Sample records for welfare equipment chromosome

  1. Welfare's End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Gwendolyn

    During the 1920s, progressive women activists invented welfare to help mothers and their children survive when breadwinning fathers either died or abandoned their families. During the 1930s, the local mothers' pension programs of the Progressive Era became part of the emerging national welfare state, which was conceived to relieve poor single…

  2. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  3. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  4. Happiness and Welfare

    E-print Network

    Meseroll, Sean

    2014-08-31

    In this dissertation I argue that while hedonism seems to be the correct theory of happiness, happiness does not seem to be the essence of welfare; after all, it appears that a person may be brainwashed over a given duration, ...

  5. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  6. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  7. Advertising and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avinash Dixit; Victor Norman

    1978-01-01

    This paper applies conventional welfare-theoretic methods to study advertising which changes consumer tastes. In a wide range of empirically plausible circumstances, private profitability is seen to be necessary but not sufficient for the social desirability of a small amount of advertising. The market equilibrium level of such advertising is shown to be socially excessive, even when postadvertising tastes are used

  8. Off Welfare, into Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Concerned with the increasing feminization of poverty, the Rockefeller Foundation launched in 1982 a $12 million welfare-to-work research and demonstration project, presently midway into a 5-year evaluation. The Minority Female Single Parent Demonstration project involved four community-based organizations: Atlanta Urban League (Georgia);…

  9. Inflation and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the welfare cost of inflation. New estimates are provided, based on U.S. time series for 1900-94, interpreted in a variety of ways. It is estimated that the gain from reducing the annual inflation rate from 10 percent to zero is equivalent to an increase in real income of slightly less than one percent. Using aggregate

  10. Housing And Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Rochlitz

    The way a cat is housed will have a significant impact on its welfare. The range of housing conditions in which cats may be kept include boarding, breeding and quarantine catteries, shelters, research facilities, veterinary practices and the home. Drawing on ethological principles, the evolutionary history of the cat and studies of cats kept in different conditions, the housing requirements

  11. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  12. DISEASE - A WELFARE COMPROMISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. J. ODENDAAL

    2001-01-01

    Odendaal J. S. J.: Disease - a Welfare Compromise. Acta Vet. Brno 2001, 70: 97-104. Veterinarians usually attempt to find the direct cause of diseases, trauma or behavioural problems, in order to decide on an appropriate therapeutic regimen. They rarely ask what causes the causes. As in the popular media, one should inquire about the story behind the story. Such

  13. Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reflecting the current state of theory and practice in child welfare in Canada, these eight papers suggest a contemporary view of Canadian children and the contexts in which they develop as defined by legal rights and society. First, Henry S. Maas argues that attention to normal social development and its contexts, and to related ongoing theory…

  14. Thoughts on farm animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestating sow welfare remains a complex and contentious issue in the US, and stakeholders keep calling for objective, scientific welfare assessments. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association recently published a Commentary that attempted to compare sow welfare in "the Swedish deep-...

  15. Human Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

    2005-03-12

    Representation of the 23 paired chromosomes of the human male. Chromosome: a very long DNA molecule and associated proteins, that carry portions of the hereditary information of an organism. a. Structure of a chromosome (Typical metaphase chromosome): A chromosome is formed from a single DNA molecule that contains many genes. A chromosomal DNA molecule contains three specific nucleotide sequences which are required for replication: a DNA replication origin; a centromere to attach the DNA to the mitotic spindle.; a telomere located at each end of the linear chromosome. The DNA molecule is highly condensed. The human DNA helix occupy too much space in the cell. Small proteins are responsible for packing the DNA into units called nucleosomes. b. Stained chromosomes: Chromosomes are stained with A-T (G bands) and G-C (R bands) base pair specific dyes. When they are stained, the mitotic chromosomes have a banded structure that unambiguously identifies each chromosome of a karyotype. Each band contains millions of DNA nucleotide pairs which do not correspond to any functional structure. Adapted from K.F. Jorgenson, J.H. van de Sande, and C.C. Lin, Chromosoma 68:287-302, 1978. c. Karyotype of a male: The human haploid genome contains 3,000,000,000 DNA nucleotide pairs, divided among twenty two (22) pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.

  16. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE...equipment with a current per-unit fair market value of less than...equipment with a current per unit fair market value in excess of...the purchase to the current fair market value of the...

  17. Chromosome Shuffle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tamsen Knowlton Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Role-playing the parts of chromosomes and centrioles, learners use large chromosome models and nylon cords (spindle fibers and cell membranes) to walk through the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Physical manipulation of the chromosomes and their parts in the process of cell division and replication both clarifies and reinforces some very abstract concepts for learners. The activity demonstrates crossing over and gene linkage. It may be extended to illustrate chromosome anomalies such as deletions and trisomies. Models can be used to show other mutation types as well as x-linkage. A large floor space is needed for this activity.

  18. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this is likely to be a major focus for animal welfare science activity in the early twenty-first century. PMID:25263963

  19. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  20. An authorisation procedure for mass-produced farm animal housing systems with regard to animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beat Wechsler

    2005-01-01

    In 1981, an authorisation procedure regarding animal welfare was introduced in Switzerland for mass-produced housing systems and equipment for farm animals. When asking for an authorisation, the manufacturer or importer of a housing system or equipment must send detailed documentation (plans, measures, technical data) to the Federal Veterinary Office. The authorisation can only be given if the housing system or

  1. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... division. There are two kinds of cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis results in two cells that are duplicates of ... 23 paired sets of chromosomes in nonreproductive cells. Mitosis: Cell division resulting in cells that have paired ...

  2. University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt and Capital Asset Accounting, 6054 S Drexel Ave. Suite 300 or skgill@uchicago.edu Asset Information Equipment Equipment Purchased on Federal Funds: By checking this box, I confirm this disposal complies

  3. On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2014-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

  4. Chromosome structural aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 9, discusses chromosome structural aberrations, including chromosome breaks and rearrangements, chromatid breaks and rearrangements, telomeres and telomere associations, dicentric chromosomes, inactivation of the centromere, misdivision, centric fusion, triradial and multiradial chromosomes, and fragile sites. 48 refs., 6 figs.

  5. How to delineate the sow's welfare needs.

    PubMed

    Baxter, M R; Baxter, S H

    1984-01-01

    The way in which farm animal welfare is appraised at present, as exemplified by the UK codes of welfare, suffers three faults; firstly welfare is not systematically analysed, secondly welfare requirements are described in little detail and thirdly there is no published technical justification for the recommendations. An approach which can overcome all of these problems is outlined in the paper. This approach sets out to describe sow welfare as the sow perceives it and, then to translate each welfare element into quantifiable variables with defined boundaries of welfare acceptability. Thirteen elements of welfare requirements are proposed for domestic sows. It is concluded that such an approach should improve the depth in which we investigate welfare requirements and give codes of recommendations more consistency over time and greater longevity. PMID:6486699

  6. Chromosomes and cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Thompson; Duane A. Compton

    2011-01-01

    Two prominent features of cancer cells are abnormal numbers of chromosomes (aneuploidy) and large-scale structural rearrangements\\u000a of chromosomes. These chromosome aberrations are caused by genomic instabilities inherent to most cancers. Aneuploidy arises\\u000a through chromosomal instability (CIN) by the persistent loss and gain of whole chromosomes. Chromosomal rearrangements occur\\u000a through chromosome structure instability (CSI) as a consequence of improper repair of

  7. Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  8. Abstinence Education under Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Haskins; Carol Statuto Bevan

    1997-01-01

    As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. This chapter provides an examination of the legislative history of the program; a discussion of the characteristics of the program, especially the definition of abstinence education; and an account of how the program will be implemented by the federal government

  9. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  10. MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTRE Welfare W tch Medical Centre Health Check Patient Participation THE RESPONSE. #12;INTRODUCTION The University Medical Centre is a GP Practice on the campus of the University Medical Centre and our practice population is made up of approximately 75% 16-24 year olds. The Medical

  11. Schooling, Welfare and Parental Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, Michael G.

    Issues of child protection, child abuse, and delinquency have generated public and academic concerns about the ability of adults to underwrite the physical, moral, and social welfare of children. At the same time, recent educational reform has provoked debate about the shifting balance of power between parents and teachers. This book combines…

  12. Helping Minor Firms Reduces Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajal Lahiri; Yoshiyasu Ono

    1988-01-01

    The effect on national welfare of uneven technical progress and eli mination of a firm is analyzed under the existence of a Cournot oligopolistic sector. An increase in the share of an inefficient firm, owing to its innovations, results in a shift of production from more efficient firms to the inefficient firm, causing a less efficie nt allocation of production.

  13. Outcome Measurement in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguar, Stephen; Moses, Beth S.

    1980-01-01

    The Child Welfare League of America surveyed the structured methods used by agencies to measure case outcome. The findings indicate a need to develop improved measures of effectiveness. Criteria for measures suitable to meet acountability requirements and problems in outcome measurement are discussed. (Author/RH)

  14. Gender Biases in Child Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Risley-Curtiss; Kristin Heffernan

    2003-01-01

    Gender biases are pervasive in child welfare research and practice. Although these biases have been addressed to some extent in the literature, there continues to be a lack of information on fathers and an overrepresentation of information on mothers, and thus the biases continue. This article explores how these biases are currently manifested in both research and practice and makes

  15. Immigrants and Welfare Reauthorization. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremstad, Shawn

    Until the 1996 welfare law (which conditioned eligibility on citizenship status) was passed, legal immigrants were generally as eligible for public benefits as citizens. The immigrant restrictions have proven to be extremely controversial. In 1997, Congress restored Supplemental Security Income to most immigrants who were already in the country…

  16. PURDUE UNIVERSITY ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY A3231-01 ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE In accordance with the PHS Policy for Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals I, Peter E. Dunn, Ph.D., as named Institutional Official for animal and Use of Laboratory Animals, hereinafter referred to as PHS Policy. I. Applicability This Assurance

  17. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare National Institutes of Health PublicHealthService PolicyonHumane Care and Use of LaboratoryAnimals #12;Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Revised August, 2002 #12;Preface This 2002 reprint of the Public Health Service (PHS) Policy

  18. Gender and the Development of Welfare Regimes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    This paper builds on the idea that any further development of the concept of 'welfare regime' must incorporate the relationship between unpaid as well as paid work and welfare. Consideration of the privateldomestic is crucial to a gendered understanding of welfare because historically women have typically gained entitlements by virtue of their dependent status within the family as wives and

  19. Welfare Caseloads and the 2001 Recession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Goodman-Bacon

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of welfare reform policies on the number of families receiving welfare (caseloads) since the 2001 recession. 1996's welfare reform legislation was passed amidst the longest economic expansion in US history, making it hard for researchers to estimate the role of policy. Furthermore, caseload research has not sufficiently explored the effects of specific policy choices within

  20. Welfare Caseloads and the 2001 Recession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Goodman-Bacon

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of welfare reform policies on the number of families receiving welfare (caseloads) since the 2001 recession. 1996’s welfare reform legislation was passed amidst the longest economic expansion in US history, making it hard for researchers to estimate the role of policy. Furthermore, caseload research has not sufficiently explored the effects of specific policy choices within

  1. Chromosome structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents topics in chromosome structure and function. Topics covered include: the structure of interphase chromatin; chromatin structure, gene expression and differentiation; organization of mitotic chromosomes; organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonimal complexes; the lampbrush chromsome of animal oocytes; dosage compensation in mammals: x chromosome inactivation; and polytene chromosomes.

  2. Phototherapy equipment.

    PubMed

    McClelland, P B; Morgan, P; Leach, E E; Shelk, J

    1996-10-01

    Treating patients with phototherapy is like dosing patients with medication. The purpose of this continuing education article is to describe various phototherapy equipment and how to conduct safe and efficacious therapy. PMID:9069832

  3. Behavioural indicators of welfare in farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catarina I M; Galhardo, Leonor; Noble, Chris; Damsgård, Børge; Spedicato, Maria T; Zupa, Walter; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Carter, Toby; Planellas, Sònia Rey; Kristiansen, Tore

    2012-02-01

    Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression, individual and group swimming behaviour, stereotypic and abnormal behaviour have been linked with acute and chronic stressors in aquaculture and can therefore be regarded as likely indicators of poor welfare. On the contrary, measurements of exploratory behaviour, feed anticipatory activity and reward-related operant behaviour are beginning to be considered as indicators of positive emotions and welfare in fish. Despite the lack of scientific agreement about the existence of sentience in fish, the possibility that they are capable of both positive and negative emotions may contribute to the development of new strategies (e.g. environmental enrichment) to promote good welfare. Numerous studies that use behavioural indicators of welfare show that behavioural changes can be interpreted as either good or poor welfare depending on the fish species. It is therefore essential to understand the species-specific biology before drawing any conclusions in relation to welfare. In addition, different individuals within the same species may exhibit divergent coping strategies towards stressors, and what is tolerated by some individuals may be detrimental to others. Therefore, the assessment of welfare in a few individuals may not represent the average welfare of a group and vice versa. This underlines the need to develop on-farm, operational behavioural welfare indicators that can be easily used to assess not only the individual welfare but also the welfare of the whole group (e.g. spatial distribution). With the ongoing development of video technology and image processing, the on-farm surveillance of behaviour may in the near future represent a low-cost, noninvasive tool to assess the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:21796377

  4. Architecture of metaphase chromosomes and chromosome scaffolds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM C. EARNSHAW; ULRICH K. LAEMMLI

    1983-01-01

    We have developed procedures for depositing intact mitotic chromosomes and isolated residual scaffolds on electron microscope grids at controlled and reproducible levels of compaction. The chromosomes were isolated using a recently developed aqueous method. Our study has addressed two different, aspects of chromosome structure. First, we present a method for improved visualization of radial chromatin loops in undisrupted mitotic chromo-

  5. Equipment Race 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    provided by the manu- facturer and are recommended when it is necessary to work or move around the machine with the bucket in a raised position and the controls are unattended. Newer skid-steer loaders are equipped with pin or strut sup- ports that can...-steer loader will start. Seat Belts When worn on skid-steer loaders equipped with a rollover protection structure, seat belts restrain the opera- tor within the zone of protection in case of a rollover. If seat belts are part of the safety interlock system...

  6. Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

    2007-01-01

    We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted. PMID:17668326

  7. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  8. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  9. USGS Equipment

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS traveling equipment above Minot, North Dakota. USGS personnel were measuring the streamflow of the Souris River above Minot, ND on June 24, 2011.  Streamflow was approximately 20,800 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 23.46 feet....

