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1

Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emission in Public Welfare Facilities Equipped with PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction effect of life cycle CO2 emission is examined in case of introducing a PV/solar heat/cogeneration system into public welfare facilities(hotel and hospital). Life cycle CO2 emission is calculated as the sum of that when operating and that when manufacturing equipments. The system is operated with the dynamic programming method, into which hourly data of electric and heat loads, solar insolation, and atmospheric temperature during a year are input. The proposed system is compared with a conventional system and a cogeneration system. The life cycle CO2 emission of the PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is lower than that of the conventional system by 20% in hotel and by 14% in hospital.

Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

2

Welfare support-equipment for character input with head tilting and breathing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes support-equipment of operating a personal computer for users who have an obstacle on the regions of upper limb. The user wears a head set device with an angle sensor, and holds a plastic pipe connected to a pressure sensor in his or her mouth. Tilting his or her head and breathing are used for mouse cursor operation and characters input. Considering user's body conditions, the voluntary angle range of head tilting and strength of breathing are memorized to the controller beforehand, and obtained information is reflected for operations without fatigue. The character display board is used to indicate the Japanese characters and input options such as Back Space or Enter. Tilting motions change the indicated character and breathing actions can select and input the illuminated functions on the character display board. In test trial, it is confirmed that Japanese characters including Kanji and Katakana can be input with head tilting and breathing, instead of a general keyboard.

Nakazawa, Nobuaki; Yamada, Kou; Matsui, Toshikazu; Itoh, Isao

2005-12-01

3

Chromosome  

MedlinePLUS

Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

4

Social Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is commonly agreed that social welfare ideas and philosophies emanate from many faith traditions, the complex\\u000a link between religion and social welfare merits careful examination. Prowelfare values only set the overall social expectations;\\u000a they do not create formal social welfare programs. Helping the needy can range from a one-time help for a known neighbor to\\u000a the establishment of

Ram A. Cnaan; Charlene C. McGrew

5

After Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past few years, the American RadioWorks has raised the bar for like-minded radio documentary programs, producing thought-provoking and insightful studies on topics such as, Congressional reform, intelligent design, and international adoption programs. In this recently released documentary, John Biewen has created this introspective look into the world of welfare reform in the United States, and how it has affected the lives of five different women and their families. The women profiled come from a host of different backgrounds, and visitors may be surprised at some of the findings that Biewen presents in the documentary. The site also includes an interactive feature that allows users to find out how their own state ranks in terms of welfare and foodstamp recipients, welfare check sizes, time limits, and unemployment rates. Visitors can also look over a list of additional external links of interest and also read the complete transcript of the program.

Biewen, John

2006-01-01

6

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

7

Immigration and native welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three

Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Wilhelm Kohler

2004-01-01

8

Immigration and Welfare Magnets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates if the location choices made by immigrants when they arrive in the United States are influenced by the interstate dispersion in welfare benefits. Income-maximizing behavior implies that foreign-born welfare recipients, unlike their native-born counterparts, may be clustered in the states that offer the highest benefits. The empirical analysis indicates that immigrant welfare recipients are indeed more heavily

George J. Borjas

1999-01-01

9

Human stewardship and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare must be clearly defined and understood in all languages. Welfare means well-being, so that `bad-welfare' is contradictory. Welfare depends upon the provision of all necessary physiological and psychological requirements and the absence or control of adverse factors. Recognition of animals' sentience led to concerns for their welfare. Since animals can neither obtain nor sustain rights for themselves they

J. H Seamer

1998-01-01

10

Deinstitutionalization and Welfare Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before America began creating a federally based welfare state in the 1930s, most publicly funded responses to social problems had an institutional bias. The ways in which the welfare programs initiated 50 years ago have helped to influence institutional trends, and are likely to continue doing so in the future, constitute the major focus of this analysis. Four special problem

Paul Lerman

1985-01-01

11

Ethical Child Welfare Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

12

Welfare Payments and Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the hypothesis that the timing of welfare payments affects criminal activity. Analysis of daily reported incidents of major crimes in twelve U.S. cities reveals an increase in crime over the course of monthly welfare payment cycles. This increase reflects an increase in crimes that are likely to have a direct financial motivation like burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle

C. Fritz Foley

2008-01-01

13

Animal Welfare in Aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of farmed fish has become an increasingly important issue for the general public (both those who eat farmed fish\\u000a and those who do not) and for governments and regulators. In response to such concerns, the aquaculture industry is taking\\u000a steps to ensure good welfare in farmed fish, most particularly by setting up Codes of Practice for responsible aquaculture

Felicity Huntingford

14

Chromosomal Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

15

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

16

Sex Chromosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A sex chromosome is one of the two chromosomes that specify an organism's genetic sex. Humans have two kinds of sex chromosomes, one called X and the other Y. Normal females possess two X chromosomes and normal males one X and one Y.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)

2005-04-14

17

45 CFR 1174.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2011-10-01

18

45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2011-10-01

19

45 CFR 1174.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2012-10-01

20

45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2013-10-01

21

45 CFR 1174.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2013-10-01

22

45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2010-10-01

23

45 CFR 1183.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY SERVICES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2012-10-01

24

45 CFR 1174.32 - Equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES...subject to the approval of the awarding agency. (d) Management requirements. Procedures for managing equipment...

2010-10-01

25

Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

1996-01-01

26

Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

2002-01-01

27

Training for Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1985 mandates training for a wide spectrum of individuals. A profile of each group of individuals requiring training is presented. These groups include students, animal caretakers, research and animal technicians, investigators, and principal investigators. An educational profile is provided for each group. Their educational needs are described, with examples of available training materials. This

Jean Larson

1988-01-01

28

Advertising and Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies conventional welfare-theoretic methods to study advertising which changes consumer tastes. In a wide range of empirically plausible circumstances, private profitability is seen to be necessary but not sufficient for the social desirability of a small amount of advertising. The market equilibrium level of such advertising is shown to be socially excessive, even when postadvertising tastes are used

Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

1978-01-01

29

Welfare Reform and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

2005-01-01

30

Welfare's Children. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States with family cap public assistance policies deny or reduce additional welfare benefits to mothers who conceive and give birth to additional children while they are receiving aid. By 1999, 22 states had family cap policies in place. This paper reports estimates of the number and cost implications of infants conceived by mothers receiving…

Wiseman, Michael

31

Bootstrapping in Applied Welfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bootstrapping procedures are used to estimate the statistical properties of common empirical welfare measures. Results from a Monte Carlo experiment indicate that welfare estimates such as Marshallian consumer surplus often exhibit significant bias. Standard errors of welfare estimates are found to often exceed the magnitude of the point estimate for typical cross-section data sets and are generally larger than the

Catherine L. Kling; Richard J. Sexton

1990-01-01

32

The Gentrification of Public Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

Dattalo, Patrick

1992-01-01

33

Childhood Abuse and Welfare Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies aimed at reducing welfare use focus solely on adults, yet welfare users very often report experiences of childhood abuse. Such abuse is known to have long-term psychological effects and may set the stage for later welfare use. This study uses a random sample of poor women to determine how a history of childhood abuse relates to the probability of

Mark W. Smith

2005-01-01

34

Human Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Representation of the 23 paired chromosomes of the human male. Chromosome: a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism. a. Structure of a chromosome (Typical metaphase chromosome): A chromosome is formed from a single DNA molecule that contains many genes. A chromosomal DNA molecule contains three specific nucleotide sequences which are required for replication: a DNA replication origin; a centromere to attach the DNA to the mitotic spindle.; a telomere located at each end of the linear chromosome. The DNA molecule is highly condensed. The human DNA helix occupy too much space in the cell. Small proteins are responsible for packing the DNA into units called nucleosomes. b. Stained chromosomes: Chromosomes are stained with A-T (G bands) and G-C (R bands) base pair specific dyes. When they are stained, the mitotic chromosomes have a banded structure that unambiguously identifies each chromosome of a karyotype. Each band contains millions of DNA nucleotide pairs which do not correspond to any functional structure. Adapted from K.F. Jorgenson, J.H. van de Sande, and C.C. Lin, Chromosoma 68:287-302, 1978. c. Karyotype of a male: The human haploid genome contains 3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs, divided among twenty two (22) pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence;Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

2005-03-12

35

Is Welfare Reform Succeeding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare Reform and the Earned Income Tax Credit have apparently caused a dramatic increase in the labor force participation rates of single parents. Between the first quarters of 1994 and 1998, labor force participation rates rose 25.4 percent for never-married women caring for children, rose 15.5 percent for mothers separated from their spouse and rose 4.9 percent for divorced single

John H. Bishop

1998-01-01

36

Welfare Service Innovation Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work-in-progress paper presents a service innovation process of a welfare service network developed to offer a new kind of service infrastructure especially to elderly people and to people with disabilities. The paper presents the particular service development process by building on a four-stage model by Edvardsson, Gustafsson, Johnson and Sabdén (2002). Each stage, incorporating the elements of the ARA-model

Tuomas A. Pohjola; Tuula S. Mittilä

37

Chromosome Shuffle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Role-playing the parts of chromosomes and centrioles, learners use large chromosome models and nylon cords (spindle fibers and cell membranes) to walk through the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Physical manipulation of the chromosomes and their parts in the process of cell division and replication both clarifies and reinforces some very abstract concepts for learners. The activity demonstrates crossing over and gene linkage. It may be extended to illustrate chromosome anomalies such as deletions and trisomies. Models can be used to show other mutation types as well as x-linkage. A large floor space is needed for this activity.

Meyer, Tamsen K.

2009-01-01

38

Chromosomal Flexibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

2005-01-01

39

MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch  

E-print Network

and part-time officers, Kent Union's marketing department, current students, doctors, nurses, staff's Student Union aimed to develop a `Welfare Watch' campaign to look at different relevant welfare issues useful by all PRG members. The survey (results of which are attached) was developed by Kent Union's full

Banaji,. Murad

40

Welfare issues in broiler breeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Under current practice, parent poultry breeding stock potentially face welfare problems. In the present review, broiler breeders are taken to illustrate welfare problems encountered at this stage of the production process. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption, but also reproductive dysfunctions and decreased sexual activity in broiler

Jong de I. C; D. Guemene

2009-01-01

41

Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

42

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

43

Keynes and the Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keynes's role in the foundation of the Welfare State has not been investigated in detail. The aim of this paper is to propose some further thoughts on the matter, focusing on two aspects in particular. The first is an assessment of Keynes's views vis-à-vis what we now understand by the Welfare State, the second a comparison between these views and

Maria Cristina Marcuzzo

44

Chromosome Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... division. There are two kinds of cell division. Mitosis results in two cells that are duplicates of ... half the number of chromosomes as normal cells. Mitosis - cell division resulting in cells that have the ...

45

Chromosome Territories  

PubMed Central

Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions with other CTs is provided as well as the dynamics of CT arrangements during cell cycle and postmitotic terminal differentiation. The article concludes with a discussion of open questions and new experimental strategies to answer them. PMID:20300217

Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

2010-01-01

46

On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor  

PubMed Central

An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

2014-01-01

47

Chromosome structural aberrations  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 9, discusses chromosome structural aberrations, including chromosome breaks and rearrangements, chromatid breaks and rearrangements, telomeres and telomere associations, dicentric chromosomes, inactivation of the centromere, misdivision, centric fusion, triradial and multiradial chromosomes, and fragile sites. 48 refs., 6 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

48

Workfare With Welfare: Recent Reforms of the Danish Welfare State  

Microsoft Academic Search

Denmark has recently seen a significant drop in unemployment that has not been matched by any corresponding increase in inflation. This article assumes that this remarkable achievement is rooted in the ongoing transition from the Keynesian welfare state (KWS) to a Schumpeterian workfare regime (SWR). The article compares the main features of the KWS with those of the SWR. It

Jacob Torfing

1999-01-01

49

University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM  

E-print Network

University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt Asset (Tag) Number (please remove tag and attach) Description Original Cost (estimated) Acquisition Date Equipment Purchased on Federal Funds: By checking this box, I confirm this disposal complies

He, Chuan

50

Fear of Floating and Social Welfare  

E-print Network

Fear of Floating and Social Welfare Demosthenes N. Tambakis? Faculty of Economics University of Cambridge May 2007 Abstract: This paper studies the welfare implications of financial sta- bility and inflation stabilization as distinct monetary policy...

Tambakis, Demosthenes N

51

GOVERNMENTS AND VOLUNTARY SECTOR WELFARE: HISTORIANS' PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines recent themes in the history of welfare as they apply to the relationship between government and the voluntary or non-profit sector. These include a shift from a focus on the welfare state to a \\

Margaret Tennant

2001-01-01

52

How the Child Welfare System Works  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

53

Kinship Caregivers and the Child Welfare System  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

54

Chromosome Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

1998-01-01

55

Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

2002-01-01

56

Spatial Divisions of Welfare: The Geography of Welfare Benefit Expenditure and of Housing Benefit in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamnett C. Spatial divisions of welfare: the geography of welfare benefit expenditure and of housing benefit in Britain, Regional Studies. This paper examines the structure of state welfare expenditure in Britain. It argues that the geography of state welfare expenditure and its impacts have been relatively neglected given their importance in terms of state expenditure, regional distribution and spatial equality.

Chris Hamnett

2009-01-01

57

welfare costs of business cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare cost of business cycles measures the benefits that would be obtained by individuals from eliminating all the macroeconomic instability in a given economy. In a seminal paper, Lucas (1985) argued that these benefits are almost certain to be trivially small, especially when they are compared with the benefits that can be achieved with more growth for the post-war

Ayse Imrohoroglu

58

Institutional racism in child welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three reasons are most often provided to explain the persistent overrepresentation of black children in the child welfare system. One, since black families have more risk factors (unemployment, single-parent families, poverty, etc) that cause them to abuse and neglect their children more than white families, the higher representation of blacks is appropriate. Two, since blacks are more highly concentrated among

Robert B. Hill

2004-01-01

59

Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare  

E-print Network

are the U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and TrainingOffice of Laboratory Animal Welfare National Institutes of Health PublicHealthService Policyon

Baker, Chris I.

60

Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

61

Manpower Utilization in Social Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the problems of developing a useful conceptual framework for utilizing workers in the field of social welfare who received training at less than the highest professional level, four 2-day symposium sessions were held during the fall of 1968, Approximately 13 participants, predominanatly social workers and representatives from the fields…

Teare, Robert J.; McPheeters, Harold L.

62

Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

63

Child Welfare Outcome Indicator Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare practice is at a turning point in Canada. Inquests and media interest have drawn public attention to the plight of mal- treated children. With this increased attention there is a risk that the complexity inherent in helping maltreated children and their families may not be fully recognized. The pro- posed multi-dimensional ecological framework reflects the complex balance child

Nico Trocmé; Butch Nutter; Bruce MacLaurin; Barbara Fallon

64

TAX PROTEST AND WELFARE STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do some welfare states experience more tax protest than others? Quantitative analysis of a new database of tax protest in twelve European coun tries from 1980 to 1995, combined with in- depth comparative-historical analysis of selected c ountries, shows that tax protest was most prevalent where there was a poor fit between produc tion regimes and social protection regimes.

Isaac William Martin; Nadav Gabay

2008-01-01

65

Air quality and human welfare  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

2009-02-01

66

Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

1995-01-01

67

Child Care and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 establishes mandatory work requirements. This review article describes the child care provisions of the welfare reform act, addressing some of the issues related to these provisions and highlighting selected state initiatives in this area. (Author)

Lino, Mark

1998-01-01

68

Welfare versus Workfare: Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews evolution of workfare programs during the past 25 years. Summarizes both positive and negative outcomes of such programs, and identifies some key issues and unanswered questions resulting from these outcomes. Suggests a more viable direction for welfare reform in the areas of child care responsibility, balance of rights and obligations,…

Chung, Woo Sik; Pardeck, John T.

1996-01-01

69

Child Care as Welfare Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

Working for Change, 1995

1995-01-01

70

Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

Sawhill, Isabel V.

2000-01-01

71

Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act  

E-print Network

Alternatives and the Animal Welfare Act REDUCTION Minimize the number of animals used REFINEMENT, Maryland, USA 20705 ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER Congressional Record - House 17 December 1985 Senator to a minimum." United States Department of Agriculture ANIMAL WELFARE INFORMATION CENTER National Agricultural

Krstic, Miroslav

72

Globalization and the welfare state: a retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are basically three stories about the globalization-welfare state nexus. The first story argues that globalization is the cause of the chronic crisis of the welfare state. As national economies open to the international market, governments are forced to adapt to the imperatives of global competition, and this means cutting cost-intensive welfare programmes (globalization theory). The second story argues that,

Philipp Genschel

2004-01-01

73

Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

Jane. Lewis

1992-01-01

74

Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

Horne, Thomas A.

1990-01-01

75

The management and welfare of working animals: identifying problems, seeking solutions and anticipating the future.  

PubMed

Working animals, mainly equids, camelids and bovids, are draught animals that perform transport and traction activities. In developed countries technological development has resulted in animal power being minimised, however, in developing countries most agricultural operations are still being conducted by animals, and animal welfare is a major concern. Inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes and practices regarding the management and welfare of working animals are the main contributory factors to welfare problems. The paper highlights the situation of working animals in developing countries, especially those of equids in Africa and Asia and bullocks in India, which are examined as examples. There is much room for improvement in the welfare of working animals, via the provision of basic veterinary care, technical advice on health and husbandry, including foot care, improved design and maintenance of harnesses and other equipment, and the development of appropriate policies and legislation. The paper discusses the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health in addressing these issues. PMID:25000792

Abul Rahman, S; Reed, K

2014-04-01

76

USDA: Animal Welfare Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The USDA's Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) was mandated by the Animal Welfare Act, and the website contains everything from current animal issues to workshops for those in industries that utilize animals to licensing forms. Specifically, the AWIC is designed "to regulate and improve care of animals in research, testing, teaching, and exhibition." The site includes the proposed government rules about animal welfare that are in their public comment period, and how and where to submit your comment. Visitors can click on "In The News" to see all the animal-related rules that are in their public comment period. If visitors want to learn about the origins of veterinary medicine, they can click on "Companion Animals" on the left side of the homepage to find a link to "Veterinary History Resources at the National Agricultural Library". Finally, AWIC provides very important information and resources on alternatives to animal testing, under "Alternatives," on the left side of the homepage. Here visitors will find links to websites that explain the principles of alternatives to animal testing, as well as several papers from conferences that address the issue.

2008-01-01

77

Aircraft equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex of functionally interconnected instruments and devices for controlling flight, engine operations, electrical systems, communications, and vital systems for passengers and crew is described. The aggregates of the aircraft automatic equipment are also discussed.

1977-01-01

78

2009 Social Welfare Catalog 2011 We are delighted that you are  

E-print Network

about a career in social work and about the KU School of Social Welfare. Our educational programs (B projects, students who complete our programs are well equipped to practice social work with competence for people and who also share the values embraced by the profession of social work. Our students are prepared

79

Chimpanzee Chromosome 12 Is Homologous to Human Chromosome 2Q.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of the 46 human chromosomes find their counterparts in the 48 chimpanzee chromosomes except for chromosome 2 which has been hypothesized to have been derived from a centric fusion of two chimpanzee acrocentric chromosomes. These two chromosomes corre...

N. C. Sun, C. R. Y. Sun, T. Ho

1977-01-01

80

Workforce retention issues in voluntary child welfare.  

PubMed

Unlike many studies focused on retention and turnover in public child welfare, this study examined issues of job satisfaction and retention in voluntary child welfare. Although three-fourths of the 1,624 workers surveyed intended to remain in child welfare, 57.3% had thought about leaving their agencies during the past year. All respondents were dissatisfied with their level of pay, but those thinking of leaving were significantly less satisfied with the contingent rewards they received. PMID:21877565

McGowan, Brenda G; Auerbach, Charles; Conroy, Kathryn; Augsberger, Astraea; Schudrich, Wendy

2010-01-01

81

Integrating animal welfare into veterinary teaching.  

PubMed

The third edition of the World Society for the Protection of Animals' (WSPA's) Concepts in Animal Welfare teaching tool was released recently. The tool is intended to help with the teaching of animal welfare science. Shortly after the launch, Ruth De Vere, head of education at WSPA, spoke to Veterinary Record about the tool and the efforts the charity is making to promote welfare. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:24272563

Mills, Georgina

2013-11-23

82

Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.  

PubMed

Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare. PMID:23006994

Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

2012-08-01

83

Chromosomes Store genetic information  

E-print Network

1 #12;2 Chromosomes · Store genetic information · Images reveal state of individual's health · 46 human chromosomes form 24 classes ­ 22 different pairs ­ 2 sex chromosomes, X and Y · Goal: Segment and classify each chromosome in image #12;3 M-FISH · Multiplex Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization [1996] ­ Five

Evans, Brian L.

