of a 46,XY/47,XY/+8 male by means of multicolour fluorescent in situ hybridization: confirmation of a mosaicism and evaluation of risk for offspring.  

PubMed

Trisomy 8 is generally associated with chromosomal mosaicism and occurs de novo, with relatively well-defined clinical manifestations, ranging from minimal effects to severe malformations. Mosaicism is often difficult to ascertain and the confirmation of diagnosis requires several chromosomal investigations on a variety of tissues. We present a case of mosaic trisomy 8 fortuitously found in a healthy 30-year-old man during a cytogenetic investigation for several spontaneous abortions: 8% of the lymphocyte metaphases showed a 47,XY,+8 karyotype. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the probes pJM.128 and L1.84 was performed on decondensed interphase spermatozoa. Of the 25000 analysed cells, 398 spermatozoa (1.59%) exhibited a hybridization pattern compatible with a chromosome 8 disomy; the frequency was higher than in either sperm control populations (0.17% and 0.21%). This result is in agreement with the existence of trisomy 8 mosaicism in the gonads and germ cells. FISH on decondensed interphase spermatozoa spreads is thus an easy non-invasive procedure that can be used to complement mosaicism diagnosis in tissue other than blood. Moreover, FISH provides interesting data for characterizing the risk for offspring. PMID:9003492

Mercier, S; Bresson, J L

1997-01-01

139

Welfare economics analysis of Chinese civil affairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare Economics method can be used in the comparative analysis of the civil affairs before and after economic reforms. China is entering the new start point of economic reform. In the viewpoint of welfare economics, Chinese civil affairs have the following properties: accomplish the basic target of \\

Zhiying Liu

2011-01-01

140

In search of welfare-improving gifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gift giving is thought to decrease welfare. Recipients are sometimes stuck with gifts they would not have purchased because the giver does not perfectly know the recipient's preferences and in-kind gifts cannot be costlessly refunded. Such gifts are welfare reducing compared to giving cash if, in addition, recipients possess full information as to which stores carry their desired goods and

Todd R. Kaplan; Bradley J. Ruffle

2008-01-01

141

Unemployment, Health and Welfare During the Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Were cash benefits and welfare services available to the unemployed sufficient to protect them from ill-health? Recent reappraisals have tended to magnify the influence of welfare provision. The present review draws on hitherto unexploited, confidential reports of the Ministry of Health and Board of Education, to point out that expert witnesses were increasingly concerned that unemployment relief and social services

Charles Webster

1985-01-01

142

Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2009-01-01

143

Indian Child Welfare: A Multicultural Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports descriptive characteristics of American Indian child welfare programs organized to deal with new tribal responsibilities under the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Develops a profile of tribal program administrators based on 121 survey responses. Offers policy recommendations in areas of tribal politics, government policies and funding…

Wares, Dale M.; And Others

1994-01-01

144

The Indian Child Welfare Act: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides historical background on federal policies related to Indian family rights and child welfare and on legislation leading up to the Indian Child Welfare Act. Interprets the act with regard to jurisdiction and standards for child placement for foster care and adoption. Discusses federal funding of the act and monitoring of state compliance.…

Garner, Suzanne

1993-01-01

145

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

146

Chemically exposed children: The child welfare response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child Welfare Agencies, especially in urban areas, are confronted with multiple problems as they attempt to deal with the complex needs of chemically dependent families. Maternal chemical use places children at an elevated risk of placement and other negative events. This article critiques research on incidence and consequence of maternal chemical use and suggests strategies Child Welfare Agencies can employ

Nora S. Gustavsson

1991-01-01

147

Self-rated economic welfare in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of those Russian adults who feel that they are poor are not classified as such in the poverty statistics, and most of those who are classified as poor don't feel that way. We study the determinants of peoples’ perceptions of their economic welfare in an unusually rich socioeconomic survey. While income is a highly significant predictor, subjective economic welfare

Martin Ravallion; Michael Lokshin

2002-01-01

148

Toward a New Welfare Foundation for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over various definitions of sustainability has for the most part been conducted within the framework of traditional welfare economics. Discussion has centered on technical issues imbedded within the functional forms of various optimization models, especially the coefficient of the elasticity of substitution and the social discount rate. A more basic problem is that intractable theoretical difficulties within welfare

John M. Gowdy

2004-01-01

149

Questionnaire assessment of the welfare of pigs.  

PubMed

A questionnaire study was performed involving 76 farms with a total of 380,207 pigs to assess the welfare of pigs kept in Hungary based on the animal welfare legislation of the European Union. Most significant deficiencies were found in the fulfillment of the provisions relating to space requirements, the stall microclimate and the behavioural needs of the animals. PMID:11402682

Horváth, G; Visnyei, L

2001-01-01

150

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

151

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)|

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

152

Post-secondary Education under Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past, post-secondary education has been an option for welfare recipients wishing to increase their earning power. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) shifted federal policy and made it more difficult for welfare recipients to pursue a college education. Nevertheless, several work activities…

Cohen, Marie

1998-01-01

153

Do Three Trade Blocs Minimize World Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two interesting results have emerged from research on symmetric models that make the analysis of bilateralism tractable. Krugman reported that three trade blocs minimize world welfare. Frankel, Stein, and Wei argued that the formation of continental trading blocs can reduce welfare. This paper shows that these results are not robust. In particular, it is argued that the inclusion of more

Volker Nitsch

1996-01-01

154

Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of its total resources that a society devotes to social welfare is a useful general measure related to social policy. In fiscal 1976, the United States spent 21 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) for public social welfare programs, including health and education as well as social insurance (the largest segment) and assistance. Program developments, inflation, population growth,

Ida C. Merriam

1978-01-01

155

Implementing Welfare Reform in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of a broader study considering effects of welfare reform on households in rural areas. This report describes the findings of qualitative research, which examined welfare reform implementation and availability of services in 12 rural communities in Alabama, Arkansas, California, and Maine. The study sites were diverse in terms of…

Pindus, Nancy M.

156

Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2000-01-01

157

Welfare Effects of Distortionary Company Car Taxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, company cars are offered by employers as fringe benefits to their employees at a lower price than employees pay in the car market, mainly due to favourable taxation of company cars. We analyse the welfare effects of favourable taxation of company cars for the Netherlands. The estimated annual welfare costs of the distortionary taxation of company cars are

Eva Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau; Jos van Ommeren

2007-01-01

158

Toward a new welfare economics for sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over various definitions of sustainability has for the most part been conducted within the framework of traditional welfare economics. Discussion has centered on technical issues imbedded within the functional forms of various optimization models, especially the coefficient of the elasticity of substitution and the social discount rate. Two more basic problems are: (1) intractable theoretical difficulties within welfare

John Gowdy

2005-01-01

159

Job Performance and Retention among Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from interviews with 750 employers in Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Los Angeles were used to analyze the job performance and retention rates of recently hired welfare recipients. The 20-minute interviews focused on employers' subjective ratings of recently hired welfare recipients' job performance and whether employers experienced the…

Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.; Wissoker, Douglas

160

Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

Cohen, Miriam

2005-01-01

161

Pharmaceutical Price Discrimination and Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Price discrimination is an extremely common type of pricing strategy engaged in by virtually every business with some discretionary pricing power. The issue of whether price discrimination reduces or increases social welfare has been considered by economists since at least 1920. At that time, it was demonstrated that, under certain (restrictive) conditions, price discrimination will reduce social welfare. Subsequent research

Frank R. Lichtenberg

2010-01-01

162

Welfare Implications of International Financial Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on technology spillover from foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, this paper investigates the welfare implications of financial integration. Calibrations of a neoclassical growth model with international technology diffusion show that when technology catch-up due to FDI inflows is considered, the welfare gains from financial integration substantially increase, which contrasts with the small gains from additional, capital-accumulation effects of financial

Jong-Wha Lee; Kwanho Shin

2008-01-01

163

Welfare State: From Dream to Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is customary to defend and develop the welfare state by appealing to benevolent dreams and expectations and to exclude analysis on what really happens when popular plans are turned into action. The article shows that there are serious problems in every welfare dimension; public services, public regulation, financial transfers, and intergovernmental relations. The purpose of the article is to

Risto Harisalo; John McInerney

2008-01-01

164

Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

165

Child Welfare, the Media, and Capacity Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public child welfare systems and practices have been scrutinized, if not criticized, by the media. In response a “circle the wagons” orientation to the media may ensue. This article lays out more strategic ways in which media engagement with community initiatives may help to advance the public's understanding of child welfare and child safety. An array of suggestions is offered

Katharine Briar-Lawson; Kelly Martinson; Jen Briar-Bonpane; Kathryn Zox

2011-01-01

166

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

167

Animal welfare education: development and prospects.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has developed rapidly as a scientific discipline since the 1980s. Concepts have been refined, methodologies for assessment developed, and links made to other areas of science. Changes in the subject and in its teaching are required. Since 1986, a series of senior academic teaching posts in the subject have been created, especially in the last 10 years. Veterinary and animal science students should receive a specific course on animal welfare, in addition to mention of the subject in other courses. In the future, more allusion to developments in understanding of welfare in relation to disease and brain measures of welfare is likely. The central role of animal welfare in veterinary and animal science teaching will become more firmly established. PMID:16421824

Broom, Donald M

2005-01-01

168

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 Public Welfare 3 ...2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and...Section 605.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued...NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare,...

2010-10-01

169

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 Public Welfare 3 ...2009-10-01 false Health, welfare, and...Section 605.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued...NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare,...

2009-10-01

170

Chromosome and cell genetics  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: Chromosomes in differentiation; Chromosome axis; Nuclear and organelle split genes; Chemical mutagenesis; and Chromosome architecture and additional elements.

Sharma, A.K.; Sharma, A.

1985-01-01

171

Community contexts of human welfare.  

PubMed

This chapter identifies "context minimization error" as the tendency to ignore the impact of enduring neighborhood and community contexts on human behavior. The error has adverse consequences for understanding psychological processes and efforts at social change. The chapter describes a series of theoretical models of how neighborhoods and community settings are associated with various aspects of human welfare and reviews evidence of associations of contexts with health, psychological distress, risky behaviors, psychological attitudes, and child development. It suggests that many psychological processes may play out differently in different contexts and that contextual factors interact with sociocultural characteristics of individuals in predicting outcomes. People, in turn, can shape community contexts. A more sophisticated understanding of the effects of contexts depends on more sophisticated approaches to assessing them. PMID:12415072

Shinn, Marybeth; Toohey, Siobhan M

2002-06-10

172

Chromosome Territories  

PubMed Central

Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions with other CTs is provided as well as the dynamics of CT arrangements during cell cycle and postmitotic terminal differentiation. The article concludes with a discussion of open questions and new experimental strategies to answer them.

Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

2010-01-01

173

Aquatic Equipment Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

Sova, Ruth

174

The welfare impact of Medicare HMOs.  

PubMed

We estimate the welfare associated with the Medicare HMO program, now known as Medicare+Choice (M+C). We find that the creation of the M+C program resulted in approximately $15.6 billion in consumer surplus and $52 billion in profits from 1993 to 2000 (in 2000 dollars). This program most likely generated significant net social welfare. However, we find that consumer surplus is geographically unevenly distributed. Prescription drug coverage accounts for approximately 45% of the estimated consumer surplus for 2000. Consumer surplus increases in the number of plans in a county, and most of the increase in welfare is due to increased premium competition. PMID:14992230

Town, Robert; Liu, Su

2003-01-01

175

Behavior analysis and farm animal welfare  

PubMed Central

This article demonstrates that there is a role for behavior-analytic techniques in the area of farm animal welfare and provides examples of the kinds of work that can be done. Behavior-analytic procedures, specifically those used in the study of psychophysics, preference, and demand, can provide answers to three questions people concerned with the welfare of farm animals are likely to ask: What can the animals detect? What do they like and dislike? What will they work to attain or preserve? Such information certainly is necessary for making reasonable decisions about animal welfare, although it is not sufficient in and of itself.

Foster, T. Mary; Temple, William; Poling, Alan

1997-01-01

176

Distributive Justice and Attitudes Toward the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current debates concerning the viability of the welfare state evoke the question of the social bases of support of the welfare state. Past research has documented fairly consistent relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes toward welfare policies. Yet, the nature of these relationships is not well understood. In the paper we argue that the level of support for the welfare

Noah Lewin-Epstein; Amit Kaplan; Asaf Levanon

2003-01-01

177

The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare receipt often is correlated negatively with children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Yet, virtually all children in households that receive public assistance are poor, prompting the question of whether poor outcomes are an effect of welfare, a spurious relationship between welfare and child outcomes, or a result of welfare selection. Using the NLSY-CS, these possibilities are examined by controlling for

Anne K. Driscoll; Kristin A. Moore

1999-01-01

178

Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. This is the second of those annual reports. A family is defined as dependent on welfare if more than 50% of its total income in a 1-year period comes from welfare programs…

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

179

Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Welfare Indicators Act of 1994 requires the Department of Health and Human Services to prepare annual reports to Congress on indicators and predictors of welfare dependence. This is the second of those annual reports. A family is defined as dependent on welfare if more than 50% of its total income in a 1-year period comes from welfare

Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

180

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

2007-01-01

181

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

182

Working Expectations: Frame Diagnosis and the Welfare Rights Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines frame resonance dynamics internal to the contemporary US welfare rights movement. Frames diagnosing the problems of welfare as rooted in conceptions of caregiving and wage work were popular a generation ago among welfare rights activists. Today, this frame is favored among allies of the movement. Is it favored among grassroots activists? Forty-three interviews with welfare rights parent\\/activists

Rose Ernst

2009-01-01

183

Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

184

Spurious Welfare Reversals in International Business Cycle Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers on international business cycles have documented spurious welfare reversals: incomplete markets produce a higher level of welfare than the complete market. This paper first demonstrates how conventional linearization, as used in King, Plosser, and Rebelo (1988), can generate approximation errors that can result in welfare reversals. Using a two-country production economy, we argue that spurious welfare reversals are not

Jinill Kim

2001-01-01

185

Management in Social Welfare: Casebook Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social welfare management is the topic of this casebook containing 17 case studies designed to provide education for management. The case studies have been gathered from voluntary and public agencies primarily in the northeastern United States. Areas of m...

G. Hochman

1976-01-01

186

Comprehensive Family Assessment Guidelines for Child Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines and describes the comprehensive family assessment (CFA) process in child welfare; articulates the assumptions of quality practice that support the comprehensive family assessment; identifies the key points in the casework process whe...