  10. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  11. Welfare Transitions in the 1990s: The Economy, Welfare Policy, and the EITC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The rapid decline in the welfare caseload remains a subject of keen interest to both policymakers and researchers. In this paper, I use data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation spanning the period from 1986 to 1999 to analyze how the economy, welfare reform, the earned income tax credit (EITC), and other factors influence welfare

  12. Breaking the cycle? The effect of education on welfare receipt among children of welfare recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Coelli; David A. Green; William P. Warburton

    2007-01-01

    We examine the impact of high school graduation on the probability individuals from welfare backgrounds use welfare themselves. Our data consist of administrative educational records for grade 12 students in a Canadian province linked with their own and their parents' welfare records. We address potential endogeneity problems by: 1) controlling for ability using past test scores; 2) using an instrument

  13. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  14. Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

    This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

  15. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  16. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  17. Applied Welfare Economics with Discrete Choice Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harvey Rosen; Kenneth A. Small

    1981-01-01

    Economists have been paying increasing attention to the study of situations in which consumers face a discrete rather than a continuous set of choices. Such models are potentially very important in evaluating the impact of government programs upon consumer welfare. But very little has been said in general regarding the tools of applied welfare economics indiscrete choice situations. This paper

  18. Self-rated economic welfare in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Ravallion; Michael Lokshin

    2002-01-01

    Most of those Russian adults who feel that they are poor are not classified as such in the poverty statistics, and most of those who are classified as poor don't feel that way. We study the determinants of peoples’ perceptions of their economic welfare in an unusually rich socioeconomic survey. While income is a highly significant predictor, subjective economic welfare

  19. CHAPTER 4: WELFARE OF GESTATING SOWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The welfare of sows during gestation continues to be a controversial topic, with both close confinement systems, such as stalls, and loose-housing, group-based systems both having welfare advantages and disadvantages. Within the European Union, legislation has already been enacted that prohibits the...

  20. Welfare Reform, Work Requirements, and Employment Barriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Meara; Richard Frank

    2006-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act imposed work requirements on welfare recipients. Using 1999-2001 data from Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, we compared the labor market and welfare experience of women with four employment barriers: poor mental health, moderate to heavy drug and alcohol use, a child with a behavior problem, and a child under the age of

  1. Welfare Reform and Children's Living Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelbach, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about welfare reform's effects on family structure and children's living arrangements, an important focus for reformers. Using March CPS data, the authors find that state welfare waivers are associated with children being less likely to live with unmarried parents, more likely to live with married parents, and more likely to live…

  2. Social Security and Social Welfare Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida C. Merriam

    1978-01-01

    The proportion of its total resources that a society devotes to social welfare is a useful general measure related to social policy. In fiscal 1976, the United States spent 21 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) for public social welfare programs, including health and education as well as social insurance (the largest segment) and assistance. Program developments, inflation, population growth,

  3. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  4. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  5. Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

  6. Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, April

    1999-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

  7. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  8. Implications of Welfare Reform on the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carroll L. Estes; Sheryl Goldberg; Chris Wellin; Karen W. Linkins; Sara Shostak; Renée L. Beard

    2006-01-01

    Whereas many studies of welfare reform have focused on effects on children and families, little research has examined the implications of welfare reform for the elderly. This case study incorporates interviews with service providers for the aging, members of advocacy organizations, and two focus groups of older consumers conducted in the multi-ethnic urban community of San Francisco. Study findings suggest

  9. The Welfare State in a Changing Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eichner; Andreas Wagener

    2004-01-01

    We analyse how the welfare state, i.e., social insurance that works through redistributive taxation, should respond to increases in risks and to increases in the cost of operating the welfare state. With respect to risks, we distinguish between risks that can be insured and such that cannot (background risks). Insurable risks can be reduced by costly individual self-insurance and by

  10. Undetected sex chromosome aneuploidy by chromosomal microarray.

    PubMed

    Markus-Bustani, Keren; Yaron, Yuval; Goldstein, Myriam; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay

    2012-11-01

    We report on a case of a female fetus found to be mosaic for Turner syndrome (45,X) and trisomy X (47,XXX). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) failed to detect the aneuploidy because of a normal average dosage of the X chromosome. This case represents an unusual instance in which CMA may not detect chromosomal aberrations. Such a possibility should be taken into consideration in similar cases where CMA is used in a clinical setting. PMID:23034780

  11. Deposition Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

  12. Microdissection and chromosome painting of plant B chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Houben; Bruce L. Field; Verity A. Saunders

    2001-01-01

    Plant chromosome microdissection techniques together with different isolation and amplification methods of microisolated DNA are described. Such isolated DNA was used to 'chromosome paint' B chromosomes of the dicot Brachycome dichromosomatica and the monocot Secale cereale. It is demonstrated that the specific painting of the described chromosomes was possible because of enrichment for chromosome-specific repetitive sequences, rather than the chromosome

  13. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, founded, supported, and run by parents just like ... not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, founded, supported, and run by parents just like ...

  15. Human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 21, describes in detail the human X chromosome. X chromatin (or Barr body) formation, inactivation and reactivation of the X chromosome, X;Y translocations, and sex reversal are discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  16. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  17. Dairy animal welfare: current and needed research.

    PubMed

    Albright, J L

    1987-12-01

    Of 25 milestones in dairy animal welfare, 10 were linked to laws and regulations, 9 to research, education, and development, 4 to books and publications, and 2 to human error (accidents). Animal rightists have attacked the dairy industry because of farm conditions, bovine somatotropin, overproduction of milk, dairy lobbies, and advertising of milk products. Evidence from Europe suggests that animal welfare has been largely promoted as a sociopolitical issue by nonagriculturalists. Codes, guidelines, and recommendations are well-established for northern Europe. The American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Committee has prepared the pamphlet on food animal welfare and addressed specific bovine welfare issues in its guide for veal calf care and production. From 1978 to 1986, only four US experiment station projects were concerned with dairy animal welfare. Needed research includes studying learned helplessness; analysis and economics of alternative husbandry systems for veal calves (and cows) freestall design and surfaces; and shade, cooling, and misting of mangers and holding pens prior to entering the parlor. Alert caretakers are encouraged to read behavior signals of cattle. Increased standing of cattle is often taken now as a sign of discomfort or discontent in studies of cow and calf confinement. Criteria that should be considered in assessing welfare or well-being are behavior, health, musculoskeletal soundness, productivity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and reproduction. PMID:3329200

  18. Equipment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magnavox Government & Electronics Company originally used the NASTRAN program in the design stage of heavy aluminum fixtures for vibration testing. Program also used to compare the resonant frequencies of the circuitry to predict whether failures may occur because of high vibration levels. The company engineers can then make design alterations to improve the equipment's vibration resistance. Method allows Magnavox to insure reliability and reduce any possibility of vibration-caused failure in critical defense products they manufacture. Magnavox uses another COSMIC software package called GENOPTICS in the development of a Digital Optical Recorder, and also in research and development of other optical systems. This enables use of an optically recorded disc to store and retrieve digital data. It is reported that this program provides accurate results and that its use saved six man-months of time that would have been needed to develop a comparable software package.

  19. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  20. Chromosome instability syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 11, discusses chromosome instability syndromes. The focus is on the most extensively studied genotypic chromosomal aberrations which include Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The great interest in these syndromes is out of proportion to their rare occurrence; however, studies of genotypic chromosome breakage have been inspired by the hope of throwing light on chromosome structure and behavior. A table is given which relates chromosomal aberrations in Bloom syndrome which may cause or promote cancer. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses questions concerning the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, offering updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. Chapter 1, "Introduction," reviews specific summary measures of welfare dependence proposed by…

  2. Editorial Resources in Work and Welfare 

    E-print Network

    PUDIACwowe

    2010-01-01

    This paper collates information on the top English-language publishing outlets in the field of work and welfare, including peer-reviewed journals and book series with large academic publishers. It is intended as a bookshelf ...

  3. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  4. Kinship Caregivers and the Child Welfare System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some requirements if they do not affect the child’s health or safety. Kinship caregivers may be required to ... legal guardian. 2. Actions that the parent and child welfare system need to take so that the children ...

  5. Welfare reforms, family resources, and child maltreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated maltreatment-physical abuse and neglect-and the number of children living in out-of-home

  6. Child Welfare Outcomes 1998: Annual Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of annual reports from the Department of Health and Human Services required by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (ASFA). The report "presents data on State performance in meeting the needs of children and families who come into contact with the child welfare system, focusing specifically on the "outcomes, or results, for these children." It also examines the condition of child welfare programs nationwide, presents data measuring outcomes, and offers findings and conclusions.

  7. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  8. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare

  9. The Role of Education and Training in Welfare Reform. Welfare Reform and Beyond. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueron, Judith M.; Hamilton, Gayle

    States have used variants of these three approaches to structure the welfare to-work component of welfare reform for single mothers: (1) put education or training first; (2) place job searching first; and (3) create a flexible program that allows staff and participants choice in the initial and subsequent activities. Research on these program…

  10. DNA, Genes and Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Fomby

    2007-11-07

    Today you will learn about the parts of DNA and what DNA, genes and chromosomes are. Today you will learn what DNA, genes and chromosomes are and the parts of the DNA molecule. Look at all of the websites, take whatever notes you need to. At the end of the assignment, be able to describle DNA, the parts of DNA, genes and chromosomes. Covers Biology Core Curriculum, ...

  11. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  12. Chromosome Oscillations in Mitosis

    E-print Network

    Otger Campas; Pierre Sens

    2005-07-29

    Successful cell division requires a tight regulation of chromosome motion via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the movement have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. The protein complex Kinetochore on the chromosome associates with microtubules emanating from one of the spindle poles and drives the chromosome toward the pole. Chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms also interact with microtubules, ejecting the chromosome away from the pole. In animal cells, a monooriented chromosome (associated to a single pole) periodically switches between phases of poleward and away from the pole movement[, a behavior tentatively explained so far by the existence of a complex switching mechanism within the kinetochore itself. Here we show that the interplay between the morphology of the mitotic spindle and the collective kinetics of chromokinesins can account for the highly non-linear periodic chromosome motion. Our analysis provides a natural explanation for the origin of chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes feel their position in space.

  13. A pivotal year for lab animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Holden, C

    1986-04-11

    Developments in the U.S. during 1985 related to laboratory animal welfare are discussed. The enactment of amendments to the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and revisions to the Public Health Service's animal care guidelines are described as major federal moves to tighten standards and to locate responsibility for proper animal care at the institutional level. These regulatory changes will have a significant economic impact on the cost of doing research, but are generally accepted by the scientific community as necessary. Although moderate animal welfare groups see signs of progress, there is a growing number of activists who see recent policy developments as only a step toward the real goal of total elimination of the use of animals in research. It is apparent that the combination of political pressure, financial stringency, and better experimental methodologies will result in a continued reduction in laboratory animal use. PMID:3952503

  14. Chromosomal rearrangements and speciation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2001-01-01

    Several authors have proposed that speciation frequently occurs when a population becomes fixed for one or more chromosomal rearrangements that reduce fitness when they are heterozygous. This hypothesis has little theoretical support because mutations that cause a large reduction in fitness can be fixed through drift only in small, inbred populations. Moreover, the effects of chromosomal rearrangements on fitness are

  15. Understanding and measuring child welfare outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Andrade, Amy; Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The new "Children's and Family Services Reviews" (CFSR) process focuses on the effectiveness of services to children and families by measuring client outcomes. This article reviews the research literature related to child welfare outcomes in order to provide a context for federal accountability efforts. It also summarizes the 2001 federal mandate to hold states accountable for child welfare outcomes and describes California's response to this mandate. Implications of the outcomes literature review and measurement problems in the CFSR process suggest CSFR measures do not always capture meaningful outcomes. Recommendations for change are made. PMID:19064447

  16. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  17. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare association revenues may be derived from such sources as snack bars, vending machines, disciplinary fines, etc. (b) Student welfare association activities shall be funded from...

  18. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...procedures issued by the Job Corps Director. (a) Student welfare association revenues may be derived from such sources as snack bars, vending machines, disciplinary fines, etc. (b) Student welfare association activities shall be funded from...

  19. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the public has begun to question the conditions under which intensively-managed livestock are housed. As a consequence of this concern, animal production practices, including egg production systems, have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny. Animal welfare issues lie at the he...

  20. Young physicians and the Finnish welfare state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arttu Saarinen

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to focus on how young physicians in general and different subpopulations, in particular, see the role of the welfare state. The author seeks to compare young physicians' opinions with those of older physicians, a similar age group in the general population and all physicians. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A random sample was picked from the Finnish Medical

  1. Congress Invokes Public Opinion on Welfare Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Paden; Benjamin I. Page

    2003-01-01

    If democratically elected public officials respond to the policy preferences of ordinary citizens, one might expect them to make frequent, favorable references to public opinion as revealed by polls and surveys. An analysis of the 1995 congressional debates leading up to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (welfare reform), however, generally corroborates the findings of

  2. Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; )

    2003-01-01

    The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

  3. Does Generic Entry Always Increase Consumer Welfare?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Grabowski; Tracy Lewis; Rahul Guha; Zoya Ivanova; Maria Salgado; Sally Woodhouse

    2010-01-01

    Generic competition is usually assumed to be beneficial for consumer welfare. As generics enter the market, drug retail prices fall and patients switch from high-priced branded drugs to lower-priced generics. However, lower generic retail prices are not the only effect of generic entry. In particular, generic entry introduces free riding by generic manufacturers on the branded manufacturer's efforts to compete

  4. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  5. On the Marginal Welfare Cost of Taxation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edgar K Browning

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a rigorous partial equilibrium analysis of the determinants of margin al welfare cost (MWC) of taxes on labor earnings. It shows that four key parameters interact to determine the magnitude of MWC. Using aggregate data and plausible ranges of values for the parameters, MWC can vary from under 10 percent to more than 300 percent of marginal

  6. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  7. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  8. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  9. Work and Welfare: A Reevaluation of AFDC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Jan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviews policy development and research trends relating to work, welfare, and AFDC. Examines the persistence over time of the values of capitalism, liberalism, and positivism, which have resulted in the work ethic and influenced the AFDC. Outlines a research agenda to counter these influences. (Author/JAC)

  10. Child Welfare Strategy in the Coming Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadushin, Alfred; And Others

    This collection of policy papers by a dozen national experts in subject areas related to child welfare is designed to assist public and voluntary agency program directors in their efforts to update current programs or to design new ones. Sequentially the chapters: (1) set a framework for the following papers, (2) examine the provision of foster…

  11. STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

  12. Assessing the Employability of Welfare Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Demetra Smith

    This paper describes the client assessment package being used in the Philadelphia Urban Saturation Work Program and discusses some of the issues that should be considered in designing and implementing employability assessment components of welfare-employment programs. The original objectives of the assessment component were the following: (1) to…

  13. Utilization of Education by Maryland's Welfare Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Human Resources, Baltimore.