84

Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

85

Child Welfare Workers: Who They Are and How They View the Child Welfare System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the characteristics of child welfare caseworkers, their views of the child welfare system, their clients, their agency of employment, and child welfare policies, and whether these views vary according to caseworkers' characteristics. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with…

Zell, Maristela C.

2006-01-01

86

Immigrant Assimilation And Welfare Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate Into Or Out Of Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses differences in welfare utilization between immigrants and natives in Sweden using a large panel data set, LINDA, for the years 1990 to 1996. Both welfare expenditures and immigration increased substantially in Sweden in the 1990's. We find that immigrants use welfare to a greater extent than natives and that non-refugee immigrants utilize social assistance less than refugee

Jörgen Hansen; Magnus Löfström

2000-01-01

87

Predicting public child welfare employees' intentions to remain employed with the child welfare organizational culture inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

High employee turnover continues to be a serious problem in the field of public child welfare. In a statewide study of public child welfare employees in a southern state, the Child Welfare Organizational Culture Inventory was used to assess employees' perceptions of organizational culture and to examine which factors might be predictors of employees' intentions to remain on the job

Tonya M. Westbrook; Alberta J. Ellett; Kia Asberg

2012-01-01

88

Mitotic chromosome structure  

SciTech Connect

Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

Heermann, Dieter W., E-mail: heermann@tphys.uni-heidelberg.de

2012-07-15

89

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department...

2010-10-01

90

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department...

2011-10-01

91

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application is...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See footnote 2...

2011-10-01

92

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application is...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See footnote 2...

2010-10-01

93

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2012-10-01

94

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2013-10-01

95

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2013-10-01

96

Decentralization and welfare reform in Andalusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralization of the Spanish welfare state has stimulated regional policy innovation. A ‘demonstration effect’ among all Spanish Comunidades Autónomas has so far acted as a policy equalizer. In Andalusia, where a strong sense of common identity is widely shared, the regional government (Junta) has implemented new welfare policies which have contributed to consolidate its institutional legitimacy. This article reviews the

Luis Moreno; Carlos Trelles

2005-01-01

97

Immigration and the welfare state in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the connection between the permission to immigrate and the rights to benefits in the welfare state. Drawing on the concept of ‘status’ as developed by Jellinek, the impact of status on the social position of immigrants is examined. Jellinek's definition of status lends itself well to determining different degrees of inclusion into the welfare state of different

Hubert Heinelt

1993-01-01

98

Phantom Welfare: Public Relief for Corporate America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and quantifies major types of federal subsidies to American businesses, calling subsidies important policies that directly affect more traditional welfare programs. Notes that policies responsible for "phantom welfare state" represent major redistribution of wealth that partially accounts for growing gap between rich and poor. Discusses…

Huff, Daniel D.; Johnson, David A.

1993-01-01

99

Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

2009-01-01

100

Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

2009-01-01

101

Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

2003-01-01

102

Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

103

International Joint Ventures: A Welfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the welfare implications of joint venture formation between an MNC and a firm from a less developed country (LDC). For symmetric firms greater the market size, greater is the incentive for joint venture formation. Moreover, joint venture formation is welfare reducing for both high, as well as low levels of demand. However, if the MNC is more efficient

Indrani Roy Chowdhury; Prabla Roy Chowdhury

2002-01-01

104

Child Welfare, the Media, and Capacity Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public child welfare systems and practices have been scrutinized, if not criticized, by the media. In response a “circle the wagons” orientation to the media may ensue. This article lays out more strategic ways in which media engagement with community initiatives may help to advance the public's understanding of child welfare and child safety. An array of suggestions is offered

Katharine Briar-Lawson; Kelly Martinson; Jen Briar-Bonpane; Kathryn Zox

2011-01-01

105

Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

2005-01-01

106

Chemically exposed children: The child welfare response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child Welfare Agencies, especially in urban areas, are confronted with multiple problems as they attempt to deal with the complex needs of chemically dependent families. Maternal chemical use places children at an elevated risk of placement and other negative events. This article critiques research on incidence and consequence of maternal chemical use and suggests strategies Child Welfare Agencies can employ

Nora S. Gustavsson

1991-01-01

107

Measuring polarization, inequality, welfare and poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between polarization and inequality, welfare and poverty measures. First, the Wolfson polarization measure is generalized in terms of the between-groups and within-groups Gini components for income groups separated by any z income value. Second, it is shown that polarization is the difference between the welfare levels of rich and poor income groups when feelings of

Juan Gabriel Rodríguez

2004-01-01

108

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

109

Assessing the welfare of genetically altered mice.  

PubMed

In 2003, under the auspices of the main UK funders of biological and biomedical research, a working group was established with a remit to review potential welfare issues for genetically altered (GA) mice, to summarize current practice, and to recommend contemporary best practice for welfare assessments. The working group has produced a report which makes practical recommendations for GA mouse welfare assessment and dissemination of welfare information between establishments using a 'mouse passport'. The report can be found at www.nc3rs.org.uk/GAmice and www.lal.org.uk/gaa and includes templates for the recommended welfare assessment scheme and the mouse passport. An overview is provided below. PMID:16600070

Wells, D J; Playle, L C; Enser, W E J; Flecknell, P A; Gardiner, M A; Holland, J; Howard, B R; Hubrecht, R; Humphreys, K R; Jackson, I J; Lane, N; Maconochie, M; Mason, G; Morton, D B; Raymond, R; Robinson, V; Smith, J A; Watt, N

2006-04-01

110

[Youth welfare and therapy: effects of youth welfare alone and youth welfare combined with additional therapy].  

PubMed

Around 17% of children and adolescents suffer from some form of psychological disorder. Compared to this rate, the prevalence among families seeking youth welfare assistance is substantially higher: 60 to 80% of children in day care and residential educational settings meet the criteria of an ICD-10-diagnosis. While effective psychotherapeutic interventions are available, only a fraction of those children affected receive such help. This study assesses whether the effectiveness of educational day care support can be increased by offering additional treatment. To this end, 89 families were assessed who received an average of two years of day care assistance. One group (n = 23) received additional therapeutic treatment. In order to assess the effectiveness of combined youth welfare and therapeutic intervention, indicative problem areas were evaluated using a pre-post-design. Effect measures indicate small advantages of the combined treatment. The group receiving additional therapeutic treatment suffered from fewer risk factors. They also showed some long term effects and fewer families needed follow-up support. Overall, combined treatment was more effective. However, differences between the two groups were less pronounced than expected, due to the effectiveness of day care groups. PMID:21488327

Büttner, Peter; Rücker, Stefan; Petermann, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

2011-01-01

111

B-chromosome evolution.  

PubMed Central

B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

2000-01-01

112

The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

2014-01-01

113

International Fund for Animal Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few years, a finely nuanced sensibility about the shared interests and coexistence of human and animals has emerged as a number of international organizations have begun work and advocacy efforts in this area. The work of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) began three decades ago when a group of individuals decided to come together to stop a hunt for white-coat harp seals on the eastern coast of Canada. Since that time, the IFAW has expanded its work across the world, and this site affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the organization's work, read its annual reports from the past several years, and find out more about its different campaigns across different regions. Visitors can click on different parts of an interactive world map to look at this information or browse a list of animals in the "Save Animals" section of the site.

114

Rescue Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

1995-01-01

115

Chromosome painting in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in situ suppression' (CISS) hybridisation with chromosome-derived DNA probes and blocking of interchromosomally dispersed repeats by total

Ingo Schubert; Paul F. Fransz; Jörg Fuchs; J. Hans de Jong

2001-01-01

116

Chromosomal development of cancer  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 30, describes the chromosomal development of cancer. It has been established through cytological research that the number of chromosomes in cancer cells often deviates greatly from the usual number in healthy cells of the host organism. This chapter includes discussions on chromosome studies in ascites tumors, stemline and tumor development, mitotic aberrations in cancer, and selection and tumor progression. 25 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

117

Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop  

SciTech Connect

The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

Not Available

1989-01-01

118

Child Care after Leaving Welfare: Early Evidence from State Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents key findings from a review of data focusing on child care arrangements among people who have left welfare. Most states have conducted studies of former welfare recipients using administrative data, surveys of welfare leavers, or a combination of the two. Data from these surveys indicate that most people who have left welfare

Schumacher, Rachel; Greenberg, Mark

119

Insurance and opportunities: A welfare analysis of labor market risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a model with constant relative risk-aversion preferences, endogenous labor supply and partial insurance against idiosyncratic wage risk, this paper provides an analytical characterization of three welfare effects: (a) the welfare effect of a rise in wage dispersion, (b) the welfare gain from completing markets, and (c) the welfare effect from eliminating risk. The analysis reveals an important trade-off for

Jonathan Heathcote; Kjetil Storesletten; Giovanni L. Violante

2008-01-01

120

Airline deregulation and external costs: a welfare analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘market internal’ effects of airline deregulation have amply been analysed in the literature. The economic evaluation of this policy change has generally shown favourable outcomes in terms of consumer welfare. These welfare effects may be termed market internal effects, as they reflect the welfare consequences of transactions that take place in the market. However, aviation typically affects welfare through

Youdi Schipper; Piet Rietveld; Peter Nijkamp

2003-01-01

121

Working Expectations: Frame Diagnosis and the Welfare Rights Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines frame resonance dynamics internal to the contemporary US welfare rights movement. Frames diagnosing the problems of welfare as rooted in conceptions of caregiving and wage work were popular a generation ago among welfare rights activists. Today, this frame is favored among allies of the movement. Is it favored among grassroots activists? Forty-three interviews with welfare rights parent\\/activists

Rose Ernst

2009-01-01

122

A Look at Child Welfare from a Homeless Education Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although navigating the child welfare system can be daunting for those working in the field of homeless education, local liaisons and others must determine whether children in the child welfare system are eligible for McKinney-Vento services and collaborate with child welfare staff. This document provides an overview of the U.S. child welfare

National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

2007-01-01

123

Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

2007-01-01

124

A History of Social Welfare Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cornell University Library's Social Welfare Digital Collection brings together manuscripts, early journals, narratives, reports, letters, photographs, prints, and much more that document the history of social welfare in the United States. The two foci here include the historical development of social welfare services in New York and the history of social welfare provisions by and for African Americans. On the homepage, visitors can look over the Featured Item and then Browse around at their leisure through more than 25 titles, such as "Dangerous Classes of New York, and twenty years' work among them" and "North of Slavery." Visitors can also look over two timelines documenting the parallel foci mentioned above. The siteâÂÂs Search feature allows for a basic search across all items in the collection.

125

77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration for Children and Families...45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule Federal Register...AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Parts 1355 and...

2012-01-06

126

Welfare recipients' job skills and employment prospects.  

PubMed

The welfare reform goal of moving mothers who rely on welfare into private-sector employment cannot be achieved only by changes in public policy. Employment rates reflect the job qualifications of individuals, obstacles to work outside the home, the attractiveness of available jobs, and the capacity of the labor market to absorb new workers at particular skill levels. This article examines how each of these factors is likely to influence current welfare recipients' success in finding employment and the wages they are likely to earn. The author concludes that the skill deficiencies of recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children do not represent an insurmountable barrier to employment, although these deficiencies do restrict the wages recipients can earn. Without continued public assistance in the form of wage subsidies, child care payments, or help securing health insurance, most families that move from welfare to work will remain below the poverty level. PMID:9170731

Burtless, G T

1997-01-01

127

The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

Plattner, Marc F.

1979-01-01

128

Architecture of metaphase chromosomes and chromosome scaffolds  

PubMed Central

We have developed procedures for depositing intact mitotic chromosomes and isolated residual scaffolds on electron microscope grids at controlled and reproducible levels of compaction. The chromosomes were isolated using a recently developed aqueous method. Our study has addressed two different aspects of chromosome structure. First, we present a method for improved visualization of radial chromatin loops in undisrupted mitotic chromosomes. Second, we have visualized a nonhistone protein residual scaffold isolated from nuclease-digested chromosomes under conditions of low salt protein extraction. These scaffolds, which have an extremely simple protein composition, are the size of chromosomes, are fibrous in nature, and are found to retain differentiated regions that appear to derive from the kinetochores and the chromatid axis. When our standard preparation conditions were used, the scaffold appearance was found to be very reproducible. If the ionic conditions were varied, however, the scaffold appearance underwent dramatic changes. In the presence of millimolar concentrations of Mg++ or high concentrations of NaCl, the fibrous scaffold protein network was observed to undergo a lateral aggregation or assembly into a coarse meshlike structure. The alteration of scaffold structure was apparently reversible. This observation is consistent with a model in which the scaffolding network plays a dynamic role in chromosome condensation at mitosis. PMID:6826654

1983-01-01

129

Animal behavior and animal welfare.  

PubMed

The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A

1991-04-15

130

On welfare losses due to imperfect competition  

E-print Network

contracting model due to Allaz and Vila (1993) is strategically equivalent to the two-stage model of managerial delegation. Propositions 1 to 4 thus directly quantify equilibrium welfare losses, and provide conditions under which deadweight losses... , therefore, welfare losses due to oligopsony are less than 5 percent under the conditions previously identi?ed. (B) Strategic forward trading. The above propositions also apply to the seminal model of strategic forward trading due to Allaz and Vila (1993...

Ritz, Robert A.

2012-07-23

131

The Nonparametric Approach to Applied Welfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in total surplus are traditional measures of economic welfare. We propose necessary and sufficient conditions for\\u000a rationalizing individual and aggregate consumer demand data with individual quasilinear and homothetic utility functions.\\u000a Under these conditions, consumer surplus is a valid measure of consumer welfare. For nonmarketed goods, we propose necessary\\u000a and sufficient conditions on input market data for efficient production, i.e.

Donald J. Brown; Caterina Calsamiglia

2007-01-01

132

Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.  

PubMed

Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade. PMID:25000777

Molomo, M; Mumba, T

2014-04-01

133

Methamphetamine and the Changing Face of Child Welfare: Practice Principles for Child Welfare Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child…

Connell-Carrick, Kelli

2007-01-01

134

Welfare recipiency and welfare recidivism: An analysis of the NLSY data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare recipiency and recidivism of first-time AFDC recipients over the 168-month (14-year) period from January 1978 to December 1991 using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) database. Duration of a single AFDC spell is short, but repeated welfare dependency is common. On average, 57 percent of former AFDC recipients return to the rolls after an exit

Jian Cao

1996-01-01

135

Welfare Reform. Assessing the Effectiveness of Various Welfare-to-Work Approaches. Report to Congressional Committees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined research conducted on the effectiveness of different welfare-to-work approaches. Five evaluations begun in the 1980s with five-year results indicated that programs focusing on rapid employment and job search activities combined with education and training activities more often increased employment and earnings and reduced welfare

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

136

Do Welfare Asset Limits Affect Household Saving? Evidence from Welfare Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of new saving incentives implemented as part of the 1996 welfare reform on household saving. Economic theory predicts that loosening asset limits will increase total savings for households with a large ex-ante probability of welfare receipt such as female-headed households…

Hurst, Erik; Ziliak, James P.

2006-01-01

137

What has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of recent welfare reforms, investigating the effects of both state-specific waivers in the early 1990s and the 1996 federal reform legislation. Unlike earlier work, we analyze a wide array of indicators, including welfare participation, labor market involvement, earnings, income and poverty, and family formation. While no single methodology is entirely satisfying, the results in this

Robert F. Schoeni; Rebecca M. Blank

2000-01-01

138

Methamphetamine and the changing face of child welfare: practice principles for child welfare workers.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child welfare has not addressed the needs of children living in homes where methamphetamine is manufactured (U.S. Department of Justice, 2002; DOJ, 2003; Altshuler, 2005). This article presents key issues for child welfare workers related to the use, production, and effects of methamphetamine on children and families, and identifies practice principles for child welfare workers in order to ensure safety for victims, parents, and workers themselves. PMID:17722684

Connell-Carrick, Kelli

2007-01-01

139

DNA, Genes and Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you will learn about the parts of DNA and what DNA, genes and chromosomes are. Today you will learn what DNA, genes and chromosomes are and the parts of the DNA molecule. Look at all of the websites, take whatever notes you need to. At the end of the assignment, be able to describle DNA, the parts of DNA, genes and chromosomes. Covers Biology Core Curriculum, ...

Fomby, Mrs.

2007-11-07

140

Chromosome Oscillations in Mitosis  

E-print Network

Successful cell division requires a tight regulation of chromosome motion via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the movement have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. The protein complex Kinetochore on the chromosome associates with microtubules emanating from one of the spindle poles and drives the chromosome toward the pole. Chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms also interact with microtubules, ejecting the chromosome away from the pole. In animal cells, a monooriented chromosome (associated to a single pole) periodically switches between phases of poleward and away from the pole movement[, a behavior tentatively explained so far by the existence of a complex switching mechanism within the kinetochore itself. Here we show that the interplay between the morphology of the mitotic spindle and the collective kinetics of chromokinesins can account for the highly non-linear periodic chromosome motion. Our analysis provides a natural explanation for the origin of chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes feel their position in space.

Otger Campas; Pierre Sens

2005-07-29

141

Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes  

SciTech Connect

In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

2006-03-16

142

Does generic entry always increase consumer welfare?  

PubMed

This article examines how the nature of competition between brands in a therapeutic category changes after generic entry and provide a framework for analyzing the effect of generic entry on consumer welfare that takes into account the generic free riding problem. It demonstrates that changes in competition along dimensions other than retail price--such as competition in research and development efforts and in promotional activities--may, in certain situations, result in generic entry having an overall negative impact on consumer welfare. PMID:24624656

Grabowski, Henry; Lewis, Tracy; Guha, Rahul; Ivanova, Zoya; Salgado, Maria; Woodhouse, Sally

2012-01-01

143

Open markets and welfare values Welfare values, inequality and social change in the silver age of the welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market principles are becoming more prominent in citizen experience of public policy across Europe, as a result of economic globalization and the Maastricht commitment to ‘open markets’, and cost-constraint, privatization and labour market activation pursued in response to the various pressures confronting welfare states. These principles (inequality, competitiveness, allocation through ability to pay) contradict those traditionally associated with social policy

Peter Taylor-Gooby

2004-01-01

144

Chromosome Models: Karyotyping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can have a tactile opportunity to construct a karyotype, an organized model of an organismâs chromosomes, conveying the chromosomeâs size and shape. Learners with visual impairments as well as sighted learners can learn about the organization of chromosomes which carry the genetic material in all cells that have a nucleus.

Blind, Perkins S.

2012-06-26

145

Chromosomal differentiation of cells  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 16, discusses the chromosomal differentiation of cells. The chromosomes of differentiated cells have been much less studies than those of meristematic or germline cells, probably because such cells do not usually divide spontaneously. However, in many cases they can be induced to undergo mitosis. 26 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

146

Essays on the political economy of welfare and redistribution  

E-print Network

This dissertation explores two main puzzles. First, why do some countries have more generous welfare policies than others? Second, why do some people support welfare policies more than others? This collection of essays ...

Roh, Jungho

2011-01-01

147

12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare...

2010-01-01

148

REGIONAL ANALYSIS ON SUBJECTIVE WELFARE. ROMANIANS' MAJOR CONCERNS ON DEVELOPING REGIONS  

E-print Network

REGIONAL ANALYSIS ON SUBJECTIVE WELFARE. ROMANIANS' MAJOR CONCERNS ON DEVELOPING REGIONS Clina Ana analysis, developing region, subjective welfare, development strategies. Cuvinte cheie: analiz regional., Alba Iulia : Romania (2006)" #12;1. TRANSITION AND WELFARE IN ROMANIA Welfare is a multidimensional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

From preference to happiness: Towards a more complete welfare economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Welfare economics is incomplete as it analyzes preference without going on to analyze welfare (or happiness) which is the\\u000a ultimate objective. Preference and welfare may differ due to imperfect knowledge, imperfect rationality, and\\/or a concern\\u000a for the welfare of others (non-affective altruism). Imperfection in knowledge and rationality has a biological basis and the\\u000a resulting accumulation instinct amplifies with advertising-fostered

Yew-Kwang Ng

2003-01-01

150

School Inequality and the Welfare State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book begins with an examination of school inequality in the United States. The discussion focuses successively on the issues of: the paradox of unequal schools in a welfare state, the distribution of educational resources in American cities: some new empirical evidence, inequalities in the allocation of educational resources among cities and…

Owen, John D.