P. Schene

2005-01-01

187

On justifying a minimum welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since anarchy is not viable, limited government is the best that the realistic libertarian can hope for. But limited government\\u000a will itself always be threatened by an inherent tendency to transgress its limits. In modern western societies the regulatory\\u000a and redistributive welfare state is the major threat to a constitution of liberty. However, a “minimum welfare state” which\\u000a redistributes personal

Hartmut Kliemt

1993-01-01

188

Welfare Dependence within and across Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central question in the debate about the effects of welfare programs is whether their intended positive results--providing needed resources to recipients and their children--outweigh any unintended negative results--for example, the breaking up of families, reduction in work effort, or the fostering of a welfare ``culture'' that is passed on from parent to child. Recent research shows that although work

Greg J. Duncan; Martha S. Hill; Saul D. Hoffman

1988-01-01

189

Animal behavior and animal welfare.  

PubMed

The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A

1991-04-15

190

Welfare state regimes and population health: integrating the East Asian welfare states.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that population health varies significantly by welfare state regime. However, these studies have focused exclusively on the welfare states of Europe, North America and Australasia. This focus ignores the existence of welfare states in other parts of the world, specifically in East Asia. This study therefore investigates whether the association between population health (Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth) and welfare state regimes is still valid when the welfare states of East Asia are added into the analysis. It also examines whether population health is worse in the East Asian welfare states. Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy at birth as well as GDP per capita and social and health expenditures as a percentage of GDP were examined in 30 welfare states, categorised into six different regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern, Eastern European and East Asian). ANOVA analysis showed significant differences by welfare state regime in the magnitude of IMR, LE, SE, HE and GDP per capita. However, when controlling for GDP per capita in the ANCOVA analyses, only Life Expectancy (R(2)=0.58, adjusted R(2)=0.47, p<0.05) and Social Expenditure (R(2)=0.70, adjusted R(2)=0.61, p<0.05) differed significantly by welfare state regime. 47% of the variation in Life Expectancy was explained by welfare state regime type. Further, the East Asian welfare states did not have the worst health outcomes. The study concludes by highlighting the need to expand comparative health analysis both in terms of the range of countries examined and also in terms of incorporating other societal and public health factors-towards a 'public health regime' analysis. PMID:19748149

Abdul Karim, Syahirah; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

2009-09-11

191

Welfare Monitoring Schemes: Using Research to Safeguard Welfare of Animals on the Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of nonhuman animal welfare monitoring schemes for animals on the farm in Australia and in other countries. Although the majority of such schemes are voluntary rather than legislated, some are nevertheless enforced through a number of customer requirements that industries must meet to gain access to markets. Animal welfare monitoring schemes rely on a number of

John L. Barnett; Paul H. Hemsworth

2009-01-01

192

Training Child Welfare Workers To Meet the Requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a culturally sensitive program developed by the University of Washington School of Social Work, the Washington Department of Social and Health Services, and 26 Indian tribes in Washington State that trained 34 child welfare personnel to better implement the intent of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Contains program evaluation…

Bending, Raymond L.

1997-01-01

193

Comparing welfare states in Australia and Canada: A party competition theory of welfare state development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a ‘most-similar-systems’ design, several major theories of welfare state development are shown to have some weaknesses in comparing the Australian and Canadian welfare states during the Golden Age. I offer instead a party competition theory, with the degree of party system polarisation as a key variable. Located in a highly polarised party system, the Australian Liberals adopted a directional

Jingjing Huo

2006-01-01

194

On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare

Burgoon, Brian

2006-01-01

195

The Diversity of Welfare Leavers. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report charts the experiences of women who have done better or worse than average after leaving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, highlighting differences in: education, health, and other characteristics; whether or not they were sanctioned before leaving; and welfare dependency (amount of time spent on welfare before leaving and off…

Moffitt, Robert; Roff, Jennifer

196

EDUCATION AND PARTNERSHIPS IN CHILD WELFARE: MAPPING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A CHILD WELFARE CERTIFICATE PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of focus groups conducted with participants following the completion of a Child Welfare Practice Certificate Program. Concept mapping was used as the guiding research method for the data collection and analysis. Social work students and child welfare workers generated statements during the focus group session that were then sorted into conceptual piles. Participants then rated

Scottye J. Cash; Thomas E. Smith; Sally G. Mathiesen; Pamela Graham; Lisa D. Barbanell

2006-01-01

197

The Welfare Magnate Debate Revisited in the Context of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper re-examines the welfare magnet hypothesis in the context of welfare reform by redefining both migration and generosity. Due to the intrastate variation in program parameters, migration is defined at the county, rather than state level, and the typical definition of generosity is expanded to control for differences in time limits. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of

Traci Mach

2000-01-01

198

Education and Partnerships in Child Welfare: Mapping the Implementation of a Child Welfare Certificate Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of focus groups conducted with participants following the completion of a Child Welfare Practice Certificate Program. Concept mapping was used as the guiding research method for the data collection and analysis. Social work students and child welfare workers generated statements during the focus group session that…

Cash, Scottye J.; Mathiesen, Sally G.; Barbanell, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

2006-01-01

199

Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Cognitive Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to examine the effects of welfare reform on children. Although effect sizes were generally small, the findings suggested the potential value of welfare-reform approaches that emphasized long-term human-capital development. Positive effects of support services on earnings were strongest…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

1999-01-01

200

Chromosomes and cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two prominent features of cancer cells are abnormal numbers of chromosomes (aneuploidy) and large-scale structural rearrangements\\u000a of chromosomes. These chromosome aberrations are caused by genomic instabilities inherent to most cancers. Aneuploidy arises\\u000a through chromosomal instability (CIN) by the persistent loss and gain of whole chromosomes. Chromosomal rearrangements occur\\u000a through chromosome structure instability (CSI) as a consequence of improper repair of

Sarah L. Thompson; Duane A. Compton

2011-01-01

201

Welfare Reform and Health Insurance: Consequences for Parents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed the relation between the work promotion, welfare reduction, and marriage goals of welfare reform and the stability of health insurance of parents in transition from welfare to work. Methods. We analyzed a panel survey (1999–2002) of a stratified random sample of Illinois families receiving welfare in 1998 (n=1363). Results. Medicaid remains the foremost source of health insurance despite a significant decline in the proportion of parents with Medicaid. Regardless of work/welfare status in year 1, transitioning to work only or no work/no welfare increased the likelihood of having unstable health insurance in years 2 and 3 compared with those who remained on welfare only. Conclusions. Parents who meet the welfare reform goals of work promotion and reduction of welfare dependence experience significant loss and instability of health insurance.

Holl, Jane L.; Slack, Kristen Shook; Stevens, Amy Bush

2005-01-01

202

A study on laws related to women's welfare.  

PubMed

Since 1980, the domestic policy of every Korean government has focused on the construction of a welfare society, yet real change remains elusive, leaving women particularly neglected. This study examines social security legislation, especially the laws that define the status and welfare of women with the goal of advancing women's welfare and eliminating sexual discrimination against them. Welfare laws and literature were collected and examined from Korea and aboard, and facilities were visited. This paper reviews: 1) the theoretical background of women's welfare including the feminist critique and strategies for the welfare state and social welfare, and the significance and necessity of women's welfare; 2) women's welfare: international treaties and trends, including the World Declaration of Human Rights, international agreements on human rights, the International Labor Organization Treaty, the UN Convention on the Elimination of Sexual Discrimination Against Women, and the women's development strategies toward the year 2000; 3) the analysis of the laws and regulations related to women's welfare, including the systematic organization of women's welfare law (judicial, and systematic organization by applicable clients), the constitutional basis of the women's welfare related legislation and legal principles, the main feature and problems of the women's welfare related legislation, e.g. the Social Security Act: the National Pensions Act, Medical Insurance Act, the Livelihood Protection Act, Mother-child Welfare Act, Child Welfare Act, the Anti-prostitution Act, and the Gender Equal Employment Act, and 4) the direction of revision of the women's welfare related legislation including the revision and legislation of women's welfare related laws, restructuring of the delivery system, and the formation of proper environment conducive to the realization of women's welfare. PMID:12285932

Kim, E

1991-01-01

203

Indian Child Welfare Act: ideas for implementation.  

PubMed

The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 was passed to curb the excessive rate of placement of Indian children in non-Indian foster and adoptive homes. Congress concluded that these placements were abusive because of their contribution to the identity confusion of the Indian children who had been placed as well as the disruption of tribal culture. This article includes recommendations about implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act which are based on a survey of individuals involved in Indian child welfare as well as experiences of the author since completion of the survey in November of 1980. In general, the recommendations are: (1) Tribal and state agencies should make special efforts to coordinate services so that the unique difficulties faced by Indian families will be addressed; (2) Urban social service agencies should assign all Indian child welfare cases to one worker or a group of workers and cooperate with urban Indian associations in the transfer of Indian child welfare cases; (3) Social workers handling cases should be involved in all aspects of transfer and not leave the management strictly to attorneys; (4) Where the act is unclear, particularly in off-reservation emergency placements, the state agency must make the policy clear so that all workers understand how Indian children will be protected in emergencies; (5) In individual cases, as well as when negotiating agreements both tribal and state agencies should avoid compromising the rights of the parties involved or the principles of the act. PMID:6892292

Deitrich, G

1982-01-01

204

Chromosome structure and function  

SciTech Connect

This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

Risley, M.S.

1986-01-01

205

A pivotal year for lab animal welfare.  

PubMed

Developments in the U.S. during 1985 related to laboratory animal welfare are discussed. The enactment of amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and revisions to the Public Health Service's animal care guidelines are described as major federal moves to tighten standards and to locate responsibility for proper animal care at the institutional level. These regulatory changes will have a significant economic impact on the cost of doing research, but are generally accepted by the scientific community as necessary. Although moderate animal welfare groups see signs of progress, there is a growing number of activists who see recent policy developments as only a step toward the real goal of total elimination of the use of animals in research. It is apparent that the combination of political pressure, financial stringency, and better experimental methodologies will result in a continued reduction in laboratory animal use. PMID:3952503

Holden, C

1986-04-11

206

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare...

2009-10-01

207

Welfare Reform and Child Fostering: Pinpointing Affected Child Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our research is to examine the impact of New Jersey's welfare reform called the Family Development Program (FDP) on child fostering among children on welfare. Copyright (c) 2005 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Radha Jagannathan; Michael J. Camasso; Sara S. McLanahan

2005-01-01

208

The community development approach to animal welfare: an African perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is difficult to motivate the use of donor funding for animal welfare on a continent where there is human starvation, unless the promotion of animal welfare has spin-offs for human welfare. This paper addresses the possibility of a paradigm shift which would result in animal welfare succeeding in its aims through making it people-centred rather than animal-centred. It looks,

Cheryl M. E McCrindle

1998-01-01

209

A reformulation of the foundations of welfare economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoclassical welfare economics takes an outcome-oriented approach that uses Pareto optimality as its benchmark for welfare\\u000a maximization. When one looks at the remarkable improvements in economic welfare that have characterized market economies,\\u000a most of those improvements in welfare have been due to economic progress that has introduced new and improved goods and services\\u000a into the economy, and innovations in production

Randall G. Holcombe

2009-01-01

210

Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Industrial welfare history presents important challenges to developmental state theories in “late” industrialization. This\\u000a article expands the debate by examining how nation-states create statutory welfare by addressing institutional variety beyond\\u000a markets. It is simplistic to argue linear growth of national welfare or of states autonomously regulating markets to achieve\\u000a risk-mitigation. I contend that welfare institutions emerge from the state’s essential

Smita Srinivas

211

Industrial welfare and the state: nation and city reconsidered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial welfare history presents important challenges to developmental state theories in “late” industrialization. This\\u000a article expands the debate by examining how nation-states create statutory welfare by addressing institutional variety beyond\\u000a markets. It is simplistic to argue linear growth of national welfare or of states autonomously regulating markets to achieve\\u000a risk-mitigation. I contend that welfare institutions emerge from the state’s essential

Smita Srinivas

2010-01-01

212

Spurious welfare reversals in international business cycle models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers have documented spurious welfare reversals: incomplete-markets economy produces a higher level of welfare than the complete-markets economy. This paper first demonstrates how conventional linearization can generate approximation errors that can result in welfare reversals. Using a two-country production economy, we argue that spurious welfare reversals are not only possible but also plausible under reasonable values for model parameters.

Jinill Kim; Sunghyun Henry Kim

2003-01-01

213

Chimpanzee Chromosome 12 Is Homologous to Human Chromosome 2Q.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the 46 human chromosomes find their counterparts in the 48 chimpanzee chromosomes except for chromosome 2 which has been hypothesized to have been derived from a centric fusion of two chimpanzee acrocentric chromosomes. These two chromosomes corre...

N. C. Sun C. R. Y. Sun T. Ho

1977-01-01

214

Child Welfare Workers' Adoption of Decision Support Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare workers must process complex information in deciding to refer clients to appropriate mental health services. Decision support systems have been demonstrated in other fields to be an important tool, yet little research has been done in child welfare. This study focused on the adoption of a specific decision support system into child welfare practice. Quantitative analysis was used

Kirk A. Foster; Arlene R. Stiffman

2009-01-01

215

Impact of Stressors on Front-Line Child Welfare Supervisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death of children, intense media scrutiny, and million dollar lawsuits are all potential stressors faced by child welfare professionals. Despite this, very little research or literature has explored the specific realities of stressors for the individual front-line child welfare supervisor. Therefore, as a contribution to the field of child welfare practice, this paper expands our understanding of this unique

Katherine Dill

2007-01-01

216

The effect of stocking density on certain broiler welfare parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In broiler production, stocking density, i.e. floor surface per chicken, is very important welfare factor which directly and indirectly influences and determines the level of growth of chicken body weight, but it is also related to other welfare indicators. Objective of the paper was to define the broiler welfare in different stocking densities by evaluation of their walking ability (gait

Zdenka Skrbic; Z. Pavlovski; M. Lukic; L. Peric; N. Milosevic

2009-01-01

217

Implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The information sheet, consisting of four pages, looks at the implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 by presenting goals of welfare agencies working with Indian families, provisions of the Act, reasons for reluctancy of states to accept tribal jurisdiction of child welfare cases, and criteria for evaluating petitions for…

National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

218

Welfare Reform in Rural Missouri: The Experience of Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on rural families in Missouri. We analyze primary data obtained from interviews with 162 single-mother families with children residing in six rural counties in Missouri who are either former or current welfare recipients. This information was substantiated by focus group interviews with current or former welfare recipients conducted between

Shanta Pandey; Shirley Porterfield; Hyeji Choi-Ko; Hong-Sik Yoon

2003-01-01

219

The welfare officer as expert?– Reporting for the courts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The courts have made their views about the status and importance of welfare reports clear in a number of judgments over the years. They have also made clear their expectations of the scope of welfare officers' inquiries in the course of investigating issues related to the welfare of a child, often in the context of judgments which have been critical

Adrian L. James; Will Hay; David Greatbatch; Christopher Walker

1992-01-01

220

Collocation: Integrating Child Welfare and Substance Abuse Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents findings from a process evaluation of a pilot program to address parental substance abuse in the child welfare system. By placing substance abuse counselors in a local child welfare office, the collocation program was designed to facilitate early identification, timely referral to treatment, and improved treatment engagement of substance-abusing parents. Frontline child welfare workers in 6 of

Eunju Lee; Nina Esaki; Rose Greene

2009-01-01

221

The Legacy of Welfare: Economic Endowments or Cultural Characteristics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study explores the impact of parental welfare history on individuals' current use of welfare by decomposing intergenerational differences using techniques traditionally employed in the race and sex wage discrimination literature. This research extends Rank and Cheng's examination of welfare across generations by including various…

Bartholomae, Suzanne; Fox, Jonathan J.; McKenry, Patrick C.