    Research was conducted on the use of education services by welfare recipients in Maryland through surveying local departments of social services and using university research departments. Information was sought on the following: the number of Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) customers engaged in educational activities, the types of activities,…

  14. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  15. Symposium Review of Books. The Welfare of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H.; Sarri, Rosemary

    1995-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the issues presented in two books pertaining to child poverty, policy, and welfare reform: "The Welfare of Children" (Duncan Lindsey) and "Rethinking Child Welfare in Canada" (Brian Wharf, Editor). Both provide excellent analysis and recommendations but lack attention to tracking systems that place children in different…

  16. UCLA Social Welfare Faculty Opening for Fall 2015 Assistant Professor

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    UCLA Social Welfare Faculty Opening for Fall 2015 Assistant Professor The Department of Social. Global/International Social Welfare and Social Work. We are interested in individuals who study problems between nations or across national boundaries, comparative and cross- national social welfare policies

  17. An Agency Model of Welfare and Disability Assistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Boadway; Nicolas Marceau; Motohiro Sato

    1997-01-01

    Welfare programs including disability benefits have been considered as an efficient way of delivering transfers to the needy. This paper addresses the importance of administrative cost of welfare systems by focusing on an agency problem arising between the government and social workers, whose job is to use tagging to determine eligibility for welfare benefits. Tagging is imperfect in that it

  18. Determinants of Immigrants' Cash-Welfare Benefits Intake in Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Núria Rodríguez-Planas

    2012-01-01

    Much of the literature on immigrants' cash-welfare benefits use has focused on countries with a large tradition of receiving immigrants and with well established Welfare states. This paper contributes to this literature by analyzing differences in cash-welfare benefits receipt between immigrants and natives and their determinants in Spain, a country with: (1) a small level of social assistance and a

  19. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. M. Bracke; H. A. M. Spoolder

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them. This paper systematically examines the overall importance of wallowing for pig welfare using

  20. Punitive Sanctions and the Transition Rate from Welfare to Work

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bas van der Klaauw

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the average exit rate out of welfare is dramatically low. Most welfare recipients have to comply with guidelines on job search effort that are imposed by the welfare agency. If they do not, then a sanction in the form of a temporary benefit reduction can be imposed. This article investigates the effect of such sanctions on the

  1. Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation

    E-print Network

    1 ABSTRACT Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation Al-Jayousi, Ahmed, Effects of Globalization in Welfare: An Islamic Economic Evaluation, The Objective of this study is to highlight the effects of globalization on welfare. In order to explore these effects, the study chooses some

  2. Animal Welfare—Scientific Approaches to the Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne T. Millman

    2009-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is of significant public interest, globally and within the United States. Value-based judgments are intrinsic to animal welfare assessment, according to the relative weighting of factors associated with animal performance, health, affective states, and natural living. The concept of animal welfare is consistent with the scientific method because questions are open to deductive reasoning, formation of hypotheses

  3. Involving Employers in Welfare-to-Work Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relave, Nanette

    2001-01-01

    The success of work-centered welfare programs depends on clients connecting to the workforce and sustaining employment. Engaging employers in welfare and workforce development policies and programs is critical to achieving positive labor market outcomes for clients. Employer involvement in welfare-to-work activities can benefit public agencies,…

  4. Welfare state matters: A typological multilevel analysis of wealthy countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haejoo Chung; Carles Muntaner

    2007-01-01

    Building on the social science literature, we hypothesized that population health indicators in wealthy industrialized countries are ‘clustered’ around welfare state regime types. We tested this hypothesis during a period of welfare state expansion from 1960 to 1994. We categorized data from 19 wealthy countries into 4 different types of welfare state regimes (Social Democratic, Christian Democratic, Liberal and Wage

  5. Farm animal welfare research in interaction with society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Blokhuis; E. D. Ekkel; S. M. Korte; H. Hopster; C. G. van Reenen

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 30 years concern about farm animal welfare has increased and has become a public issue in the Netherlands. Public discussion has stimulated research in this field, financed by both government and industry. Dutch society in general and consumers of animal products in particular, want to see high standards of welfare for production animals. Good animal welfare has

  6. Indicators of Welfare Dependence. Annual Report to Congress, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This fourth annual report addresses the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, providing updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. It highlights benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary…

  7. Supporting the Move From Welfare to Work: What Women Say

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Pearlmutter; Elizabeth E. Bartle

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a focus group study of the perceptions of welfare participants in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and Los Angeles County, California, of various aspects of welfare, subsidized child care, jobs with living wages, the counties' employment programs, and the participants' relationships with welfare workers. The results suggest that participants are not receiving the support they need to obtain and

  8. Governmental and Nongovernmental Youth Welfare in the New German Lander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlik, Marion; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Survey of the general conditions of youth welfare departments in eastern Germany revealed severe money shortages. Increasing demands on youth welfare, rising social problems, right-wing extremism, and widespread unemployment among youths cause long-term social problems and prohibit effective youth welfare. (RJM)

  9. Chromosomal Aberrations and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations associated with schizophrenic disorders may suggest regions in which to focus a search for genes predisposing to schizophrenia by a linkage strategy. As for other genetic illnesses, chromosomal abnormalities may also provide useful tools for subsequent physical mapping, fine localisation, and isolation of important susceptibility genes. Identification of several chromosomal aberrations may be especially important, given the unknown pathophysiology, the paucity of known brain genes, and the probable genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia and manic-depression. However, because psychiatric disorders are common and inherited in a complex manner, researchers must use caution when drawing inferences about associations with chromosomal aberrations. Reported abnormalities involving autosomes (chromosomes 1 –22) associated with psychotic disorders are reviewed. Their relevance to linkage studies localising genes for schizophrenia was estimated by standardised criteria for specificity, diagnosis, family history, and overall weight of evidence. Four ‘possibly relevant’ chromosomal regions were identified: 5q, 11q, 18q, and 19p. This paper outlines strategies for future studies to detect new chromosomal aberrations associated with major psychotic disorders that may be relevant to isolating the genes for schizophrenia. PMID:1393302

  10. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  11. Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut Segner; Henrik Sundh; Kurt Buchmann; Jessica Douxfils; Kristina Snuttan Sundell; Cédric Mathieu; Neil Ruane; Hilde Toften; Lloyd Vaughan

    This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point\\u000a of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby\\u000a maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the\\u000a loss of the coping ability and,

  12. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  13. Chromosome 20 Sequenced

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scientists announced Wednesday that they had deciphered chromosome 20, the largest of the three chromosomes to be sequenced thus far. Researchers hope that this latest advance by the Human Genome Project will help explain why some people are more susceptible to diseases such as diabetes or obesity. Also the gene that seems to make some a higher risk for Cruetzfeldt--Jakob Disease, the human version of Mad Cow Disease, is found on chromosome 20. The Human Genome Project is an international research effort to map and sequence the human genome. Scientists at The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England completed the sequencing, and their work is published in Nature magazine.

  14. Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gayle

    The findings of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) were analyzed to identify ways of improving the process of moving people from welfare to work. Selected lessons from the analysis were as follows: (1) welfare-to-work programs that rely on adult basic education programs for the general population are unlikely to improve…

  15. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F.

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed.

  16. A survey of Chinese citizens' perceptions on farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of 'animal welfare'; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  17. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  18. Mouse chromosome-specific painting probes generated from microdissected chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Liechty, M C; Hall, B K; Scalzi, J M; Davis, L M; Caspary, W J; Hozier, J C

    1995-09-01

    Using degenerate primer amplification of chromosomes microdissected from banded cytogenetic preparations, we constructed both whole chromosome painting probes for mouse Chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 2, 3, and 11 and a centromere probe that strongly paints most mouse centromeres. We also amplified a Robertsonian translocation chromosome microdissected from unstained preparations to construct a painting probe for Chrs 9 and 19. The chromosome probes uniformly painted the respective chromosomes of origin. We demonstrated the utility of the Chr 11 probe in aberration analysis by staining mutants that we had previously identified as containing a Chr 11 translocation, and in some mutant cell lines we observed chromosome rearrangements not previously detected in stained cytogenetic preparations. The technology of microdissection and amplification applies to all mouse chromosomes or to specific subchromosomal regions and will be useful in mouse genetics, in aberration analysis, and for chromosome identification. PMID:8535064

  19. Reforming child welfare: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Marie; Smith, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, child welfare systems were exposed to intense pressure. As a result, most systems have undertaken processes of reform and change. This article discusses the strategic development of New Zealand's service system in child welfare. A partnership between managerial discipline and professional leadership has been critical in the service system reform. With respect to management, a strong vision, a culture of high performance, and greater organizational stability and confidence provided the platform on which professional reforms could be established-including the knowledge framework, the service model, the practice package, and staff support. The managerial efforts that have provided the platform for the professional reforms are discussed, followed by an exploration of the professional reform package. PMID:20945803

  20. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. PMID:21887810

  1. The preferred role and perceived performance of the welfare state: European welfare attitudes from a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; van Oorschot, Wim; Gelissen, John

    2014-03-01

    Welfare state support has two core dimensions: attitudes about what the welfare state should do and beliefs about its actual performance. People can combine any position on one dimension with any position on the other, yielding four opinion clusters: people can combine preferences for a relatively strong role of the welfare state with a perception of a relatively low or high welfare state performance; likewise, people preferring a small role of the welfare state can perceive a high or low performing welfare state. We apply Latent Class Factor Analysis to data of 22 European countries from the 2008/9 European Social Survey. We find that each of the four clusters contains a substantial proportion of respondents that differs between welfare regimes. In addition, cluster membership is also related to covariates that measure people's structural positions and ideological preferences. PMID:24468444

  2. Welfare Reform, Fertility and Father Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara S. McLanahan; Marcia J. Carlson

    2002-01-01

    Recognizing that most poor families are single-parent families, the federal welfare reform law of 1996 emphasized the responsibility of both parents to support their children. In addition to strengthening the child support enforcement system, the law included several provisions to decrease nonmarital childbearing and to promote two-parent families. This article focuses on the important role fathers play in children?s lives

  3. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach.

    PubMed

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-09-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  4. A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouallegue, K.

    Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

  5. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on any object the patient touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  6. Energy Audit Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  7. Energy Audit Equipment

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  8. CATALOGUE of EQUIPMENT & RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    of Memphis Integrated Microscopy Center Laser Capture Microdissection Mass Spectrometry Core Laboratory;EQUIPMENT in the COLLEGE of DENTISTRY RESEARCH CENTERS The following section lists the equipment microscope (SEM) Stereo Microscope: CCD camera & image analysis software Strain Gauge Measurement Set

  9. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra

    2011-01-01

    I test for welfare-induced migration by comparing AFDC participation in border counties to interior counties in the same state. If migration costs are lower for border county residents, border counties on the high-benefit side of a state border should have higher welfare participation relative to the state’s interior counties. Border counties on the low-benefit side should have lower welfare participation relative to the state’s interior counties. The results obtained using county-level data from 1970–90 indicate that having a neighbor with benefits that are $100 lower increases AFDC expenditures in border counties by 4.0–6.8 percent relative to interior counties. PMID:21949446

  10. Equipment management system (EMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yurtsever; M. Comerford

    1995-01-01

    Equipment Management System (EMS) is a software tool used to monitor and track equipment states, restrictions and PM schedules in real time. EMS has been designed and customized to support the MOS-2 die production facility. The system provides graphical representation of the entire factory. Color coded icons represent equipment's current state (i.e. qualification, production, unscheduled maintenance, etc.). Preventative maintenance schedules

  11. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  12. Chromosomal rearrangements in cattle and pigs revealed by chromosome microdissection and chromosome painting

    PubMed Central

    Pinton, Alain; Ducos, Alain; Yerle, Martine

    2003-01-01

    A pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 in a boar, as well as a case of (2q-;5p+) translocation mosaicism in a bull were analysed by chromosome painting using probes generated by conventional microdissection. For the porcine inversion, probes specific for p arms and q arms were produced and hybridised simultaneously on metaphases of a heterozygote carrier. In the case of the bovine translocation, two whole chromosome probes (chromosome 5, and derived chromosome 5) were elaborated and hybridised independently on chromosomal preparations of the bull who was a carrier of the mosaic translocation. The impossibility of differentiating chromosomes 2 and der(2) from other chromosomes of the metaphases did not allow the production of painting probes for these chromosomes. For all experiments, the quality of painting was comparable to that usually observed with probes obtained from flow-sorted chromosomes. The results obtained allowed confirmation of the interpretations proposed with G-banding karyotype analyses. In the bovine case, however, the reciprocity of the translocation could not be proven. The results presented in this paper show the usefulness of the microdissection technique for characterising chromosomal rearrangements in species for which commercial probes are not available. They also confirmed that the main limiting factor of the technique is the quality of the chromosomal preparations, which does not allow the identification of target chromosomes or chromosome fragments in all cases. PMID:14604515

  13. The New Welfare Law and Vulnerable Families: Implications for Child Welfare/Child Protection Systems. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane; Bernard, Stanley

    This report examines the potential impact of federal welfare legislation, Public Law 104-193, The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, on vulnerable families already in or at risk of entering the child welfare/child protection systems. The report includes an overview of the challenges states face; questions for state…

  14. Characterization of chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis by chromosome conformation capture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The packaging of long chromatin fibers in the nucleus poses a major challenge, as it must fulfill both physical and functional requirements. Until recently, insights into the chromosomal architecture of plants were mainly provided by cytogenetic studies. Complementary to these analyses, chromosome conformation capture technologies promise to refine and improve our view on chromosomal architecture and to provide a more generalized description of nuclear organization. Results Employing circular chromosome conformation capture, this study describes chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis nuclei from a genome-wide perspective. Surprisingly, the linear organization of chromosomes is reflected in the genome-wide interactome. In addition, we study the interplay of the interactome and epigenetic marks and report that the heterochromatic knob on the short arm of chromosome 4 maintains a pericentromere-like interaction profile and interactome despite its euchromatic surrounding. Conclusion Despite the extreme condensation that is necessary to pack the chromosomes into the nucleus, the Arabidopsis genome appears to be packed in a predictive manner, according to the following criteria: heterochromatin and euchromatin represent two distinct interactomes; interactions between chromosomes correlate with the linear position on the chromosome arm; and distal chromosome regions have a higher potential to interact with other chromosomes. PMID:24267747

  15. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    PubMed

    Sz?cs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  16. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  17. Nuclear Structure and Chromosome Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Lindsay Shopland (The Jackson Laboratory)

    2010-05-19

    Powerpoint slides for two classes, the first on principles of nuclear structure, and the second on chromosome evolution in the context of nuclear structure, segmental duplications, and other mechanisms that permit chromosome evolution.