151

Brookhaven Science Associates Comprehensive Welfare Benefits Plan  

E-print Network

Brookhaven Science Associates Comprehensive Welfare Benefits Plan Authorization For Use participation in the Brookhaven Science Associates Health Plan) or until revoked by you in writing. You may: ________________________________________________________ I authorize the following Health Plan(s) to use or disclose my health information in accordance

152

Farm Animal Welfare - Testing for Market Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers are concerned with animal welfare in the conventional production of farm livestock. This concern can be related both to their own and others’ consumption. In the latter case, there is a negative externality from consumption. We suggest a survey design that enables us to test for a market failure in farm livestock production. Applying this to the question

Fredrik Carlsson; Peter Grykblom; Carl Johan Lagerkvist

2007-01-01

153

Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare  

EPA Science Inventory

The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

154

Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

2001-01-01

155

Welfare to Work: Solutions or Snake Oil?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the development and implementation of a customer service call center training program, implemented by Metropolitan Community Colleges (Missouri) to assist welfare recipients overcome the obstacles facing them in the workplace. Discusses components of the program, and its effects on both the consumer and the corporate community. (AUTH/NB)

Ream, John W.; Wagner, Brenda G; Knorr, Robin C.

2001-01-01

156

Barriers to the Employment of Welfare Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic reductions in welfare caseloads since passage of the Personal Responsibility and WorkOpportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 have not allayed policy concerns about the employability of recipients remaining on the rolls. Analysis of potential barriers to employment can address whether current recipients have problems that either singly or in combination make it difficult for them to comply with the new

Sandra Danziger; Mary Corcoran; Sheldon Danziger; Colleen Heflin; Ariel Kalil; Judith Levine; Daniel Rosen; Kristin Seefeldt; Kristine Siefert; Richard Tolman

157

STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)  

EPA Science Inventory

SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

158

Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

2011-01-01

159

Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

2000-01-01

160

Learning from Others: A Welfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a smooth and noisy version of the statistical prediction model studied in the herding\\/informational cascades literature and compares market and optimal learning. The latter is characterized by defining a decentralized welfare benchmark as the solution to an infinite horizonteamproblem. Market behavior involves herding, in the sense that agents put too little weight on their private information for

Xavier Vives

1997-01-01

161

A welfare analysis of spectrum allocation policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis of spectrum policy focuses on government revenues derived via competitive bidding for licenses. Auctions generating high bids are identified as successful and those with lower receipts as fiascoes. Yet spectrum policies that create rents impose social costs. Most obviously, rules favoring monopoly predictably increase license values but reduce welfare. This article attempts to shift analytical focus to efficiency

Thomas W. Hazlett; Roberto E. Muñoz

2009-01-01

162

Weak Separability in Applied Welfare Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this paper is the impact on welfare measurement of a common assumption in applied demand analysis, weak separability. A standard empirical practice is to estimate conditional demand models for a set of goods which are assumed to be weakly separable from all other goods with expenditure as a right-hand-side variable, tacitly assuming that expenditure is predetermined (Alston

Jeffrey T. LaFrance

1993-01-01

163

Familial and Social Dimensions of Welfare Receipt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we categorize welfare duration determinants into those associated with family traits and the social macro environment outside the family. Monthly AFDC-Basic data for Texas from mid-1989 through April 1993 are analyzed using an event history analysis to examine the length of time families receive AFDC benefits and to estimate the effects of the two latent traits that

Vijayan K. Pillai; Thomas Barton

2004-01-01

164

Welfare: Indicators of Dependency. Policy Information Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report attempts to assemble data on the trends that are favorable or unfavorable to independence from welfare. Twelve such conditions are examined in this report, and they are summarized in table form, with an indication of the direction of the trend and comments. The information is also summarized in narrative form to give an idea of what…

Barton, Paul E.

165

Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

2008-01-01

166

Work, Welfare, and Family Well-Being.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As more families move from welfare to work, little is known about the implications of employment for family well-being. This survey and case study examined the effects of employment on the economic, social, and emotional well-being of parents, children, and families. Survey respondents received assistance through Iowa's Family Investment Program…

Sing, Merrile; Hill, Heather; Mendenko, Linda

167

THE WELFARE STATE'S MAKING OF COSMOPOLITAN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze the extent of welfare state tendencies towards individualization of social citizenship rights from the perspective of Cosmopolitan Europe (Beck and Grande 2007, Cosmopolitan Europe). Empirical study of legislated reforms to national insurance benefit schemes in three European countries since 1980 suggests that individualization processes transform modern West European societies through the construction of self-sufficiency, the

Minna van Gerven; Marinus Ossewaarde

2012-01-01

168

THE WELFARE STATE'S MAKING OF COSMOPOLITAN EUROPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to analyze the extent of welfare state tendencies towards individualization of social citizenship rights from the perspective of Cosmopolitan Europe (Beck and Grande 2007, Cosmopolitan Europe). Empirical study of legislated reforms to national insurance benefit schemes in three European countries since 1980 suggests that individualization processes transform modern West European societies through the construction of self-sufficiency, the

Minna van Gerven; Marinus Ossewaarde

2011-01-01

169

Welfare dynamics in rural Kenya and Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents comparative qualitative and quantitative evidence from rural Kenya and Madagascar in an attempt to untangle the causality behind persistent poverty. We find striking differences in welfare dynamics depending on whether one uses total income, including stochastic terms and inevitable measurement error, or the predictable, structural component of income based on a household's asset holdings. Our results suggest

Christopher B. Barrett; Paswel Phiri Marenya; John Mcpeak; Bart Minten; Festus Murithi; Willis Oluoch-Kosura; Jean Claude Randrianarisoa; Jhon Rasambainarivo; Justine Wangila

2006-01-01

170

COMMUNICATION AWARENESS WITH ANIMAL WELFARE CASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: This session will provide a discussion of how veterinary professionals can effectively communicate with clients when there are concerns about animal abuse and neglect. In particular, we will provide a model for engaging the client in the interview, building and enhancing the relationship, and also effectively communicating about decisions in animal welfare cases. In working with these types of

Chandra Grabill

171

Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

172

On the Marginal Welfare Cost of Taxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a rigorous partial equilibrium analysis of the determinants of margin al welfare cost (MWC) of taxes on labor earnings. It shows that four key parameters interact to determine the magnitude of MWC. Using aggregate data and plausible ranges of values for the parameters, MWC can vary from under 10 percent to more than 300 percent of marginal

Edgar K Browning

1987-01-01

173

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the economics literature on welfare reform over the 1990s. A brief summary of the policy changes over this period is followed by a discussion of the methodological techniques utilized to analyze the effects of these changes on outcomes. The paper then critically reviews the econometric and experimental literature on caseload changes, labor force changes, poverty and income

Rebecca M. Blank

2002-01-01

174

Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States  

E-print Network

1 Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States Rebecca M. Blank University of Michigan and NBER the United States fundamentally changed the structure of its public assistance programs to low, labor force changes, poverty and income changes, and family formation changes. A growing body

Shyy, Wei

175

Child care: Welfare, protection or rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins by indentifying three central themes in the Children Act 1989, noting some convergence with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. It goes on to draw attention to certain “internal” tensions between these themes of “welfare,” “protection” and “rights.” It is suggested that these tensions necessarily create dilemmas of policy and practice which have to

Roger Smith

1991-01-01

176

Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

177

WHAT HAS WELFARE REFORM ACCOMPLISHED? IMPACTS ON WELFARE PARTICIPATION, EMPLOYMENT, INCOME,  

E-print Network

, and Family Structure 1. INTRODUCTION Recent welfare reform efforts have been undertaken for many reasons by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; (ii) aid needy families so that children may be cared

Shyy, Wei

178

Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

Sheely, Amanda

2012-01-01

179

Purdue University Animal Welfare Assurance for Domestic Institutions  

E-print Network

provisions of the Animal Welfare Act and other Federal statutes and regulations relating to animals. BPurdue University A3231-01 Animal Welfare Assurance for Domestic Institutions I, , as named agreements have an Animal Welfare Assurance and that the activities have Institutional Animal Care and Use

Ginzel, Matthew

180

Child welfare professionals' responses to domestic violence exposure among children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare professionals are expected to promptly assess the current safety and future risks of children reported to them. Developing more accurate assessment methods has been a growing concern in child welfare. The presence of domestic violence and children's exposure to it are factors that have been included in many current risk assessment models used by child welfare professionals.An online

Traci LaLiberte; Jessie Bills; Narae Shin; Jeffrey L. Edleson

2010-01-01

181

Calculating Child Welfare Separation, Replacement, and Training Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across the country, incoming child welfare caseworkers have an average tenure of 2 years, and states are being evaluated on the quality of caseworker training programs and their ability to provide child welfare services that meet federally mandated outcomes. Policy makers do not know the cost of workforce turnover and replacement or the cost of training child welfare workers. The

Edwina Dorch; Mary L. McCarthy; Daniel Denofrio

2008-01-01

182

MATERNAL WELFARE AND WORK COMBINATIONS AND ADOLESCENTS' SCHOOL PROGRESS  

E-print Network

, Risk, and Mental Health, the Office of the Vice-President for Research at the University of Michigan progress of these mothers' teenage children. Results suggest that, relative to remaining on welfare, teenagers whose mothers left welfare completely or combined welfare and work were less likely to have been

Shyy, Wei

183

Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare

Wilson, Rick

184

Employment among Current and Former Welfare Recipients: A Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of welfare reform is to move recipients from welfare to work. Several factors influence the employment of welfare recipients. The purpose of this content analysis is to offer a comprehensive understanding of employment characteristics and important personal, family, and employment characteristics that either promote or deter…

Morris, Susan; Santhiveeran, Janaki; Lam, Brian Trung

2006-01-01

185

The Child Welfare Profession's Perception of Residential Care for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study explored the Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) perception of residential care for children, as a reflection of the child welfare profession as a whole. A content analysis of CWLA's national conference programs and the journal "Child Welfare" from 1997 to 2006 found that the profession emphasizes family foster care and…

Owens, Larry W.

2008-01-01

186

Welfare Reform and the Long-Term Care Workforce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported in this paper examined the role of welfare reform in increasing the availability of entry-level workers to meet the rising demand for long-term care employees. Findings from national and statewide evaluations of welfare programs show mixed results in the extent to which beneficiaries could be shifted from welfare caseloads to…

Filinson, Rachel; Cone, Donna; Ray, Eileen

2005-01-01

187

The Legacy of Welfare: Economic Endowments or Cultural Characteristics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the impact of parental welfare history on individuals' current use of welfare by decomposing intergenerational differences using techniques traditionally employed in the race and sex wage discrimination literature. This research extends Rank and Cheng's examination of welfare across generations by including various…

Bartholomae, Suzanne; Fox, Jonathan J.; McKenry, Patrick C.

2004-01-01

188

Welfare Reform in European Countries: A Microsimulation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the welfare and distributional impact of two types of welfare reform in the 15 (pre-enlargement) member countries of the European Union. The reforms are revenue neutral and financed by an overall and uniform increase in marginal tax rates on earnings. The first reform distributes the additional tax revenue uniformly to everybody (traditional welfare) while the second reform

Herwig Immervoll; Henrik Jacobsen Kleven; Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Emmanuel Saez

2005-01-01

189

Welfare Reform in European Countries: A MicroSimulation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper estimates the welfare and distributional impact of two types of welfare reform in 14 member countries of the European Union. The reforms are revenue neutral and financed by an overall and uniform increase in marginal tax rates on earnings. The first reform distributes the additional tax revenue uniformly to everybody (traditional welfare) while the second reform distributes tax

Herwig Immervoll; Henrik Kleven; Claus Thustrup Kreiner; Emmanuel Saez

2004-01-01

190

Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

1995-01-01

191

Toward a New Vision for Child Welfare in Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the major themes that have emerged in this special issue on child welfare in Canada, and presents a critique of the policies and practices now dominating the Canadian child welfare enterprise. Outlines the changes required to move child welfare from its residual stance into an enterprise that develops a capacity for innovative practice.…

Wharf, Brian

1995-01-01

192

The Impact of Welfare Reform on Men's Violence against Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist “backlash hypothesis” as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases

Stephanie Riger; Maryann Krieglstein

2000-01-01

193

The effect of stocking density on certain broiler welfare parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In broiler production, stocking density, i.e. floor surface per chicken, is very important welfare factor which directly and indirectly influences and determines the level of growth of chicken body weight, but it is also related to other welfare indicators. Objective of the paper was to define the broiler welfare in different stocking densities by evaluation of their walking ability (gait

Zdenka Skrbic; Z. Pavlovski; M. Lukic; L. Peric; N. Milosevic

2009-01-01

194

From Welfare to Work: The Transition of an Illiterate Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With welfare reform now a reality, policy makers and employers must grapple with the employment impediments that keep much of the welfare population out of the work force. The foremost problem is illiteracy. One-third of welfare recipients are functionally illiterate; another third possesses only marginally better reading skills, still unable to…

Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

195

The Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing and School Instability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies on the housing outcomes of welfare recipients to examine the potential influence of welfare reform on housing instability, which influences school instability. State studies suggest that welfare reform has increased rates of family mobility, evictions, and sharing housing. Limited research suggests that housing instability and…

Nichols, Laura; Gault, Barbara

2003-01-01

196

EMPLOYER DEMAND FOR WELFARE RECIPIENTS AND THE BUSINESS CYCLE  

E-print Network

or supports to welfare recipients (such as child care, transportation assistance, training, etc0 EMPLOYER DEMAND FOR WELFARE RECIPIENTS AND THE BUSINESS CYCLE: EVIDENCE FROM RECENT EMPLOYER for the conference, "Welfare Reform and the Macroeconomy" sponsored by the Joint Center for Poverty Research

Shyy, Wei

197

Governmental and Nongovernmental Youth Welfare in the New German Lander.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of the general conditions of youth welfare departments in eastern Germany revealed severe money shortages. Increasing demands on youth welfare, rising social problems, right-wing extremism, and widespread unemployment among youths cause long-term social problems and prohibit effective youth welfare. (RJM)

Gawlik, Marion; And Others

1994-01-01

198

What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

Webster, A. J. F.

1998-06-01

199

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

DOEpatents

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

Lacks, S.A.

1995-07-18

200

Chromosomal Aberrations and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal aberrations associated with schizophrenic disorders may suggest regions in which to focus a search for genes predisposing to schizophrenia by a linkage strategy. As for other genetic illnesses, chromosomal abnormalities may also provide useful tools for subsequent physical mapping, fine localisation, and isolation of important susceptibility genes. Identification of several chromosomal aberrations may be especially important, given the unknown pathophysiology, the paucity of known brain genes, and the probable genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia and manic-depression. However, because psychiatric disorders are common and inherited in a complex manner, researchers must use caution when drawing inferences about associations with chromosomal aberrations. Reported abnormalities involving autosomes (chromosomes 1 –22) associated with psychotic disorders are reviewed. Their relevance to linkage studies localising genes for schizophrenia was estimated by standardised criteria for specificity, diagnosis, family history, and overall weight of evidence. Four ‘possibly relevant’ chromosomal regions were identified: 5q, 11q, 18q, and 19p. This paper outlines strategies for future studies to detect new chromosomal aberrations associated with major psychotic disorders that may be relevant to isolating the genes for schizophrenia. PMID:1393302

Bassett, Anne S.

2011-01-01

201

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

1995-07-18

202

Welfare Exit, Marriage, and Welfare Recidivism: A Reevaluation of Patterns of the 1980s and 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relationship between marriage and welfare recidivism for women leaving a first welfare spell, using the 1979–2000\\u000a panels of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Previous studies have found that women who marry around the time\\u000a of welfare exit have lower rates of welfare return than women who stay single. However, more marriages occur before or after

Tracy E. Roberts; Steven P. Martin

2010-01-01

203

Sequential cloning of chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

Lacks, S.A.

1991-12-31

204

Mapping the phytoplasma chromosome.  

PubMed

Physical and genetic mapping of the phytoplasma chromosome can be a useful tool in a genome sequencing project in order to assemble the in silico-predicted contigs robustly. Mapping consists of four distinct steps: preparation of phytoplasma chromosomes from infected plants, single- and double-digestion of chromosomes with rare-cutting restriction enzymes, separation of large DNA fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and hybridization with various genetic markers. Materials and methods needed for each step are described and the technique is illustrated using the flavescence dorée phytoplasma genome map as an example. PMID:22987434

Malembic-Maher, Sylvie; Carle, Patricia

2013-01-01

205

Maternal work behavior under welfare reform: How does the transition from welfare to work affect child development?  

E-print Network

child development? Rachel Dunifon1 Cornell University Ariel Kalil University of Chicago Sandra K welfare to work affect child development? Abstract Using data from a longitudinal sample of former reform: How does the transition from welfare to work affect child development? In 1996 a new welfare

Shyy, Wei

206

Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) were analyzed to identify ways of improving the process of moving people from welfare to work. Selected lessons from the analysis were as follows: (1) welfare-to-work programs that rely on adult basic education programs for the general population are unlikely to improve…

Hamilton, Gayle

207

Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.  

PubMed

This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

Chandler, Andrea

2011-01-01

208

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants  

E-print Network

Sex Chromosomes in Land Plants Ray Ming,1 Abdelhafid Bendahmane,2,3 and Susanne S. Renner4 1 chromosomes, suppression of recombination Abstract Sex chromosomes in land plants can evolve as a consequence chromosomes in hepatics, mosses, and gymnosperms are morphologically heteromor- phic. In angiosperms

Renner, Susanne

209

Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.  

PubMed Central

Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

1994-01-01

210

A Survey of Chinese Citizens' Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare  

PubMed Central

Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

2014-01-01

211

Reforming child welfare: an integrated approach.  

PubMed

Throughout the 1990s, child welfare systems were exposed to intense pressure. As a result, most systems have undertaken processes of reform and change. This article discusses the strategic development of New Zealand's service system in child welfare. A partnership between managerial discipline and professional leadership has been critical in the service system reform. With respect to management, a strong vision, a culture of high performance, and greater organizational stability and confidence provided the platform on which professional reforms could be established-including the knowledge framework, the service model, the practice package, and staff support. The managerial efforts that have provided the platform for the professional reforms are discussed, followed by an exploration of the professional reform package. PMID:20945803

Connolly, Marie; Smith, Ray

2010-01-01

212

Pathways to specialising in animal welfare.  

PubMed

Safeguarding animal welfare is an important aspect of the day-to-day work of almost all veterinarians; however, only some choose to pursue specific postgraduate qualifications in this area. Andrew Knight describes some of the routes to specialisation that are available around the world, highlighting in particular how suitably experienced individuals can currently seek accreditation in Europe and the USA without undertaking a formal programme of study. PMID:25377205

Knight, Andrew D

2014-11-01

213

Women on Welfare: A Macroeconomic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task here is to outline a general-equilibrium model in which, at any point in time, some individuals will marry, others will divorce, and yet others will choose to have out-of-wedlock births. While the model is still prototypical in nature, it will be shown how such a framework can be used to address public-policy questions, in particular,the impact of welfare

Jeremy Greenwood; Nezih Guner; John A. Knowles

2000-01-01

214

Successfully integrating your health and welfare benefits.  

PubMed

The process of integrating health and welfare plans during an M&A is challenging. At the same time, it can be exciting and possibly even desirable for the growth of a benefits plan. An M&A can be the vehicle for ushering in changes that would not be possible under the current employers' plans. It gives additional leverage with vendors. It may supply the momentum to clear up nagging problems or to address underlying benefits concerns. PMID:11372498

Cornwell, R

2001-06-01

215

Welfare Reform, Fertility and Father Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing that most poor families are single-parent families, the federal welfare reform law of 1996 emphasized the responsibility of both parents to support their children. In addition to strengthening the child support enforcement system, the law included several provisions to decrease nonmarital childbearing and to promote two-parent families. This article focuses on the important role fathers play in children?s lives

Sara S. McLanahan; Marcia J. Carlson

2002-01-01

216

Is there an “animal welfare Kuznets curve”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of a Kuznets curve has been applied to income inequality and to the environment. The Kuznets curve takes an inverted U-shape, with income or GDP on the X-axis and environmental degradation or inequality on the Y-axis. It is hypothesized here that an “animal welfare Kuznets curve” may exist, with harm to animals initially rising with economic growth followed

Joshua Frank

2008-01-01

217

Welfare of non-traditional pets.  

PubMed

The keeping of non-traditional or 'exotic' pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives. The keeping of non-traditional pets also raises ethical concerns about whether the animal poses any danger to others (e.g. transmission of zoonotic diseases) and whether the animal might cause environmental damage (e.g. invading non-native habitats when released). The authors used these considerations to create a checklist, which identifies and organises the various concerns that may arise over keeping non-traditional species as pets. An inability to address these concerns raises questions about how to mitigate them or even whether or not certain species should be kept as pets at all. Thus, the authors propose five categories, which range from relatively unproblematic pet species to species whose keeping poses unacceptable risks to the animals, to humans, or to the environment. This approach to the evaluation and categorisation of species could provide a constructive basis for advocacy and regulatory actions. PMID:25000795

Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D; Bacon, H J

2014-04-01

218

Citizen empowerment using healthcare and welfare cards.  