2004-01-01

222

Food safety and environmental issues in animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Food safety, protection of the environment and animal welfare are three concerns consumers have about modern food production systems. Standards dealing with these three issues can be in conflict, and finding ways to reduce this conflict is essential as international standards governing animal welfare develop. These conflicts can be reduced if flexible animal welfare standards are animal-based and attempt

J. Rushen

2005-01-01

223

Child welfare professionals' responses to domestic violence exposure among children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare professionals are expected to promptly assess the current safety and future risks of children reported to them. Developing more accurate assessment methods has been a growing concern in child welfare. The presence of domestic violence and children's exposure to it are factors that have been included in many current risk assessment models used by child welfare professionals.An online

Traci LaLiberte; Jessie Bills; Narae Shin; Jeffrey L. Edleson

2010-01-01

224

Child Welfare and Media: Teaching Students to Be Advocates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public image of social workers in the news media is not always positive, but the portrayal of child welfare workers can be especially negative. This article discusses media and child welfare relations and offers several ways to engage students in critical thought and skill development to improve the image of child welfare workers and to educate the public about

Traci L. LaLiberte; Anita M. Larson; Nancy J. Johnston

2011-01-01

225

On Measuring Consumer Welfare Effects of Trade Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a measure of consumer welfare by approximating Hicksian compensating variation as a function of all commodity prices and compensated price elasticities. The unique feature of this approach is that all direct- and cross-commodity effects of a demand system are incorporated into the welfare measurement. This approach is useful for developing an instrumental model to evaluate the consumer welfare

Sophia Wu Huang; Kuo S. Huang

2006-01-01

226

Morbid obesity and the transition from welfare to work  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set-the Women's Employment Study (WES)-to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less successful in transitioning from welfare to work.

John Cawley; Sheldon Danziger

2005-01-01

227

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235-7002 Section...Provisions And Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC 2011)...

2012-10-01

228

An Agency Model of Welfare and Disability Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare programs including disability benefits have been considered as an efficient way of delivering transfers to the needy. This paper addresses the importance of administrative cost of welfare systems by focusing on an agency problem arising between the government and social workers, whose job is to use tagging to determine eligibility for welfare benefits. Tagging is imperfect in that it

Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Motohiro Sato

1997-01-01

229

The End of Welfare as We Know It&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

When white Americans think about welfare, they are likely to think about black Americans. The most prominent explanation for this phenomenon offered has been media coverage—newsmakers have presented welfare as an overwhelmingly black and overwhelmingly bad social program. Most of the data used in studies that reach these conclusions, however, predate welfare reform. Since passage of the Personal Responsibility and

Joshua J. Dyck; Laura S. Hussey

2008-01-01

230

Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

Sheely, Amanda

2012-01-01

231

The Impact of Welfare Waivers on Female Headship Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at affecting decisions about living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage and cohabitation. This paper focuses on women?s decisions to become or remain unmarried mothers, that is, female heads of families. We assess the impact of welfare reform waivers on

John M. Fitzgerald; David Ribar

2001-01-01

232

The Impact of Welfare Waivers on Female Headship Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at affecting decisions about living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage and cohabitation. This paper focuses on women’s decisions to become or remain unmarried mothers, that is, female heads of families. We assess the impact of welfare reform waivers on

David C Ribar; John M Fitgerald

2003-01-01

233

External habit formation and dependency in the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

External habit formation explains why welfare states can be expected to exhibit increasing dependency over time expressed in the share of the population receiving welfare transfers. At the same time, the average number of hours worked decreases. Under plausible parameter values, the rate of taxation and the welfare expenditure share of national income monotonically increase over time and asymptotically approach

Keith Jakee; Guang-Zhen Sun

2005-01-01

234

What Factors Influence a Welfare Recipient's Spell Length and Recidivism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation (PRWORA) Act of 1997 marked a significant change in US welfare policy. Under the terms of this legislation, welfare recipients are limited to 24 consecutive months of monetary benefits, not to exceed 60 months over an individual's lifetime. The primary intent of PRWORA is to force people off of welfare roles and into the

Dan Friesner; Dan Axelsen; Daniel A. Underwood

2008-01-01

235

Welfare Background, Attitudes, and Employment among New Mothers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of growing up in a welfare home on new mothers' chances of employment is investigated. Data are analyzed using logit and ordinary least-squares equations. Attitudes toward work and welfare are distinguished. Findings do not support a relationship between new mothers' employment and an intergenerationally transmitted welfare culture.…

Greenwell, Lisa; Leibowitz, Arleen; Klerman, Jacob Alex

1998-01-01

236

Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

2001-01-01

237

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist “backlash hypothesis” as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases

Stephanie Riger; Maryann Krieglstein

2000-01-01

238

Revisioning comparative welfare state studies: an ‘indigenous dimension’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although welfare states have been categorised according to a wide but never conclusive range of dimensions, little attention has been paid to the specific forms of recognitive justice that influence the development of the welfare state, particularly in countries where internally colonised indigenous peoples not only constitute a disproportionate number of welfare recipients, but also hold additional rights to those

Louise Humpage

2010-01-01

239

Inflation and Welfare with Search and Price Dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of inflation on welfare in a monetary economy with price dispersion and consumer search. When facing greater price dispersion with higher inflation, consumers search harder for lower prices, and increased search raises welfare by intensifying market competition. Producers post inefficiently high prices, and this creates a welfare loss. Both mechanisms are affected by the consumer's

Liang Wang

2011-01-01

240

The Legacy of Welfare: Economic Endowments or Cultural Characteristics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the impact of parental welfare history on individuals' current use of welfare by decomposing intergenerational differences using techniques traditionally employed in the race and sex wage discrimination literature. This research extends Rank and Cheng's examination of welfare across generations by including various…

Bartholomae, Suzanne; Fox, Jonathan J.; McKenry, Patrick C.

2004-01-01

241

Labour Markets, Welfare, and the Personal Scope of Employment Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues which confront those concerned with employment law, about the types of workers to whom employment laws apply, are highly relevant to the subject of labour markets and welfare. The formulation and application of the personal categories of employment law is or involves a welfare allocation, often seen as a trade-off between welfare and efficiency. This article describe the

Paul Davies; Mark Freedland

2000-01-01

242

Punitive Sanctions and the Transition Rate from Welfare to Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands, the average exit rate out of welfare is dramatically low. Most welfare recipients have to comply with guidelines on job search effort that are imposed by the welfare agency. If they do not, then a sanction in the form of a temporary benefit reduction can be imposed. This article investigates the effect of such sanctions on the

Bas van der Klaauw

2004-01-01

243

Welfare and the locational choices of new immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 welfare law ends most noncitizens' eligibility for federally funded public assistance programs and allows states to cut off payments under other welfare programs to noncitizens. If some states choose to continue extending benefits while others terminate payments to immigrants, interstate differentials in welfare generosity will widen. Potential policy differences create concern that states that continue to offer benefits

Madeline Zavodny

1997-01-01

244

Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has

H. J. Blokhuis; E. D. Ekkel; S. M. Korte; H. Hopster; C. G. van Reenen

2000-01-01

245

Welfare state matters: A typological multilevel analysis of wealthy countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the social science literature, we hypothesized that population health indicators in wealthy industrialized countries are ‘clustered’ around welfare state regime types. We tested this hypothesis during a period of welfare state expansion from 1960 to 1994. We categorized data from 19 wealthy countries into 4 different types of welfare state regimes (Social Democratic, Christian Democratic, Liberal and Wage

Haejoo Chung; Carles Muntaner

2007-01-01

246

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

247

Adoption and child welfare protection in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale à l’Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children’s judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in foster families and were placed after court orders

2005-01-01

248

Farm animal welfare and food policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legislation has been the main policy approach for protecting the welfare of farm animals. The use of legislation raises issues such as whose preferences the legislation reflects and whether the preferences of some people in society should constrain the food consumption choices of others. The paper outlines a survey in Great Britain which sought to measure people's willingness to pay

R. M. Bennett

1997-01-01

249

Welfare differences within a nation: A comment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Williamson [13] on regional income inequality represents one of the more useful recent examples of interregional analysis. Prior to its publication, opinion was divided as to the effect of national economic development on the extent and direction of regional welfare differences. One school of thought, exemplified by the work of Myrdal [7], was rather pessimistic and viewed

John B. Parr

1974-01-01

250

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications Catalog Resources in ... Care Stay Connected Home » How the Child Welfare ...

251

Human rights, power and welfare conditionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

based approaches are consistent with the values of those whom such an approach is designed to help. The values underlying rights-based approaches and those with experience of poverty are identified and then compared in three ways: in general; in relation to the specific issue of welfare conditionality; and as prescriptions for action. The comparative analysis is facilitated by linking the

Ann Nevile

252

Contemporary Policy Challenges for Indian Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The federal policy context of the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) has changed over thtitle last 25 years. We examine ways in which four recent federal policies may challenge or alter ICWA outcomes. Our discussion of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 highlights the reemerging risk of poverty for more American Indian families. This may

Ann E. MacEachron; Nora Gustavsson

2005-01-01

253

Indian Child Welfare: A Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights the findings from the first systematic national examination of the effects of the Indian Child Welfare Act (P. L. 95-608). Examines the prevalence of Native American children in substitute care and the effects of this Act and others on Indian children and families. (RJC)|

Plantz, Margaret C.; And Others

1989-01-01

254

Price perceptions, merchant incentives, and consumer welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the research demonstrating the consumer's erroneous and unfounded perceptions of prices, which can have severe negative consequences on consumer welfare. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a review paper of previous research on the price\\/quality relationship and the effects of advertised reference price on consumer's price acceptance. Findings – The major findings

Donald R. Lichtenstein

2005-01-01

255

Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

256

Public Guardians and Welfare Services in California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research project is to explore and report upon the protection of adults by county Offices of Public Guardian in California and the role of county welfare departments in relationship to these Offices. Offices of Public Guardian are admi...

M. McKeany H. B. Taylor

1970-01-01

257

Animal Welfare Report, Fiscal Year 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 2000, from October 1, ...

2001-01-01

258

Animal Welfare Report Fiscal Year 1999.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year, the Secretary of Agriculture reports on administration and enforcement activities under the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) (7 U.S.C. 2131 et seq.) as required by Section 25 of the AWA. The present report covers fiscal year (FY) 1999, from October 1, ...

2000-01-01

259

Current Bibliographies in Medicine: Laboratory Animal Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sixth supplement to a selective annotated bibliography concerns laboratory welfare animal issued in January 1984, Specialized Bibliography Series No. 1984-1. The first supplement was issued in January 1985, SBS No. 1985-1; the second in January 1986, ...

F. P. Gluckstein

1989-01-01

260

Challenges in healthcare and welfare intercloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce healthcare and welfare provisioning intercloud on an example of Aging in Place platform. We relate it to earlier work both in healthcare and intercloud domain. We describe goals and architecture of the platform and demonstrate benefits of applying Cloud Computing solutions to previously identified challenges. Subsequently, we list and analyze challenges that seem to be

Tomasz Wiktor Wlodarczyk; Chunming Rong; Dagfinn Waage

2011-01-01

261

COMMUNICATION AWARENESS WITH ANIMAL WELFARE CASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This session will provide a discussion of how veterinary professionals can effectively communicate with clients when there are concerns about animal abuse and neglect. In particular, we will provide a model for engaging the client in the interview, building and enhancing the relationship, and also effectively communicating about decisions in animal welfare cases. In working with these types of

Chandra Grabill

262

Professional Social Workers in Public Social Welfare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report is made on a survey of 181 employees of the New York City Department of Welfare (as it was then titled) who recently completed social work school under the Federally-supported scholarship program and had returned to the Department. A great majori...

L. Podell

1969-01-01

263

Child Welfare Referrals To Part C  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interagency coordination on behalf of eligible infants and toddlers and their families is a defining feature of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. In the present study, enrollment data for child welfare services and Part C services were examined to assess the degree of overlap between the two service systems. Results…

Robinson, Cordelia C.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

2004-01-01

264

Child Welfare Referrals to Part C  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interagency coordination on behalf of eligible infants and toddlers and their families is a defining feature of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. In the present study, enrollment data for child welfare services and Part C services were examined to assess the degree of overlap between the two service systems. Results…

Robinson, Cordelia C.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

2004-01-01

265

Natural resources, rent seeking and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and very simple mechanism to explain why natural resource abundance may lower income and welfare is developed. In a model with rent seeking, a greater amount of natural resources increases the number of entrepreneurs engaged in rent seeking and reduces the number of entrepreneurs running productive firms. With a demand externality, it is shown that the drop in

Ragnar Torvik

2002-01-01

266

Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

2011-01-01

267

Risk assessment in animal welfare - EFSA approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal Welfare (AW) issues are becoming an increasing concern for food-producing and laboratory animals. Risk Assessment (RA) is usually used to describe and quantify the risk of introduction of infections, toxi- infections or residues coming from veterinary medicines, by importing live animals and their products or to identify options for the control of epidemic or endemic diseases. Recently, RA methods

Christine Müller-Graf; Denise Candiani; Sara Barbieri; Oriol Ribó; Ana Afonso; Elisa Aiassa; Sandra Correia; Fabrizio De Massis; Thomasz Grudnik; Jordi Serratosa

268

Team Leader; Refugee Welfare Field Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The preparatory manual is one of a series produced by the Refugee Welfare Training Team in Qui Nhon, Binh-Dinh Province, Vietnam, for use in training teams of government personnel to work with refugees. The purpose was to improve living conditions, overcome lethargy and despair, develop a community structure, engage group action, and prepare for…

Neal, Thomas

269

The Welfare Implications of the Unemployment Rate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, an attempt is made to arrive at an estimate of the cost of unemployment from the point of view of the unemployed, which is called the welfare cost of unemployment or loss due to unemployment. Using labor supply functions which have been est...