  18. Is Money the Measure of Welfare in Russia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Rose; Ian McAllister

    1996-01-01

    The transformation of a non-market to a market economy ought to change fundamentally the significance of money incomes for welfare. Whereas in a stressful non-market economy such as the former Soviet Union, non-monetized resources could substitute for money income and promote welfare, in a modern market economy money income should be a good proxy for household welfare. This article tests

  19. Developing collaborations between child welfare agencies and Latino communities.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Hilda P

    2002-01-01

    Collaborative efforts to achieve permanency planning and family stability for all children in the child welfare system are increasing. As Latino children and families constitute the fastest growing ethnic group in the child welfare system, it is important to understand how to develop culturally sensitive collaborations with their communities. The purpose of this article is to suggest helpful guidelines for developing collaborations between child welfare agencies and Latino communities. PMID:12014473

  20. Condensin: Architect of mitotic chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damien F. Hudson; Kathryn M. Marshall; William C. Earnshaw

    2009-01-01

    Condensin is a highly conserved pentameric complex consisting of two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) ATPase subunits\\u000a and three auxiliary components. While initially regarded as a key driver of mitotic chromosome condensation, condensin is\\u000a increasingly viewed as having a more subtle influence on chromosome architecture. The two condensin complexes are required\\u000a to direct the correct folding and organization of chromosomes

  1. Monosomy for the X chromosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn A. Bondy; Clara Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Dosage compensation serves to equalize X chromosome gene expression in mammalian males and females and involves extensive\\u000a silencing of the 2nd X chromosome in females. If dosage compensation mechanisms completely suppressed the 2nd X chromosome,\\u000a then actual physical loss of this “eXtra” chromosome should have few consequences. However, X monosomy has major effects upon\\u000a normal development, fertility and longevity in

  2. Sex chromosomes and human growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lassi Alvesalo

    1997-01-01

    Studies on tooth crown size and structure of individuals with various sex chromosome anomalies and their normal male and\\u000a female relatives have demonstrated differential direct effects on growth of genes on the human X and Y chromosomes. The Y\\u000a chromosome promotes growth of both tooth enamel and dentin, whereas the effect of the X chromosome on tooth growth seems to

  3. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  4. Born of Blood: Craft Stick Chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Texas

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners work in groups to match craft sticks that represent chromosomes. Learners must define critical attributes of their chromosomes as they look for matching chromosomes. When learners find their matches, they use a chromosome key card to number their chromosome pairs. Learners then create a karyotype of their chromosomes.

  5. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability.

    PubMed

    Lakdawalla, Darius N; Seabury, Seth A

    2012-12-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  6. The Y Chromosome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  7. Why Chromosome Palindromes?

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Esther; Demuth, Jeffery P.; Williford, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W) evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1) genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2) under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes. PMID:22844637

  8. Chromosome structure In prokaryotes

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    ) Figure 6.11, 6.17 Centromere's role of chromosome segregation Figure 6.16, 6.33 #12;9/3/14 7 Model for centromere structure Figure 6.35 Telomeres are long arrays of 5-8 bp repeats and have a 3' overhang Telomeres

  9. Social welfare, genetic welfare? Boundary-work in the IVF\\/PGD clinic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Ehrich; Clare Williams; Rosamund Scott; Jane Sandall; Bobbie Farsides

    2006-01-01

    Through the lens of the ‘welfare of the child’ assessment, this paper explores how staff working in the area of in vitro fertilisation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (IVF\\/PGD) balance reflexive relations of legitimacy and accountability between the public and private spheres, and between medicine, the citizen and the state. The wider research of which this analysis is a part uses

  10. Chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two supernumerary ring chromosomes 20.

    PubMed

    Guediche, N; Brisset, S; Benichou, J-J; Guérin, N; Mabboux, P; Maurin, M-L; Bas, C; Laroudie, M; Picone, O; Goldszmidt, D; Prévot, S; Labrune, P; Tachdjian, G

    2010-02-01

    The occurrence of an additional ring chromosome 20 is a rare chromosome abnormality, and no common phenotype has been yet described. We report on two new patients presenting with a supernumerary ring chromosome 20 both prenatally diagnosed. The first presented with intrauterine growth retardation and some craniofacial dysmorphism, and the second case had a normal phenotype except for obesity. Conventional cytogenetic studies showed for each patient a small supernumerary marker chromosome (SMC). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, these SMCs corresponded to ring chromosomes 20 including a part of short and long arms of chromosome 20. Detailed molecular cytogenetic characterization showed different breakpoints (20p11.23 and 20q11.23 for Patient 1 and 20p11.21 and 20q11.21 for Patient 2) and sizes of the two ring chromosomes 20 (13.6 Mb for case 1 and 4.8 Mb for case 2). Review of the 13 case reports of an extra r(20) ascertained postnatally (8 cases) and prenatally (5 cases) showed varying degrees of phenotypic abnormalities. We document a detailed molecular cytogenetic chromosomal breakpoints characterization of two cases of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20. These results emphasize the need to characterize precisely chromosomal breakpoints of supernumerary ring chromosomes 20 in order to establish genotype-phenotype correlation. This report may be helpful for prediction of natural history and outcome, particularly in prenatal diagnosis. PMID:20101685

  11. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  12. Welfare Watch: Give Your Medical Centre A Health Check 2011-12 Welfare Watch: Give Your Medical Centre A Health Check 2011-12

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Welfare Watch: Give Your Medical Centre A Health Check 2011-12 #12;Welfare Watch: Give Your Medical Centre A Health Check 2011-12 INTRODUCTION ,,Welfare Watch is a campaign that was developed by Colum McGuire, Vice-President (Welfare) of Kent Union. The aim of the campaign was to look at different relevant

  13. Patients' mobility across borders: a welfare analysis.

    PubMed

    Levaggi, Laura; Levaggi, Rosella

    2014-01-01

    Welfare systems are designed on geographical and membership boundaries. In terms of access to health care this implies that, as a general rule, only individuals residing in their national territory can obtain health care from providers located there. However, in the past few years medical tourism has grown at an explosive pace throughout the world and in Europe. Each year in fact a small, but significant number of European citizens seek medical treatment that is financed by their public insurer in another EU country. From an economic point of view, it is important to distinguish between the two following sources of patients' mobility: a regulated mobility, where the third payer decides to send patients abroad and patients' choice, where the patient himself decides to seek care abroad. In this article we show how the combined effect of restrictions to the use of health care, transfer prices, and mobility rules determine social welfare and its allocation between Regions. The results are quite interesting: if the price set for these patients is equal to the marginal cost of the more efficient Region, patients' mobility should be preferred to patients' choice. On the other hand, if the price is equal to the marginal cost of the less efficient Region, patient choice should be preferred. The other interesting result is a possible trade off between a static model where each Region chooses its level of cost/effectiveness and a more long-term situation, where patient mobility determines a common level for this parameter. PMID:24864387

  14. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  15. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  16. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  17. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  18. Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

  19. Rethinking the western construction of the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Walker, A; Wong, C K

    1996-01-01

    This article employs case studies of China and Hong Kong to question the western ethnocentric construction of the welfare state that predominates in comparative social policy research. The authors argue that welfare regimes, and particularly the "welfare state," have been constructed as capitalist-democratic projects and that this has the damaging effect of excluding from analyses not only several advanced capitalist societies in the Asian-Pacific area but also the world's most populous country. If welfare state regimes can only coexist with western political democracies, then China and Hong Kong are excluded automatically. A similar result occurs if the traditional social administration approach is adopted whereby a "welfare state" is defined in terms only of direct state provision. The authors argue that such assumptions are untenable if state welfare is to be analyzed as a universal phenomenon. Instead of being trapped within an ethnocentric welfare statism, what social policy requires is a global political economy perspective that facilitates comparisons of the meaning of welfare and the state's role in producing it north, south, east and west. PMID:8932602

  20. Welfare Reform in California: Early Results from the Impact Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerman, Jacob Alex; Hotz, V. Joseph; Reardon, Elaine; Cox, Amy G.; Farley, Donna O.; Haider, Steven J.; Imbens, Guido; Schoeni, Robert

    The impact of California Work Opportunity and Responsibility to Kids (CalWORKS), which was passed to increase California welfare recipients' participation in welfare-to-work (WTW) activities, was examined. The impact study consisted of a nonexperimental program evaluation that used statistical models to estimate causal effects and a simulation…

  1. Did welfare reform influence the fertility of young teens?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard M. Lopoo; Thomas DeLeire

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data from the National Center for

  2. Improving social welfare chain using optimal planning model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burcu Adivar; Tarik Atan; Bengü Sevil Oflaç; Tu?ba Örten

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to introduce the concept of social welfare chain and address the challenges in decision making through the development of an optimal planning model for a nongovernmental organization (NGO). The distinctive properties of the social welfare chain and its relationship with the humanitarian relief chain in the context of supply chain management are

  3. The Impact of New Social Risks on Welfare States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Taylor-Gooby

    Note: this paper is intended to present some background ideas for the session. It is based on chapter 1 of the book New Social Risks and New Welfare in Europe, to be published by Oxford University Press in 2004, which draws on research carried out for the EU FPV project 'Welfare Reform and the Management of Societal Change'. I wish

  4. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  5. The Welfare State: Prospects for the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronbjerg, Kirsten A., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are examined: old age pensions under social security; economic policy as the primary determinant of social policy; the measurement of poverty and its implications for antipoverty policies; race and ethnic relations; the future of private welfare; and the analytic connection between sociology and social welfare. (RM)

  6. Welfare Effects of Minimum Wage and Other Government Policies

    E-print Network

    Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    welfare index has a dollar-denominated interpretation. Second, the measure for the entire population can be decomposed into within-groups and between-groups welfare measures for subgroups of the population. Third as its role in redistributing income. Relatively few studies have looked at its effects on the income

  7. Serving Teen Parents in a Welfare Reform Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Helene

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 presents states with new opportunities and flexibility to design programs for teen parents. This report summarizes how welfare reform has changed the environment for teen parents dependent on welfare. The report presents research findings on the costs of supporting teen…

  8. Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

    As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

  9. Closing the Care Gap That Welfare Reform Left Behind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucie E. White

    2001-01-01

    This article begins by drawing from an interview with Johnnie Tillmon, a grassroots leader of the National Welfare Rights Organization, to locate welfare reform in the context of cultural anxieties about an eroding racial order and shifting gender roles. It then considers the sorts of state policies and legal entitlements that could resource the care-work that has heretofore been subsidized

  10. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. van Huik; B. B. Bock

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics of Dutch pig production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 62 Dutch pig farmers, participating in quality

  11. Revenue Recycling and the Welfare Effects of Road Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian W. H. Parry; Antonio Bento

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the interactions between taxes on work-related traffic congestion and pre-existing distortionary taxes in the labor market. A congestion tax raises the overall costs of commuting to work and discourages labor force participation. The resulting welfare loss in the labor market can easily exceed the Pigouvian welfare gain from internalizing the congestion externality. However, if congestion tax revenues

  12. Commercial scale research and assessment of poultry welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Stamp Dawkins

    2012-01-01

    1. Commercial level research on poultry welfare is increasingly important because of the insight it gives into what improves welfare in the context of other important drivers such as human health, environmental impact and cost.2. There are, however, a number of problems with conducting commercial level research – such as conflicts over aims, financial compensation and legal issues – that

  13. The Privatization of the Welfare State: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi

    1986-01-01

    Privatization is one way the Reagan Administration is restructuring the welfare state. Intervention in the economy was historically conceived to modify the market in behalf of social justice. In contrast, privatization channels public dollars into private hands, strengthens the two-class welfare state, and reproduces the inequalities of the free…

  14. Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Lemke; Ann Dryden Witte; Magaly Queralt; Robert Witt

    2000-01-01

    We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

  15. Child Care and the Welfare to Work Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Lemke; Robert Witt; Ann Dryden Witte

    2001-01-01

    We assess the role of child care in the welfare to work transition using an unusually large and comprehensive data base. Our data are for Massachusetts, a state that began welfare reform in 1995 under a federal waiver, for the period July 1996 through August 1997. We find that both the nature of the child care market and the availability

  16. Social capital, houshold welfare, and poverty in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiaan Grootaert

    1999-01-01

    The author empirically estimates how social capital affects household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. His focus: household memberships in local associations, an aspect of social capital especially relevant to daily household decisions that affect welfare and consumption. The data suggest that households with higher social capital spend more per capita. They also have more assets, more savings, and better access

  17. Child Welfare Services and Delinquency: The Need to Know More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the need for a better understanding of the moderating effects of child welfare services on delinquency. Although juvenile delinquency is a commonly studied issue, researchers have paid little attention to the degree to which child welfare services may be associated with changes in subsequent delinquency rates. Emerging…

  18. The Benefits of Learning Social Welfare: Lessons from Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Melissa E.; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that most entering MSW students exhibit a primary interest in individual clinical practice but minimal understanding of or interest in welfare policy knowledge. However, this assumption is mostly based on attitudes before and at the beginning of encountering social welfare courses. Using a mixed-methods approach of both…

  19. Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005. Report to Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005: Report to Congress" (Child Welfare Outcomes Report) is the seventh in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the Department). The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997)…

  20. Managing the Socially Marginalized: Attitudes Toward Welfare, Punishment, and Race

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren Wheelock; Pamela Wald; Yakov Shchukin

    2012-01-01

    Welfare and incarceration policies have converged to form a system of governance over socially marginalized groups, particularly racial minorities. In both of these policy areas, rehabilitative and social support objectives have been replaced with a more punitive and restrictive system. The authors examine the convergence in individual-level attitudes concerning welfare and criminal punishment, using national survey data. The authors' analysis

  1. Welfare advice in general practice: a resource for community nurses.

    PubMed

    Greasley, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Recent policy guidance has recommended that community nurses address public health issues, suggesting that they play a role in assessing and addressing poverty, and ensuring patients claim the welfare benefits to which they are entitled. This article reports an evaluation of a welfare advice service catering for 30 general practices in inner-city Bradford. Community nurses, along with other members of the primary care team, were able to refer patients for advice about welfare issues, including benefits, housing, debt etc. A retrospective study was conducted of all patients referred for advice during 24 months of the project. The advice workers saw 2484 patients, dealt with over 4000 welfare advice issues, and raised over pounds 2 million in welfare benefit claims for patients, primarily through disability-related benefits. The contribution of community nurses is examined in terms of referrals and outcomes for patients. PMID:16116396

  2. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen, (The Netherlands). Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  3. Explosive Detection Equipment Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    As the Technical Direction Agent for the Department of Defense's Explosive Detection Equipment Program, the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division provides leadership in the pursuit of effective and suitable technology for concealed threat device detection. This program seeks explosive detection equipment that will effectively and economically confirm the presence or absence of energetic materials in or on: 1) mail\\/parcels\\/cargo,

  4. Adaptive Equipment for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetters, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Instructing the physically handicapped technical education student in the use of adaptive equipment (AE), such as Braille computers, involves four steps: keeping a current file of access to AE, insuring proper education in the use of AE, encouraging student creativity, and evaluating the equipment to recommend changes and adaptations. (CT)

  5. Troubleshooting rotating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. (Petroleos del Peru, Lima (Peru))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that equipment problems in a Peruvian refinery illustrate the process engineer's role as a troubleshooter. Examples show that rotating equipment problems can stem from mechanical or process factors and involve both inspection/maintenance specialists and process engineers.