PubMed

Cards are used in health and welfare to establish the identity of the person presenting the card; to prove their entitlement to a welfare or healthcare service; to store data needed within the care process; and to store data to use in the administration process. There is a desire to empower citizens - to give them greater control over their lives, their health and wellbeing. How can a healthcare and welfare card support this aim? Does having a card empower the citizen? What can a citizen do more easily, reliably, securely or cost-effectively because they have a card? A number of possibilities include: Choice of service provider; Mobility across regional and national boundaries; Privacy; and Anonymity. But in all of these possibilities a card is just one component of a total system and process, and there may be other solutions--technological and manual. There are risks and problems from relying on a card; and issues of Inclusion for people who are unable use a card. The article concludes that: cards need to be viewed in the context of the whole solution; cards are not the only technological mechanism; cards are not the best mechanism in all circumstances; but cards are very convenient method in very many situations. PMID:17095830

Cheshire, Paul

2006-01-01

219

From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.  

PubMed

There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering. PMID:22192762

Woods, Abigail

2012-03-01

220

A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

Bouallegue, K.

221

Chimpanzee Chromosome 13 Is Homologous to Human Chromosome 2P.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Similarities between human and chimpanzee chromosomes are shown by chromosome banding techniques and somatic cell hybridization techniques. Cell hybrids were obtained from the chimpanzee lymphocyte LE-7, and the Chinese hamster mutant cell, Gal-2. Experim...

N. C. Sun, C. R. Y. Sun, T. Ho

1977-01-01

222

Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting  

PubMed Central

A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+) translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5) were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2) from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases. PMID:14604515

Pinton, Alain; Ducos, Alain; Yerle, Martine

2003-01-01

223

Evolution of animal-welfare education for veterinary students.  

PubMed

Animal-welfare education is an evolving component of the veterinary curriculum. Although different veterinary schools may cover different elements of the subject and teach it in many different ways, it is important to recognize that this multidisciplinary subject is evolving rapidly. For example, welfare science is beginning to examine the quantification of positive welfare or a good life in addition to evaluating harms associated with different husbandry systems. Although the curriculum is under continual pressure, the drivers (policy makers, student expectations, and trade requirements) for including animal welfare in the course are likely to increase. Some core components of an animal-welfare course are important to include in all veterinary curriculums. This would include an appreciation of the difference between welfare science, ethics, and standards. PMID:20378875

Main, David C J

2010-01-01

224

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

225

Chromothripsis: Chromosomes in Crisis  

PubMed Central

Summary During oncogenesis, cells acquire multiple genetic alterations that confer essential tumor-specific traits, including immortalization, escape from anti-mitogenic signaling, neovascularization, invasiveness, and metastatic potential. In most instances, these alterations are thought to arise incrementally over years if not decades. However, recent progress in sequencing cancer genomes has begun to challenge this paradigm, as a radically different phenomenon, termed chromothripsis, has been suggested to cause complex intra- and inter-chromosomal rearrangements on short timescales. In this article, we review established pathways crucial for genome integrity and discuss how their dysfunction could precipitate widespread chromosome breakage and rearrangement in the course of malignancy. PMID:23153487

Jones, Mathew J.K.; Jallepalli, Prasad V.

2012-01-01

226

Energy Audit Equipment  

E-print Network

The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

Phillips, J.

2012-01-01

227

Vibrio chromosome-specific families  

PubMed Central

We have compared chromosome-specific genes in a set of 18 finished Vibrio genomes, and, in addition, also calculated the pan- and core-genomes from a data set of more than 250 draft Vibrio genome sequences. These genomes come from 9 known species and 2 unknown species. Within the finished chromosomes, we find a core set of 1269 encoded protein families for chromosome 1, and a core of 252 encoded protein families for chromosome 2. Many of these core proteins are also found in the draft genomes (although which chromosome they are located on is unknown.) Of the chromosome specific core protein families, 1169 and 153 are uniquely found in chromosomes 1 and 2, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) terms for each of the protein families were determined, and the different sets for each chromosome were compared. A total of 363 different “Molecular Function” GO categories were found for chromosome 1 specific protein families, and these include several broad activities: pyridoxine 5' phosphate synthetase, glucosylceramidase, heme transport, DNA ligase, amino acid binding, and ribosomal components; in contrast, chromosome 2 specific protein families have only 66 Molecular Function GO terms and include many membrane-associated activities, such as ion channels, transmembrane transporters, and electron transport chain proteins. Thus, it appears that whilst there are many “housekeeping systems” encoded in chromosome 1, there are far fewer core functions found in chromosome 2. However, the presence of many membrane-associated encoded proteins in chromosome 2 is surprising. PMID:24672511

Lukjancenko, Oksana; Ussery, David W.

2014-01-01

228

Participation and Influence in Federal Child Welfare Policymaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very little current empirical evidence exists to guide U.S. child welfare policymaking interventions. This article builds on the knowledge base to determine the factors that best predict a witness' level of influence in federal child welfare policymaking. This content analysis of 150 randomly selected congressional child welfare hearings testimonies from the 10-year period covered by the 106th–110th Congresses (1999–2008) uses

Heather R. Edwards; Damon U. Bryant; Tricia B. Bent-Goodley

2011-01-01

229

Conflicting and complementary ethics of animal welfare considerations in reintroductions.  

PubMed

Despite differences in focus, goals, and strategies between conservation biology and animal welfare, both are inextricably linked in many ways, and greater consideration of animal welfare, although important in its own right, also has considerable potential to contribute to conservation success. Nevertheless, animal welfare and animal ethics are not always considered explicitly within conservation practice. We systematically reviewed the recent scientific peer-reviewed and online gray literature on reintroductions of captive-bred and wild-caught animals (mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles) to quantify the occurrence of animal welfare issues. We considered monitoring that could be indicative of the animal's welfare status and supportive management actions that could improve animal welfare (regardless of whether the aim was explicitly animal-welfare orientated). Potential welfare issues (of variable nature and extent) were recorded in 67% of 199 projects reviewed; the most common were mortality >50%, dispersal or loss of animals, disease, and human conflict. Most (>70%) projects monitored survival, 18% assessed body condition, and 2% monitored stress levels. Animal welfare, explicitly, was referred to in 6% of projects. Supportive actions, most commonly use of on-site prerelease pens and provision of supplemental food or water, were implemented in 79% of projects, although the extent and duration of support varied. Practitioners can address animal-welfare issues in reintroductions by considering the potential implications for individual animals at all stages of the release process using the decision tree presented. We urge practitioners to report potential animal-welfare issues, describe mitigation actions, and evaluate their efficacy to facilitate transparent evaluation of common moral dilemmas and to advance communal strategies for dealing with them. Currently, comparative mortality rates, health risks, postrelease stress, effectiveness of supportive measures, and behavior of individuals warrant further research to improve animal welfare in reintroductions and to increase success of such projects. PMID:23506045

Harrington, Lauren A; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Gelling, Merryl; Atkinson, Rob P D; Hughes, Joelene; Macdonald, David W

2013-06-01

230

Substate nationalism and the welfare state: Quebec and Canadian federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between sub-state nationalism and the welfare state through the case of Quebec in Canada. It argues that social policy presents mobilisation and identity-building potential for sub-state nationalism, and that nationalist movements affect the structure of welfare states. Nationalism and the welfare state revolve around the notion of solidarity. Because they often involve transfers of money

DANIEL BELAND

2006-01-01

231

Social Welfare Loss in Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Pharmaceutical Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study allocative inefficiency under monopoly using a two-good general-equilibrium mo- nopoly production model. Individuals are heterogeneous with respect to preferences. We com- pare social welfare under monopoly with welfare under perfect competition. We then apply this model to the antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutical markets. We find that, for nine specific drugs, annual social-welfare losses ranged from $63 million to

CHRISTINA M. L. KELTON; ROBERT P. REBELEIN

2005-01-01

232

Teaching animal welfare in some veterinary schools in Latin America.  

PubMed

Animal welfare is an emerging topic in Latin America because of its impact on animal health, international trade, industry economic viability, and consumer perceptions. To enable veterinarians to be primary promoters of animal welfare, their training must include competencies in ethics, ethology, research, and public policy. During the past 10 years, animal welfare has gradually been incorporated into the curricula of several schools of veterinary medicine in Chile and other Latin American countries. Inclusion in these curricula is limited by a shortage of knowledgeable instructors. Research sustains inclusion of animal welfare in the curricula, but funding for research is often lacking. PMID:20378882

Tadich, Néstor A; Molento, Carla F M; Gallo, Carmen B

2010-01-01

233

Substance abuse and the course of welfare dependency.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: New provisions in welfare reform target recipients with addictions, even though there is limited research on how substance abuse affects people's experiences on welfare. This prospective study examined substance abuse as a determinant of subsequent welfare dependency. METHODS: Representative samples of clients on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and general assistance in a California county were interviewed while applying for services in 1989 and were reinterviewed in 1995. RESULTS: Among AFDC recipients, substance abuse was not a significant determinant of long welfare stays, repeat welfare use, or the total time a person remained on welfare during the 6-year period. However, substance abuse was a strong predictor of repeat welfare use among general assistance recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and drug problems have played dramatically different roles in welfare dependency within the AFDC and general assistance populations. Under welfare reform, local general assistance programs will be the final safety net for recipients removed from federal entitlement programs. These programs will probably be confronted with clients with more complex disabilities related to addiction, as well as with greater family needs for cash assistance. PMID:9807526

Schmidt, L; Weisner, C; Wiley, J

1998-01-01

234

Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for

Chyvette T Williams; Hee-Soon Juon; Margaret E Ensminger

2004-01-01

235

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

236

Vibrio chromosomes share common history  

E-print Network

Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

237

Nuclear Structure and Chromosome Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Powerpoint slides for two classes, the first on principles of nuclear structure, and the second on chromosome evolution in the context of nuclear structure, segmental duplications, and other mechanisms that permit chromosome evolution.

Dr. Lindsay Shopland (The Jackson Laboratory)

2010-05-19

238

Revolutionizing Child Welfare with Outcomes Management  

PubMed Central

Outcomes management technology holds great promise for improving the quality of services provided to youth in the child welfare system. Advantages include better detection of behavioral health and trauma-related issues, early indicators of case progress or risk of failure and program- and system-level learning. Yet organizational barriers to implementation persist. Attention is spent in this paper on addressing these barriers so the use of outcomes management technology becomes a common practice. A model for predicting resiliency is presented, along with case examples demonstrating its potential use for treatment planning and monitoring progress. PMID:23460130

Toche-Manley, Linda L.; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid

2013-01-01

239

The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability  

PubMed Central

We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

2013-01-01

240

Constructing the objects of our discourse: The welfare wars, the orphanage, and the silenced welfare mom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent welfare reform debates featured the return of the orphanage as a talked?about policy initiative. This institution's sudden return presented a problem for both its supporters and its detractors. Both groups had to make sense of the orphanage as they argued for or against its efficacy. Through our discourse we resolve such problems, Michel Foucault explains, constructing the objects about

Robert Asen

1996-01-01

241

Training for Public Child Welfare Workers in Rural Eastern Kentucky. Public Child Welfare Certification Program (PCWCP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A certification program was designed to provide specialized knowledge and skills courses for future public child welfare workers in Kentucky. The program involves 6 hours of course work, delivered via distance education, and an intense practicum in local offices. Incentives for program participation included special consideration for hiring by the…

Stafford, Judith

242

Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

2009-01-01

243

Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.  

PubMed

Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards. PMID:16358527

Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

2005-08-01

244

Welfare Reform and Child Care: Evidence from 10 Experimental Welfare-to-Work Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the employment and child care responses of families participating in 10 experimental welfare reform programs conducted in the United States between 1989 and 2002. For the programs analyzed, child care use increases by about the same amount as the increase in employment. Most of the increased child care comprises informal care…

Robins, Philip K.

2007-01-01

245

Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability  

PubMed Central

The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is therefore important for understanding chromosome instability in human cancer. PMID:21575645

Murnane, John. P.

2011-01-01

246

Why Chromosome Palindromes?  

PubMed Central

We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W) evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1) genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2) under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes. PMID:22844637

Betran, Esther; Demuth, Jeffery P.; Williford, Anna

2012-01-01

247

Chromosome translocations: Dangerous liaisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many chromosome abnormalities, especially translocations or inversions, are closely associated with a particular morphologic or phenotypic subtype of leukemia, lymphoma, or sarcoma. Cloning the genes at the breakpoints of these rearrangements has provided critical tools for more-precise diagnosis; in some cases the particular diagnosis has prognostic implications. In addition, many of the genes had not been previously identified; their discovery

Janet D. Rowley

1998-01-01

248

The Y Chromosome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

Offner, Susan

2010-01-01

249

Mutation of Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the mutation of chromosomes. A permanent structural alteration in DNA. In most cases, such DNA changes either have no effect or cause harm, but occasionally a mutation can improve an organism's chance of surviving and passing the beneficial change on to its descendants.

Excellence, Access

2005-03-12

250

Worm chromosomes call for recognition!  

E-print Network

Worm chromosomes call for recognition! Barbara P. Rattner1 and Victoria H. Meller2 * Summary Many organisms face a dilemma rooted in the unequal numbers of X chromosomes carried by the two sexes with this problem. All rely on accurately targeting epigenetic modifications to entire chromosomes. Targeting

Meller, Victoria

251

Targeted chromosome elimination from ES-  

E-print Network

Targeted chromosome elimination from ES- somatic hybrid cells Hiroyuki Matsumura1,6, Masako Tada1 cell genome, we developed a technology for targeted elimination of chromosomes from mouse embryonic stem (ES)­somatic hybrid cells. Here we demonstrate the use of a universal chromosome elimination

Cai, Long

252

Renewal of radiological equipment.  

PubMed

In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updating. PMID:25230589

2014-10-01

253

Drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East.  

PubMed

Religion, ethics and culture are an important group of drivers for animal welfare policies in the Middle East. In many countries of the region the understanding of animal welfare is expressed more in terms of religious precepts and humane ethics than via regulations and legislation. In fact, regulatory and legislated animal welfare standards are still not well implemented and many animal welfare issues require attention. The Qur'an provides considerable support for conscientiously attending to animal welfare. For example, the Islamic rules on the process of slaughter were intended to provide a quick, humane and relatively painless death. Current practices that are not in accordance with these religious teachings may cause great suffering to animals. Although these rules have been in place for 1,400 years or more, now, in the 21st Century, they are found to closely correspond to the related standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The OIE plays an important role in improving animal welfare by developing global animal welfare standards. These should assist countries in two important ways: first, by helping them to establish new, or to refine existing, animal welfare legislation, and second, at the OIE regional level, by facilitating interactions between Member Countries as they develop and refine a strategic plan for the advancement of animal welfare. As the OIE standards are compatible with the requirements of Islamic law, issuing animal welfare legislation referring to those standards and implementing them at a national level is highly recommended. A dialogue between the OIE and the Veterinary Services and religious leaders in the region should therefore start with the objective of improving animal welfare. PMID:25000780

Aidaros, H

2014-04-01

254

Signalling Competition and Social Welfare (Working Paper)  

E-print Network

We consider an environment where sellers compete over buyers. All sellers are a-priori identical and strategically signal buyers about the product they sell. In a setting motivated by on-line advertising in display ad exchanges, where firms use second price auctions, a firm's strategy is a decision about its signaling scheme for a stream of goods (e.g. user impressions), and a buyer's strategy is a selection among the firms. In this setting, a single seller will typically provide partial information and consequently a product may be allocated inefficiently. Intuitively, competition among sellers may induce sellers to provide more information in order to attract buyers and thus increase efficiency. Surprisingly, we show that such a competition among firms may yield significant loss in consumers' social welfare with respect to the monopolistic setting. Although we also show that in some cases the competitive setting yields gain in social welfare, we provide a tight bound on that gain, which is shown to be small...

Polevoy, Gleb; Tennenholtz, Moshe

2012-01-01

255

Born of Blood: Craft Stick Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in groups to match craft sticks that represent chromosomes. Learners must define critical attributes of their chromosomes as they look for matching chromosomes. When learners find their matches, they use a chromosome key card to number their chromosome pairs. Learners then create a karyotype of their chromosomes.

Texas, University O.

2007-01-01

256

B chromosomes in Crustacea Decapoda.  

PubMed

Among crustacean Decapoda numerical chromosome variability is frequent, and it has been hypothesized that the presence of supernumerary chromosomes accounts for this variability. Thanks to the improvement of cytogenetic analysis by chromosomal banding techniques, supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) have been demonstrated in Nephrops norvegicus, Homarus americanus,Palinurus elephas and P. mauritanicus, belonging to different crustacean families. In all four species Bs were variable in number, mainly heterochromatic and undigested by various endonucleases, and in meiosis they showed non-Mendelian segregation. Compared to the other chromosomes of the complement, the Bs are very small in almost all species, but some of them were very large in N. norvegicus. PMID:15292594

Coluccia, E; Cannas, R; Cau, A; Deiana, A M; Salvadori, S

2004-01-01

257

77 FR 34934 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Animal Welfare  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...collection associated with its Animal Welfare Act regulations for the humane handling...CONTACT: For information on the Animal Welfare Act regulations, contact Dr. Barbara...3 were promulgated under the Animal Welfare Act (the Act) (7...

2012-06-12

258

78 FR 70515 - Petition To Promulgate Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards for Bears Under the Animal Welfare Act Regulations AGENCY: Animal...requesting that we amend the Animal Welfare Act regulations to add specific...INFORMATION: Background The Animal Welfare Act (AWA, 7 U.S.C. 2131...

2013-11-26

259

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2011-10-01

260

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a...providing health, welfare, social and other services or benefits...of providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2010-04-01

261

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2013-10-01

262

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2013-10-01

263

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a...providing health, welfare, social and other services or benefits...of providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2013-04-01

264

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-10-01

265

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2011-10-01

266

45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 605.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-10-01

267

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a...providing health, welfare, social and other services or benefits...of providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2011-04-01

268

45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2010-10-01

269

34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-07-01

270

22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a...providing health, welfare, social and other services or benefits...of providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2012-04-01

271

34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2013-07-01

272

34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General...health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a...providing emergency health care. (d) Auxiliary...

2011-07-01

273

77 FR 38073 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Clarification of Position Statements on Implementation of the Eighth...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Clarification of Position Statements...CONTACT: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Office of Extramural Research...institutions--those with an approved Animal Welfare Assurance-- in their...

2012-06-26

274

76 FR 10379 - Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation of the Eighth Edition of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institutes of Health Laboratory Animal Welfare: Proposed Adoption and Implementation...CONTACT: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, Office of Extramural Research...comply, as applicable, with the Animal Welfare Act and other Federal...

2011-02-24

275

76 FR 30437 - Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents for Service of Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents...The regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act provide that Indian...

2011-05-25

276

77 FR 45815 - Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents for Service of Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents...The regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act provide that Indian...

2012-08-01

277

75 FR 28103 - Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents for Service of Notice  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents...The regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act provide that Indian...

2010-05-19

278

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645...LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General...reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? ...accrual information through an analysis of the documentation on...

2010-04-01

279

29 CFR 2520.104-20 - Limited exemption for certain small welfare plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...administrator of any employee welfare benefit plan which...exemption applies only to welfare benefit plans— (1...benefit plans for research and analysis (section 513). (d) Examples. (1) A welfare plan has 75...

2011-07-01

280

29 CFR 2520.104-20 - Limited exemption for certain small welfare plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administrator of any employee welfare benefit plan which...exemption applies only to welfare benefit plans— (1...benefit plans for research and analysis (section 513). (d) Examples. (1) A welfare plan has 75...

2010-07-01

281

29 CFR 2520.104-20 - Limited exemption for certain small welfare plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...administrator of any employee welfare benefit plan which...exemption applies only to welfare benefit plans— (1...benefit plans for research and analysis (section 513). (d) Examples. (1) A welfare plan has 75...

2012-07-01

282

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645...LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General...reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? ...accrual information through an analysis of the documentation on...

2012-04-01

283

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645...LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General...reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? ...accrual information through an analysis of the documentation on...

2011-04-01

284

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645...LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General...reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? ...accrual information through an analysis of the documentation on...

2013-04-01

285

20 CFR 645.240 - What are the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs?  

...the reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? 645...LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING WELFARE-TO-WORK GRANTS General...reporting requirements for Welfare-to-Work programs? ...accrual information through an analysis of the documentation on...