M. Hurd

1976-01-01

270

Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

2008-01-01

271

SUBSIDY IN LICENSING: OPTIMALITY AND WELFARE IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that subsidy can naturally emerge as part of the equilibrium strategy of an innovator of a cost-reducing innovation in a Cournot oligopoly when the innovator is endowed with combinations of upfront fee and royalty. It is further shown that there are robust regions where the social welfare is higher in subsidy-based licensing compared to the regime where

CHUN-HSIUNG LIAO; DEBAPRIYA SEN

2005-01-01

272

Health and Welfare in Organic Poultry Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on

C Berg

2002-01-01

273

The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers and the public are concerned about the role of medical malpractice liability in the rising cost of medical care. We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of malpractice liability on medical costs, mortality, and social welfare. The effect of malpractice on medical costs is large relative to its share of medical expenditures,

Darius N. Lakdawalla; Seth A. Seabury

2009-01-01

274

Finance and Welfare States in Globalizing Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is theoretically clear and may be verified empirically that efficient financial markets can make it less necessary for policy to try and offset the welfare effects of labour income risk and unequal consumption dynamics. The literature has also pointed out that, since international competition exposes workers to new sources of risk at the same time as it makes it

Giuseppe Bertola

2007-01-01

275

Taxing tourism: enhancing or reducing welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a modified simple general equilibrium model of international trade, the theoretical construct proposed by this research note shows that taxing tourism may increase or decrease economic benefit depending on the destination's market power. Yet, from a social point of view, taxing tourism can be welfare-enhancing, as externalities of rapid tourism growth should be internalized. Therefore, a social rather than

Li Sheng; Yanming Tsui

2009-01-01

276

Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents comparative qualitative and quantitative evidence from rural Kenya and Madagascar in an attempt to untangle the causality behind persistent poverty. We find striking differences in welfare dynamics depending on whether one uses total income, including stochastic terms and inevitable measurement error, or the predictable, structural component of income based on a household's asset holdings. Our results suggest

Christopher B. Barrett; Paswel Phiri Marenya; John Mcpeak; Bart Minten; Festus Murithi; Willis Oluoch-Kosura; Jean Claude Randrianarisoa; Jhon Rasambainarivo; Justine Wangila

2006-01-01

277

Forest Certification: Economic Issues and Welfare Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest certification has emerged as a means of promoting the elusive goal of sustainable forest management. This paper reviews the economic issues and potential welfare implications of forest certification in light of this management goal, but finds that the effect of certification on forest product markets is uncertain. We examine why certification schemes may fail to regulate optimally market failures,

M. K. Haener; Martin K. Luckert

1998-01-01

278

Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

279

Measuring Wage Growth Among Former Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the rate of wage growth among long-term welfare recipients in the self-sufficiency Project (SSP) who were induced by the financial incentives of the program to enter the work force. We find that single parents who began working in response to the SSP incentive are younger, less educated, have more young children, and have less positive attitudes toward work

David Card; Charles Michalopoulos; Philip K. Robins

2001-01-01

280

Multiple-Father Families and Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

2012-01-01

281

Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is

James H. Cardon; Rulon D. Pope

2003-01-01

282

Social Welfare and the Benefits to Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists a large literature on the optimal deterrence of crime. Within the literature, however, there exists a controversy over what the appropriate criterion to determine optimality should be. While the most popular method is that of maximization of a utilitarian welfare function, another criterion sometimes used is that of cost minimization. The controversy stems from the question of whether

Philip A. Curry; Matthew Doyle

2012-01-01

283

The welfare economics of land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical methodology for the evaluation of the benefits and costs of land use planning. The technique is applied in the context of the Town and Country Planning System of the UK, and examines the gross and net benefits of land use regulation and their distribution across income groups. The results show that the welfare and distributional

Paul Cheshire; Stephen Sheppard

2002-01-01

284

Farm Animal Welfare - Testing for Market Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers are concerned with animal welfare in the conventional production of farm livestock. This concern can be related both to their own and others’ consumption. In the latter case, there is a negative externality from consumption. We suggest a survey design that enables us to test for a market failure in farm livestock production. Applying this to the question

Fredrik Carlsson; Peter Grykblom; Carl Johan Lagerkvist

2007-01-01

285

Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

2004-01-01

286

Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)|

James, Stephen

1989-01-01

287

Welfarism or non-welfarism? Public preferences for willingness to pay versus health maximisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We distinguish between different forms of welfarism and non-welfarism, along three dimensions: “self-motivation”, “social goal”, and “role of government”. The paper then reports the results of a survey of the “meta-preferences” of the Australian public concerning the principles that should govern priority setting in health care. Of 743 respondents, 77.4 per cent thought that resources should be allocated on the

John McKie; Jeff Richardson; Jan Olsen

2005-01-01

288

Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point\\u000a of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby\\u000a maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the\\u000a loss of the coping ability and,

Helmut Segner; Henrik Sundh; Kurt Buchmann; Jessica Douxfils; Kristina Snuttan Sundell; Cédric Mathieu; Neil Ruane; Fredrik Jutfelt; Hilde Toften; Lloyd Vaughan

289

Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.  

PubMed

This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

Chandler, Andrea

2011-01-01

290

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... period. Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

291

Equipments Aerospatiaux Francais (French Aerospace Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 190 member firms of GIFAS (Association of French Aeronautical and Space Industries) represent the three major branches of the profession: airframes, power plants, and systems and equipment. These firms develop, produce, maintain, and provide product s...

1993-01-01

292

Welfare programs that target workforce participation may negatively affect mortality.  

PubMed

During the 1990s reforms to the US welfare system introduced new time limits on people's eligibility to receive public assistance. These limits were developed to encourage welfare recipients to seek employment. Little is known about how such social policy programs may have affected participants' health. We explored whether the Florida Family Transition Program randomized trial, a welfare reform experiment, led to long-term changes in mortality among participants. The Florida program included a 24-36-month time limit for welfare participation, intensive job training, and placement assistance. We linked 3,224 participants from the experiment to 17-18 years of prospective mortality follow-up data and found that participants in the program experienced a 16 percent higher mortality rate than recipients of traditional welfare. If our results are generalizable to national welfare reform efforts, they raise questions about whether the cost savings associated with welfare reform justify the additional loss of life. PMID:23733981

Muennig, Peter; Rosen, Zohn; Wilde, Elizabeth Ty

2013-06-01

293

Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)|

McGough, Robert L.; And Others

1978-01-01

294

Welfare Program Implementation and Parents' Depression  

PubMed Central

This study examines how the frontline practices in welfare offices explain variation in program impacts on parents’ depression. The study uses data from four large-scale experimental studies and conducts multilevel statistical modeling on 6,761 families in 22 local welfare offices. Analyses examine the ways that two program implementation practices (emphasis on quick job entry and personal client attention) are associated with program impacts on parents’ depressive symptoms. Effects vary by the age composition of the parents’ children, such that programmatic emphasis on quick job entry is associated with increases in depression among parents with preschool-age children but not among parents with school-age children. Findings have implications for research, policy, and practice.

Morris, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

295

Foreign Aid, Domestic Investment and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the welfare implications of temporary foreign aid in a simple two-period, two-country model of trade. Domestic investment is endogenous, providing an important link between aid in period one and the terms of trade in periods one and two. Transfer-induced changes in the terms of trade redistribute present and future income between the donor and the recipient. In

Slobodan Djajic; Sajal Lahiri; Pascalis Raimondos-Moller

1999-01-01

296

Terrorism in the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution argues that social policies ameliorate poor short-run and long-run socioeconomic conditions (e.g., unemployment, poverty, inequality, and dissatisfaction), thereby indirectly reducing terrorist activity. The authors empirically assess the influence of social policies (indicated by social spending and welfare regime variables) on homegrown terrorism for fifteen Western European countries during the 1980—2003 period. The authors find that higher social spending

Tim Krieger; Daniel Meierrieks

2010-01-01

297

Welfare Interface Using Multiple Facial Features Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose a welfare interface using multiple facial features tracking, which can efficiently implement various mouse operations.\\u000a The proposed system consist of five modules: face detection, eye detection, mouth detection, facial features tracking, and\\u000a mouse control. The facial region is first obtained using skin-color model and connected-component analysis (CCs). Thereafter\\u000a the eye regions are localized using neural network (NN)-based texture

Yunhee Shin; Eun Yi Kim

2006-01-01

298

Health and welfare in organic poultry production.  

PubMed

This review paper deals with the major health and welfare aspects of organic poultry production. The differences between organic and conventional egg and poultry meat production are discussed, with the main emphasis on housing and management requirements, feed composition and the use of veterinary prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The effects of the legislation and statutes for organic farming on the health and welfare of the birds are also discussed, especially in relation to the biosecurity problems associated with free-range systems, the occurrence of behavioural disturbances in loose housed flocks and the use of veterinary drugs and vaccinations in general. The results from a questionnaire sent out to all Swedish organic egg producers, where questions about the farmer's perception of the birds' health status were included, are presented at the end of the paper. It is concluded that most of the health and welfare problems seen in conventional poultry systems for loose housed or free ranging birds can also been found on organic poultry farms. It is also concluded that there is a need for information about biosecurity, disease detection and disease prevention on organic poultry farms. PMID:11995389

Berg, C

2001-01-01

299

The New Welfare Law and Vulnerable Families: Implications for Child Welfare/Child Protection Systems. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the potential impact of federal welfare legislation, Public Law 104-193, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, on vulnerable families already in or at risk of entering the child welfare/child protection systems. The report includes an overview of the challenges states face; questions for state…

Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

300

Environmental and management factors affecting the welfare of chickens on commercial farms in the United Kingdom and Denmark stocked at five densities.  

PubMed

Data from a large commercial-scale experiment in which 10 major broiler producer companies stocked whole houses of birds at 30, 34, 38, 42, and 46 kg/m2 were analyzed to identify 1) temperature and humidity profiles achieved throughout the growth cycle, 2) management practices and equipment that contributed to observed variation in environmental conditions, and 3) the extent to which environmental variables affected bird welfare. The study involved a total of 2.7 million birds in 114 houses on commercial farms with measurement of a wide range of environmental and bird variables. Much of the variation in broiler health and welfare was associated with the percentage of time a company could maintain house temperature and RH within limits recommended by the breeder company. RH in the first week of life was particularly important to later health, suggesting that better control of humidity might lead to improved welfare. Key management factors affecting bird welfare were those relating to good ventilation and air control such as the type of ventilation, type of drinker, numbers of stockmen, and litter type. Controlling the environment, particularly temperature, humidity, and air and litter quality, is crucial to broiler chicken welfare. This does not mean that stocking density is unimportant, but lowering stocking density on its own, without regard to the environment the birds experience, is not sufficient. Genuine improvements in bird welfare will come from setting standards that combine stocking density, safeguards on the environment, and the genetic makeup of the birds. PMID:16156197

Jones, T A; Donnelly, C A; Stamp Dawkins, M

2005-08-01

301

Rescue Equipment, Aircraft Crash.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedures are identified for evaluation of aircraft borne aircraft crash rescue equipment under simulated tactical conditions. Helicopter mounted rescue hoists and accessories are also included. (Author)

1971-01-01

302

From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.  

PubMed

There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. PMID:22192762

Woods, Abigail

2011-12-20

303

Changing The “Culture” Of Welfare OfficesFrom Vision to the Front Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether the 1996 welfare reform has led to the culture change in welfare offices advocated by welfare leaders and administrators. Examining a sample of state and local welfare systems, it asks whether and how welfare organizations are seeking to change their culture or, if not their culture, at least some of the structures and processes of their

Irene Lurie; Norma M. Riccucci

2003-01-01

304

Friends with benefits: Social support and its relevance for farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing interest in promoting positive welfare, rather than just alleviating poor welfare, potential measures of good welfare, and means to provide it, have remained elusive. In humans social support improves stress-coping abilities, health, and promotes positive psychological welfare. Therefore, social support may be a key approach to promote positive physical and psychological welfare in farm animals. However, the roles

Jean-Loup Rault

305

SOCIAL WELFARE REFORM: COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVES ON EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the effects of American approaches to welfare with the effects of privatization and other recent changes in European welfare systems. European theories traditionally have held that the provision of welfare services is a state responsibility. While European governments continue to protect welfare services from economic forces, recent U.S. approaches have emphasized incorporating market principles in welfare programs.There

Maria Bordas

2001-01-01

306

A New Format for Learning about Farm Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal welfare is a knowledge domain that can be regarded as a model for new ways of organizing learning and making higher\\u000a education more responsive to the needs of society. Global concern for animal welfare has resulted in a great demand for knowledge.\\u000a As a complement to traditional education in farm animal welfare, higher education can be more demand

Anne Algers; Berner Lindström; Edmond A. Pajor

307

Do children from welfare families obtain less education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the relationship between parental welfare receipt and children’s adulthood educational attainment. Data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Cross-sectional regression results confirm findings from previous studies that greater parental welfare receipt is significantly associated with children’s poorer educational attainment. Fixed-effect regressions indicate that the relationship between parental welfare receipt and children’s educational outcomes becomes weaker

Inhoe Ku; Robert D. Plotnick

2003-01-01

308

Substate nationalism and the welfare state: Quebec and Canadian federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between sub-state nationalism and the welfare state through the case of Quebec in Canada. It argues that social policy presents mobilisation and identity-building potential for sub-state nationalism, and that nationalist movements affect the structure of welfare states. Nationalism and the welfare state revolve around the notion of solidarity. Because they often involve transfers of money

DANIEL BELAND

2006-01-01

309

Is Money the Measure of Welfare in Russia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of a non-market to a market economy ought to change fundamentally the significance of money incomes for welfare. Whereas in a stressful non-market economy such as the former Soviet Union, non-monetized resources could substitute for money income and promote welfare, in a modern market economy money income should be a good proxy for household welfare. This article tests

Richard Rose; Ian McAllister

1996-01-01

310

Path Analysis of Welfare Use: Depression as a Mediating Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path analysis was conducted to determine causal effects of life circumstances on depression and effects of these measures\\u000a on employment and welfare use. Data were from the Welfare and Self-Sufficiency Survey conducted in a metropolitan county of\\u000a Kentucky. Direct effects indicate that economic hardships and adverse life events increase depression scores and depression\\u000a reduces earnings and increases welfare use. Indirect

Vanessa HunnClaudia; Claudia J. Heath

2011-01-01

311

Effects of Welfare Reform on Teenage Parents and Their Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test

J. Lawrence Aber; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn; Rebecca A. Maynard

1995-01-01

312

Welfare-reducing growth despite individual and government optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In the presence of substantial relative-income effects and environmental disruption effects, economic growth may be welfare-reducing\\u000a even if each and all individuals are optimizing and eagerly trying to make more money and the government also maximizes the\\u000a welfare of individuals by the choice of income-tax rate and the ratio devoted to the abatement of environmental disruption.\\u000a Welfare-reducing growth may

Siang Ng; Yew-Kwang Ng

2001-01-01

313

How Situational Crime Prevention Contributes to Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situational crime prevention has been met with considerable scepticism from academic criminologists primarily for its indifference\\u000a to social welfare. It has been seen as contributing to a law-and-order agenda with its focus on making public places secure\\u000a for business and as supplanting social welfare policies as means of responding to crime. But situational crime prevention\\u000a contributes more to social welfare

Paul Knepper

2009-01-01

314

Microdissection and chromosome painting of plant B chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant chromosome microdissection techniques together with different isolation and amplification methods of microisolated DNA are described. Such isolated DNA was used to 'chromosome paint' B chromosomes of the dicot Brachycome dichromosomatica and the monocot Secale cereale. It is demonstrated that the specific painting of the described chromosomes was possible because of enrichment for chromosome-specific repetitive sequences, rather than the chromosome

Andreas Houben; Bruce L. Field; Verity A. Saunders

2001-01-01

315

Teaching animal welfare in some veterinary schools in Latin America.  