  6. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  7. OKEANOS EXPLORER Deck Equipment

    E-print Network

    systems using hydrographic winch and traction winch. ROV Crane HydraPro Knuckle-boom type craneOKEANOS EXPLORER Deck Equipment Dynamic Positioning (DP-1) Equipped with a Kongsberg DP-1 system for holding station. System capitalizes on a new 500 hp retractible azimuthing bow thruster and 2 - 250 hp

  8. Duke University Laboratory Equipment

    E-print Network

    Wolpert, Robert L

    , incubators, chemical fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, and other items potentially contaminated, and does not pose a hazardous materials risk to service personnel. For Chemical Fume Hoods only (mark one equipment must be free of hazardous materials (i.e. biological, chemical, radiological) prior to equipment

  9. Equipping the School Kitchen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah Hutcherson

    2000-01-01

    The best way to purchase food-service equipment for a new or renovated school is to assemble a team, assess the school's needs, see what is available, follow state and federal procurement guidelines, install the equipment, and train employees to use it safely. A sidebar outlines procurement tips. (MLH)

  10. Equip a Biotechnology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology labs need specialized equipment for different types of processes and activities. The list on this site contains links to photos, SOPs, and information about different pieces of equipment. The content is divided by type of laboratory: Core Facilities, Media/Buffer/Reagent/Solution Preparation, Molecular Biology, and Downstream Processing.

  11. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  12. Dynamics of chromosome spreading

    SciTech Connect

    Spurbeck, J.L.; Meyer, K.J.; Jalal, S.M. [Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others] [Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States); and others

    1996-02-02

    Consistency of optimum chromosome spreading during harvest of cytogenetic specimens remains a major concern. We have tested the idea that a precise control of the drying rate (the time with which metaphase cells dry), as fixed cell suspension is placed on a slide or an in situ culture in last fixation, may be the answer. Amniocyte and lymphocyte cultures were allowed to dry at defined combinations of relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T) in a modified Thermotron environmental control unit. We were able to demonstrate, based on 2,250 amniocytes and 1,650 lymphocytes, that the metaphase area after drying was a function of RH and T for both in situ and non-in situ culture systems. As the RH and T increase, the metaphase area increases until a threshold is reached. Also, as RH increases, the slide drying time increases. Data obtained using a response surface regression analysis and slide drying time studies are consistent with our model of chromosome spreading. Optimum metaphase areas can be achieved at various combinations of RH and T. We propose that the use of an environmental control unit is a practical way of achieving optimum chromosome spreading routinely and in a highly consistent manner. 11 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Welfare to Work: Does It Work for Kids? Research on Work and Income Welfare Experiments. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Stephanie A.

    Noting that a central tenet of the 1996 welfare reform law was that work was the best way to improve the lives of single parents and their children, this fact sheet summarizes research on the impact of parental work on children in families receiving welfare. The fact sheet delineates key research findings from experimental studies of the effects…

  14. Women Students with Dependent Children on Welfare: Educational Impact of Welfare Policy and Practice. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Nancy S.; And Others

    A survey conducted at University of Wisconsin System institutions was designed to help decision makers determine how many women students were on welfare and to find out the interaction between welfare and student financial aid in relation to expenses incurred in higher education. Women students vary in financial, marital, and parental status, and…

  15. Anaesthesia of farmed fish: implications for welfare.

    PubMed

    Zahl, Inger Hilde; Samuelsen, Ole; Kiessling, Anders

    2012-02-01

    During their life cycle as farmed animals, there are several situations in which fish are subjected to handling and confinement. Netting, weighing, sorting, vaccination, transport and, at the end, slaughter are frequent events under farming conditions. As research subjects, fish may also undergo surgical procedures that range from tagging, sampling and small incisions to invasive procedures. In these situations, treatment with anaesthetic agents may be necessary in order to ensure the welfare of the fish. The main objective of this paper is to review our knowledge of the effects of anaesthetic agents in farmed fish and their possible implications for welfare. As wide variations in response to anaesthesia have been observed both between and within species, special attention has been paid to the importance of secondary factors such as body weight, water temperature and acute stress. In this review, we have limited ourselves to the anaesthetic agents such as benzocaine, metacaine (MS-222), metomidate hydrochloride, isoeugenol, 2-phenoxyethanol and quinaldine. Anaesthetic protocols of fish usually refer to one single agent, whereas protocols of human and veterinary medicine cover combinations of several drugs, each contributing to the effects needed in the anaesthesia. As stress prior to anaesthesia may result in abnormal reactions, pre-anaesthetic sedation is regularly used in order to reduce or avoid stress and is an integral part of the veterinary protocols of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the anaesthetic agents that are used in order to obtain general anaesthesia are combined with analgesic agents that target nociception. The increased use of such combinations in fish is therefore included as a special section. Anaesthetic agents are widely used to avoid stress during various farming procedures. While several studies report that anaesthetics are effective in reducing the stress associated with confinement and handling, there are indications that anaesthesia may in itself induce a stress response, measured by elevated levels of cortisol. MS-222 has been reported to elicit high cortisol release rates immediately following exposure, while benzocaine causes a bimodal response. Metomidate has an inhibitory effect on cortisol in fish and seems to induce the lowest release of cortisol of the agents reported in the literature. Compared to what is observed following severe stressors such as handling and confinement, the amount of cortisol released in response to anaesthesia appears to be low but may represent an extra load under otherwise stressful circumstances. Furthermore, anaesthetics may cause secondary adverse reactions such as acidosis and osmotic stress due to respiratory arrest and insufficient exchange of gas and ions between the blood and the water. All in all, anaesthetics may reduce stress and thereby improve welfare but can also have unwanted side effects that reduce the welfare of the fish and should therefore always be used with caution. Finally, on the basis of the data reported in the literature and our own experience, we recommend that anaesthetic protocols should always be tested on a few fish under prevailing conditions in order to ensure an adequate depth of anaesthesia. This recommendation applies whether a single agent or a combination of agents is used, although it appears that protocols comprising combinations of agents provide wider safety margins. The analgesic effects of currently used agents, in spite of their proven local effects, are currently being debated as the agents are administrated to fish via inhalation rather than locally at the target site. We therefore recommend that all protocols of procedures requiring general anaesthesia should be complemented by administration of agents with analgesic effect at the site of tissue trauma. PMID:22160749

  16. Welfare consequences of mulesing of sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Fisher, A D

    2007-03-01

    Mulesing is traditionally performed on approximately 80% of Merino wool-producing sheep in Australia. Mulesing produces a stress response that persists for 24 to 48 hours. Behavioural changes indicative of pain and discomfort resolve within 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Reductions in weight gain may persist for 14 days. The acute stress response to mulesing has been shown to be similar to that produced by shearing, castration and mild flystrike, but mulesing has a longer duration of response (24 to 48 hours) than shearing (1 hour) or knife castration (8 to 24 hours), whereas flystrike response persists for the duration of infection. Theoretically, if mulesing were not used, with Merino sheep of existing genetics, increased chemical use and flock inspections could keep flystrike rates to approximately equivalent to present levels in some production systems. Increased handling events for chemical preventative application would represent a mild stressor for sheep, but cumulatively not more than that of mulesing. If producers were able and prepared to sufficiently increase resources into alternative anti-flystrike methods, then the welfare of Merino sheep would probably be equivalent or better to that of today. If constraints such as property size or finances dictate a sub-optimal level of flystrike prevention and treatment, then animal welfare will unquestionably be worse. The result of that equation would depend on individual flock managers, the physical characteristics of their production system, the profitability of their business, and seasonal variations in flystrike risk. It is likely that there would be some occasions when flystrike would increase. This highlights the need for alternative strategies, such as genetic selection, to reduce the susceptibility of Australian Merino sheep to flystrike. PMID:17359305

  17. Status of animal welfare awareness of producers and direction of animal welfare research in the future.

    PubMed

    Albright, J L

    1983-10-01

    Most producers are as humane in their thinking and care of animals as are those people involved in the many activist organizations springing up around the United States. That there are no major problems of animal welfare with the dairy cow posed by changes of systems has been suggested. However, veal producers have been criticized for their production practices. The major areas to be resolved between animal welfare advocates and commercial veal producers is the matter of individual pens versus group systems that permit general freedom of movement. Recent developments of dairy cattle management that have improved the comfort and well-being of dairy cattle include raising of calves in individual pens or hutches; exercise prior to calving; change of flooring (grooving of concrete, use of dirt exercise lots, elimination of slats); use of free stalls rather than loose housing; use of materials to keep cows dry, clean, out of the mud, cool, and free from flies and pests; and elimination of stray voltage. Design of a system for animal welfare is only part of the solution. The most important factor in determining stress in the herd is the behavior, attitude, and consistency of the caretaker. PMID:6358291

  18. Polymer Models of Interphase Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Kondev, Jané; Bressen, Debra; Haber, James

    2006-03-01

    Experiments during interphase, the growth phase of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, have shown that parts of chromosomes are tethered to the nuclear periphery[1]. Using a simple polymer model of interphase chromosomes that includes tethering, we compute the probability distribution for the distance between two marked points on the chromosome. These calculations are inspired by recent experiments with two or more fluorescent markers placed along the chromosome[2]. We demonstrate how experiments of this kind, in conjunction with simpe polymer models, can be used to systematically dissect the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes in the nucleus of living cells. This comparison of theory with experiments has lead to the conclusion that the structure of chromosome III in yeast is consistent with a 10nm-fiber model of chromatin. [1]Wallace F. Marshall. Current Biology, 12, 2002. [2] Kerstin Bystricky, Patrick Heun, Lutz Gehlen, Jörg Langowski and Susan M. Gasser. PNAS, 101(47) 2004

  19. B Chromosomes and Sex in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. M. Camacho; M. Schmid; J. Cabrero

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes are dispensable elements found in many eukaryote genomes in addition to standard (A) chromosomes. In many respects, B chromosomes resemble sex chromosomes, so that a common ancestry for them has frequently been suggested. For instance, B chromosomes in grasshoppers, and other insects, show a pycnotic cycle of condensation-decondensation during meiosis remarkably similar to that of the X

  20. X-Chromosome Genetics and Human Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Spatz; Christophe Borg; Jean Feunteun

    2004-01-01

    In mammals, the X chromosome is unique within the chromosome set. In contrast to the other chromosomes — for which two active copies are present — both male and female cells carry only one active X chromosome. This is because males have only one X chromosome and in females only one copy is active, a situation that leads to specific

  1. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  2. Multiple jeopardy: poor, economically disconnected, and child welfare involved.

    PubMed

    Marcenko, Maureen O; Hook, Jennifer L; Romich, Jennifer L; Lee, JoAnn S

    2012-08-01

    Although the welfare literature reveals a growing number of parents who are economically disconnected, meaning neither employed nor receiving cash assistance, little is known about the prevalence and impacts of disconnection among child welfare-involved parents. This study took advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare-involved parents to examine economic disconnection in this population and to explore the relationship between disconnection and parent engagement in child welfare. One fifth of the sample reported that they were economically disconnected, with several patterns differentiating disconnected caregivers from those who received benefits or earned income through employment. Disconnected caregivers were younger and more frequently had children in out-of-home placements as opposed to receiving services in home than economically connected caregivers. They also reported higher unmet needs for basic services, such as housing and medical care, but were more likely to report financial help from their informal network. Finally, disconnected caregivers reported lower engagement in child welfare services even when controlling for demographic characteristics, chronic psychosocial risk factors, placement status, and maltreatment type. The findings document economic disconnection among child welfare-involved parents and raise important questions about the implications of disconnection for families and for child welfare outcomes. PMID:22917897

  3. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    PubMed

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security. PMID:21692243

  4. Induction of Chromosomal Structural Changes by a Chromosome of Aegilops cylindrica L. in Common Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. R. Endo

    Chromosomal structural changes—deletions and translocations—occurred In almost half the progeny of a monosomic addition line of common wheat, Triticum aestivum (2n = 42, AABBDD), which had a chromosome from Aegilops cylindrica (2n = 28, CCDD). Most of the progeny with chromosomal structural changes lacked the A. cylindrica chromosome. Chromosome breaks were observed in various regions of all the wheat chromosomes

  5. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  6. Losing Health Insurance: Unintended Consequences of Welfare Reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Klein, Rachel.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted by Families USA, a health consumer group, this first national study of the connection between welfare reform and the loss of health insurance estimates that up to 675,000 people were uninsured in 1997 as a direct result of welfare reform. As 1997 was the first year of welfare reform implementation, the group expects the number of uninsured to increase dramatically in the next several years. Available in .pdf format, the report features a list of key findings and numerous graphs, tables, and sidebars.

  7. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

  8. Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia

    PubMed Central

    Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

    2012-01-01

    Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution. PMID:22086076

  9. OATS WITH MAIZE CHROMOSOME AND CHROMOSOME SEGMENT ADDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) plants crossed with maize (Zea mays L., 2n = 2x = 20) yields both haploid oat plants and plants with one or more maize chromosomes added to a haploid oat genome. Recovery of plants requires embryo rescue following partial or full elimination of the maize chromosom...