2014-04-01

286

29 CFR 2520.104-20 - Limited exemption for certain small welfare plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...exemption applies only to welfare benefit plans— (1...Filing by Multiple Employer Welfare Arrangements and Certain...benefit plans for research and analysis (section 513). (d) Examples. (1) A welfare plan has 75...

2013-07-01

287

76 FR 54249 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...collection of information for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report, 25...information collection conducted under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and...

2011-08-31

288

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2013-07-01

289

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2011-07-01

290

40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

2012-07-01

291

University Based Welfare to Work Project and Materials. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Staff from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and the Jefferson County, Alabama, Department of Human Resources (DHS) worked together to create a "pipeline to employment" at UAB for welfare recipients by combining on-the-job training with educational opportunities. Welfare recipients referred to UAB by the Jefferson County DHS were given…

Kohler, Maxie P.

292

Individual Attitudes towards Immigrants: Welfare-State Determinants Across Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes towards im- migrants - within and across countries - and their interaction with labor-market drivers of preferences. We consider two difierent mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigration. Under the flrst scenario, immi- gration has a larger impact on individuals at the top of the

Giovanni Facchini; Anna Maria Mayda

293

Gender justice and the welfare state in post-communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Romanian feminist scholars argue that welfare policies of post-communist states are deeply unjust to women and preclude them from reaching economic autonomy. The upshot of this argument is that liberal economic policy would advance feminist goals better than the welfare state. How should we read this dissonance between Western and some Eastern feminist scholarship concerning distributive justice? I identify

Anca Gheaus

2008-01-01

294

The effects of land transport on animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal welfare during and as a result of transport can be assessed by using a range of behavioural, physiological, pathological and carcass-quality indicators that are described in this paper. Measures of the extent of any disease, injury or mortality resulting from, or exacerbated by, transport are important because health is an important part of welfare. Many of the indicators

D. M. Broom

2005-01-01

295

The USA perspective on animal welfare: issues and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare in the United States, as in the world at large, is a highly visible and often controversial topic. As the Deputy Administrator of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal Care program, I am responsible for implementing the regulations that support the federal Animal Welfare Act, otherwise known as the AWA, and the Horse Protection Act, known as the

Chester A Gipson

296

University of California San Diego ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE  

E-print Network

. This Institution will comply with all applicable provisions of the Animal Welfare Act and other Federal statutesUniversity of California San Diego A3033-01 ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE in accordance with the PHS Policy for Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals I, Arthur EllisA as named Institutional Official

Krstic, Miroslav

297

Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

298

ISSN 1745-9648 Consumer Welfare and Market  

E-print Network

ISSN 1745-9648 Consumer Welfare and Market Structure in a Model of Competition between Open Source is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Consumer welfare and market structure in a model of competition between open and in markets. Knowledge production in the academia, which can be described as an open source process (Bezroukov

Feigon, Brooke

299

Managing the Socially Marginalized: Attitudes Toward Welfare, Punishment, and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare and incarceration policies have converged to form a system of governance over socially marginalized groups, particularly racial minorities. In both of these policy areas, rehabilitative and social support objectives have been replaced with a more punitive and restrictive system. The authors examine the convergence in individual-level attitudes concerning welfare and criminal punishment, using national survey data. The authors' analysis

Darren Wheelock; Pamela Wald; Yakov Shchukin

2012-01-01

300

Trait selection and welfare of genetically engineered animals in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of the Final Guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on the com- mercialization of genetically engineered animals has sparked renewed discussion over the ethical, consumer, and regulatory implications of transgenesis in animal agriculture. Animal welfare critiques have focused on unexpected phenotypic effects in animals used in trans- genic research, rather than on the health and welfare

M. Greger

2010-01-01

301

Luxemburg's corporatist Scandinavian welfare system and incorporation of migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luxembourg is the EU and OECD member state (MS) with a permanently increasing immigra-tion and the highest share of immigrants and cross border commuters within the labour force and more so within the competitive sector. Luxembourg has a typical Bismarckian corporatist welfare system, which has developed a gener-ous and broad welfare regime over the last 100 years with a further

Claudia Hartmann-Hirsch; AMETEPE Kossi

2011-01-01

302

Intersection of the Fields of Child Welfare and Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of developmental disability and child welfare notes the relatively high numbers of children with disabilities receiving child welfare services and/or in foster homes. Suggested changes include training for prospective foster or adoptive parents, the new concept of the "foster to adopt" family, and more involvement of professionals in…

Hanley, Barbara

2002-01-01

303

Child welfare as a gateway to domestic violence services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well Being to examine the identification of domestic violence (DV) by child welfare workers during investigations of maltreatment and determine how this contributes to the receipt of DV services. The study focuses on female caregivers of children remaining in the home following the investigation (n=3165). While child welfare

Patricia L. Kohl; Richard P. Barth; Andrea L. Hazen; John A. Landsverk

2005-01-01

304

Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interactions between taxes on work-related traffic congestion and pre-existing distortionary taxes in the labor market. A congestion tax raises the overall costs of commuting to work and discourages labor force participation. The resulting welfare loss in the labor market can easily exceed the Pigouvian welfare gain from internalizing the congestion externality. However, if congestion tax revenues

Ian W. H. Parry; Antonio Bento

2001-01-01

305

Consumer welfare effects of introducing and labeling genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and while mandatory labeling has been

Jayson L. Lusk; Lisa O. House; Carlotta Valli; Sara R. Jaeger; Melissa Moore; Bert Morrow; W. Bruce Traill

2005-01-01

306

Demographic Transition and Economic Welfare: The Role of Humanitarian Aid  

E-print Network

1 Demographic Transition and Economic Welfare: The Role of Humanitarian Aid Stephen M. Miller to demographic transition are also explored. The evaluation of the effectiveness of aid on economic growth.neanidis@manchester.ac.uk Abstract This paper considers the effects of humanitarian aid on economic welfare through a demographic

Ahmad, Sajjad

307

Recruiting Welfare Recipients for Child Care Work: Not a Panacea.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Work requirements for welfare recipients will pressure state agencies to create employment opportunities for parents and arrangements for child care while parents work. This report examines the topic of recruiting welfare mothers to care for children of other recipients. The report highlights research outlining barriers to work in child care and…

Working for Change, 1996

1996-01-01

308

Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005. Report to Congress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005: Report to Congress" (Child Welfare Outcomes Report) is the seventh in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the Department). The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997)…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008

2008-01-01

309

Acknowledging Different Needs: Developing a Taxonomy of Welfare Leavers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used cluster analysis of survey data for 506 respondents to create a taxonomy of welfare leavers in Illinois based on their self-reported well-being after leaving welfare. Used classification tree analysis to identify factors associated with different types of leavers. Findings highlight the existence of many marginally successful leavers who…

Julnes, George; Hayashi, Kentaro; Anderson, Steven

2001-01-01

310

Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

2004-01-01

311

A welfare analysis of social security in a dynastic framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we study the welfare effects of unfunded social security in a general equilibrium model populated with overlapping generations of altruistic individuals that differ in lifetime expectancy and earnings ability. Contrary to previous research, our results indicate that steady-state welfare increases with social security for most households, although by very different amounts. This result is mainly due to

Luisa Fuster; Ayse Imrohoroglu; Selahattin Imrohoroglu

2003-01-01

312

The Welfare Analysis of Fiscal Policy: A Simple Unified Account  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple general equilibrium model of an economy with distortionary taxes and public goods is used to extend, unify and clean up the welfare analysis of changes in taxation, redistribution and the provision of public goods. We clarify the distinction between compensation and money metric measures of the welfare impact of fiscal changes and show that the equivalent variation measure

James E. Anderson; Will Martin

1996-01-01

313

Peer Effects in Welfare Dependence: Quasi-Experimental Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines peer effects in welfare use among refugees. We exploit a Swedish refugee placement policy, which generated exogenous variation in peer group composition. Our analysis distinguishes between the quantity of contacts--the number of individuals of the same ethnicity--and the quality of contacts--welfare use among members of the…

Aslund, Olof; Fredriksson, Peter

2009-01-01

314

Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

2006-01-01

315

Roundup Ready Soybeans and Welfare Effects in the Soybean Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-region world model for the soybean complex is developed to evaluate the welfare effects of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean adoption. The structural modeling of the innovation accounts for farmers' adoption incentives and for the observed pricing of RR soybean seeds as a proprietary technology. The calibrated model is solved for various scenarios to evaluate the production, price, and welfare

GianCarlo Moschini; Harvey E. Lapan; Andrei Sobolevsky

2000-01-01

316

“The law cannot terminate bloodlines”: Families and child welfare decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child welfare professionals are called to make determinations that affect whether children can stay or reunify with their families. These decisions are framed by policies that inform and constrain their professional and personal understanding of risk and relationships. This manuscript explores themes related to children's relationships with their families that emerged from a qualitative study with 18 child welfare professionals,

Corey Shdaimah

2010-01-01

317

Welfare Recipiency, by Educational Attainment. Indicator of the Month.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One possible benefit of the availability of free or low cost education is reduced reliance on welfare and public assistance among those who attain higher levels of education. The extent to which people with more education rely less on welfare and public assistance is an indication of this benefit. In 1992, high school dropouts were three times…

National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

318

How does the welfare state influence individuals’ social capital?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current literature there is emerging consensus about a positive correlation between countries' welfare efforts and the social capital of their inhabitants: the larger the welfare state, the more social capital its inhabitants have. This paper pulls the discussion an important step further by asking what mechanisms can be responsible for this correlation. Based on theory and previous findings,

John P. T. M. Gelissen; Wim J. H. van Oorschot; Ellen Finsveen

2012-01-01

319

Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation  

E-print Network

1 ABSTRACT Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation Al-Jayousi, Ahmed, Effects of Globalization in Welfare: An Islamic Economic Evaluation, The Objective of this study, Distribution of wealth among people, Role of the state, Levels of education and health, Effects on ecology

320

Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

2008-10-01

321

Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas to examine the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients. Data come from a telephone survey of approximately 750 establishments. Results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients, although such demand appears fairly sensitive to business cycle…

Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.

322

Telemetry in the field: Practical refinements to improve animal welfare  

E-print Network

A2.27 Telemetry in the field: Practical refinements to improve animal welfare P. Hawkins, (RSPCA and animal welfare. The working group produced a report on refinements in telemetry procedures that sets out gui- dance notes to assist with preparing telemetry project proposals for review by regulators, ethics

323

Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

324

The welfare state: a glossary for public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a surge in comparative social epidemiology, and a sizeable amount of this has examined the relation between different aspects of the welfare state and population health. Such research draws strongly, though usually implicitly, on welfare state theories and concepts. In this glossary, we explicitly define these concepts in order to enable more researchers, practitioners and policy-makers

T. A. Eikemo; C. Bambra

2008-01-01

325

Cambodian Refugee Families in the Shadows of Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provisions in the 1996 Federal Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, commonly known as welfare reform, sought to limit refugees and other legal immigrants’ access to government services and assistance. Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act restored some benefits to those who arrived before the law was passed, little is known about how refugee families navigated the new welfare

Karen Quintiliani

2009-01-01

326

Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

2004-01-01

327

Implementing the Abstinence Education Provision of the Welfare Reform Legislation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…

Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto

328

Demystifying Welfare: Its Feminization and Its Effect on Stakeholders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Welfare is misunderstood, mystified, and feminized by many stakeholders (i.e. government, media, majoritarian culture, etc.). This text analysis will assess how well the text achieved the following: (1) articulate why the current U.S. welfare state is based upon myths or false assumptions, (2) analyze what these false assumptions mean for…

Hartlep, Nicholas D.

2008-01-01

329

Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

330

Improving social welfare chain using optimal planning model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to introduce the concept of social welfare chain and address the challenges in decision making through the development of an optimal planning model for a nongovernmental organization (NGO). The distinctive properties of the social welfare chain and its relationship with the humanitarian relief chain in the context of supply chain management are

Burcu Adivar; Tarik Atan; Bengü Sevil Oflaç; Tu?ba Örten

2010-01-01

331

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2012-10-01

332

Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

2014-01-01

333

Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

Walker, A; Wong, C K

1996-01-01

334

Work and Welfare Patterns in Low Income Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study's objective were: (1) to describe the patterns of work and welfare experience in low-income families and to explain their causes, and (2) to apply the findings to the policy problem of deciding which groups of welfare recipients should be required to work and provided with what mix of manpower services. The effectiveness of work…

Friedman, Barry L.; Hausman, Leonard J.

335

Public perceptions of animal pain and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim in this paper is to provide a review of current attitudes to animal welfare in general and, more specifically to pain in animals. In general, the Australian community considers animal welfare to be an important issue and this is associated with a willingness to engage in a range of community behaviours. Generally the community believes that animals should

Grahame Coleman

2007-01-01

336

Labour Management for Profit and Welfare in Extensive Sheep Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheep welfare is an emerging topic in research and food marketing, and recent studies suggest that farm labour is a key factor for both animal welfare and productivity in extensive sheep farming systems, although little research has been done into labour utilisation in these systems. This paper reports field data collection on two commercial farms and the use of a

Susanne Kirwan; Kenneth J. Thomson; Ian E. Edwards; Alistair W. Stott

2009-01-01

337

Community College Participation in Welfare Programs: Do State Policies Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that 80% of community colleges have implemented programs targeting welfare recipients. Examines policies affecting community college participation in welfare-to-work programs, and how, why, and to what extent community colleges are responding to these initiatives. Identifies qualities of some of the most successful programs. Includes five…

Melendez, Edwin; Falcon, Luis; Bivens, Josh

2003-01-01

338

Lessons from Community College Programs Targeting Welfare Recipients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many community colleges have pursued aggressive initiatives to serve students on welfare, creating new academic programs or expanding existing ones. This chapter highlights case studies of best practices that illustrate how institutional initiatives targeting welfare students have resulted in an expanded capacity to educate and serve mainstream…

Melendez, Edwin; Falcon, Luis M.; de Montrichard, Alexandra

2004-01-01

339

Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales  

E-print Network

Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute-mail: anna@math.huji.ac.il, anna@AK3141.spb.edu) Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare orderings subgroups scales, every corre- sponding social ordering is fully determined by the opinions of only one

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

340

Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales  

E-print Network

Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare functions for different scales of individual utility or independent. We show that for combinations of independent subgroup utility scales every corresponding social

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

341

Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

Robert J. Lemke; Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt; Robert Witt

2000-01-01

342

Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

Robert J. Lemke; Robert Witt; Ann Dryden Witte

2001-01-01

343

Welfare Effects of Minimum Wage and Other Government Policies  

E-print Network

government policies and market conditions when evaluating the effects of the minimum wage laws. As Freeman depend on the conditions of the labor market and the operation of the social welfare system, the sameWelfare Effects of Minimum Wage and Other Government Policies Amos Golan, Jeffrey M. Perloff

Perloff, Jeffrey M.

344

Seigniorage and the Welfare Cost of Inflation in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compute both seigniorage rate and welfare cost if inflation rate in Colombia using a Sidrausky -type model in which preferences are separable functions of the service flows of non-durable goods and money holdings. The set of the estimated parameters imply sizeable welfare cost of inflation and seigniorage rates. However, eventhough for low inflation rates seigniorage rate markedly increases with

Martha López

2000-01-01

345

Nonmetro Labor Markets in the Era of Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural job growth remains behind that of metro areas, hindering efforts to move welfare recipients into successful employment. Those most in need of public assistance have less education, lower earnings, and higher unemployment than average. Welfare recipients are concentrated in rural areas marked by chronic economic distress and low-skilled,…

Gibbs, Robert

2001-01-01

346

Sex chromosome aneuploidy and aging.  

PubMed

Loss of an X chromosome in females and of the Y chromosome in males are phenomena associated with aging. X chromosome loss occurs in and may be limited to PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. In males, the loss of the Y is most evident in bone marrow cells, but also occurs to a lesser extent in PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. X chromosome loss is associated with premature centromere division leading to anaphase lag and elimination in micronuclei. The mechanism of Y chromosome loss has not been elucidated. No pathological consequence of either X or Y chromosome loss has been convincingly demonstrated. With the advent of FISH technology, measurement of sex chromosome aneuploidy may prove to be a convenient assay for cellular senecence and aging. PMID:7565866

Stone, J F; Sandberg, A A

1995-10-01

347

RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

J. Steinhoff

1997-08-25

348

Construction of human chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been constructed by a method that performs all steps in agarose, allowing size selection by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the use of nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA. The DNA sources used were hybrid cell line WAV-17, containing chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome and flow-sorted chromosome 21. The transformation efficiency of ligation products was similar to that obtained in aqueous transformations and yielded YACs with sizes ranging from 100 kilobases (kb) to > 1 megabase when polyamines were included in the transformation procedure. Twenty-five YACs containing human DNA have been obtained from a mouse-human hybrid, ranging in size from 200 to > 1000 kb, with an average size of 410 kb. Ten of these YACs were localized to subregions of chromosome 21 by hybridization of RNA probes to a panel of somatic cell hybrid DNA. Twenty-one human YACs, ranging in size from 100 to 500 kb, with an average size of 150 kb, were obtained from {approx} 50 ng of flow-sorted chromosome 21 DNA. Three were localized to subregions of chromosome 21. YACs will aid the construction of a physical map of human chromosome 21 and the study of disorders associated with chromosome 21 such as Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.

McCormick, M.K.; Shero, J.H.; Hieter, P.A.; Antonarakis, S.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA)); Cheung, Meichi; Kan, Yuetwai (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1989-12-01

349

Automated Chromosome Breakage Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated karyotyping machine was built at JPL in 1972. It does computerized karyotyping, but it has some hardware limitations. The image processing hardware that was available at a reasonable price in 1972 was marginal, at best, for this job. In the meantime, NASA has developed an interest in longer term spaceflights and an interest in using chromosome breakage studies as a dosimeter for radiation or perhaps other damage that might occur to the tissues. This uses circulating lymphocytes as a physiological dosimeter looking for chromosome breakage on long-term spaceflights. For that reason, we have reactivated the automated karyotyping work at JPL. An update on that work, and a description of where it appears to be headed is presented.

Castleman, Kenneth

1985-01-01

350

Yeast artificial chromosome cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) cloning systems enable the cloning of DNA stretches of 50 to well over 2000 kb. This makes\\u000a it possible to study large intact regions of DNA in detail, by restriction mapping the YAC to produce a physical map and by\\u000a examining the YAC for coding sequences or genes. YACs are important for their ability to clone

Michele Ramsay

1994-01-01

351

Chromosome Dynamics in Meiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meiosis encompasses a large number of dynamic processes. Some of them are biochemical, such\\u000a as formation and repair of meiotic double-strand breaks, while others are physical in nature, such as homologous\\u000a chromosome segregation in anaphase I. Plants have been used as model species in meiosis studies for over\\u000a 80 years. However, the past decade brought a dramatic improvement in the understanding of

Arnaud Ronceret; Moira J. Sheehan; Wojciech P. Pawlowski

352

Chromosomal Breakpoints in Aborters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature survey has been conducted to estimate the incidence of breakpoints in aborters. Out of 9,012 cases that could be evaluated, about 4.0% had chromosomal abnormalities, which is significantly higher as compared to the normal population (1–0.5%). The structural anomalies were 7 times higher than numerical abnormalities. Thirty-seven percent of the rearrangements were in males while 63.0% were in

V. S. Venkatraj; R. S. Verma

1987-01-01

353

Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

2007-01-01

354

Children and Welfare Reform: High States, Low Coverage. Content Analysis on Welfare Reform Reporting. A Report by Children Now.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the way welfare reform is presented in the national news media can provide insight into which aspects of the reform news consumers consider important. This study used a content analysis to examine all stories about welfare reform in the national press from: (1) June through August 1996, during which time the federal legislation…

Heintz-Knowles, Katharine

355

Changing Work Ethic and Welfare Dependence through Welfare Reform: The 100-Hour Rule Waiver Experiment for AFDC-U.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested assumptions about welfare dependency and work by waiving a rule allowing primary wage-earners to work more than 100 hours a week without losing welfare eligibility. Results from an impact analysis that considered 3,591 experimental and control families indicate that the rule waiver had no effect on primary wage earners' work activity and…

Lewin, Alisa C.

2001-01-01

356

Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

357

Welfare Indignities: Homeless Women, Domestic Violence, and Welfare Reform in San Francisco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data collected during a 4 year ethnography, this paper examines how the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity\\u000a Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) has impacted homeless women in San Francisco who are also victims of domestic violence. Specifically\\u000a this paper looks at how the behavior of abusive men prevents homeless women from successfully navigating the new welfare-to-work\\u000a requirements and maintaining stable employment.