PubMed

Animal welfare is an emerging topic in Latin America because of its impact on animal health, international trade, industry economic viability, and consumer perceptions. To enable veterinarians to be primary promoters of animal welfare, their training must include competencies in ethics, ethology, research, and public policy. During the past 10 years, animal welfare has gradually been incorporated into the curricula of several schools of veterinary medicine in Chile and other Latin American countries. Inclusion in these curricula is limited by a shortage of knowledgeable instructors. Research sustains inclusion of animal welfare in the curricula, but funding for research is often lacking. PMID:20378882

Tadich, Néstor A; Molento, Carla F M; Gallo, Carmen B

2010-01-01

316

Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)|

Gillberg, Christopher

1998-01-01

317

Segmentation of chromosome images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the segmentation of chromosome images is examined. These banded chromosome arms belong to mosquitoes of the anopheles gambiae complex and are stained and mounted on slides. Spurious breaks in the chromosome arms due to the banded characteristic of the arms, detection of objects which are actually made up of noisy segments of fusion of two or more

S. W. Katz; A. D. Brink

1993-01-01

318

Telomeres and chromosome instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic instability has been proposed to play an important role in cancer by accelerating the accumulation of genetic changes responsible for cancer cell evolution. One mechanism for chromosome instability is through the loss of telomeres, which are DNA–protein complexes that protect the ends of chromosomes and prevent chromosome fusion. Telomere loss can occur as a result of exogenous DNA damage,

John P. Murnane

2006-01-01

319

Astronomical Equipment for Amateurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telescopes - refractors and reflectors - are the main items of equipment used by almost every amateur astronomer. The purpose of astronomical telescopes is to collect and focus more light than the human eye can, forming an image that can be viewed, photographed, or analysed. Astronomical Equipment for Amateurs makes buying and using both telescopes and their ancillary instruments easy

Martin Mobberley

1999-01-01

320

Selecting WP Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggestions for schools considering the purchase of word processing equipment are presented. Procedures for selecting equipment include getting information on prices, servicing, warranties, training, speed of printing, and quality of output. Choices to make include brand vs. service, price vs. service, and variety vs. limitations of brands. (CT)|

Casady, Mona J.

1981-01-01

321

SILEX Beacon Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function ...

P. Crepin P. Leblay R. Haller I. Tremillon J. Sonon

1990-01-01

322

Shipboard Electronic Equipments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

323

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)|

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1977-01-01

324

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SEPARATE LISTINGS ARE MADE OF AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS (KINGERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE 6) AND IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. STANDARDS FOR EACH PIECE OF EQUIPMENT ARE RECOMMENDED. TO MAKE STANDARDS MORE LOGICAL AND REASONABLE, THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS WERE MADE--THAT EACH SCHOOL HAVE ADEQUATE STORAGE…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

325

Equipment Operator 1 & C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

326

Changing Work Ethic and Welfare Dependence Through Welfare ReformThe 100Hour Rule Waiver Experiment for AFDC-U  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assumptions about welfare dependency and work are examined in a randomized experiment that tested the impact of the 100-hour rule waiver for two-parent welfare families: Aid to Families with Dependent Children–Unemployed (AFDC-U). The 100-hour rule was waived for the experiment group, allowing the primary wage earners in these families to work more than 100 hours a month without losing welfare

Alisa C. Lewin

2001-01-01

327

Expertise and advocacy in animal-welfare decision making: considerations for a veterinary curriculum in animal welfare.  

PubMed

An animal-welfare curriculum for veterinary students should provide learning opportunities in the application of veterinary expertise to patient management and animal-welfare policy. Real-life and hypothetical cases are presented that can allow students to develop their personal-values statement about animal welfare, explore the interaction of facts and values in deciding on a course of action, and understand the unique obligations and authority they will have as veterinarians. PMID:20378876

Carbone, Larry

2010-01-01

328

Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop  

SciTech Connect

The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

Not Available

1989-01-01

329

The welfare of livestock transported by ship.  

PubMed

The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances. PMID:23473873

Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

2013-03-06

330

The Status of State Work-Welfare Programs in 1986: Implications for Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been numerous attempts over the past seven years to replace the federally-funded Work Incentive Program (WIN) with another type of work program. As a result of increased flexibility, decreased federal funds, and continuing debate about welfare reform, there is now considerable variability among states in the types of employment and…

Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Burbridge, Lynn C.

331

Training Child Welfare Workers to Meet the Requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noncompliance, jurisdictional indifference, and culturally insensitive services have hindered foil implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Training workers to better meet its practice requirements is one way of mitigating the problem. This paper reports on such a training program, called “Teaming for Indian Families.1”

Raymond L. Bending

1997-01-01

332

Percentage of elderly and the use of welfare services at city welfare offices in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan's population is aging rapidly. As in other developed countries, the establishment of a system of care for the elderly, especially for those suffering from dementia, has become an urgent issue. As the role of welfare offices, which is to directly serve the people, has become increasingly important, the need to assess their use in terms of demographic factors has

Osamu Ida; Kozo Tatara; Hitoshi Fujiwara; Yoshihiro Takashima; Kenji Kuroda

1996-01-01

333

Leaving the Welfare Rolls: The Health and Mental Health Status of Current and Former Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the mail survey findings of 1,634 respondents examining the impact of welfare reform, namely the Work and Gain Economic Self Sufficiency (WAGES) program, in two urban areas of Florida. The health and mental health status, quality of life, and service needs of adults and children who had left WAGES were compared with those of current recipients. Findings

Roger A. Boothroyd; Delia Olufokunbi

2001-01-01

334

Exercising restraint: autonomy, welfare and elderly patients.  

PubMed Central

Despite moves to enhance the autonomy of clients of health care services, the use of a variety of physical restraints on the freedom of movement of frail, elderly patients continues in nursing homes. This paper confronts the use of restraints on two grounds. First, it challenges the assumption that use of restraints is necessary to protect the welfare of frail, elderly patients by drawing on a range of data indicating the limited efficacy of restraints. Secondly, it argues that the duty to respect individual autonomy extends to a duty to respect the autonomy of patients who are elderly, frail and living in nursing homes.

Dodds, S

1996-01-01

335

Sexually antagonistic chromosomal cuckoos  

PubMed Central

The two kinds of sex chromosomes in the heterogametic parent are transmitted to offspring with different sexes, causing opposite-sex siblings to be completely unrelated for genes located on these chromosomes. Just as the nest-parasitic cuckoo chick is selected to harm its unrelated nest-mates in order to garner more shared resources, sibling competition causes the sex chromosomes to be selected to harm siblings that do not carry them. Here we quantify and contrast this selection on the X and Y, or Z and W, sex chromosomes. We also develop a hypothesis for how this selection can contribute to the decay of the non-recombining sex chromosome.

Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

2009-01-01

336

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-10-01

337

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-10-01

338

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS),...

2009-10-01

339

45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false...financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE...

2010-10-01

340

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children...112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION...REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112...

2010-10-01

341

34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services...ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services....

2013-07-01

342

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services...RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other...

2013-04-01

343

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2013-07-01

344

Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator.  

PubMed

This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the loss of the coping ability and, thus, to impaired health. In the first part of the review, the physiological processes through which stressful husbandry conditions modulate health of farmed fish are examined. If fish are subjected to unfavourable husbandry conditions, the resulting disruption of internal homeostasis necessitates energy-demanding physiological adjustments (allostasis/acclimation). The ensuing energy drain leads to trade-offs with other energy-demanding processes such as the functioning of the primary epithelial barriers (gut, skin, gills) and the immune system. Understanding of the relation between husbandry conditions, allostatic responses and fish health provides the basis for the second theme developed in this review, the potential use of biological function and health parameters as operational welfare indicators (OWIs). Advantages of function- and health-related parameters are that they are relatively straightforward to recognize and to measure and are routinely monitored in most aquaculture units, thereby providing feasible tools to assess fish welfare under practical farming conditions. As the efforts to improve fish welfare and environmental sustainability lead to increasingly diverse solutions, in particular integrated production, it is imperative that we have objective OWIs to compare with other production forms, such as high-density aquaculture. However, to receive the necessary acceptance for legislation, more robust scientific backing of the health- and function-related OWIs is urgently needed. PMID:21681416

Segner, Helmut; Sundh, Henrik; Buchmann, Kurt; Douxfils, Jessica; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan; Mathieu, Cédric; Ruane, Neil; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Toften, Hilde; Vaughan, Lloyd

2011-06-18

345

Prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare outcomes.  

PubMed

This study examines the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and child welfare outcomes. Seventy-six infants positive for cocaine at birth were matched to 76 negative infants. With prenatal care and maternal use of alcohol and tobacco controlled, cocaine-exposed infants had significant decrements in birth weight, length, head circumference, and depressed 5-min Apgar scores. This confirmed the health risk of prenatal cocaine exposure for the sample. Three-year follow-up data were obtained from the State Central Register and foster care records. Adjusting for prior maternal involvement with child welfare services the study groups did not differ in incidents of child maltreatment or foster care placement. These findings suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure is not a marker for abusive parenting. However, from the perspective of a cumulative risk model, the identification of cocaine-exposed infants at birth can form the starting point for the development of appropriate diagnostic and follow-up services for mother and child. PMID:17043317

Doris, John L; Meguid, Victoria; Thomas, Margaret; Blatt, Steven; Eckenrode, John

2006-11-01

346

Chromosomes, conflict, and epigenetics: chromosomal speciation revisited.  

PubMed

Since Darwin first noted that the process of speciation was indeed the "mystery of mysteries," scientists have tried to develop testable models for the development of reproductive incompatibilities-the first step in the formation of a new species. Early theorists proposed that chromosome rearrangements were implicated in the process of reproductive isolation; however, the chromosomal speciation model has recently been questioned. In addition, recent data from hybrid model systems indicates that simple epistatic interactions, the Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, are more complex. In fact, incompatibilities are quite broad, including interactions among heterochromatin, small RNAs, and distinct, epigenetically defined genomic regions such as the centromere. In this review, we will examine both classical and current models of chromosomal speciation and describe the "evolving" theory of genetic conflict, epigenetics, and chromosomal speciation. PMID:20438362

Brown, Judith D; O'Neill, Rachel J

2010-09-22

347

Labour Welfare in Canada: An Examination of Occupational Assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores labour welfare in Canada across three distinct periods of occupational assistance: welfare capitalism that began with the Industrial Revolution and persisted through the depression of the 1930s; occupational alcoholism programming that emerged during World War II and the typically unreported domestic labour strife of the 1940s, lasting through the postwar economic boom into the 1960s; and the

Rick Csiernik

2009-01-01

348

Did Welfare Reform Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data…

Lopoo, Leonard M.; DeLeire, Thomas

2006-01-01

349

EGalitarianism? The Information Society and New Labour's Repositioning of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, claims that epochal shifts in the socioeconomic landscape demand a reappraisal of the welfare state have become almost commonplace and postmodern, post-Fordist and postindustrial perspectives on the welfare state have all found a place in academic literature. However, while each of these discourses has noted the role of technological change in enabling the emergence of new societal

John Hudson

2003-01-01

350

A comprehensive model for child welfare training evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to develop and test a comprehensive theoretical model for child welfare training evaluation. Drawing upon the theoretical work in training evaluation as well as empirical research in child welfare, this study proposed a model of training evaluation that included individual and organizational predictors of outcomes; training satisfaction, learning and transfer; as well as federally

Becky F. Antle; Anita P. Barbee; Michiel A. van Zyl

2008-01-01

351

The Beginnings of Child Welfare Research in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the beginnings of child welfare research in the United States with an emphasis on the contributions of several outstanding individuals as well as the conflict between hereditarian and reformist values and attitudes. Both hereditarian and reformist values and attitudes had tremendous influence on the development of child welfare research as well as the helping professions.