  10. Chromosome 9 of Ellobius lutescens is the X chromosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walther Vogel; Peter Steinbach; Mahmoud Djalali; Karl Mehnert; Sher Ali; Jörg Thomas Epplen

    1988-01-01

    Ellobius lutescens carries an apparently identical karyotype (2n = 17) in both sexes. On the basis of indirect evidence the unpaired chromosome 9 has been considered to represent the X chromosome of this species. We have obtained data to substantiate this view by four different techniques. After fusion of HPRT- RAG cells with E. lutescens fibroblasts we demonstrated that the

  11. Employment as a "Solution" to Welfare: Challenges over the Next Ten Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2000-01-01

    Recent reforms assume that welfare recipients can achieve employment if welfare agencies just give them a "push". Over the next ten years, the "employment solution" to welfare faces the following three challenges: (1) employing all employable welfare recipients; (2) helping them get and keep good jobs; and (3) reconstructing a safety net for those…

  12. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WHITE PAPER FOR SOCIAL WELFARE: A TEN-YEAR REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoinette Lombard

    The social welfare sector's response to the country's transformation to a genuine democracy is embedded in the White Paper for Social Welfare, which was adopted in 1997. This article reviews the success of the White Paper for Social Welfare over the past ten years. The implementation has been effective in reshaping welfare policy. There is now a much clearer understanding

  13. Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

    1998-01-01

    During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and welfare cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

  14. Welfare, The Earned Income Tax Credit, And The Labor Supply Of Single Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

    2001-01-01

    During 1984-1996, welfare and tax policy were changed to encourage work by single mothers. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added, and welfare cases were terminated. Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, as were training programs and child care. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the

  15. Tools to measure and improve welfare of laboratory rats : reward-related behaviour end environmental enrichment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna Egberdina van der Harst

    2003-01-01

    Animals are exploited by man for several different purposes. According to many, society should be concerned about the welfare of these animals. Currently, an increasing need exists to be able to assess and improve animal welfare. In this thesis a concept of welfare is applied that states that 'welfare is determined by the balance between positive and negative experiences'. This

  16. Defining Welfare Spells: Coping with Problems of Survey Responses and Administrative Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luks, Samantha; Brady, Henry E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to define a welfare spell (period on welfare) and how well surveys measure welfare spells. A look at survey and administrative data from two studies shows that a substantial amount of administrative churning occurs in administrative data. A single definition of a welfare spell does not appear applicable to all respondents. (SLD)

  17. Using Conjoint Analysis to Weight Broiler Welfare Variables Based on Slaughterhouse Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Tuunainen; Jarmo Valaja; Eija Valkonen; Helena Hepola

    2012-01-01

    The Council of the European Union adopted the welfare directive for broiler chickens in 2007 (Commission of the European Communities, 2007). The directive defines minimum demands and objectives for broiler production ranging from stocking density to welfare. This study found that the level of nonhuman animal welfare can be determined, for example, with welfare indexes that have different weight values

  18. Myths and Facts About Welfare and the Scheme of Things Economic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Detroit Welfare Reform Coalition, MI.

    This pamphlet restates commonly held ideas about welfare and presents facts and figures in refutation. (1) The myth that welfare is the good life--color TV's and Cadillacs; argues that welfare is the "good life" only for those who have not experienced it. (2) The myth that most welfare recipients are cheaters; studies are said to show that only…

  19. Public Views on Welfare Reform and Children in the Current Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake Snell Perry & Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A recent national survey of U.S. adults examined public opinion about welfare reform and measured support for specific policy recommendations. Respondents report ambivalence about the success of welfare reform, though they agree on what the goals of welfare should be and what shape future reforms should take. They favor welfare policies that help…

  20. SEX CHROMOSOMES IN FLOWERING PLANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in dioecious and polygamous plants evolved as a mechanism for ensuring outcrossing to increase genetic variation in the offspring. Sex specificity has evolved in 75% of plant families by male sterile or female sterile mutations, but well defined heteromorphic sex chromosomes are know...

  1. Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosome number

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    Lecture 5 Mitosis and Meiosis #12;Chromosome number Early improvements in our ability to look look at normal chromosomes as they go through mitosis and meiosis #12; Mitosis The biologic function is to produce 2 identical cells Mitotic cell cycle #12;#12;Mitosis #12;Difference between a cell entering

  2. Chromosomal polymorphism in Nucella lapillus.

    PubMed

    Bantock, C R; Cockayne, W C

    1975-04-01

    A technique for the examination of chromosomes in testicular material in Nucella lapillus is described. The diploid chromosome number varies between 26 and 36. Eight pairs of meatcentric chromosomes are always present and range in size from 9mu to 4mu. Additionally, 10 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes (4mu to 1mu) are present in the 2n equal 36 form and correspond to five pairs of metacentric chromosomes in the 2n equal 26 form. Trivalents occur in individuals heterozygous for chromosome arrangements; this is consistent with the interpretation that the polymorphism is Robertsonian in nature. The southern British distribution of the chromosome polymorphism in Nucella is described. The polymorphism occurs regularly only in bay's in the south-west; elsewhere the populations are monomorphic 2n equal 26. Two areas where the polymorphism occurs have been examined in detail. In each of these the frequency of acrocentrics is negatively associated with increasing wave force, but there is some variation suggesting that other factors relating to water movement (tidal currents and range) are important also. It is pointed out that the overall distribution of the polymorphism can be explained on the assumption that a high chromosome frequency is favoured where total water movement is least. PMID:1055710

  3. Organization of the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Krawiec, S; Riley, M

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in studies on the bacterial chromosome is summarized. Although the greatest amount of information comes from studies on Escherichia coli, reports on studies of many other bacteria are also included. A compilation of the sizes of chromosomal DNAs as determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis is given, as well as a discussion of factors that affect gene dosage, including redundancy of chromosomes on the one hand and inactivation of chromosomes on the other hand. The distinction between a large plasmid and a second chromosome is discussed. Recent information on repeated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements is presented. The growing understanding of limitations on the rearrangements that can be tolerated by bacteria and those that cannot is summarized, and the sensitive region flanking the terminator loci is described. Sources and types of genetic variation in bacteria are listed, from simple single nucleotide mutations to intragenic and intergenic recombinations. A model depicting the dynamics of the evolution and genetic activity of the bacterial chromosome is described which entails acquisition by recombination of clonal segments within the chromosome. The model is consistent with the existence of only a few genetic types of E. coli worldwide. Finally, there is a summary of recent reports on lateral genetic exchange across great taxonomic distances, yet another source of genetic variation and innovation. PMID:2087223

  4. Schizophrenia and Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn E. DeLisi; Ursula Friedrich; Jan Wahlstrom; Angela Boccio-Smith; Anders Foreman; Kurt Eklund; Timothy J. Crow

    1994-01-01

    An apparent excess of sex chromosome aneuploidies (XXY, XXX, and possibly XYY) has been reported in populations of patients with schizophrenia by a number of authors. These reports have received little attention because transmission of psychosis is regarded as autosomal and not sex linked, and the detection of extra X chromosomes by Barr body estimation alone is not a reliable

  5. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  6. Employee Benefits and Facilities Work Life Balance Health and Welfare

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    ** and sports facilities*** · Flu immunisation programme · Health promotion programmes · Occupational health · Occupational sick pay scheme · Sports and social association · Staff refectory facilities ConditionsEmployee Benefits and Facilities Work Life Balance Health and Welfare · Annual leave of up to 30

  7. Hurdles that impede economic evaluations of welfare interventions.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Janne; Annemans, Lieven; Simoens, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Compared with economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, less experience has been gained in the field of economic evaluation of welfare interventions. This review suggests possible approaches to address four previously identified hurdles in economic evaluations of welfare interventions. After literature was searched through MEDLINE and EMBASE, it was found that Health-Related-Quality-of-Life questionnaires related to the condition of the target population are needed, instead of generic instruments. These condition-specific instruments use a multidimensional approach. There are specific instruments needed to take account of influences on informal caregivers. Moreover, it was shown that several aspects, such as crime rates and employment should be considered to estimate the impact on societal costs. Finally, the intervention must be described in detail and well defined to reduce variability. In conclusion, economic evaluations of welfare interventions increase complexity. These must be accounted for to permit valid assessments of the value for money of welfare interventions. PMID:25961757

  8. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce

    E-print Network

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12

    . . . . . . . . 88 IV Multinomial Logit Estimates on Choices of Childbirth by Race . . . 89 V Multinomial Logit Estimates on Choices of Childbirth by Policies . . 90 VI Multinomial Logit Estimates on Teen?s Choices of Childbirth by Race... in female headship rates, teen motherhood, out-of-wedlock births, welfare caseload, etc., arose. The AFDC opponents argue that welfare may have been responsible for them. In 1996, Clinton passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconcil...

  9. Welfare, QALYs, and costs - a comment.

    PubMed

    Liljas, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    What costs and what effects should be included in cost-effectiveness analysis from a welfare theoretic perspective? There is a broad agreement to include health-care costs and to measure the effects as Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs). However, a hot topic has been how to handle survivor consumption and leisure foregone. It is well established that the costs for these aspects should be included only if their associated benefits are also included. The key question is, then, if these benefits are included in QALYs. In a recent paper by Nyman (Health Econ., in press) it was argued that these benefits are not generally included in the empirical assessment of QALYs and that these costs therefore should be excluded. Even if this recommendation is correct, the reasons for it can be questioned. It is here instead argued that this decision should be based on theoretical - and not empirical - considerations. Thus, these costs should be excluded because QALYs are unlikely to be consistent with a utility function also including consumption and leisure. If so, then it becomes more important to instruct individuals not to include these benefits in their QALY assessments than to consider to what extent they may or may not be implicitly included. It is also demonstrated that these results have bearings on non-medical costs for the case when survival is not affected. PMID:21157833

  10. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  11. Genetic induction of chromosomal rearrangements in barley chromosome 7H added to common wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Shi; Takashi R. Endo

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome 2C of Aegilops cylindrica induces chromosomal rearrangements in alien chromosome addition lines, as well as in euploid lines, of common wheat. To induce chromosomal rearrangements in barley chromosome 7H, reciprocal crosses were made between a mutation-inducing common wheat line that carries a pair of 7H chromosomes and one 2C chromosome and a 7H disomic addition line of common wheat.

  12. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  13. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Morris, M. A. [Univ. of Geneva School of Medicine, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  14. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  15. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008). PMID:23444794

  16. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  17. [Animal welfare legal aspects of rodeo events].

    PubMed

    Franzky, A; Bohnet, W; Kuhne, F; Luy, J

    2005-03-01

    Rodeo events have been criticised by animal welfare organisations as being adverse to animal protection, for years. This was the motive for TVT to put several of these criticised disciplines to evaluation in terms of animal protection aspects. For that purpose, various rodeo events were visited, and videotaped material of almost all events, which had taken place in Germany in 2003 and 2004, was evaluated. Rodeo events are subject to and 11, sec.1, No. 3d, German Animal Protection Act, which implies compulsory accreditation. In the scope of such events, causing any sort of pain and suffering (and 3 No. 6 German Animal Protection Act) is prohibited. A proof of the severity of the pain caused, is therefore no necessity. For the "critical" disciplines "Bare Back Riding" and "Saddle Bronc Riding" a so called "flank" is used. A flank is a leather strap, fastened to the sensitive parts of the horse skin, (around the flanks,) which is tightened to a maximum as soon as the horse is released from the starting box. Analysis show, that the strap has to be seen as the trigger for the wanted kow-tow. The different coping strategies shown by the animals prove that the leather strap is an apt instrument to cause pain and/or suffering (anxiety/fear/stress) in horses. Bull riding, instead, showed that the rider has to be seen primarily as the trigger for defence behaviour, here. In consideration of the current legal position and taking ethic principles into account, it seems appropriate to only authorise rodeo events under the condition of a flank strap ban. Bull riding should be banned in general. PMID:15847068

  18. Pecan Cleaning Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The huge jump in energy prices since the early 1970s has created a large market for energy-saving industrial equipment and systems in the U.S. In Europe and Japan, great emphasis has been placed on developing energy-efficient products...

  19. Early Equipment Management

    E-print Network

    Schlie, Michelle

    2007-05-18

    . The continuous improvement program was implemented in twelve steps because of its complexity. Early Equipment Management (EEM) is one of the eight pillars of TPM and is the eighth step in the implementation program. EEM is a structured process that evaluates...

  20. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  1. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  2. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

  3. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  4. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  5. ASSURED EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTOR PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Appendix D ASSURED EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTOR PROGRAM Table Of Contents. Visual Inspections.........................................................D-1 3. Removing Equipment APPENDIX D ASSURED EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTOR PROGRAM 1. PROGRAM OVERVIEW. If an Assured Equipment

  6. Purchasing Department Equipment Evaluation Request

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Purchasing Department Equipment Evaluation Request Complete this form, obtain the required. Name Phone Department Date Description of Equipment (include model number): The vendor is responsible is responsible for installation and removal of equipment per above schedule. Any interest in the equipment

  7. Integrative selection of human chromosome-specific yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, W.J.; Reeves, R.G. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Human specific integrative selection vectors (ISVs) were designed to optimize integration of a yeast-selectable marker specifically into yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) derived from human but not mouse DNA. ISVs were transformed into a YAC genomic library constructed from DNA of a human-mouse somatic cell hybrid containing chromosome 21 (HSA21) as the only human chromosome. One percent of the yeast in the original library contained HSA21-derived YACs; between 45% and 54% of the yeast recovered after transformation with ISV vectors contained human YACs. Integrative selection provides a rapid means of obtaining a highly enriched population of human chromosome-specific YACs by eliminating the labor-intensive steps of isolating and screening primary transformants. The procedure is biased toward the selection of YACs that contain a large number of targets for homologous recombination; thus, libraries constructed by this procedure will be composed primarily of the largest YACs in the population.