Anne R. Roschelle

2008-01-01

358

Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

359

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

360

Chromosomics: detection of numerical and structural alterations in all 24 human chromosomes simultaneously using a novel OctoChrome FISH assay.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique that allows specific DNA sequences to be detected on metaphase or interphase chromosomes in cell nuclei(1). The technique uses DNA probes with unique sequences that hybridize to whole chromosomes or specific chromosomal regions, and serves as a powerful adjunct to classic cytogenetics. For instance, many earlier studies reported the frequent detection of increased chromosome aberrations in leukemia patients related with benzene exposure, benzene-poisoning patients, and healthy workers exposed to benzene, using classic cytogenetic analysis(2). Using FISH, leukemia-specific chromosomal alterations have been observed to be elevated in apparently healthy workers exposed to benzene(3-6), indicating the critical roles of cytogentic changes in benzene-induced leukemogenesis. Generally, a single FISH assay examines only one or a few whole chromosomes or specific loci per slide, so multiple hybridizations need to be conducted on multiple slides to cover all of the human chromosomes. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) allows visualization of the whole genome simultaneously, but the requirement for special software and equipment limits its application(7). Here, we describe a novel FISH assay, OctoChrome-FISH, which can be applied for Chromosomics, which we define here as the simultaneous analysis of all 24 human chromosomes on one slide in human studies, such as chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS)(8). The basis of the method, marketed by Cytocell as the Chromoprobe Multiprobe System, is an OctoChrome device that is divided into 8 squares, each of which carries three different whole chromosome painting probes (Figure 1). Each of the three probes is directly labeled with a different colored fluorophore, green (FITC), red (Texas Red), and blue (Coumarin). The arrangement of chromosome combinations on the OctoChrome device has been designed to facilitate the identification of the non-random structural chromosome alterations (translocations) found in the most common leukemias and lymphomas, for instance t(9;22), t(15;17), t(8;21), t(14;18)(9). Moreover, numerical changes (aneuploidy) in chromosomes can be detected concurrently. The corresponding template slide is also divided into 8 squares onto which metaphase spreads are bound (Figure 2), and is positioned over the OctoChrome device. The probes and target DNA are denatured at high-temperature and hybridized in a humid chamber, and then all 24 human chromosomes can be visualized simultaneously. OctoChrome FISH is a promising technique for the clinical diagnosis of leukemia and lymphoma and for detection of aneuploidies in all chromosomes. We have applied this new Chromosomic approach in a CWAS study of benzene-exposed Chinese workers(8,10). PMID:22331009

Ji, Zhiying; Zhang, Luoping

2012-01-01

361

Defining, assessing and promoting the welfare of farmed fish.  

PubMed

As currently practised, the culture of fish for food potentially raises concerns about the welfare of farmed fish, and this is a topic that has received considerable attention. As vertebrates, fish share a number of features with the birds and mammals that are more commonly farmed, so many welfare principles derived from consideration of these groups may also be applied to fish. However, fish have a long, separate evolutionary history and are also adapted to a very different, aquatic environment. For these reasons, they have a number of special features that are relevant to how welfare is defined, assessed and promoted and these are discussed. The various methods that are available to researchers for identifying and assessing good and bad welfare in fish are considered, including assessment of physical health and physiological, behavioural and genomic status. The subset of practical welfare indicators that can be used on working farms is also reviewed. Various aspects of intensive aquaculture that can potentially compromise fish welfare are outlined, as are some strategies available for mitigating such adverse effects. Finally, the paper ends by looking briefly to the future, identifying likely changes in aquaculture practices and how these might affect the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:25000796

Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

2014-04-01

362

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women.  

PubMed

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women's education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E

2012-06-01

363

Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women  

PubMed Central

Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

364

Micromechanical studies of mitotic chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic chromosomes respond elastically to forces in the nanonewton range, a property important to transduction of stresses\\u000a used as mechanical regulatory signals during cell division. In addition to being important biologically, chromosome elasticity\\u000a can be used as a tool for investigating the folding of chromatin. This paper reviews experiments studying stretching and bending\\u000a stiffness of mitotic chromosomes, plus experiments where

John F. Marko

2008-01-01

365

Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

Klein, Rachel.

1999-01-01

366

Resolving chromosome segregation in bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial chromosomes are evenly distributed between daughter cells, however no equivalent eukaryotic mitotic apparatus has been identified yet. Nevertheless, an advance in our understanding of the dynamics of the bacterial chromosome has been accomplished in recent years by adopting fluorescence microscopy techniques to visualize living bacterial cells. Here, some of the most recent studies that yield new insights into the nature of bacterial chromosome dynamics are described. In addition, we review in detail the current models that attempt to illuminate the mechanism of chromosome segregation in bacteria and discuss the possibility that a bacterial mitotic apparatus does indeed exist. PMID:16983190

Hazan, Ronen; Ronen, Hazan; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal; Sigal, Ben-Yehuda

2006-01-01

367

Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia.  

PubMed

Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution. PMID:22086076

Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

2012-01-01

368

Chromothripsis: chromosomes in crisis.  

PubMed

During oncogenesis, cells acquire multiple genetic alterations that confer essential tumor-specific traits, including immortalization, escape from antimitogenic signaling, neovascularization, invasiveness, and metastatic potential. In most instances, these alterations are thought to arise incrementally over years, if not decades. However, recent progress in sequencing cancer genomes has begun to challenge this paradigm, because a radically different phenomenon, termed chromothripsis, has been suggested to cause complex intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements on short timescales. In this Review, we review established pathways crucial for genome integrity and discuss how their dysfunction could precipitate widespread chromosome breakage and rearrangement in the course of malignancy. PMID:23153487

Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

2012-11-13

369

Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia  

PubMed Central

Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution. PMID:22086076

Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

2012-01-01

370

Update on Chromosome Organization and Dynamics Chromosome Organization and Dynamics during  

E-print Network

Update on Chromosome Organization and Dynamics Chromosome Organization and Dynamics during* Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 Chromosomes are key building blocks of eukaryotic genomes. Studies on chromosome organization and dynamics not only address

Pawlowski, Wojtek

371

Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

Flammer, Larry

2013-01-01

372

Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation  

PubMed Central

Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X–autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Here, we report on the transcriptional down-regulation of genes within the unsynapsed region of the rearranged mouse chromosome 17, and on the subsequent disturbance of X chromosome inactivation. The partial transcriptional suppression of genes in the unsynapsed chromatin was most prominent prior to the mid-pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes. Later, during the mid-late pachytene, the rearranged autosomes colocalized with the XY body, and the X chromosome failed to undergo proper transcriptional silencing. Our findings provide direct evidence on the MSUC acting at the mRNA level, and implicate that autosomal asynapsis in meiosis may cause male sterility by interfering with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. PMID:17717048

Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

2007-01-01

373

Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation.  

PubMed

Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X-autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Here, we report on the transcriptional down-regulation of genes within the unsynapsed region of the rearranged mouse chromosome 17, and on the subsequent disturbance of X chromosome inactivation. The partial transcriptional suppression of genes in the unsynapsed chromatin was most prominent prior to the mid-pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes. Later, during the mid-late pachytene, the rearranged autosomes colocalized with the XY body, and the X chromosome failed to undergo proper transcriptional silencing. Our findings provide direct evidence on the MSUC acting at the mRNA level, and implicate that autosomal asynapsis in meiosis may cause male sterility by interfering with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. PMID:17717048

Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

2007-10-01

374

Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

375

Welfare Use Across Generations: How Important Are the Ties That Bind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined extent of intergenerational welfare use, strength of the association across generations, and reasons underlying such a dynamic, utilizing nationally representative data set of American households (n=13,017). Three-quarters of welfare recipients do not grow up in households that received welfare. Parent economic background, not welfare use…

Rank, Mark R.; Cheng, Li-Chen

1995-01-01

376

The State, Legal Rigor and the Poor: The Daily Practice of Welfare Control Social Analysis, forthcoming.  

E-print Network

1 The State, Legal Rigor and the Poor: The Daily Practice of Welfare Control Social Analysis on ethnographic fieldwork on the control of welfare recipients by public welfare agencies in France. I consider investigations conducted in the homes of welfare recipients as a form of bureaucratic interrogation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

DOCUMENTS DE TRAVAIL -WORKING PAPERS The Welfare Gains of Trade Integration in the  

E-print Network

implies welfare losses. Keywords: trade integration, ination di¤erentials, welfare analysis, optimalDOCUMENTS DE TRAVAIL - WORKING PAPERS W.P. 09-27 The Welfare Gains of Trade Integration UMR 5824 du CNRS halshs-00464213,version1-16Mar2010 #12;The Welfare Gains of Trade Integration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

HOW TO DELINEATE THE SOW'S WELFARE NEEDS M.R. BAXTER S.H. BAXTER  

E-print Network

than a systematic analysis of the biological, psychological or ethological basis of welfare). Analysis of welfare needs using the perform- ance concept An approach to the analysis of welfare needsHOW TO DELINEATE THE SOW'S WELFARE NEEDS M.R. BAXTER S.H. BAXTER The Scottish Farm Buildings

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

379

Remembering and Rethinking the Social Divisions of Welfare: 50 Years On  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits Titmuss's essay on the Social Divisions of Welfare (SDW) and reflects on its continuing relevance. Titmuss first presented the SDW in an Eleanor Rathbone Memorial lecture at Birmingham University in 1955 but it is best known from his Essays on the Welfare State published in 1958. Titmuss challenged the stereotype of 'welfare' as simply public welfare dependency

KIRK MANN

2009-01-01

380

Mental Health and Welfare Transitions: Depression and Alcohol Abuse in AFDC Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a selection perspective, does prior dysfunction select women into welfare or serve as a barrier to leaving welfare? From a social causation perspective, does entering or exiting welfare lead to changes in well being? These questions were analyzed in panel data for over 3,600 women drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for the period 1992–94. Welfare is

David Dooley; JoAnn Prause

2002-01-01

381

Phosphorylation of Chromosome Core Components May Serve as Axis Marks for the Status of Chromosomal  

E-print Network

Phosphorylation of Chromosome Core Components May Serve as Axis Marks for the Status of Chromosomal recombination and chromosome synapsis between homologous chromosomes are essential for proper chromosome that monitor these two events, take place in the context of a prophase I-specific axial chromosome structure

Nachman, Michael

382

Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space  

E-print Network

1 Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear:+972-3-6405384 Keywords: chromosomes organization, gene function, chromosome conformation, spatial;2 Functional gene groups are concentrated within chromosomes, among chromosomes and in the nuclear space

Shamir, Ron

383

20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations...developed in accordance with procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare...

2010-04-01

384

20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations...developed in accordance with procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare...

2012-04-01

385

The Complexity of Welfare Maximization in Congestion Games  

E-print Network

We investigate issues of complexity related to welfare maximization in congestion games. In particular, we provide a full classification of complexity results for the problem of finding a minimum cost solution to a congestion ...

Meyers, Carol A.

386

Maximising canine welfare in veterinary practice and research: a review.  

PubMed

This article looks at the existing evidence-base by which veterinary surgeons can make welfare-focused treatment choices. Narrative and structured reviews were conducted. Papers were categorised under headings based on (1) themes in the UK Animal Welfare Act (AWA 2006) - behaviour, environment, nutrition, company and health; (2) iatrogenic harm induced by treatment; (3) decision-making methods, and (4) the subjects' context (e.g. home versus laboratory). There is more information available about 'overt' problems (e.g. acute disease), than 'covert' issues (e.g. chronic pain, lack of company and obesity). Forty of 109 papers covered pain, suffering, injury and disease, compared to 69 across four other themes in the AWA. Twelve papers were identified as focusing on welfare assessment and clinical decision-making. Veterinary surgeons should consider each of the five welfare themes described in the AWA in both veterinary practice and in determining veterinary research priorities. PMID:22196830

Yeates, James W

2012-06-01

387

Child Welfare Information Gateway Children's Bureau/ACYF  

E-print Network

Child Welfare Information Gateway Children's Bureau/ACYF 1250 Maryland Avenue, SW Eighth Floor FOR PROFESSIONALS September 2012 Use your smartphone to access this bulletin onilne. Providing Postadoption Services

Oliver, Douglas L.

388

A Welfare Measure of "Offset Effects" in Health Insurance  

PubMed Central

Changing health insurance coverage for one service may affect use of other insured services. When improving coverage for one service reduces use of another, the savings are referred to as “offset effects.” For example, costs of better coverage for prescription drugs may be partly “offset” by reductions in hospital costs. Offset effects have welfare implications but it has not been clear how to value these impacts in design of health insurance. We show that plan-paid – rather than total -- spending is the right welfare measure of the offset effect, and go on to develop a “sufficient statistic” for evaluating the welfare effects of change in coverage in the presence of multiple goods. We derive a simple rule for when a coverage improvement increases welfare due to offset effects. PMID:22544983

Glazer, Jacob; McGuire, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

389

Safeguarding the welfare of farmed fish at harvest.  

PubMed

Fish welfare at harvest is easily compromised by poor choice of handling and slaughter methods, lack of attention to detail and by unnecessary adherence to fish farming traditions. The harvest process comprises fasting the fish to empty the gut, crowding the fish, gathering and moving the fish using brails, fish pumps, and sometimes also road or boat transport and finally stunning and killing the fish. The harvesting processes commonly used for bass, bream, carp, catfish, cod, eel, halibut, pangasius, salmon, tilapia, trout, tuna and turbot are outlined. These harvesting processes are discussed; the consequences for fish welfare identified and practical tests which can be made at the harvest site highlighted. Welfare at harvest for the majority of farmed fish species can be improved by adopting and adapting existing procedures already known to be beneficial for fish welfare through their use in other fish farming systems or with other species. It is seldom necessary to develop completely new concepts or methods. PMID:21989953

Lines, J A; Spence, J

2012-02-01

390

Welfare Analysis in a Cournot Game with a Public Good  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note develops a method of recovering individual preferences, and of obtaining money-metric individual welfare comparisons, from demand functions generated by Cournot-Nash equilibria in games with public goods.

Indraneel Dasgupta

391

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2013-10-01

392

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2011-10-01

393

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2012-10-01

394

48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following clause: Animal Welfare (DEC...shall register its research facility with...Office of the Animal and Plant Health...region in which its research facility is...subcontracts involving research of live vertebrate animals. (End of...

2010-10-01

395

Social Welfare in One-sided Matching Markets without Money  

E-print Network

We study social welfare in one-sided matching markets where the goal is to efficiently allocate n items to n agents that each have a complete, private preference list and a unit demand over the items. Our focus is on allocation mechanisms that do not involve any monetary payments. We consider two natural measures of social welfare: the ordinal welfare factor which measures the number of agents that are at least as happy as in some unknown, arbitrary benchmark allocation, and the linear welfare factor which assumes an agent's utility linearly decreases down his preference lists, and measures the total utility to that achieved by an optimal allocation. We analyze two matching mechanisms which have been extensively studied by economists. The first mechanism is the random serial dictatorship (RSD) where agents are ordered in accordance with a randomly chosen permutation, and are successively allocated their best choice among the unallocated items. The second mechanism is the probabilistic serial (PS) mechanism of...

Bhalgat, Anand; Khanna, Sanjeev

2011-01-01

396

Heterogeneous Risk Preferences and the Welfare Cost of Business Cycles  

PubMed Central

I study the welfare cost of business cycles in a complete-markets economy where some people are more risk averse than others. Relatively more risk-averse people buy insurance against aggregate risk, and relatively less risk-averse people sell insurance. These trades reduce the welfare cost of business cycles for everyone. Indeed, the least risk-averse people benefit from business cycles. Moreover, even infinitely risk-averse people suffer only finite and, in my empirical estimates, very small welfare losses. In other words, when there are complete insurance markets, aggregate fluctuations in consumption are essentially irrelevant not just for the average person – the surprising finding of Lucas (1987) – but for everyone in the economy, no matter how risk averse they are. If business cycles matter, it is because they affect productivity or interact with uninsured idiosyncratic risk, not because aggregate risk per se reduces welfare. PMID:21709768

Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam

2009-01-01

397

The Welfare Impact of Indirect Pigouvian Taxation: Evidence from Transportation  

E-print Network

The Welfare Impact of Indirect Pigouvian Taxation: Evidence from Transportation Christopher R and elasticities, the health benefits from a given gasoline tax increase by roughly 90 percent, compared to what

Rothman, Daniel

398

Making sense of child welfare when regulating human reproductive technologies.  

PubMed

Policy-makers have attempted to frame the ethical requirements that are relevant to the creation of human beings via reproductive technologies. Various reports and laws enacted in New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and Britain have introduced tests for how we should weigh child welfare when using these technologies. A number of bioethicists have argued that child welfare should be interpreted as a "best interests" test. Others have argued that there are ethical reasons why we should abandon this kind of test. I will argue that at least some of the relevant policy can be interpreted as requiring those wishing to exercise their procreative liberty to have a reasonable plan to care and nurture any resulting child, thereby respecting the internal preconditions of that liberty. This interpretation of child welfare requirements answers some of the ethical worries about a child welfare test. PMID:24357074

McMillan, John

2014-03-01

399

Campus Welfare Committee Advisory to: Provost/EVC  

E-print Network

, directions, objectives and priorities, develop mitigations, alternatives, and/or recommend courses of action Welfare Faye Crosby · One College Provost · One faculty "at large" · One staff member "at large" Janelle

California at Santa Cruz, University of

400

Tracking equipment on hire  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

Not Available

1985-06-01

401

Commiphora molmol in human welfare (review article).  

PubMed

The origins of myrrh and frankincense are traced to the Arabian Peninsula. According to Herodotus (5th century BC): "Arabia is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia and cinnamon ... the trees bearing the frankincense are guarded by winged serpents of small size and various colors." Diodorus Siculus writes, in the second half of the first century BC, that "all of Arabia exudes a most delicate fragrance; even the seamen passing by Arabia can smell the strong fragrance that gives health and vigor." He also mentioned gold mines so pure that no smelting was necessary. The Magi, carrying myrrh, frankincense, and gold, came from the East: Arabia. The frankincense trade route, with transport by donkeys and later by camel caravans, reached Jerusalem and Egypt from the Dhofar region of what is today Oman, through Yemen, turning north to follow the Red Sea coast. It is likely that the same or similar species of the resin-bearing plants grew across the Red Sea in the area that is now Somalia and Ethiopia, while the collection of the gum resins was initiated in Arabia. Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. This review selected some but not all of the value application of myrrh (Commiphora molmol). PMID:17985580

Al-Mathal, Ebtsam M

2007-08-01

402

SUBCHAPTER A--ANIMAL WELFARE PART 1--DEFINITION OF TERMS  

E-print Network

­544), (commonly known as the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act), as amended by the Act of December 24, 1970 (Pub. L7 SUBCHAPTER A--ANIMAL WELFARE PART 1--DEFINITION OF TERMS AUTHORITY: 7 U.S.C. 2131­2159; 7 CFR 2. 91­579), (the Animal Wel- fare Act of 1970), the Act of April 22, 1976 (Pub. L. 94­279), (the Animal

Wood, Stephen L.

403

Whose Job Is It? Employers' Views on Welfare Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes selected results from qualitative telephone interviews with 130 Minnesota employers who participated in local welfare-to-work partnerships with social service agencies and other community members. Differences among rural and urban\\/suburban employers are examined and comparsions are explored between welfare participants and employer views on service needs and barriers to self-sufficiency. Very few differences emerged between urban\\/suburban and rural

Greg Owen; Ellen Shelton; Amy Bush Stevens; Justine Nelson-Christinedaughter; Corinna Roy; June Heineman

2000-01-01

404

Welfare of the Racehorse During Exercise Training and Racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of horses in training for racing and competition can be compromised by errors of management of many processes.\\u000a Lameness is usually identified, as the major problem facing horse trainers and high lameness rates in racehorses is a major\\u000a welfare concern. Recent epidemiological studies have shed light on important environmental risk factors for lameness and catastrophic\\u000a incidents during training

D. L. Evans

405

Contractual restrictions on insider trading: a welfare analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   This paper analyzes the welfare effects of permitting firms to negotiate contractually the right to allow corporate insiders\\u000a to trade shares in the firm on private information. A computational framework is employed to (i) analyze formally the effects\\u000a of insider trading on managerial investment choice, the informational efficiency of stock prices, and the welfare of all investor\\u000a types; and

Antonio E. Bernardo

2001-01-01

406

Free-Trade Areas and Welfare: An Equilibrium Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the welfare effects of the formation of a free-trade area (a set of countries which abolish tariffs among member countries but let individual countries to set external tariffs). If a representative consumer has love-of-variety preferences, the welfare function exhibits supermodularity in external tariffs: when a country is constrained to charge lower tariffs on imports of some countries

Sang-Seung Yi

1997-01-01

407

Child labor: a forgotten focus for child welfare.  