Patrick A. Curtis

1999-01-01

352

Beyond GDP: The Quest for a Measure of Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I The first part of the paper is devoted to the monetary indicators of social welfare. It is shown which methods of quantitative estimating the aggregate wealth and well-being are available in the modern economic theory apart from the traditional GDP measure. The limitations of the methods are also discussed. The author shows which measures of welfare are adequate

M. FLEURBAEY

2011-01-01

353

The Three Consumer Surpluses as Individual Welfare Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the extremely strong restrictions on individual preferences and social-value judgments that are necessary for the three conventional surplus concepts (equiv alent variation, compensating variation, and Marshallian surplus) to be measures of an individual's welfare change. If the surpluses are t o be cardinal welfare measures then individual preferences must be ei ther homothetic (CV, MS) or quasi-homothetic

John L. Wriglesworth; Hugh S. E. Gravelle

1987-01-01

354

Recent developments in European and international welfare regulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Protocol on Animal Welfare annexed to the EC Treaty in 1999 obliges the European Institutions to fully consider animal welfare in the drafting and implementation of Community legislation. The reform of the common agricultural policies (CAP) foreseen by Agenda 2000 follows the trend of more market oriented measures decoupling subsidies from production. Farming is seen as fundamental to other

H. J. Blokhuis

2004-01-01

355

Indian Child Welfare: A Status Report. Final Report of the Survey of Indian Child Welfare and Implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act and Section 428 of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a report on the first national examination of the effects of the Indian Child Welfare Act (Public Law 95-608), enacted in 1978. The study examines the prevalence of Native American children in substitute care and the implementation of the act and portions of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 as they affect Indian…

Plantz, Margaret C.; And Others

356

Why the Need for the Indian Child Welfare Act?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores two historical periods that preceded the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: the Boarding and Mission School era (1880s-1950s) and the Indian Adoption era (1950s-1970s). The assimilationist social welfare policy of those two eras led to the eventual need for special legislation that protects tribal self-determination, heritage, and family preservation.

Lila J. George

1997-01-01

357

Why the Need for the Indian Child Welfare Act?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores two historical periods that preceded the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: the boarding and mission school era (1880s-1950s) and the Indian adoption era (1950s-70s). The assimilationist social welfare policy of those two eras led to the eventual need for special legislation that protects tribal self-determination, heritage, and family…

George, Lila J.

1997-01-01

358

Did welfare reform influence the fertility of young teens?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data from the National Center for

Leonard M. Lopoo; Thomas DeLeire

2006-01-01

359

Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interactions between taxes on work-related traffic congestion and pre-existing distortionary taxes in the labor market. A congestion tax raises the overall costs of commuting to work and discourages labor force participation. The resulting welfare loss in the labor market can easily exceed the Pigouvian welfare gain from internalizing the congestion externality. However, if congestion tax revenues

Ian W. H. Parry; Antonio Bento

2001-01-01

360

Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

2010-01-01

361

Accessibility and Clarity of State Child Welfare Agency Mission Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors reviewed 40 mission statements guiding U.S. public child welfare practice for accessibility, clarity, and values. Nine of the 40 state-administered child welfare agencies had not posted their missions on the Web as of October 2002, and 30 mission statements required a 12th-grade or college reading level for easy comprehension. The…

Busch, Monique; Folaron, Gail

2005-01-01

362

Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2004-01-01

363

The Welfare State: Prospects for the 1980s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The following topics are examined: old age pensions under social security; economic policy as the primary determinant of social policy; the measurement of poverty and its implications for antipoverty policies; race and ethnic relations; the future of private welfare; and the analytic connection between sociology and social welfare. (RM)|

Gronbjerg, Kirsten A., Ed.

1983-01-01

364

Develop Innovative Methods in Secondary Analyses of Child Welfare Databases -- \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project proposes to develop and test four innovative approaches to analyses of child welfare survey databases, and to provide products that can be used by other child welfare scholars. It has four specific aims: 1) Demonstrate the capacity of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to improve the quality of information from multiple raters by: (a) simultaneously analyzing the ratings of

Shenyang Guo

365

How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states (Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999, 2002; Sainsbury 1996, 1990; O'Connor et al. 1999; Lewis 1992, 1997). In other words: if childcare is

Monique Kremer

2005-01-01

366

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

367

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

368

On the Measurement of Welfare, Happiness and Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses welfare measurement issues, with an emphasis on the measurement of happiness and inequality. It contributes to the economic literature in both methodological and empirical terms, with the empirical analysis employing the PACO\\/CHER, ECHP and GSS datasets. Although human welfare is a multidimensional concept, a classical approach is to simply investigate the distribution of wealth and\\/or income. Our

Maja RYNKO

2012-01-01

369

Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

2004-01-01

370

Welfare Implications of Costly Litigation under Strict Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a model of strict liability with costly litigation and presents conditions under which (1) potential injurers take optimal precautions, (2) increasing the cost of litigation enhances precaution and social welfare, (3) the optimal level of liability exceeds the compensatory level, and (4) increasing the rate of settlement enhances social welfare. The results have implications for controversies surrounding

Keith N. Hylton

2002-01-01

371

Sustaining Indigenous futures? Welfare reform and responsibility for the other  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates about the provision of welfare over the past decade have been founded upon an increasing concern with the responsibilities of welfare recipients. In Australia, as elsewhere, the emphasis has been on recipients’ responsibility to rise above their circumstances (no matter how constraining) in order to ‘give something back’ to society. This practice of ‘responsibilisation’ has recently been extended to

Cate Thill

2008-01-01

372

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

373

The Left and the welfare state: a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes to task two theses which are often canvassed on the left; firstly that the welfare state is indefensible and secondly that it is irrever sible and cannot be undone. It is argued that socialists and fentinists must defend the principle of collective provision embodied in the welfare state sible and cannot be undone. It is argued that

Ramesh Mishra; McMaster

1985-01-01

374

Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804\\/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations

Karl-Erik Hammarberg

2002-01-01

375

Animal welfare standards in organic farming in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a literature survey recently performed on the animal welfare status in organic farming in The Netherlands. It is shown that for several aspects of animal welfare, mostly related to behavior, comfort, and feeding level, Dutch organiclivestock production performs well. However, several other (mainly health) aspects arestill a major point of concern. The results are used for communication

M. A. W. Ruis; J. B. Pinxterhuis

2009-01-01

376

Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare capitalism".…

Jakobsen, Tor Georg

2011-01-01

377

Balancing Profitability and Customer Welfare in a Supermarket Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impact of price discrimination by a large Chicago supermarket chain. First we measure the impact of the chain's current zone-pricing policy on shelf prices, variable profits and consumer welfare across its stores. Using the chain's database to simulate a finer store-specific micro- pricing policy, we study the implications of this policy on profits and welfare. We show

PRADEEP K. CHINTAGUNTA; VISHAL SINGH

2003-01-01

378

Welfare Analysis of the U.S. Ethanol Subsidy, A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a transparent analytical model of multiple markets including corn, ethanol, gasoline, and transportation fuel, this study estimates the welfare changes for consumers and producers resulting from ethanol production and related support polices in 2007. The welfare estimation takes into account the second-best gain from eliminating loan deficiency payments. The results suggest the total social cost is about $0.78

Xiaodong Du; Dermot J. Hayes; Mindy L. Baker

2008-01-01

379

A Welfare Analysis of the U.S. Ethanol Subsidy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analytical model of multiple interconnected markets including corn, ethanol, gasoline, and transportation fuel, this study estimates the welfare changes for consumers and producers resulting from ethanol production and related support polices in 2007. The welfare estimation takes into account the fact that the ethanol program was implemented in a market that had already been distorted by other

Xiaodong Du; Dermot J. Hayes; Mindy L. Mallory

2009-01-01

380

A Welfare Analysis of the U.S. Ethanol Subsidy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analytical model of multiple interconnected markets including corn, ethanol, gasoline, and transportation fuel, this study estimates the welfare changes for consumers and producers resulting from ethanol production and related support polices in 2007. The welfare estimation takes into account the fact that the ethanol program was implemented in a market that had already been distorted by other

Xiaodong Du; Dermot J. Hayes; Mindy Baker

2010-01-01

381

Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

Robert J. Lemke; Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt; Robert Witt

2000-01-01

382

Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

383

Science-based assessment of animal welfare: farm animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal welfare is to do with the feelings experienced by animals: the absence of strong negative feelings, usually called suffering, and (probably) the presence of positive feelings, usually called pleasure. In any assessment of welfare, it is these feelings that should be assessed. Because feelings are subjective, they cannot be investigated directly. However, there are indirect methods by which

I. J. H. Duncan

2005-01-01

384

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

385

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

386

Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

Chen, Michael

387

Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

388

Improving social welfare chain using optimal planning model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to introduce the concept of social welfare chain and address the challenges in decision making through the development of an optimal planning model for a nongovernmental organization (NGO). The distinctive properties of the social welfare chain and its relationship with the humanitarian relief chain in the context of supply chain management are

Burcu Adivar; Tarik Atan; Bengü Sevil Oflaç; Tu?ba Örten

2010-01-01

389

Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

390

Markups and the Welfare Cost of Business Cycles : A Reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gali et al. (2007) have recently shown in a quantitative way that inefficient fluctuations in the allocation of resources do not generate sizable welfare costs. In this note, we show that their evaluation underestimates the welfare costs of inefficient fluctuations and propose a biased estimate of the impact of structural distortions on business cycle costs. As monopolistic suppliers, both firms

Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot

2010-01-01

391

Markups and the Welfare Cost of Business Cycles: A Reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gali et al. (2007) have recently shown quantitatively that fluctuations in the efficiency of resource allocation do not generate sizable welfare costs. In their economy, which is distorted by monopolistic competition in the steady state, we show that they underestimate the welfare cost of these fluctuations by ignoring the negative effect of aggregate volatility on average consumption and leisure. As

Jean-Olivier Hairault; François Langot

2012-01-01

392

Children's Living Arrangements, Coresidence of Unmarried Fathers, and Welfare Receipt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed welfare receipt among children across alternative living arrangements. Findings suggest more variation in patterns of public assistance receipt than previously reported, and that these variations are affected by the presence of cohabiting fathers. Results argue for more precise indicators of children's living arrangements so that levels of welfare receipt among children are comparable. Indicators should categorize children

PETER D. BRANDON; LARRY BUMPASS

2001-01-01

393

Devolution and welfare reform: re-evaluating "success".  

PubMed

The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or decreased since the start of the recession in late 2007. The uneven responsiveness of the welfare system to growing economic needs prompts the question of whether the safety net is functioning as intended. This article evaluates the literature on the state and local implementation of welfare to assess whether devolution has yielded the positive outcomes promised by proponents. Findings suggest that, under welfare reform, state and local governments are enacting diverse programs and do not appear to be limiting welfare provision in new ways to avoid becoming "welfare magnets." However, the type of program they adopt is systematically related to the racial and ethnic composition of the caseloads and the local political climate, leading to a fragmentary system in which some states and localities are more responsive than others. Social workers can help poor families in critical need of assistance by voicing these concerns at the local, state, and national levels. PMID:23285832

Sheely, Amanda

2012-10-01

394

Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper uses new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas to examine the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients. Data come from a telephone survey of approximately 750 establishments. Results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients, although such demand appears fairly sensitive to business cycle…

Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.

395

Habit persistence and welfare gains from international asset trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce habit formation in a model that studies the link between international trade in financial assets, economic growth, and welfare. As with time separable preferences, asset trade increases the mean growth rate, but it also increases growth-volatility. We demonstrate that the welfare gain from asset trade is lower with habit persistence in consumption. This reflects that the habit-forming households

Egil Matsen

2003-01-01

396

Habit Persistence and Welfare Gains from International Asset Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce habit formation in a model that studies the link between international trade in financial assets, economic growth, and welfare. As with time separable preferences asset trade increases the mean growth rate, but it also increases growth-volatility. We demonstrate that the welfare gain from asset trade is lower with habit persistence in consumption. This reflects that the habit-forming households

Egil Matsen

2001-01-01

397

FACTORS RELATED TO STUDENT SATISFACTION WITH CHILD WELFARE FIELD PLACEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One objective of partnerships between schools of social work and public human services is to increase the number of graduates who work in child welfare agencies. The study reported here surveyed 206 BSW and MSW students at 7 accredited Florida social work programs on their level of satisfaction with placements in child welfare agencies. The study measured satisfaction with 5

Diane Elias Alperin

1998-01-01

398

Factors Influencing MSW Students' Interest in Public Child Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public child welfare agencies have long been perceived as key training and employment settings for professional social workers in the United States. Nonetheless, within the last 30 years, concern has been raised with respect to the perceived “de-professionalization” of many public social service jobs, making a large portion of social work positions in public child welfare unappealing to the professionally

Robin Perry

2005-01-01

399

A Model of Welfare Competition with Evidence from AFDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we test empirically for strategic behavior among the states using the cash support program Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). To motivate the empirical work, we adapt Wildasin's model of income redistribution (1991, American Economic Review; 81, 757–773) to a model of “interjurisdictional welfare competition.” Although welfare competition may be generated from different frameworks, we choose

Luz Amparo Saavedra

2000-01-01

400

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

401

Liability considerations in child welfare: lessons from Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Recent years have been fraught with investigations into the deaths of children receiving child welfare services throughout North America, Europe, and Australia. These inquiries have attracted considerable media attention and public outrage. Added to this have been increases in attempts to hold social workers in child welfare responsible for the abuse and deaths of children through the criminal and

Karima Kanani; Cheryl Regehr; Marvin M Bernstein

2002-01-01

402

Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

2004-01-01

403

Tourism, Welfare and Deindustrialization in a Small Open Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of an expansion of tourism on welfare, output, and factor prices in the host country using a general equilibrium international trade model. In the absence of taxes, foreign ownership, and distortions, an increase in foreign visitors will increase welfare only if the price of nontradables increases. Factor mobility and foreign ownership tend to reduce the

Brian R Copeland

1991-01-01

404

Welfare State Expenditures and the Distribution of Child Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the redistributive effects of welfare state expenditures on social and economic disparities in the economic well-being of citizens in ten nations. Data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and other sources for cash and non-cash social welfare benefits (health and education benefits from third parties) are used to describe differences in the size and

I. L. Rainwater Garfinkel; Lee Rainwater; Timothy M. Smeeding

2004-01-01

405

Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare capitalism".…

Jakobsen, Tor Georg

2011-01-01

406

Making the Link: Pregnancy Prevention and the New Welfare Era.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report offers strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy in an era when the nation's welfare program has a changed mission, more money, and greater reach. The report discusses types of links between welfare offices and family planning services being developed in California, Georgia, and Washington, identifying barriers and challenges to…

Burlingame, Phyllida; Hutson, Rutledge; Levin-Epstein, Jodie

407

Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

Nicholson, Rosetta

1975-01-01

408

Social capital, houshold welfare, and poverty in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author empirically estimates how social capital affects household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. His focus: household memberships in local associations, an aspect of social capital especially relevant to daily household decisions that affect welfare and consumption. The data suggest that households with higher social capital spend more per capita. They also have more assets, more savings, and better access

Christiaan Grootaert

1999-01-01

409

Integrating Couple Teamwork Conversations Into Child Welfare Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple relationships in child welfare. These barriers include diverse family configurations

Dana Christensen; Becky Antle; Lisa Johnson

2008-01-01

410

Peer Effects in Welfare Dependence: Quasi-Experimental Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines peer effects in welfare use among refugees. We exploit a Swedish refugee placement policy, which generated exogenous variation in peer group composition. Our analysis distinguishes between the quantity of contacts--the number of individuals of the same ethnicity--and the quality of contacts--welfare use among members of the…

Aslund, Olof; Fredriksson, Peter

2009-01-01

411

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

412

Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

413

Welfare to Work. Employment and Training Programs Annual Report 1993.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the programs provided by the Illinois Department of Public Aid and the initiatives that the department has begun to help welfare recipients find work and get off welfare rolls. Programs described include the following: (1) AFDC (Aid for Families with Dependent Children) Job Opportunities and Basic Skills program (JOBS), which…

Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

414

Housing Problems Experienced by Recipients of Child Welfare Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uses data on the experiences of families involved with child welfare services to examine the nature of housing problems and needs among these families and whether housing status affects case outcomes. First, the article describes the housing difficulties faced by two distinct child welfare service populations: families receiving…

Courtney, Mark E.; McMurtry, Steven L.; Zinn, Andrew

2004-01-01

415

The assessment and implementation of animal welfare: theory into practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reviews the procedures and protocols necessary for the development of a practical programme for the assessment and implementation of animal welfare on farms and in other commercial situations. An effective programme must incorporate measures of both husbandry and welfare. Most current systems are based almost entirely on measures of husbandry provision, e.g. resources and management. However, what

J. Webster

416

The USA perspective on animal welfare: issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare in the United States, as in the world at large, is a highly visible and often controversial topic. As the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Care program, I am responsible for implementing the regulations that support the federal Animal Welfare Act, otherwise known as the AWA, and the Horse Protection Act, known as the

Chester A Gipson

417

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Employee welfare benefit plan. 2510.3-1 Section 2510.3-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...SUBCHAPTERS C, D, E, F, AND G OF THIS CHAPTER § 2510.3-1 Employee welfare benefit plan. (a)...