  8. Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones

    SciTech Connect

    Tassone, F. (Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States) A. Gemelli School of Medicine, Rome (Italy)); Cheng, S.; Gardiner, K. (Eleanor Roosevelt Inst. for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span >100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total [approximately]6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. 48 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Electron microscopy of whole mount metaphase chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Rattner; A. Branch; B. A. Hamkalo

    1975-01-01

    Whole mount metaphase chromosomes, from cultured L cells, have been centrifuged onto grids and examined by electron microscopy. Compact and dispersed chromosome forms provide extensive ultrastructural information. Condensed chromosome arms appear as packed fibers with centromeric heterochromatin identifiable because it stains more intensely than the rest of the chromosome. Kinetochores are readily visible in these preparations. Under appropriate isolation conditions,

  10. Klinefelter syndrome and other sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannie Visootsak; John M Graham Jr

    2006-01-01

    The term Klinefelter syndrome (KS) describes a group of chromosomal disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome to a normal male karyotype, 46,XY. XXY aneuploidy is the most common disorder of sex chromosomes in humans, with prevalence of one in 500 males. Other sex chromosomal aneuploidies have also been described, although they are much less frequent,

  11. Ring Chromosome 13 and Ambiguous Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Özsu, Elif; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Gül; ?pekçi, Belk?s

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum. PMID:24932608

  12. Ring chromosome 13 and ambiguous genitalia.

    PubMed

    Ozsu, Elif; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Gül; Ipekçi, Belk?s

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum. PMID:24932608

  13. RESEARCH Open Access Sex chromosome complement regulates

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    RESEARCH Open Access Sex chromosome complement regulates expression of mood-related genes Marianne-related factors (sex chromosome complement, developmental gonadal sex, or adult circulating hormones) to frontal is determined by sex chromosome complement, the role of sex chromosomes cannot be investigated individually

  14. THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON

    E-print Network

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON Sutton, W. S. 1903. The chromosomes in heredity or redistributed for commercial purposes without permission. Sutton, W. S. 1903. The chromosomes in heredity. Biological Bulletin, 4:231-251. THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON IN A RECENT ANNOUNCEMENT of some

  15. Banding patterns in rat chromosomes (Rattus norvegicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Schnedl; M. Schnedl

    1972-01-01

    By means of the Giemsa staining technique described previously, characteristic banding patterns can be made visible in rat chromosomes. All elements of the karyotype can be distinguished. At the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, striking dark spots can be detected. However, these dark regions are much less prominent than in mouse chromosomes. The X chromosome of Rattus norvegicus comprises 5.31%

  16. The frequency of aneuploidy among individual chromosomes in 6,821 human sperm chromosome complements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Martin; A. Rademaker

    1990-01-01

    The human sperm\\/hamster egg fusion technique has been used to analyse 6,821 human sperm chromosome complements from 98 men to determine if all chromosomes are equally likely to be involved in aneuploid events or if some chromosomes are particularly susceptible to nondisjunction. The frequency of hypohaploidy and hyperhaploidy was compared among different chromosome groups and individual chromosomes. In general, hypohaploid

  17. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Chromosome variation in Crocus . I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Mather

    1932-01-01

    Summary  The somatic chromosome complements of sixty-four species and varieties ofCrocus were examined, and a comparison of them shows that the chromosomal variation in the genus results from:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (i) \\u000a \\u000a Hybridisation and polyploidy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (ii) \\u000a \\u000a Fragmentation and possibly fusion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (iii) \\u000a \\u000a Genotypic change controlling bulk and width of the chromosomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The occurrence of certain species with an odd somatic number of chromosomes shows that

  19. Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Therman, E.; Susman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

  20. [New methods of identifying chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Poroshenko, G G; Gor'kova, S N

    1975-01-01

    The data are considered on the possibility to identify chromosome after differential inhibition of their spiralization when staining the preparations with acrichin derivatives with the subsequent application of fluorescent microscopy as well as with staining by Giemza after treatment of the preparations with hot salt solutions, alkalies or proteolytic enzymes. Materials of the Paris Conference on the human chromosome nomenclature 1971 are described briefly and recommendations of the Committee on standardization of the mice genetic nomenclature are given. PMID:56795

  1. Chromosome studies in the Scilleae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Darlington; Innes Horticultural

    1926-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions  The chromosome types of three species,Hyacinthus orientalis,Bellevallia romana andScilla nutans, have been examined at various stages; the inter-relation of tlie complements does not point to any affinity between the\\u000a species or to any common descent from a three-chromosome ancestor. The complement of the Hyacinth is not capable of a purely\\u000a tetraploid interpretation because one of the four long

  2. Linking Micronuclei to Chromosome Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Emily M; Hetzer, Martin W

    2015-06-18

    Human cancer cells bear complex chromosome rearrangements that can be potential drivers of cancer development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these rearrangements have been unclear. Zhang et al. use a new technique combining live-cell imaging and single-cell sequencing to demonstrate that chromosomes mis-segregated to micronuclei frequently undergo chromothripsis-like rearrangements in the subsequent cell cycle. PMID:26091034

  3. Infertile mares with chromosome abnormalities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Stewart-Scott

    1988-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities have been detected in five mares identified by their poor reproductive performance. All had small gonads and absent or irregular oestrous cycles. One mare was 65, XXX, two were 64, XY sex-reversal females and two were sex chromosome mosaics with karyotypes of 63, XO\\/64, XX\\/64, XY and 63, XO\\/64, XX respectively. This report supports the suggestion made in

  4. Equipment cost optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results.

  5. Microelasticity of Single Mitotic Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michael; Eroglu, Sertac; Chatenay, Didier; Marko, John F.; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2000-03-01

    The force-extension behavior of mitotic chromosomes from the newt TVI tumor cell line was studied using micropipette manipulation and force measuring techniques. Reversible, linear elastic response was observed for extensions up to 5 times the native length; the force required to double chromosome length was 1 nanonewton (nN). For further elongations, the linear response teminates at a force plateau of 15 nN and at an extension of 20x. Beyond this extension, the chromosome breaks at elongations between 20x and 70x. These results will be compared to the similar behavior of mitotic chromosomes from explanted newt cells (Poirier, Eroglu, Chatenay and Marko, Mol. Biol. Cell, in press). Also, the effect of biochemical modifications on the elasticity was studied. Ethidium Bromide, which binds to DNA, induces up to a 10 times increase in the Young's modulus. Anti-XCAP-E, which binds to a putative chromosome folding protein, induces up to a 2 times increase in the Young's modulus. Preliminary results on the dynamical relaxation of chromosomes will also be presented. Support of this research through a Biomedical Engineering Research Grant from The Whitaker Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Automated Chromosome Analysis: A State-Of-The-Art Approach To Knowledge Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschul, J.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes a completely automated chromosome analysis system. It comprises of an automated microscope, an image analysis system for evaluation of the microscopic fields, and peripheral equipment for user dialogue and control of the procedures. Photo-quality hard copies of the completed karyograms are output via a special printer. Metaphases are found fully automatically by the system. A research quality microscope is used for automatic screening of up to 16 slides in one metaphase finding run. The metaphase finding is based on a special cluster analysis. By resetting the metaphase models, the system can be adapted to different staining techniques. Metaphase coordinates are stored in the system enabling automatic repositioning under high magnification. The system can be used for counting the chromosomes of all metaphases as well as for karyotyping, based on banding analysis. The karyotyping algorithm is based on classification of the banding pattern of each chromosome. The knowledge base is derived from a banding pattern analysis of 4000 chromosomes.

  7. HVAC equipment and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Cerami, V.J. [Cerami and Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to define how the selection of HVAC equipment and layout impact the achievable noise criteria (NC) levels in occupied spaces. It will focus on the design of HVAC systems that employ floor-by-floor air handling/air conditioning units and their acoustical ramifications. This is of increasing importance since tenants require incorporation of noise limits in lease agreements.

  8. Everything about Construction Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

  9. Tools and Equipment

    E-print Network

    Ugursal, A.

    2014-01-01

    Workshop on the Continuous Commissioning® Process Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko Masuda, Juan-Carlos Baltazar, PhD, PE Ahmet Ugursal, PhD Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency (CATEE) Conference, Dallas, Texas. November 18, 2014... Break 6. Continuous Commissioning Measures 7. Measurement and Verification 2 ESL-KT-14-11-37 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Tools and Equipment Joseph T. Martinez, PCC Carlos Yagua, PE Hiroko Masuda, Juan...

  10. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred across a communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized parties. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  11. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  12. Array painting: a protocol for the rapid analysis of aberrant chromosomes using DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Susan M; Ng, Bee Ling; Prigmore, Elena; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Carter, Nigel P

    2012-01-01

    Aarray painting is a technique that uses microarray technology to rapidly map chromosome translocation breakpoints. previous methods to map translocation breakpoints have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FIsH) and have consequently been labor-intensive, time-consuming and restricted to the low breakpoint resolution imposed by the use of metaphase chromosomes. array painting combines the isolation of derivative chromosomes (chromosomes with translocations) and high-resolution microarray analysis to refine the genomic location of translocation breakpoints in a single experiment. In this protocol, we describe array painting by isolation of derivative chromosomes using a MoFlo flow sorter, amplification of these derivatives using whole-genome amplification and hybridization onto commercially available oligonucleotide microarrays. although the sorting of derivative chromosomes is a specialized procedure requiring sophisticated equipment, the amplification, labeling and hybridization of Dna is straightforward, robust and can be completed within 1 week. the protocol described produces good quality data; however, array painting is equally achievable using any combination of the available alternative methodologies for chromosome isolation, amplification and hybridization. PMID:19893508

  13. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development. PMID:24555902

  14. The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Eggebø, Helga

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy. PMID:20821899

  15. 8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT RIGHT AND ENTRANCE AT LEFT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

  17. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Miscellaneous Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes six units of instruction covering the small, specialized equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance…

  18. Welfare to work: the role of general practice.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, F M; Ford, J; Dowrick, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers the potential effects of the government's Welfare to Work policy on general practitioner (GP) working patterns, and aims to explore the relationship between unemployment, ill health, and GP sickness certification. Social security and employment policy initiatives are discussed in relation to the literature on the relationship between unemployment and ill health, sociological and psychological perspectives on work and unemployment, medicalisation of unemployment, adjudication of fitness for work, re-employment and health, and treatment of barriers to employment. The authors postulate that Welfare to Work policy may depend for its success on the crucial role of general practice in sickness certification. PMID:10962795

  19. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  20. Ergonomic aspects of equipment.

    PubMed

    Bell, F

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical patient-lifting devices have been available for hospital use for at least the past 100 yr. Mobile hoists have been available since the 1950s and the most common U.K. hospital mobile hoist, the Mecanaids' Ambulift, has been available since 1966. Recent investigations have confirmed that these devices are not being used to any significant extent to ease most of the patient-lifting problems in hospital wards. Attention to four variables, the patient, the attendant, the task and the environment, is essential in determining the right systematic approach to equipment design and selection. PMID:3319927

  1. 2010 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead,

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    conservation in managed forests. Keywords: animal behaviour, animal welfare, conservation, forestry, human management practices (both legal and illegal) modify the environment that animals have presumably evolved151 © 2010 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare The Old School, Brewhouse Hill

  2. Welfare-Induced Migration at State Borders: New Evidence from Micro-Data*

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends and synthesizes the various approaches used in the recent welfare migration literature to both offer the most comprehensive set of tests to date for welfare migration and to also determine the relative importance of short-distance moves in welfare migration flows. The current study follows on the finding of McKinnish (2005) of welfare migration effects obtained by comparing welfare participation at state borders to state interiors. This identification strategy is extended to micro-data from the 1980 and 1990 Decennial Censuses and combined with the demographic comparisons used elsewhere in the welfare migration literature. The signs and patterns of the estimates are consistent with the presence of welfare migration effects, and the magnitudes of the estimates are consistent with the importance of short-distance moves in welfare-induced migration flows, but most of the estimates are not statistically significant. PMID:21949449

  3. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01...52 Section 84.52 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF...with impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where...

  4. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01...52 Section 84.52 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF...with impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where...

  5. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01...52 Section 84.52 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF...with impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where...

  6. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01...52 Section 84.52 Public Welfare Department of...with impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where...

  7. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01...52 Section 84.52 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF...with impaired sensory or speaking skills, are not denied effective...impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where...

  8. The Importance of Postsecondary Training for Welfare To Work: Initiatives at the Community College of Aurora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Argues that academic skills, in addition to job skills, are crucial for taking people off the welfare rolls. Discusses postsecondary training programs and services for welfare recipients at the Community College of Aurora in Colorado. (NB)

  9. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  12. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  13. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare...OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930

    E-print Network

    Thirlkel, Thomas E.

    2010-05-07

    Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system ...

  15. EOC Title: Animal Welfare Liaison (Emergency Support Function #11) Coordinating Campus Unit: OLAC

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    OPERATIONS EOC Title: Animal Welfare Liaison (Emergency Support Function #11) Coordinating Campus Unit: OLAC General Description The Animal Welfare Emergency Support Function coordinates the humane handling, treatment, transportation, housing, and care of laboratory and sheltered animals in the event

  16. Animal welfare assessment at slaughter in Europe: moving from inputs to outputs.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Antonio; Dalmau, Antoni

    2012-11-01

    Producers, retailers and other food chain actors increasingly recognize that consumer concerns for good animal welfare represent a business opportunity that could be profitably incorporated into their commercial strategies. Therefore, during the last decade, numerous trade groups (producers, processors, retailers and restaurant chains) have developed certification systems with their suppliers which include elements of animal welfare. The Welfare Quality® project has developed an integrated and standardised welfare assessment system based on twelve welfare criteria grouped into four main principles (good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate behaviour) according to how they are experienced by animals. One of the innovations of the Welfare Quality® assessment system is that it focuses more on outcome measures (e.g. directly related to animal body condition, health aspects, injuries, behaviour, etc.). This paper has the objective to discuss the rationale behind the welfare assessment and to describe the Welfare Quality® assessment of pigs and cattle at the slaughterhouse. PMID:22551869

  17. Regional localization of human chromosome 15 loci.

    PubMed

    Richard, I; Broux, O; Chiannilkulchai, N; Fougerousse, F; Allamand, V; Bourg, N; Brenguier, L; Devaud, C; Pasturaud, P; Roudaut, C

    1994-10-01

    One hundred forty-nine chromosome 15 loci were mapped by PCR with respect to chromosome breakpoints in three somatic cell hybrids retaining total or part of chromosome 15 and to a 10-Mb YAC contig. This chromosome was subdivided into 5 regions, yielding an average resolution of more than 1 sequence tagged site per megabase. The mapped loci included 18 genes, 60 cDNA-derived sequence tagged sites, and 69 microsatellites. In addition, the amount of chromosome 15 retained in line A15.1 has been defined. This work represents the first attempt at an integration of the human physical, expression, and genetic maps of chromosome 15. PMID:7851890

  18. UCI Equipment Management Peter's Exchange

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    UCI Equipment Management Peter's Exchange (UCI Surplus Sales) SURPLUS PICK-UP REQUEST Department) Phone: (949) 824-6111, 6447, 6519, 6100 Fax this form to (949) 824-4115, or e-mail Equipment-Management&S approval for moving laboratory equipment visit EH&S at: http

  19. Guidelines for Purchasing Playground Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Notes that the purchase of playground equipment is one of the most important decisions center directors make. Offers advice from a number of playground equipment manufacturers that suggests directors consider activities, safety, construction, installation, and warranty when purchasing equipment. Also suggests interviewing other directors about…

  20. Safety Equipment in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Willard A.S.

    1964-01-01

    Findings of two recent surveys on safety equipment in laboratory facilities are presented. The first survey was a pilot study of emergency shower and eye wash equipment. This study was followed by a more comprehensive random survey of safety equipment in 2,820 labs. Among other findings, the surveys indicate that many plants are underequipped, or…

  1. Test equipment for coherent radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Leeson; W. K. Saunders

    1974-01-01

    Test equipment for pulsed Doppler and CW coherent radar is described. Equipment developed for testing the Vulcan tracking system is discussed, and the test procedure is outlined. The Vulcan equipment provides measurements of STAMO quality, the additive noise contributed by the sideband modulator and klystron amplifier, limitations on subclutter visibility and the minimum detected signal in the receiving chain, lock

  2. The degeneration of Y chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, B; Charlesworth, D

    2000-01-01

    Y chromosomes are genetically degenerate, having lost most of the active genes that were present in their ancestors. The causes of this degeneration have attracted much attention from evolutionary theorists. Four major theories are reviewed here: Muller's ratchet, background selection, the Hill Robertson effect with weak selection, and the 'hitchhiking' of deleterious alleles by favourable mutations. All of these involve a reduction in effective population size as a result of selective events occurring in a non-recombining genome, and the consequent weakening of the efficacy of selection. We review the consequences of these processes for patterns of molecular evolution and variation at loci on Y chromosomes, and discuss the results of empirical studies of these patterns for some evolving Y-chromosome and neo-Y-chromosome systems. These results suggest that the effective population sizes of evolving Y or neo-Y chromosomes are severely reduced, as expected if some or all of the hypothesized processes leading to degeneration are operative. It is, however, currently unclear which of the various processes is most important; some directions for future work to help to resolve this question are discussed. PMID:11127901

  3. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  4. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins. 1928.57 Section 1928.57...field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins. (a) General —(1) Purpose...field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins used in any agricultural...