PubMed

Child labor is driven by child and family impoverishment, market forces, and political apathy concerning the rights of the child. Although a fundamental concern of the early 20th century child welfare system, today child labor is often seen as outside the scope of child welfare and child protective services. Making child labor a focus of child advocacy activity once again could do much to better the lives of children. PMID:11678418

Otis, J; Pasztor, E M; McFadden, E J

2001-01-01

408

Child care subsidies and the employment of welfare recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changing patterns of maternal employment, coupled with stronger work requirements for welfare recipients, are increasing the\\u000a demand for child care. For many families, the cost of child care creates a financial burden; for mothers with low incomes\\u000a and those who are former welfare recipients, these costs may be an insurmountable barrier to employment or economic self-sufficiency.\\u000a Despite increased public spending

Marcia K. Meyers; Theresa Heintze; Douglas A. Wolf

2002-01-01

409

Genetics Home Reference: Ring chromosome 14 syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Registry Genetic testing PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Ring chromosome 14 syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2009 What is ring chromosome 14 syndrome? Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a ...

410

Genetics Home Reference: Isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... patients and families PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed September 2012 What is isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome? Isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome is a ...

411

Genetics Home Reference: Ring chromosome 20 syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... gov Research studies PubMed Recent literature Conditions > Ring chromosome 20 syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2009 What is ring chromosome 20 syndrome? Ring chromosome 20 syndrome is a ...

412

Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes  

E-print Network

Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

Bellott, Daniel W.

413

Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Y chromosome infertility On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... Glossary definitions Reviewed January 2009 What is Y chromosome infertility? Y chromosome infertility is a condition that ...

414

Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture  

SciTech Connect

Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

Haering, Christian H., E-mail: christian.haering@embl.de [Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.jessberger@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

2012-07-15

415

Resolving Chromosome Segregation in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial chromosomes are evenly distributed between daughter cells, however no equivalent eukaryotic mitotic apparatus has been identified yet. Nevertheless, an advance in our understanding of the dynamics of the bacterial chromosome has been accomplished in recent years by adopting fluorescence microscopy techniques to visualize living bacterial cells. Here, some of the most recent studies that yield new insights into the

Ronen Hazan; Sigal Ben-Yehuda

2006-01-01

416

Chromosome Numbers of Cerastium Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE chromosomes of four species of Cerastium, namely, C. vulgatum, C. alpinum (including C. alpinum lanatum), C. arvense and C. perfoliatum, have been counted from root-tips of young seedlings. I give here a list of chromosome counts made by previous workers, none of which is of British material, together with my own counts.

O. E. Brett

1950-01-01

417

Organization of the bacterial chromosome.  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in studies on the bacterial chromosome is summarized. Although the greatest amount of information comes from studies on Escherichia coli, reports on studies of many other bacteria are also included. A compilation of the sizes of chromosomal DNAs as determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis is given, as well as a discussion of factors that affect gene dosage, including redundancy of chromosomes on the one hand and inactivation of chromosomes on the other hand. The distinction between a large plasmid and a second chromosome is discussed. Recent information on repeated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements is presented. The growing understanding of limitations on the rearrangements that can be tolerated by bacteria and those that cannot is summarized, and the sensitive region flanking the terminator loci is described. Sources and types of genetic variation in bacteria are listed, from simple single nucleotide mutations to intragenic and intergenic recombinations. A model depicting the dynamics of the evolution and genetic activity of the bacterial chromosome is described which entails acquisition by recombination of clonal segments within the chromosome. The model is consistent with the existence of only a few genetic types of E. coli worldwide. Finally, there is a summary of recent reports on lateral genetic exchange across great taxonomic distances, yet another source of genetic variation and innovation. PMID:2087223

Krawiec, S; Riley, M

1990-01-01

418

Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosome number  

E-print Network

Lecture 5 Mitosis and Meiosis #12;Chromosome number Early improvements in our ability to look look at normal chromosomes as they go through mitosis and meiosis #12; Mitosis The biologic function is to produce 2 identical cells Mitotic cell cycle #12;#12;Mitosis #12;Difference between a cell entering

Dellaire, Graham

419

Sex chromosomes and their abnormalities  

E-print Network

to the age of the mother #12;Jacobs syndrome XYY Apparently normal phenotype with possibly increased height is indicated in such patients #12;Sex chromosome anuploidies #12;Klinefelter Syndrome XXY Underdeveloped 2 Barr bodies 1/1000 female births #12;Turner Syndrome XO Missing X chromosome Sexually

Dellaire, Graham

420

Advances in plant chromosome genomics.  

PubMed

Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing genomics and is providing novel insights into genome organization, evolution and function. The number of plant genomes targeted for sequencing is rising. For the moment, however, the acquisition of full genome sequences in large genome species remains difficult, largely because the short reads produced by NGS platforms are inadequate to cope with repeat-rich DNA, which forms a large part of these genomes. The problem of sequence redundancy is compounded in polyploids, which dominate the plant kingdom. An approach to overcoming some of these difficulties is to reduce the full nuclear genome to its individual chromosomes using flow-sorting. The DNA acquired in this way has proven to be suitable for many applications, including PCR-based physical mapping, in situ hybridization, forming DNA arrays, the development of DNA markers, the construction of BAC libraries and positional cloning. Coupling chromosome sorting with NGS offers opportunities for the study of genome organization at the single chromosomal level, for comparative analyses between related species and for the validation of whole genome assemblies. Apart from the primary aim of reducing the complexity of the template, taking a chromosome-based approach enables independent teams to work in parallel, each tasked with the analysis of a different chromosome(s). Given that the number of plant species tractable for chromosome sorting is increasing, the likelihood is that chromosome genomics - the marriage of cytology and genomics - will make a significant contribution to the field of plant genetics. PMID:24406816

Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Simková, Hana

2014-01-01

421

Consumers and animal welfare. A comparison between European Union countries.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the impact of a priori identified determinants on stated willingness to change usual place of shopping in order to be able to buy more animal welfare friendly food products of consumers in nine European Union countries. We used Eurobarometer data and structural equation models with observed and latent variables. The results show that the ranking of determinants' impact on the behavioural willingness is similar in the majority of models, with access to information as the strongest determinant, followed by perceived responsibility of consumers and education with strong influence, then by labelling and occupation with lower impact and ending with children, with the lowest influence. This study aims to provide some evidence on the relationship between welfare friendly behavioural willingness and information and labelling issues, amongst other determinants, in the European Union. As both access to information and perception of welfare labelling were found to significantly influence the behavioural willingness, this might suggest the need for the European Union to invest more in improving the welfare labelling system, enhance the welfare information available to the public and improve access to it through measures such as welfare education campaigns. PMID:22127269

Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

2012-04-01

422

The Health of Poor Women Under Welfare Reform  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the health of single mothers affected by welfare reform with the health of a nationally representative sample of women to document the prevalence of poor health as single mothers experience the effects of welfare reform. Methods. We compared risk factors and measures of health among women randomly sampled from the welfare rolls with similar data from a nationally representative sample of women. Results. Women in our welfare recipient sample had higher rates of elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (? 6%; prevalence ratio [PR]=4.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.69, 7.04), hypertension (systole ? 140 or diastole ? 90; PR=2.36; 95% CI = 1.47, 3.24), high body mass index ( ? 30; PR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.49, 2.08), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (? 35 mg/dL; PR=1.91; 95% CI=1.17, 2.65); lower peak expiratory flow; and less physical functioning. Current smoking rates were higher (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.50, 2.19) and smoking cessation rates were lower (PR=0.62; 95% CI=0.37, 0.86) than in the national sample. Conclusions. Current and former welfare recipients bear a substantial burden of illness. Further studies are necessary to interpret our findings of worsened health in the wake of welfare reform. PMID:15983277

Kaplan, George A.; Siefert, Kristine; Ranjit, Nalini; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Young, Elizabeth A.; Tran, Diem; Danziger, Sandra; Hudson, Susan; Lynch, John W.; Tolman, Richard

2005-01-01

423

Screening for Domestic Violence in Public Welfare Offices  

PubMed Central

Despite a high prevalence of domestic violence among welfare clients, most studies of the implementation of the Family Violence Option (FVO) under welfare reform find that women rarely receive domestic violence services in welfare offices. This study reviews findings from current research on the factors that improve the likelihood that women will reveal their domestic violence experiences to service personnel, and uses the guidelines drawn from this review to evaluate domestic violence screening practices in welfare offices using 782 transcribed interviews between welfare workers and clients from 11 sites in four states. The analysis found that only 9.3% of case encounters involved screening for domestic violence. Screening rates differed by state, interview type, and length of worker employment. Qualitative analysis of the interviews showed that the majority of screening by workers was routinized or consisted of informing clients of the domestic violence policy without asking about abuse. Only 1.2% of the interviews incorporated at least two of the procedures that increase the likelihood of disclosure among domestic violence survivors, suggesting deeply inadequate approaches to screening for abuse within the context of welfare offices, and a need for improved training, protocol, and monitoring of FVO implementation. PMID:18096857

Lindhorst, Taryn; Meyers, Marcia; Casey, Erin

2008-01-01

424

Chromosome Choreography: The Meiotic Ballet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a review of the current understanding as well as unanswered questions in the study of meiosis. The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

Scott Page (Stowers Institute for Medical Research;); R. Scott Hawley (Stowers Institute for Medical Research;)

2003-08-08

425

Implementing Welfare-to-Work Services: A Study of Staff Decision-Making  

E-print Network

). Recent changes in California welfare and work, child care, and child welfare systems. (State Update No. 11). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Morgen, S. (2001). The agency of welfare workers: Negotiating devolution, privatization, and the meaning... and fell while playing at the child care provider's apartment. Michelle A. Johnson, MSW, is a doctoral student, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. Julian Chun-Chung Chow, PhD, is associate professor, School of Social Welfare...

Johnson, Michelle A.; Chow, Julian Chun-Chung; Ketch, Virginia; Austin, M. J.

2006-01-01

426

Chromosome preparation from cultured cells.  

PubMed

Chromosome (cytogenetic) analysis is widely used for the detection of chromosome instability. When followed by G-banding and molecular techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), this assay has the powerful ability to analyze individual cells for aberrations that involve gains or losses of portions of the genome and rearrangements involving one or more chromosomes. In humans, chromosome abnormalities occur in approximately 1 per 160 live births(1,2), 60-80% of all miscarriages(3,4), 10% of stillbirths(2,5), 13% of individuals with congenital heart disease(6), 3-6% of infertility cases(2), and in many patients with developmental delay and birth defects(7). Cytogenetic analysis of malignancy is routinely used by researchers and clinicians, as observations of clonal chromosomal abnormalities have been shown to have both diagnostic and prognostic significance(8,9). Chromosome isolation is invaluable for gene therapy and stem cell research of organisms including nonhuman primates and rodents(10-13). Chromosomes can be isolated from cells of live tissues, including blood lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, amniocytes, placenta, bone marrow, and tumor specimens. Chromosomes are analyzed at the metaphase stage of mitosis, when they are most condensed and therefore more clearly visible. The first step of the chromosome isolation technique involves the disruption of the spindle fibers by incubation with Colcemid, to prevent the cells from proceeding to the subsequent anaphase stage. The cells are then treated with a hypotonic solution and preserved in their swollen state with Carnoy's fixative. The cells are then dropped on to slides and can then be utilized for a variety of procedures. G-banding involves trypsin treatment followed by staining with Giemsa to create characteristic light and dark bands. The same procedure to isolate chromosomes can be used for the preparation of cells for procedures such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and spectral karyotyping (SKY)(14,15). PMID:24513647

Howe, Bradley; Umrigar, Ayesha; Tsien, Fern

2014-01-01

427

Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions  

SciTech Connect

Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

428

Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool  

PubMed Central

During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate ‘trimming’ of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry. Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic. This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example. PMID:22738170

2012-01-01

429

Effects of welfare reform on teenage parents and their children.  

PubMed

A key question in welfare policy concerns the potential that welfare-to-work programs have to develop in teenage parents the motivation and skills to provide financially for themselves and their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was a major experiment initiated in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and evaluated by Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to test the impact of a welfare-to-work program for teenage parents which anticipated many features of the federal Job Opportunities and Basic Skills training program later established in the Family Support Act of 1988. Teenage mothers entering the welfare system were randomly assigned to a regular services group or to an enhanced services group. Teen mothers in the enhanced services group faced mandatory school and work requirements enforced by financial sanctions and received support services such as case management, parenting workshops, child care assistance, and education and training opportunities. This article reviews the policy context in which the Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration was designed and implemented, and describes how participation in the enhanced services group affected the teen mothers as adults and as parents. Results showed that, for the reasonable aggregate annual cost of $2,400 per participant, the program increased the 'teenagers' attendance at school and job training programs, and modestly increased the proportion who were employed to 48%, compared with 43% among those receiving regular welfare services. As the participants' earnings from employment increased, their welfare grants shrank. Because these changes offset each other, the program did not improve the economic well-being of the families, although fewer tax dollars were needed to support them. The program did not discourage further childbearing, however, or affect either the parenting behavior of the young women or the development of their children, although the mothers who were most engaged in self-sufficiency activities were more positive and supportive when playing with their children. The Teenage Parent Welfare Demonstration experience revealed that the problems faced by teenage parents vary widely, making tailored services necessary. The evaluation results suggest that supportive, mandatory welfare-to-work interventions need not harm parents or their children in the short term, and that their modest positive effects on the financial independence of the teenage mothers may yield long-term rewards. PMID:8528688

Aber, J L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Maynard, R A

1995-01-01

430

Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates  

SciTech Connect

Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

2012-07-15

431

Public Welfare Agenda or Corporate Research Agenda?  

PubMed Central

As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict. There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests. Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers. Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research. It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to be resisted at all costs. In this even pliant researchers need have no fear, for if they indeed publish what will work, the concerned sponsor will benefit in the long run. The only decision academia has to make is refuse to comply with predestined conclusions of sponsors for the ‘thirty pieces of silver’. Instead do genuine research and make sixty for themselves. The useful rule of thumb is: Keep the critical antenna on, especially with regard to drug trials, and more especially their methodology, and study closely the conflict of interest disclosed, and if possible undisclosed, before you jump on the band wagon to herald the next great wonder drug. There are three important lessons to be learnt by academia in all academia-industry relationships: i)Lesson number one: incorporate the right to publish contrary findings in the research contract itself. Which means, it makes great sense for academia to concentrate on the language and contractual provisions of sponsored research, to read the fine print very closely, and protect their research interests in case of conflict.ii)Lesson number two: a number of lawsuits successfully brought up against industry recently reflect earnest attempts by patient welfare bodies and others to remedy the tilt. It will result in a newfound confidence in academia that augurs well for academia industry relationship in the long run. Hence the second lesson for academia: do not get browbeaten by threats of legal actioniii)Lesson number three: Academia should keep itself involved right from inception of the clinical trial through to ultimate publication. And this must be an integral part of the written contract. The time to repeat cliches about the exciting future of the academia-industry connect is past. A concerted effort to lay a strong foundation of the relationship on practical ethical grounds has become mandatory. PMID:22679348

Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

2005-01-01

432

International migration and welfare states: Is increased cross-border mobility a major challenge to redistributive welfare states, and if so, how would we know?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the basis for claiming that international migration is diminishing the sustainability of redistributive welfare states. Immigration might potentially lessen pressures related to demographic ageing and the funding of future pensions in these welfare states. The paper addresses different accounts of why this kind of mutually beneficial relationship between immigration and welfare state sustainability appears to be difficult

Bjørn Hvinden

433

How Effective Are Different Welfare-to-Work Approaches? Five-Year Adult and Child Impacts for Eleven Programs. National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 5-year impacts of mandatory welfare-to-work programs on welfare recipients and their children were examined by using a rigorous research design called a social experiment to examine 11 welfare-to-work programs in 6 states (California, Georgia, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Oregon). Four employment-focused and seven education-focused programs…

Hamilton, Gayle; Freedman, Stephen; et al.

434

Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences  

DOEpatents

A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

435

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11

436

Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.  

PubMed

Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities. PMID:25000778

Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

2014-04-01

437

Equipment Management Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

1992-01-01

438

Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones  

SciTech Connect

Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span >100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total [approximately]6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. 48 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Tassone, F. (Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States) A. Gemelli School of Medicine, Rome (Italy)); Cheng, S.; Gardiner, K. (Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States))

1992-12-01

439

Integrative selection of human chromosome-specific yeast artificial chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Human specific integrative selection vectors (ISVs) were designed to optimize integration of a yeast-selectable marker specifically into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) derived from human but not mouse DNA. ISVs were transformed into a YAC genomic library constructed from DNA of a human-mouse somatic cell hybrid containing chromosome 21 (HSA21) as the only human chromosome. One percent of the yeast in the original library contained HSA21-derived YACs; between 45% and 54% of the yeast recovered after transformation with ISV vectors contained human YACs. Integrative selection provides a rapid means of obtaining a highly enriched population of human chromosome-specific YACs by eliminating the labor-intensive steps of isolating and screening primary transformants. The procedure is biased toward the selection of YACs that contain a large number of targets for homologous recombination; thus, libraries constructed by this procedure will be composed primarily of the largest YACs in the population.

Pavan, W.J.; Reeves, R.G. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

1991-09-01

440

Repetitive telomeric sequences in chromosomal translocations involving chromosome 21  

SciTech Connect

Telomeres perform key functions in maintaining chromosome integrity. In some structural rearrangements the structure and polymorphism in human telomeres may play a significant role. However, of all the telomeric and subtelomeric sequences, only the terminal TTAGGG repeats are believed essential for telomere function. During the course of a study on the role of telomere structure and polymorphism in chromosomal rearrangements observed in families referred for prenatal diagnosis, we studied three cases in which chromosome 21 was involved. Repetitive TTAGGG sequences for all human chromosomes were used as probes (Oncor). Case 1, a de novo cryptic translocation (2;21) was initially identified as monosomy 21 in a child with psychomotor delay and mild dysmorphism. Using a cosmid probe specific for region 21q22.3 and whole chromosome 21 specific painting probe, the long arm of 21 was found on the short arm of chromosome 2 with an interstitial telomere at the breakpoint junction. All the cells were monosomic for 21pter{yields}q21. Case 2 is a familial (19;21) translocation. GTG-banding and FISH with a satellite probe showed no apparent loss of material at the end of either 19q or 21q, with an interstitial telomere at the fusion site of the two intact chromosomes. In case 3, a four generation reciprocal (20;21) translocation, there was no interstitial telomere. The persistence of an interstitial telomere is a relatively rare event which can now be observed with in situ hybridization. Its study may lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of translocations and of chromosome imbalance.

Qu, J.; Dallaire, L.; Fetni, R. [Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

1994-09-01

441

Automatic intelligibility test equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes an Automatic Intelligibility Test equipment (AITE) which automatically measures the word intelligibility of a digital voice communication link. The system consists of a Nova 820 mini computer, AID converter, teletype unit (ASR-33), tape recorder, high speed paper tape reader and punch set, and the phoneme test sequence. The phoneme test sequence is recorded on audio tape which

D. J. Jurenko

1974-01-01

442

The EQUIP Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who present anti-social behavior need powerful interventions that strengthen empathy, counter negative peer influence, and challenge thinking errors. This article recaps some key points about EQUIP, a Positive Peer Culture (PPC)-based cognitive behavioral intervention program for behaviorally at-risk youth, and notes how the program has…

Gibbs, John C.; Potter, Granville Bud; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Devlin, Renee

2008-01-01

443

Lennox - Student Training Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

444

Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

445

Homemade Innovative Play Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sponsored by the Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act Project "Discovery Outdoor Education", this guide is a collection of inexpensive, innovative, homemade equipment and devices for physical activities. Although designed for the impaired, disabled, and handicapped, these materials are adaptable to and applicable for groups and…

Pearson, L. Roger, Comp.

446

Engineer Equipment Chief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

447

Fire protection equipment includes  

E-print Network

The purpose of these requirements is to ensure the adequate provision and operability of fire protection equipment. They cover design and construction review, maintenance, and inspection. They apply to workers and supervisors, building and area managers, the SLAC fire marshal, Fire Department, and Facilities Department.

unknown authors

448

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

449

Total equipment parts configuration  

SciTech Connect

Florida Power Lights's (FP L's) Turkey Point units were built prior to the establishment of American Society of Mechanical Engineers' Sec. III requirements. Since that time, FP L has voluntarily committed to procuring some spare and replacement parts in compliance with the ordering requirements of ASME Sec. III. New subsystems were designed according to ASME Sec. III requirements. In 1978, 10CFR21 of the Code of Federal Regulations was federally mandated. Environmental qualification concerns and the Three Mile Island incident further complicated the stocking and ordering of spare and replacement parts. Turkey Point assembled a team of quality assurance, quality control, and engineering people and obtained permission to directly access the store department computer so that catalog descriptions could be quickly made available for use by the plant. The total equipment parts configuration (TEPC) system was designed and developed under the direction of the procurement document review team at the Turkey Point nuclear plant. The system is a network of related computer data bases that identifies the equipment at the plant. The equipment (or components that make up a piece of equipment) is identified by a tag/component code system. Each component is further broken down by the manufacturer's parts list or bill of material. A description of the data available to the user, the ways these data can be accessed and displayed, and a description of the data bases and their relation to each other are summarized in this paper.