2010-07-01

418

29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Employee welfare benefit plan. 2510.3-1 Section 2510.3-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...SUBCHAPTERS C, D, E, F, AND G OF THIS CHAPTER § 2510.3-1 Employee welfare benefit plan. (a)...

2009-07-01

419

Electronic Equipment Maintainability Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first of a series of maintainability data publications at the system/equipment level. Other volumes prepared by the Reliability Analysis Center consider reliability of digital microcircuits, discrete semiconductors (including optoelectronic an...

N. B. Fuqua

1980-01-01

420

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)|

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1979-01-01

421

Cleaning supplies and equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... disinfect means to clean something to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... solution carefully. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

422

Laboratory Equipment in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specific objectives of the study were to analyze the potential markets and marketing factors in this country for precision, high-speed laboratory equipment with particular reference to marketing opportunities for American products. The report is the s...

1966-01-01

423

Selecting Home Exercise Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... and a bench rather than a weight resistance machine? Are you buying equipment based on advertising claims? ... strength you will require. Elliptical/cross-trainers. These machines provide a low impact cardiovascular workout. In addition ...

424

Orbital Construction Support Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements...

1977-01-01

425

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of a project aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment, specifically the development of a commercial open top section employing powered burners and the development of means for ap...

R. L. Himmel

1983-01-01

426

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the continuing efforts of a project aimed at improving the efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment. It specifically discusses work on deep fat fryers, range oven sections, range open top sections, range hot top sections,...

R. L. Himmel

1981-01-01

427

Lubricants for sports equipment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to polychlorotrifluoroethylenes (PCTFE) for improving the gliding properties of sports equipment and, in particular, winter sports equipment, to compositions containing the same, and to their use for this purpose. The polychlorotrifluoroethylenes are, in particular, polychlorotrifluoroethylenes which have a molecular weight selected so that they have a pourpoint in the range from -70.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. (-94.degree. F. to 392.degree. F.), and preferably from 0.degree. C. to 100.degree. C. (32 to 212.degree. F.).

Schutz; Markus (Stuttgart, DE); Bender; Holger (Backnang, DE)

2010-02-02

428

Tracking equipment on hire  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

Not Available

1985-06-01

429

Medical equipment management strategies.  

PubMed

Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article. PMID:16796335

Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

430

Homelessness and the Tertiary Welfare System in Sweden - The Role of the Welfare State and Non-profit Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses homelessness in Sweden in relation to the organisation of the 'universalistic' welfare system, with a special focus upon the boundaries inherent in the system and the role of the non-profit sector within the field of welfare services to homeless people. The empirical material consists of comparative case studies conducted in four Swedish municipali- ties : Stockholm, Malmö,

Lars-Erik Olsson; Marie Nordfeldt

431

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

432

Listing of Food Service Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

433

Chromosome healing of constitutional chromosome deletions studied by microdissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broken chromosomes are highly unstable and are subject to chromosome fusion or loss. As an exception, healing of human chromosomes occurs which can lead to constitutional or acquired terminal chromosome deletion disorders. Both de novo telomere addition at the breakpoint and telomere capture have been implicated as healing mechanisms. We investigated the origin of the novel ends of chromosomes 4p

J. R. Vermeesch; D. Falzetti; J.-P. Fryns; P. Marynen

1998-01-01

434

Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes  

SciTech Connect

In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

2006-03-16

435

Household-electric equipment diffusion and the impacts in the demand of residential electric energy in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sizing and the distribution of the circuits, equipments of illumination and wall sockets of a household building are planned to offer a certain comfort to the users. The comfort is associated to a psychological state of welfare and depends on an ample amount of factors. The residences consume about 26% of the total electric energy in Sao Paulo State

Carlos Alberto Mariotoni; Paulo Roberto Santos

2006-01-01

436

Household-electric equipment diffusion and the impacts in the demand of residential electric energy in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sizing and the distribution of the circuits, equipments of illumination and wall sockets of a household building are planned to offer a certain comfort to the users. The comfort is associated to a psychological state of welfare and depends on an ample amount of factors. The residences consume about 26% of the total electric energy in Sao Paulo state

Carlos Alberto Mariotoni; Paulo Roberto Santos

2005-01-01

437

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... I share personal protective equipment with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective ... protect the wearer from serious injuries or illnesses. Q. How does personal protective equipment help prevent the ...

438

?????????????????????????????????? SEGMENTATION OF OVERLAPPING CHROMOSOME IMAGES ???????? ??????*, ???????? ?????????????, ??????? ????????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of human chromosomes is a common task in cytogenetic tests. Successful separation between overlapping chromosomes in a metaphase image is crucial for correct classification. Current systems for automatic chromosome classification are mostly interactive and require human intervention for correct separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes. Special separation methods are required to segregate chromosomes because they are non-rigid objects.

Wacharapong Srisang; Krisanadej Jaroensutasinee; Mullica Jaroensutasinee

439

Ethical challenges with welfare technology: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Demographical changes in high income counties will increase the need of health care services but reduce the number of people to provide them. Welfare technology is launched as an important measure to meet this challenge. As with all types of technologies we must explore its ethical challenges. A literature review reveals that welfare technology is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of technologies and there are few studies documenting their efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. Many kinds of welfare technology break with the traditional organization of health care. It introduces technology in new areas, such as in private homes, and it provides new functions, e.g. offering social stimuli and entertainment. At the same time welfare technology is developed for groups that traditionally have not been extensive technology users. This raises a series of ethical questions with regard to the development and use of welfare technologies, which are presented in this review. The main challenges identified are: (1) Alienation when advanced technology is used at home, (2) conflicting goals, as welfare technologies have many stakeholders with several ends, (3) respecting confidentiality and privacy when third-party actors are involved, (4) guaranteeing equal access and just distribution, and (5) handling conflicts between instrumental rationality and care in terms of respecting dignity and vulnerability. Addressing these issues is important for developing and implementing welfare technologies in a morally acceptable manner. PMID:22218998

Hofmann, Bjørn

2012-01-05

440

German mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

Not Available

1993-10-01

441

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11

442

Manage equipment failure investigation  

SciTech Connect

Determining the cause of plant equipment failure may be relatively easy or it may involve complex laboratory testing and analysis. Given the variety of situations requiring plant equipment failure investigation, a systematic process for managing failure investigations is desirable. Guidelines and check lists are useful. Systematic execution of the recommendations and guidelines in this article should lead to successful and cost-effective failure investigations. A generic check list for executing the process is provided in Table 1 and a generic work scope for a failure investigation is provided in Table 2.

McHaney, J.H. [Metallurgical Consultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Williamson, G.C. [ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-01-01

443

SILEX Beacon equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

1990-07-01

444

Child welfare involvement among children in homeless families.  

PubMed

An analysis of 8251 homeless children in New York City found that 18% of them received child welfare services over the five-year period following their first shelter admission, and an additional 6% had a history of having received such services before their first shelter admission. Recurrent use of public shelters, exposure to domestic violence, older age at first episode of homelessness, and larger number of children in a household were associated with an increased risk of child welfare involvement. The high rate of crossover between homelessness and the child welfare system suggests the need for service coordination for children in homeless families. PMID:15503639

Park, Jung Min; Metraux, Stephen; Brodbar, Gabriel; Culhane, Dennis P

445

A Framework for Cultivating and Increasing Child Welfare Workers’ Empathy Toward Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much emphasis has been placed on child welfare workers’ skills and attributes when working with parents involved in the child welfare system; however, few studies have examined the potential benefits of using an empathic approach to interacting with parents. Child welfare workers may have negative perceptions of parents involved in the child welfare system and might have a tendency to

Jennifer L. Mullins

2011-01-01

446

IMPLEMENTING WELFARE REFORM IN MICHIGAN: THE ROLE OF STREET-LEVEL BUREAUCRATS[1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the implementation of welfare reform policies enacted by the state of Michigan. In particular, it focuses on how welfare policy is altered as it devolves from state policy makers to street-level bureaucrats in three local welfare agencies in Michigan. The analysis reveals that street-level bureaucrats in local welfare offices are in a position to interpret broadly stated

Norma M. Riccucci

2002-01-01

447

Domains of Work and Methods of Work of Occupational Welfare Officers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore characteristics of the role of providing welfare services to employees of an organization. Most occupational welfare officers in Israel were interviewed for the study (N= 92). The main issues reported and discussed are: the domains of occupational welfare; the methods used by welfare officers; possible determinants of the variance among officers in

Boas Shamir; David Bargal

1983-01-01

448

Transgenesis may affect farm animal welfare: a case for systematic risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of transgenesis for farm animal welfare and examines the strategy of studying health and welfare of transgenic farm animals. Evidence is discussed showing that treatments imposed in the context of farm animal transgenesis are by no means biologically neutral and may compromise animal health and welfare. Factors posing a risk for the welfare of

Reenen van C; T. H. E. Meuwissen; H. Hopster; K. Oldenbroek; T. A. Kruip; H. J. Blokhuis

2001-01-01

449

Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment…

Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

2011-01-01

450

Agriculture and national welfare around the world: causality and international heterogeneity since 1960  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of marginal welfare effects suggest that agricultural development has had important positive effects on national welfare, especially in developing countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries have also benefited from agricultural growth, but non-agricultural production has had marginal welfare effects that are greater in magnitude than those provided by agricultural activities. In contrast, the industrialized, high-income countries experienced marginal welfare

Claudio Bravo-Ortega; Daniel Lederman

2005-01-01

451

A Story of their own: Adolescent Pregnancy and Child Welfare in Aboriginal Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of adolescent pregnancy and its relationship to child welfare in Aboriginal communities provides a useful lens through which to understand fundamental and structural problems with the current child welfare system in Canada. The following paper will examine the relationship between adolescent pregnancy and child welfare, investigate concerns with the current child welfare system, and look to the Convention

Emilia Ordolis

452

A computer model for welfare assessment of poultry production systems for laying hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer model for welfare assessment in laying hens was constructed. This model, named FOWEL (fowl welfare], uses a description of the production system as input and produces a welfare score as output. To assess the welfare status a formalized procedure based on scientific knowledge is applied. In FOWEL the production system is described using 25 attributes (space per hen,

R. M. De Mol; W. G. P. Schouten; E. Evers; H. Drost; H. W. J. Houwers; A. C. Smits

2006-01-01

453

Mental Health and Welfare Transitions: Depression and Alcohol Abuse in AFDC Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a selection perspective, does prior dysfunction select women into welfare or serve as a barrier to leaving welfare? From a social causation perspective, does entering or exiting welfare lead to changes in well being? These questions were analyzed in panel data for over 3,600 women drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the period 1992–94. Welfare is

David Dooley; JoAnn Prause

2002-01-01

454

Altogether on Their Own: The Consequences for Children of Non-Receipt of Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written on the effects of welfare receipt on children. Nothing has been written on the effect of non-receipt on children. Specifically, much of the literature on the short- and long-term effect of welfare receipt on children has poorly controlled for the endogeneity of welfare receipt and poverty, and for selection of eligible families into welfare. This leads

Brendan Cushing-Daniels; Nikolay Doskov

455

Chromosome engineering in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHROMOSOMAL rearrangements are the major cause of inherited human disease and fetal loss1. Translations2 and loss of heterozygosity3 are important genetic changes causally involved in neoplasia. Chromosomal variants, such as deficiencies, are commonly exploited in genetic screens in organisms such as Drosophila because a small portion of the genome is functionally hemizygous4. In the mouse, deficiencies are not generally available,

Ramlro Ramirez-Solis; Pentao Liu; Allan Bradley

1995-01-01

456

Chromosome Models: Karyotyping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can have a tactile opportunity to construct a karyotype, an organized model of an organismâs chromosomes, conveying the chromosomeâs size and shape. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can learn about the organization of chromosomes which carry the genetic material in all cells that have a nucleus.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

457

Human chromosomal polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal Q polymorphism was studied in 157 adolescents of Yakut nationality (67 males and 90 females) living in Eastern Siberia, on the territory of the Yakut ASSR. Of the 157 subjects, 123 had chromosomal Q variants while 34 (21.7%) had no Q-heterochromatin bands with fluorescence levels 4 and 5. The mean number of Q variants per individual ranged from 0

A. I. Ibraimov; M. M. Mirrakhimov; E. I. Axenrod

1986-01-01

458

Human chromosome fragility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile sites are heritable specific chromosome loci that exhibit an increased frequency of gaps, poor staining, constrictions or breaks when chromosomes are exposed to partial DNA replication inhibition. They constitute areas of chromatin that fail to compact during mitosis.They are classified as rare or common depending on their frequency within the population and are further subdivided on the basis of

T. Lukusa; J. P. Fryns

2008-01-01

459

Sexually antagonistic chromosomal cuckoos.  

PubMed

The two kinds of sex chromosomes in the heterogametic parent are transmitted to offspring with different sexes, causing opposite-sex siblings to be completely unrelated for genes located on these chromosomes. Just as the nest-parasitic cuckoo chick is selected to harm its unrelated nest-mates in order to garner more shared resources, sibling competition causes the sex chromosomes to be selected to harm siblings that do not carry them. Here we quantify and contrast this selection on the X and Y, or Z and W, sex chromosomes. We also develop a hypothesis for how this selection can contribute to the decay of the non-recombining sex chromosome. PMID:19364719

Rice, William R; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

2009-04-08

460

Equipment/product classification  

SciTech Connect

This is a buyer`s guide for various equipment, software, SCADA systems and other allied products and services used in constructing, operating and maintaining pipeline systems around the world. The products are arranged alphabetically and by product item or component classification for easy use and reference.

NONE

1996-05-01

461

The EQUIP Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. This article recaps some key points about EQUIP, a Positive Peer Culture (PPC)-based cognitive behavioral intervention program for behaviorally at-risk youth, and notes how the program has…

Gibbs, John C.; Potter, Granville Bud; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Devlin, Renee

2008-01-01

462

Engineer Equipment Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

463

Solar Energy Equipment (Iran).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Iran for solar energy equipment; to examine growth trends in Iranian end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific product categories that ...

1977-01-01

464

Engineer Equipment Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

465

Lennox - Student Training Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are…

Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

466

Personal Protective Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To have an effective safety program one manager must be responsible for its coordination First-line supervisors must be convinced of the hazard and must be held accountable for their employees use of personal protective equipment A safety program for new ...

1998-01-01

467

The EQUIP Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. This article recaps some key points about EQUIP, a Positive Peer Culture (PPC)-based cognitive behavioral intervention program for behaviorally at-risk youth, and notes how the program has…

Gibbs, John C.; Potter, Granville Bud; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Devlin, Renee

2008-01-01

468

Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

469

A Welfare Measure of "Offset Effects" in Health Insurance.  

PubMed

Changing health insurance coverage for one service may affect use of other insured services. When improving coverage for one service reduces use of another, the savings are referred to as "offset effects." For example, costs of better coverage for prescription drugs may be partly "offset" by reductions in hospital costs. Offset effects have welfare implications but it has not been clear how to value these impacts in design of health insurance. We show that plan-paid - rather than total -- spending is the right welfare measure of the offset effect, and go on to develop a "sufficient statistic" for evaluating the welfare effects of change in coverage in the presence of multiple goods. We derive a simple rule for when a coverage improvement increases welfare due to offset effects. PMID:22544983

Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G

2012-02-25

470

Heterogeneous Risk Preferences and the Welfare Cost of Business Cycles  

PubMed Central

I study the welfare cost of business cycles in a complete-markets economy where some people are more risk averse than others. Relatively more risk-averse people buy insurance against aggregate risk, and relatively less risk-averse people sell insurance. These trades reduce the welfare cost of business cycles for everyone. Indeed, the least risk-averse people benefit from business cycles. Moreover, even infinitely risk-averse people suffer only finite and, in my empirical estimates, very small welfare losses. In other words, when there are complete insurance markets, aggregate fluctuations in consumption are essentially irrelevant not just for the average person – the surprising finding of Lucas (1987) – but for everyone in the economy, no matter how risk averse they are. If business cycles matter, it is because they affect productivity or interact with uninsured idiosyncratic risk, not because aggregate risk per se reduces welfare.

Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam

2009-01-01

471

Time for a Change. Remaking the Nation's Welfare System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the findings and recommendations of the Welfare Simplification and Coordination Advisory Committee--authorized by Congress in 1990 to examine four major assistance programs--food stamps. Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), ...

1993-01-01

472

Household Labor Supply and Welfare Participation in Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A structural, static model of household labor supply and multiple welfare program participation is formulated and estimated. Results suggest that labor supply among two-parent families in Sweden was quite inelastic.|

Flood, Lennart; Hansen, Jorgen; Wahlberg, Roger

2004-01-01

473

Dream Deferred. Child Welfare in New York City.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Citizens' Committee report presents a brief chronological account of 25 years of child welfare crisis in New York City and recommends several steps to alleviate the situation. The report emphasizes that establishing additional shelters will not provi...

1971-01-01

474

Welfare reform: advocacy and intervention in the health care setting.  

PubMed Central

Welfare reform has drastically altered the lives of poor families in the US. In its wake, many former recipients are not receiving whatever transitional benefits and other safeguards to which they remain entitled under federal and state laws. Families are losing access to Medicaid and are not receiving the child care assistance or Food Stamps for which they continue to be eligible. Ill-served by stringent time limits and work requirements, lack of child care assistance, and lack of training and educational opportunities for the development of skills that will lead to better jobs, families need help to navigate the complexities of the new welfare system. Boston Medical Center's Department of Pediatrics has instituted a welfare screening project to educate families about their rights under welfare reform and assist them in advocating for themselves and their children.

Lawton, E; Leiter, K; Todd, J; Smith, L

1999-01-01

475

Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

Tata, Robert J.

1977-01-01

476

Welfare of the Racehorse During Exercise Training and Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of horses in training for racing and competition can be compromised by errors of management of many processes.\\u000a Lameness is usually identified, as the major problem facing horse trainers and high lameness rates in racehorses is a major\\u000a welfare concern. Recent epidemiological studies have shed light on important environmental risk factors for lameness and catastrophic\\u000a incidents during training

D. L. Evans

477

Empirical Studies of Child Welfare Training Effectiveness: Methods and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although public child welfare agencies, as well as contracted private providers, conduct extensive amounts of training, the\\u000a evaluation evidence for effectiveness of training interventions is sparse. This article provides a critical review of published\\u000a reports of the child welfare training evaluation literature. When we conducted a search of the literature published since\\u000a 1990, 14 articles met the criteria for inclusion.

Mary Elizabeth Collins; Sook Hyun Kim; Maryann Amodeo

2010-01-01

478

State-level Welfare Policies and Nonmarital Subsequent Childbearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using discrete time event history analyses of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we examine the association\\u000a between state-level welfare waiver policies implemented before the 1996 welfare reform legislation and the risk of a nonmarital\\u000a subsequent birth. Our study makes a unique contribution to the existing literature by using a national-level sample of unmarried\\u000a mothers who ever

Suzanne Ryan; Jennifer Manlove; Sandra L. Hofferth

2006-01-01

479

Play behaviour in nonhuman animals and the animal welfare issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mission of defining animal welfare indicators is methodologically difficult, limited, and possibly impossible. A promising\\u000a alternative, however, to evaluate suitable environmental conditions is the assessment of play behaviour. In the present review,\\u000a we summarise the general aspects of play behaviour in nonhuman animals and propose its use as a potential indicator of animal\\u000a welfare. Play behaviour probably occurs in

Ana Flora Sarti Oliveira; André Oliveira Rossi; Luana Finocchiaro Romualdo Silva; Michele Correa Lau; Rodrigo Egydio Barreto

2010-01-01

480

Balancing Profitability and Customer Welfare in a Supermarket Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the impact of price discrimination by a large Chicago supermarket chain. First we measure the impact of the chain's current zone-pricing policy on shelf prices, variable profits and consumer welfare across its stores. Using the chain's database to simulate a finer store-specific micro-pricing policy, we study the implications of this policy on profits and welfare. We show how

Pradeep K. Chintagunta; Jean-Pierre Dubé; Vishal Singh

2003-01-01

481

Welfare reform and interstate migration of poor families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis of this study is that as a result of increased inequalities in welfare rules, the 1996 welfare reform act not only\\u000a enhanced incentives for poor families to move but also (and perhaps more important) created disincentives for them to stay\\u000a in “race to the bottom” states. In testing this thesis, we evaluated the mediating and moderating roles of

Gordon F. De Jong; Deborah Roempke Graefe; Tanja St. Pierre

2005-01-01

482

Extension to improve the welfare of traction animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The position of animals in resource-poor societies is of necessity utilitarian and the welfare issue is not one of animal rights, but rather prevention of avoidable suffering. This paper suggests a systems approach similar to farming systems research and extension methods, for use by animal welfare agencies working in resource-poor areas. A situational analysis using rapid appraisal, cost-benefit analysis and

Cheryl M E McCrindle

483

United States: Social Welfare Policy and Privatization in Postindustrial Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is widely acknowledged that the US welfare state evolved differently from those of other industrialized nations (Karger\\u000a & Stoesz, 2002; Chatterjee, 1996). Pragmatic, rather than ideological, in origin, it relied less on the national government\\u000a and more on the private sector than its European counterparts (Midgley, 1997). In comparison to the welfare states of Western\\u000a Europe, the US version

Michael Reisch

484

Assessing the Importance of Natural Behavior for Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of natural behavior is a key element in current Dutch policy-making on animal welfare. It emphasizes that animals\\u000a need positive experiences, in addition to minimized suffering. This paper interprets the concept of natural behavior in the\\u000a context of the scientific framework for welfare assessment. Natural behavior may be defined as behavior that animals have\\u000a a tendency to exhibit

M. B. M. Bracke; H. Hopster

2006-01-01

485

Chromosomal mosaicism goes global  

PubMed Central

Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy). It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual) diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases) as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

2008-01-01

486

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

Lacks, S.A.

1995-07-18

487

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

1995-07-18

488

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

1995-07-18

489

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation.

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

490

Consumers and animal welfare. A comparison between European Union countries.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the impact of a priori identified determinants on stated willingness to change usual place of shopping in order to be able to buy more animal welfare friendly food products of consumers in nine European Union countries. We used Eurobarometer data and structural equation models with observed and latent variables. The results show that the ranking of determinants' impact on the behavioural willingness is similar in the majority of models, with access to information as the strongest determinant, followed by perceived responsibility of consumers and education with strong influence, then by labelling and occupation with lower impact and ending with children, with the lowest influence. This study aims to provide some evidence on the relationship between welfare friendly behavioural willingness and information and labelling issues, amongst other determinants, in the European Union. As both access to information and perception of welfare labelling were found to significantly influence the behavioural willingness, this might suggest the need for the European Union to invest more in improving the welfare labelling system, enhance the welfare information available to the public and improve access to it through measures such as welfare education campaigns. PMID:22127269

Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

2011-11-20

491

Educating for Management in Social Welfare. A Report of the Social Welfare Management Curriculum Development Project. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Findings and recommendations contained in this report are the result of a social welfare management curriculum development project conducted by the University of Washington. The principal aim of the project was to develop recommendations that might facili...

R. J. Patti J. A. Ellis R. Elmore A. N. Page K. V. Ramanathan

1976-01-01

492

Commiphora molmol in human welfare (review article).  

PubMed

The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon ... the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus writes, in the second half of the first century BC, that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance; even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." He also mentioned gold mines so pure that no smelting was necessary. The Magi, carrying myrrh, frankincense, and gold, came from the East: Arabia. The frankincense trade route, with transport by donkeys and later by camel caravans, reached Jerusalem and Egypt from the Dhofar region of what is today Oman, through Yemen, turning north to follow the Red Sea coast. It is likely that the same or similar species of the resin-bearing plants grew across the Red Sea in the area that is now Somalia and Ethiopia, while the collection of the gum resins was initiated in Arabia. Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. This review selected some but not all of the value application of myrrh (Commiphora molmol). PMID:17985580

Al-Mathal, Ebtsam M

2007-08-01

493

[Chromosome instability syndromes].  

PubMed

Defects of DNA repair underlie genetic syndromes. Chromosomal aberrations and mutations might cause specific inborn defects. There are several syndromes with characteristic clinical features, which appear to be caused by chromosome instability which is a consequence of DNA repair defects. This article describe syndromes where hereditary mutations are the reason of chromosomal instability and cause serious clinical results: ataxia-telangiectasia, Nijmegen breakage syndrome, Bloom syndrome, Fanconi's anemia, ICF syndrome, Roberts syndrome, dominantly inherited--PCD, Werner syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, trichothiodystrophy (TTD) and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS). PMID:16875167

Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Srebniak, Ma?gorzata; Gny?, Agnieszka

2006-05-01

494

Mapping the phytoplasma chromosome.  

PubMed

Physical and genetic mapping of the phytoplasma chromosome can be a useful tool in a genome sequencing project in order to assemble the in silico-predicted contigs robustly. Mapping consists of four distinct steps: preparation of phytoplasma chromosomes from infected plants, single- and double-digestion of chromosomes with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, separation of large DNA fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with various genetic markers. Materials and methods needed for each step are described and the technique is illustrated using the flavescence dorée phytoplasma genome map as an example. PMID:22987434

Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Carle, Patricia

2013-01-01

495

Equipment Failure Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tennessee Eastman uses NASTRAN to minimize lost production by pinpointing the causes of equipment failures and preventing recurrences. An example of the program's utility involves a large centrifugal fan which developed cracks during start-ups and shutdowns. This information prompted redesign of the fan. Tennessee Eastman has made extensive use of NASTRAN, both as failure analysis tool and as an aid in redesigning production hardware.

1980-01-01

496

Policy Manual - Other Equipment  

Cancer.gov

Ultraviolet light (UV) is defined as electromagnetic radiation in the spectral region between 180 and 400 nanometers (nm). Immediate or prolonged exposure to UV light can result in painful eye injury, skin burn, premature skin aging, or skin cancer. Typical laboratory equipment with the capacity to emit non-ionizing UV wavelengths includes biological safety cabinets (BSCs), transilluminator boxes and UV crosslinkers. Exposure to UV light possess a serious threat to both the eye and skin.

497

Everything about Construction Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

498

Micro Industry Equipments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced states of art of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology have been applied to micro industry equipments. These are electrostatically levitated ring rotor gyroscope and micro energy source for self moving machines like robots, maintenance systems used in narrow spaces, components for multi-column electron beam lithography and multi-probe data storage, micro gas control systems, micro/nano mold, micro contactor and thermal RF relay for LSI testing and nano-instruments which performs high sensitivity and spatial resolution.

Esashi, Masayoshi; Ono, Takahito; Tanaka, Shuji

499

Secure authenticated video equipment  

SciTech Connect

In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

Doren, N.E.

1993-07-01

500

Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

2012-01-01