Ferrare, J.; Panzani, F.

1989-01-01

450

Getting beyond the welfare of the child in assisted reproduction.  

PubMed

The welfare of the child is the prevailing principle and concern regarding access to assisted reproduction in Western countries today, and there is a wish to avoid harm to future children. New research fields have developed in order to provide scientific evidence on the welfare of children living with different "types" of parents. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) seems to be heading in a responsible direction where the care and concern for future children is vital. However, the claim of this article is that the principle of the welfare of the child confuses the ethical framing of ART. Several philosophers in the past have argued that potential people must be regarded as outside the moral domain, and therefore cannot be harmed or benefitted. This message has not reached the policymakers, probably because the welfare of the child principle seems to fit so elegantly with common sense. In this article a different ethical framing of ART is proposed. The author argues that "futile care" and not "the welfare of the child" should be the guiding principle for eventually rejecting access to ART. The desired goal of ART treatment should be understood to be the production of functional families. Assisted reproduction is primarily about us, actual people in an actual society, and how potential children may affect us. PMID:19482982

Solberg, B

2009-06-01

451

The Animal Welfare Act: from enactment to enforcement.  

PubMed

Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the 'Age of Enforcement.' As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection. PMID:22776186

Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

2012-05-01

452

Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?  

PubMed

Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden. PMID:11155559

Bergmark, A

2000-01-01

453

Attitudes of Australian and Turkish veterinary faculty toward animal welfare.  

PubMed

The attitudes of veterinary faculty toward animal welfare were surveyed in four Australian and three Turkish veterinary schools. The former were considered to be typical of modern Western schools, with a faculty of more than 40% women and a primary focus on companion animals, whereas the latter were considered to represent more traditional veterinary teaching establishments, with a faculty of 88% men and a primary focus on livestock. A total of 116 faculty responded to the survey (42 Australian and 74 Turkish faculty members), for response rates of 30% and 33%, respectively. This survey included demographic questions as well as questions about attitudes toward animal-welfare issues. Women were more concerned than men about animal-welfare issues, especially the use of animals in experiments, zoos, entertainment, and sports and for food and clothing. Total scores demonstrated different concerns among Turkish and Australian faculty. The study demonstrates that the veterinary faculty of these two countries have different concerns for animal welfare, concerns that should be acknowledged in considering the welfare attitudes that students may adopt. PMID:22718008

Izmirli, Serdar; Phillips, Clive J C

2012-01-01

454

Multi-Chromosomal Genetic Programming Rachel Cavill  

E-print Network

Multi-Chromosomal Genetic Programming Rachel Cavill University of York York,UK rc145@ohm@ohm.york.ac.uk ABSTRACT This paper introduces an evolutionary algorithm which uses multiple chromosomes to evolve of multiple chromosomes in natural evo- lution, particularly in plants. A multi-chromosomal sys- tem usually

Fernandez, Thomas

455

Methods for chromosome-specific staining  

DOEpatents

Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

1995-01-01

456

The chromosomes of some lower chordates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomes of three species of lower chordates were examined using a squash technique on small pieces of testis. Ciona intestinalis, a tunicate of the order Enterogona, has fourteen pairs of minute chromosomes. Styela plicata, a tunicate of the order Pleurogona, has sixteen pairs of chromosomes whose total size is approximately twice that of the Ciona chromosomes and about 10%

Kenneth M. Taylor

1967-01-01

457

Banding patterns in rat chromosomes (Rattus norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of the Giemsa staining technique described previously, characteristic banding patterns can be made visible in rat chromosomes. All elements of the karyotype can be distinguished. At the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, striking dark spots can be detected. However, these dark regions are much less prominent than in mouse chromosomes. The X chromosome of Rattus norvegicus comprises 5.31%

W. Schnedl; M. Schnedl

1972-01-01

458

Chromosome arrangement within a bacterium  

E-print Network

Background: The contour length of the circular chromosome of bacteria is greater than a millimeter but must be accommodated within a cell that is only a few micrometers in length. Bacteria do not have nucleosomes and little ...

Teleman, Aurelio A.

459

Retrotransposons that maintain chromosome ends  

E-print Network

Reverse transcriptases have shaped genomes in many ways. A remarkable example of this shaping is found on telomeres of the genus Drosophila, where retrotransposons have a vital role in chromosome structure. Drosophila lacks ...

Pardue, Mary-Lou

460

Original article Chromosomal inversion polymorphism  

E-print Network

destruction of older forested areas by lavas on the currently growing shield volcanoes requires such a species silvestris from the volcano Mauna Kea, Island of Hawaii are distributed over 4 of the 5 major chromosome arms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

461

Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2007-01-01

462

Fitting of protective football equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As no other guide was found to illustrate and describe protec tive equipment and its fitting, we have prepared this treatise. Properly fitted protective equipment for football is a must to prevent injury from occurring. Many injuries result from im properly fitted equipment. The helmet and shoulder pads are the most important pieces of equipment that require proper fit. Adequate

Joe Gieck; Frank C. McCue

1980-01-01

463

PLANT SCIENCES: Promiscuous Maize Chromosomes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The intricate chromosome dance that characterizes meiotic cell division involves careful coordination of chromosome pairing, recombination, and synapsis. In their Perspective, Martinez-Perez and Moore discuss new work that identifies the PHS1 protein in maize as being a key player in the coordination of these three events (Pawlowski et al.).

Enrique Martinez-Perez (Stanford University;Department of Developmental Biology); Graham Moore (John Innes Centre;)

2004-01-02

464

Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

465

Chromosome Distribution Errors in chromosome distribution can result in cells containing too  

E-print Network

Chromosome Distribution · Errors in chromosome distribution can result in cells containing too many or too few chromosomes. · For example, Down's syndrome results from an extra chromosome 23. Most of the time an incorrect chromosome number leads to embryonic death, accounting for 40% of spontaneous

Massey, Thomas N.

466

Chromosome Mutations Chromosomes in a Number of Different Ways Including Changes to  

E-print Network

Chromosome Mutations Chromosomes in a Number of Different Ways Including Changes to the Total Number, Deletion or Duplication of Segments, Rearrangements within or Between Chromosomes These Collectively are Chromosome Mutations or . Small Changes to Chromosomes May , Large Changes May be Lethal

Cutler, Chris

467

Telomeres, chromosome instability and cancer  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are composed of repetitive G-rich sequence and an abundance of associated proteins that together form a dynamic cap that protects chromosome ends and allows them to be distinguished from deleterious DSBs. Telomere-associated proteins also function to regulate telomerase, the ribonucleoprtotein responsible for addition of the species-specific terminal repeat sequence. Loss of telomere function is an important mechanism for the chromosome instability commonly found in cancer. Dysfunctional telomeres can result either from alterations in the telomere-associated proteins required for end-capping function, or from alterations that promote the gradual or sudden loss of sufficient repeat sequence necessary to maintain proper telomere structure. Regardless of the mechanism, loss of telomere function can result in sister chromatid fusion and prolonged breakage/fusion/bridge (B/F/B) cycles, leading to extensive DNA amplification and large terminal deletions. B/F/B cycles terminate primarily when the unstable chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the ends of other chromosomes, thereby providing a mechanism for transfer of instability from one chromosome to another. Thus, the loss of a single telomere can result in on-going instability, affect multiple chromosomes, and generate many of the types of rearrangements commonly associated with human cancer. PMID:16682448

Bailey, Susan M.; Murnane, John P.

2006-01-01

468

Mechanisms of oncogenic chromosomal translocations.  

PubMed

Chromosome translocations are caused by inappropriate religation of two DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in heterologous chromosomes. These DSBs can be generated by endogenous or exogenous sources. Endogenous sources of DSBs leading to translocations include inappropriate recombination activating gene (RAG) or activation-induced deaminase (AID) activity during immune receptor maturation. Endogenous DSBs can also occur at noncanonical DNA structures or at collapsed replication forks. Exogenous sources of DSBs leading to translocations include ionizing radiation (IR) and cancer chemotherapy. Spatial proximity of the heterologous chromosomes is also important for translocations. While three distinct pathways for DNA DSB repair exist, mounting evidence supports alternative nonhomologous end joining (aNHEJ) as the predominant pathway through which the majority of translocations occur. Initiated by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), aNHEJ is utilized less frequently in DNA DSB repair than other forms of DSB repair. We recently found that PARP1 is essential for chromosomal translocations to occur and that small molecule PARP1 inhibitors, already in clinical use, can inhibit translocations generated by IR or topoisomerase II inhibition. These data confirm the central role of PARP1 in aNHEJ-mediated chromosomal translocations and raise the possibility of using clinically available PARP1 inhibitors in patients who are at high risk for secondary oncogenic chromosomal translocations. PMID:24528169

Byrne, Michael; Wray, Justin; Reinert, Brian; Wu, Yuehan; Nickoloff, Jac; Lee, Suk-Hee; Hromas, Robert; Williamson, Elizabeth

2014-03-01

469

The Urban Institute: Issues in Focus: Child Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Urban Institute has been actively involved in research on urban-themed policy issues and related matters for over four decades. One of their thematic research programs covers child welfare. On this site, visitors can learn about this program, look over recent research reports, and sign up to receive their electronic newsletter. The "About the Program" is a fine place to start, and here visitors will learn that their work includes research on the finances of child welfare programs, adoption, and kinship care. Further on down the homepage, users will find recent reports like "Who Will Adopt the Foster Care Children Left Behind?" and "Trends in U.S. Foster Care Adoption Legislation: A State by State Analysis". The site is rounded out by information on the program team and an area where visitors can sign up to receive the Child Welfare Research Program's quarterly electronic newsletter.

2008-01-01

470

Control of communication networks: welfare maximization and multipath transfers.  

PubMed

We discuss control strategies for communication networks such as the Internet. We advocate the goal of welfare maximization as a paradigm for network resource allocation. We explore the application of this paradigm to the case of parallel network paths. We show that welfare maximization requires active balancing across paths by data sources, and potentially requires implementation of novel transport protocols. However, the only requirement from the underlying 'network layer' is to expose the marginal congestion cost of network paths to the 'transport layer'. We further illustrate the versatility of the corresponding layered architecture by describing transport protocols with the following properties: they welfare maximization, each communication may use an arbitrary collection of paths, where paths may be from an overlay, and paths may be combined in series and parallel. We conclude by commenting on incentives, pricing and open problems. PMID:18325871

Key, Peter B; Massoulié, Laurent

2008-06-13

471

The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.  

PubMed

This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy. PMID:20821899

Eggebø, Helga

2010-01-01

472

Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.  

PubMed

This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor. PMID:20845585

Soares, Jorge

2010-01-01

473

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

DOEpatents

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

474

Quinacrine Fluorescence of the Human Y Chromosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT observations1-4 of specific localized fluorescence in Y chromosomes stained with quinacrine mustard and quinacrine hydrochloride have provided a new parameter for the study of abnormal Y chromosomes. We have re-examined regularly prepared chromosome and buccal smear slides of at least 100 cells from two patients with a small Y chromosome5 and from patients with normal Y chromosomes. We used

Digamber S. Borgaonkar

1971-01-01

475

Orbiter based construction equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many orbiter based activities need equipment to hold a payload steady while it is being worked on. This work may be construction, updating, repair, services, check out, or refueling operations in preparation for return to Earth. The Handling and Positioning Aid (HPA) is intended for use as general purpose equipment. The HPA provides a wide choice of work station positions, both immediately above the orbiter cargo bay and beyond. It can act in a primary docking role and, if required, can assist actively in the berthing process. From an analysis of ten reference missions, it was determined that two types of HPA mobility are needed; a tilt table, which simply swings out of the cargo bay, pivoting about an athwartships y axis, and an articulated arm. Illustration of the aid are provided.

Goodwin, C. J.

1982-01-01

476

Evaluating Child Welfare policies with decision-analytic simulation models  

PubMed Central

The objective was to demonstrate decision-analytic modeling in support of Child Welfare policymakers considering implementing evidence-based interventions. Outcomes included permanency (e.g., adoptions) and stability (e.g., foster placement changes). Analyses of a randomized trial of KEEP -- a foster parenting intervention -- and NSCAW-1 estimated placement change rates and KEEP's effects. A microsimulation model generalized these findings to other Child Welfare systems. The model projected that KEEP could increase permanency and stability, identifying strategies targeting higher-risk children and geographical regions that achieve benefits efficiently. Decision-analytic models enable planners to gauge the value of potential implementations. PMID:21861204

Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Bailey, Stephanie L.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Zhang, Jinjin; Snowden, Lonnie R.; Wulczyn, Fred; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah M.

2013-01-01

477

Evaluating Child Welfare Policies with Decision-Analytic Simulation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to demonstrate decision-analytic modeling in support of Child Welfare policymakers considering implementing\\u000a evidence-based interventions. Outcomes included permanency (e.g., adoptions) and stability (e.g., foster placement changes).\\u000a Analyses of a randomized trial of KEEP—a foster parenting intervention—and NSCAW-1 estimated placement change rates and KEEP’s\\u000a effects. A microsimulation model generalized these findings to other Child Welfare systems. The model projected

Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert; Stephanie L. Bailey; Michael S. Hurlburt; Jinjin Zhang; Lonnie R. Snowden; Fred Wulczyn; John Landsverk; Sarah M. Horwitz

478

PORTABLE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable steam generators as used in oil-field operations are described. The design features necessary to provide a compact, high-capacity unit which is independent of outside power sources are also discussed. In a complete steam-generating system, the following components are necessary: (1) Water-conditioning equipment--in order to protect the generator from scale and\\/or corrosion, some water treatment is also necessary. On portable

E. H. Gras

1965-01-01

479

Everything about Construction Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

480

GPS Equipped Sonobuoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonobuoys equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) prove extremely useful when calibrating underwater sonar systems. Hermes Electronics Inc., in collaboration with Defence Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA) has developed such a buoy. The sonobuoy is a modified version of Hermes AN\\/SSQ53D(2) DIFAR sonobuoy. Modifications include de-sensitizing the acoustic r eceiver, installing a commercial GPS engine, and providing an electronic interface

Gregory J. Baker; Y. R. M. Bonin

481

HVAC equipment and noise  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to define how the selection of HVAC equipment and layout impact the achievable noise criteria (NC) levels in occupied spaces. It will focus on the design of HVAC systems that employ floor-by-floor air handling/air conditioning units and their acoustical ramifications. This is of increasing importance since tenants require incorporation of noise limits in lease agreements.

Cerami, V.J. [Cerami and Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1996-03-01

482

Equipment Failure Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tennessee Eastman uses NASTRAN to minimize lost production by pinpointing the causes of equipment failures and preventing recurrences. An example of the program's utility involves a large centrifugal fan which developed cracks during start-ups and shutdowns. This information prompted redesign of the fan. Tennessee Eastman has made extensive use of NASTRAN, both as failure analysis tool and as an aid in redesigning production hardware.

1980-01-01

483

The CEBAF experimental equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the status of the CEBAF experimental equipment as of the summer of 1992. At that time, the initial complement of experimental equipment had largely been defined, the major components were under contract, and the carriage for the HMS was being installed in the Hall C end station. If funding continues as expected, the first experiments will begin in Hall C in the Spring of 1994, with the startup of Halls A and B about a year later. It is hoped that the overview presented here will serve as a useful general reference for users and other interested scientists. This paper is divided into three parts which separately describe the status of the three Halls. Each part contains its own introduction, a desciption of the equipment currently being designed or built, and some discussion of instrumentation. For an introduction and overview of the Physics, please see contribution by J. D. Walecka later in this Proceedings. A brief discussion of some of the physics planned for Halls B and C is also included here. Also included in Part 3 is a brief summary of the schedule for Hall C, the first to start experiments.

Domingo, John; Carlini, Roger; Mecking, Bernhard; Mougey, Jean

1992-12-01

484

12 CFR 24.5 - Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior approval...DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.5 Public welfare investment after-the-fact notice and prior...

2010-01-01

485

From the Welfare Rolls to the Low-Wage Labor Market Sheldon Danziger and Rucker C. Johnson1  

E-print Network

1 From the Welfare Rolls to the Low-Wage Labor Market Sheldon Danziger and Rucker C. Johnson1-educated single mothers left welfare and entered the labor force at a record pace after welfare reform. Figure 1

Shyy, Wei

486

Heteromorphic variants of chromosome 9  

PubMed Central

Background Heterochromatic variants of pericentromere of chromosome 9 are reported and discussed since decades concerning their detailed structure and clinical meaning. However, detailed studies are scarce. Thus, here we provide the largest ever done molecular cytogenetic research based on >300 chromosome 9 heteromorphism carriers. Results In this study, 334 carriers of heterochromatic variants of chromosome 9 were included, being 192 patients from Western Europe and the remainder from Easter-European origin. A 3-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe-set directed against for 9p12 to 9q13~21.1 (9het-mix) and 8 different locus-specific probes were applied for their characterization. The 9het-mix enables the characterization of 21 of the yet known 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic patterns. In this study, 17 different variants were detected including five yet unreported; the most frequent were pericentric inversions (49.4%) followed by 9qh-variants (23.9%), variants of 9ph (11.4%), cenh (8.2%), and dicentric- (3.8%) and duplication-variants (3.3%). For reasons of simplicity, a new short nomenclature for the yet reported 24 heteromorphic patterns of chromosome 9 is suggested. Six breakpoints involved in four of the 24 variants could be narrowed down using locus-specific probes. Conclusions Based on this largest study ever done in carriers of chromosome 9 heteromorphisms, three of the 24 detailed variants were more frequently observed in Western than in Eastern Europe. Besides, there is no clear evidence that infertility is linked to any of the 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic variants. PMID:23547710

2013-01-01

487

The Importance of Postsecondary Training for Welfare To Work: Initiatives at the Community College of Aurora.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that academic skills, in addition to job skills, are crucial for taking people off the welfare rolls. Discusses postsecondary training programs and services for welfare recipients at the Community College of Aurora in Colorado. (NB)

Higgins, Daniela

2001-01-01

488

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-print Network

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07

489

Essays on Price Dynamics, Welfare Analysis, Household Food Insecurity in Mexico  

E-print Network

Higher and more volatile food prices, as reported in recent years, have consequences on household welfare and potentially on public policy. Analysis of agricultural commodities price dynamics, welfare effects of increased food...

Magana Lemus, David

2013-09-20

490

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2013-10-01

491

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2010-10-01

492

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2012-10-01

493

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2011-10-01

494

29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.  

...welfare and pension benefits. (1) Health and...However, where fringe benefit determinations contemplate...contribution on behalf of each employee, and a contractor exercises his option to make...welfare and pension benefits to temporary and...

2014-07-01

495

Welfare-Induced Migration at State Borders: New Evidence from Micro-Data*  

PubMed Central

This paper extends and synthesizes the various approaches used in the recent welfare migration literature to both offer the most comprehensive set of tests to date for welfare migration and to also determine the relative importance of short-distance moves in welfare migration flows. The current study follows on the finding of McKinnish (2005) of welfare migration effects obtained by comparing welfare participation at state borders to state interiors. This identification strategy is extended to micro-data from the 1980 and 1990 Decennial Censuses and combined with the demographic comparisons used elsewhere in the welfare migration literature. The signs and patterns of the estimates are consistent with the presence of welfare migration effects, and the magnitudes of the estimates are consistent with the importance of short-distance moves in welfare-induced migration flows, but most of the estimates are not statistically significant. PMID:21949449

McKinnish, Terra

2011-01-01

496

EOC Title: Animal Welfare Liaison (Emergency Support Function #11) Coordinating Campus Unit: OLAC  

E-print Network

OPERATIONS EOC Title: Animal Welfare Liaison (Emergency Support Function #11) Coordinating Campus Unit: OLAC General Description The Animal Welfare Emergency Support Function coordinates the humane handling, treatment, transportation, housing, and care of laboratory and sheltered animals in the event

Walker, Matthew P.

497

45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.  

... 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

2014-10-01

498

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

499

Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes  

SciTech Connect

Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

Hennig, W.

1987-01-01

500

Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

2010-01-01