  5. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins. 1928.57 Section 1928.57...field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins. (a) General —(1) Purpose...field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins used in any agricultural...

  6. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher welfare products and developing effective communication strategies. Finally, a welfare label emerged as an appropriate communication vehicle for consumers who engage in pro-welfare behavior and who experienced the label as a solution to lower the search costs for higher welfare products. PMID:19903971

  7. The Move to Evidence-Based Practice: How Well Does it Fit Child Welfare Services?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard P. Barth

    2008-01-01

    Child welfare services are engaged in examining and applying concepts from evidence-based practice. This article provides background on evidence-based practice in child welfare and suggests the areas of least and greatest fit between the methods of evidence-based practice and child welfare services. Implications for the emergence of more evidence-based approaches to child welfare services are forwarded. Suggestions for social work

  8. Abyssal soil investigation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, F.P.; Maggioni, W.; Mainardi, U. [ISMES, Bergamo (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The present paper deals with the development of a testing device for quick offshore geotechnical investigations. The equipment, at present, consists of a penetrometer, mounted on a sea bed platform, a handling frame and a control cabin; a further development includes a drill rig and a geotechnical laboratory. All this is designed so as to be an autonomous unit that can be handled by various types of non-specialized ships which have the necessary deck space. The sea bed platform can operate in 2,000 m of waterdepth and is provided with a hydraulic penetrometer, with a thrust capacity of 400 kN, able to carry out cone penetration type testing until a depth of more than 100 m, as well as shallow depth continuous sampling. The penetrometer can be equipped with a series of probes (piezocone, pressiocone, total radial pressure transducer, seismic cone) allowing the execution of the wide range of direct geotechnical measurements normally performed during on-land penetration tests.

  9. Employers' Perceptions of Welfare Reform: Implications for Cooperative Extension Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bernice B.; Stewart, Daisy L.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with 12 employers participating in the Virginia Initiative for Employment, Not Work identified factors affecting welfare recipients' work force entry: skills, work experience, education/training, support system, childcare, transportation, and clothing. They are wiling to hire if supported by extension, social services, and government…

  10. Children with Problematic Sexualized Behaviors in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Gries, Len; Schneiderman, Mel; Parker, Rob; Archer, Marc; Friedrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in a child welfare sample. In this study, 97 children from ages 10 to 12 from either foster boarding homes or a residential treatment center participated. Researchers interviewed foster parents or primary therapists about children's sexual behavior, traumatic events,…

  11. Effects of loading methods on rabbit welfare and meat quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mazzone; G. Vignola; M. Giammarco; A. C. Manetta; L. Lambertini

    2010-01-01

    The effects of different loading methods on the welfare, carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of hybrid commercial rabbits were investigated. 384 male rabbits, 82days old, were transported from the farm to the slaughterhouse. At the farm, 192 rabbits were loaded onto the truck smoothly (S) and 192 rabbits were loaded roughly (R). The S loading method consisted of carefully

  12. Credit Access and Social Welfare in France and America

    E-print Network

    Feigon, Brooke

    1 Credit Access and Social Welfare in France and America Gunnar Trumbull Harvard Business School of these different legitimating narratives. June 2011 Contact Details: Gunnar Trumbull, Harvard Business School. #12 Greenspan and James Kennedy, Sources and Uses of Equity Extracted from Homes, Oxford Review of Economic

  13. Community Development Corporations and Welfare Reform: Linkages, Roles, and Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David J.; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Schill, Michael H.

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on housing owned by community development corporations (CDCs), investigating how early implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) affected the financial status of CDCs' affordable housing developments. Five types of financial impacts were…

  14. The Risk Climate and the Delivery of Child Welfare Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Sandra; Baker, Timothy

    Based on the assumption that a relationship exists between public county-based child welfare agencies in Pennsylvania and their environments, this study draws clues as to the nature of this relationship from (1) a review of the literature, and (2) a multivariate analysis of agency service delivery measures and social and demographic variables.…

  15. When Agendas Collide: Human Welfare and Biological Conservation

    E-print Network

    Ranganathan, Jai

    strategies are needed to make conservation more effective in our human-dominated world. (1) Conservation and benefits of conservation efforts. Strategies should reflect this understanding, particularly by equitablyWhen Agendas Collide: Human Welfare and Biological Conservation KAI M. A. CHAN, ROBERT M. PRINGLE

  16. Constitutional Commitment to Social Security and Welfare Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Ben-Bassat; Momi Dahan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the constitutional text has any practical meaning for welfare policy. To examine the empirical importance of the constitution, we first constructed for 68 countries an index of constitutional commitment to social security in five areas: Old Age, disability and survivors (OASDI), Unemployment, Sickness, Work Injury and Income Support. We find that the extent and

  17. THE HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK AND SOCIAL WELFARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Leighninger

    2007-01-01

    Social work as a profession grew chiefly out of the development of social welfare policies and programs in the United States, Europe, and Muslim countries. Judeo-Christian and Muslim practices and beliefs underlie many of the early attempts to provide help to the poor, the sick, widows, orphans, the \\

  18. SPENDING ON SOCIAL WELFARE PROGRAMS IN RICH AND POOR STATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Toikka; Thomas Gais; Plamen V Nikolov; Patricia Billen

    2004-01-01

    Social welfare programs strive to improve the well-being of needy and vulnerable populations. The fact that states spend different amounts on these programs is well known, but why they do so is less understood, including the extent to which differences are affected by states’ relative fiscal capacity, defined as their ability to raise revenue through taxation. The federal government has

  19. General Welfare Assistance: Barriers to Mentally Disabled Homeless Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Marjorie J.

    The present study describes specific conditions which are thought to interfere with application for general welfare assistance by homeless persons with mental disabilities. This report summarizes the observations and recommendations of direct-service providers who serve the target population in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. In-depth structured…

  20. South Dakota Indian Recipients of Social Welfare, December 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Social Services, Pierre. Div. of Program Analysis.

    Because American Indians are the largest minority group in South Dakota and because they are known to be among the most poverty stricken in the Nation, South Dakota annually reports on the extent to which the group depends on welfare payments. The report, prepared by the Program Analysis Section of the State Department of Social Services, analyzes…

  1. A commentary on the animal welfare symposium, with possible actions.

    PubMed

    Morton, David B

    2010-01-01

    The author analyzes the common themes addressed by speakers at the AVMA/AAVMC conference on animal welfare, adding a few comments of his own. These themes can be summarized in the basic statement that "the veterinary profession has a responsibility to its members and to the public to provide and ensure a good education in animal welfare science, ethics, and public policy and law." Veterinarians have a special role as animals' advocates for several reasons: they have the knowledge base and the required skills and commitment to fulfill this role; they have earned the confidence and respect of the constituents they serve; they are the professionals to whom policy makers logically turn for guidance on animal health and welfare issues. Therefore, the veterinary profession has an opportunity to reassert itself as the advocate not only for animals' physical health but also for their mental health and welfare. To be successful, however, the profession's leadership and members must engage without delay in advancing educational programs, research projects, and outreach to solidify authority in this key component of veterinary medicine. PMID:20378888

  2. Time Limits on Welfare Use under Involuntary Unemployment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Holzner; Volker Meier; Martin Werding

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of introducing or tightening time limits on welfare use are studied in an efficiency wage model. Those losing access to regular benefits receive some smaller benefit, which can be interpreted as food stamps. Stricter time limits raise both employment and profits and generally reduce the tax rate. The impact on the net wage is ambiguous. Changes of utility

  3. WELFARE LOSS OF WETLANDS DISINTEGRATION: A LOUISIANA STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN FARBER

    1996-01-01

    This study estimates the loss in welfare of projected Louisiana coastal wetlands disintegration. Various programs have initiated costly projects to terminate this disintegration process. But can these projects succeed, and will their benefits exceed their costs? This study addresses the benefits issues and estimates reductions in incomes and consumption opportunities and increases in costs that would be avoided if restoration

  4. A General Economic Framework for Welfare Reform Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTray, Dennis N.

    An analysis of the potential effects of different types of welfare reforms can proceed in one of two ways. One can explore the effects of a given plan in detail, or one can cull from the set of feasible alternative plans the major changes that these plans will bring about and then analyze the effect of these changes in a general framework. At…

  5. The welfare whistleblower: In praise of troublesome people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wlliam De Maria

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the plight of welfare professionals who become embroiled in controversy as a result of making public interest disclosures (whistleblowing). The paper will attempt to show that workplaces can rapidly degenerate into industrial nightmares for that small group who choose ethics over expediency. Whistleblowing is seen as a dangerous but absolutely vital activity. The paper speculates as to

  6. Road Pricing, Traffic Congestion and Economic Welfare: A Note

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, the subject of road pricing to reduce traffic congestion gained increasing importance in Europe. This paper uses a standard microeconomic approach to show that road user price charging to avoid traffic congestion is optimal from a society’s point of view as it improves economic efficiency of allocating a scarce resource (road space) by reducing the welfare loss (as

  7. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  8. Does Welfare Reform Affect Fertility? Evidence from the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Brewer; Anita Ratcliffe; Sarah Smith

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on the fertility effect of welfare from a set of reforms that took place in the UK in 1999 and that substantially increased support for poorer families with children. The reforms, including the introduction of the Working Families Tax Credit and an increase in means-tested income support, raised benefits by up to 10 per cent of

  9. Welfare Reform and New York City's Low-Income Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Chernick; Cordelia Reimers

    2002-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the initial effects of welfare reform and changes in New York City policies and administrative procedures, we use the Current Population Survey (CPS) to compare receipt of public benefit programs, earnings, and income among vulnerable households, defined as those households with low education or single mothers in 1994–95 and 1997–99. Over this period, the CPS shows a

  10. Part-Time Social Workers in Public Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalyst, New York, NY.

    A demonstration project in Boston, Massachusetts, designed to meet critical needs in public service by providing part-time jobs for able women with families, chose 50 mature women college graduates from over 1,500 who were interested and 173 who were interviewed. Working half-time for 2 years in the State Department of Public Welfare, they…

  11. Spraying Effects on Goat Welfare in Hot and Humid Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazan Darcan; Fatin Cedden; Okan Guney

    Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed:

  12. Graduate Student Achievements 09-10 SOCIAL WELFARE

    E-print Network

    disadvantaged women of color with prenatal services in a wealthy suburban county. Journal of Sociology & Social services in a wealthy suburban county. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 35(2): 133-157. Francis, L. E: The experiences of economically disadvantaged women of color with prenatal services in a wealthy suburban county

  13. Transitions from AFDC to child welfare in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Needell; Stephanie Cuccaro-Alamin; Alan Brookhart; Seon Lee

    1999-01-01

    Probability matching software was employed to link AFDC histories for children with birth records, child abuse reporting data, and foster care data. A total of 63,768 children entering AFDC between 1990 and 1995 in 10 California counties were followed to determine subsequent child welfare involvement. Within 5 years of AFDC entry, 27% of children had child abuse referrals, 22% had

  14. Animal welfare: the attitudes and behaviour of European pig farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Bock; M. M. van Huik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the behaviour and attitudes of European pig producers towards animal welfare. It looks at the relationship of these factors with farmers' understanding of good farming and production logic, together with national characteristics of production, and market and policy arrangements. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article synthesises the results of six

  15. An Analysis of the Welfare Effects of Parallel Trade Freedom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Müller-Langer

    In a double marginalization model which is played between a domestic monopolistic manufacturer of pharmaceuticals and a foreign exclusive distributor, I examine the impact of parallel trade freedom on the manufacturer's profit. I also analyze its impact on global welfare for low, intermediate, and high trade costs and different levels of heterogeneity of the two countries where the manufacturer and

  16. Women's Welfare and Social Security Privatization in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHELLE DION

    2006-01-01

    Several Latin American countries have fully or partially privatized their public pensions since the 1980s. In 1995 Mexico privatized its public pension system, including a shift from a defined benefit to defined contribution system based on privately administered individual accounts. This article uses feminist criteria to evaluate the gender impact of welfare regimes and concludes that the Mexican pension privatization

  17. American Indian Adoption Program: An Ethnic Approach to Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodluck, Charlotte Tsoi; Eckstein, Florence

    1978-01-01

    Sponsored by the Jewish Family and Children's Service of Phoenix, Arizona, the program places American Indian adoptees with their natural extended families or with families of the same tribe. Personal contacts, publicity, and national child welfare organizations help locate homes. Ensuring the child's tribal inheritance rights is yet to be…

  18. Communicating with Employees about Pension and Welfare Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srb, Jozetta H.

    The purpose of this report is to examine some of the problems of communication with employees about pension and welfare benefits. Issues discussed relate to (1) employees' attitudes toward benefits and benefit communication, (2) the structure of private benefit programs, (3) the case for fair labeling, and (4) the trend toward statutory criteria…

  19. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: companion animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. J. Odendaal

    2005-01-01

    Summary Human history reveals that the way in which humans treat animals is based on their views of themselves as well as of the living environment around them. These views may vary from an assumption of human superiority to one of equality between humans and animals. Recent trends affecting companion- animal welfare are: modern philosophies on animal issues, the specialised

  20. THE RISE, FALL AND REVIVAL OF A CAPITALIST WELFARE STATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Bergh

    Political debate often refers to the case of Sweden. For some, Sweden is proof that a generous welfare state is fully compatible with a growing competitive economy. For others, it is a frightening example of what big government can do to a once thriving economy. This paper deals with a number controversial questions regarding Sweden's economic and political development: ?

  1. Spatial Modeling in Transportation III: Infrastructure, Planning, and Welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon P. Anderson; Wesley W. Wilson

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) evaluates improvements to locks and dams on the waterway using various planning models. These models vary in terms of the underlying economic assumptions made. In this paper, we summarize these assumptions and evaluate their implica- tions for the measurement of the welfare beneÞts of improvements. In our evaluation, we develop a \\

  2. Guidance on Confidentiality in Student Health and Welfare

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Guidance on Confidentiality in Student Health and Welfare Executive Summary The law has long to him or her in confidence. In addition to this general duty, obligations of confidentiality can arise Rights Act 1998 has further added to existing obligations of confidentiality by providing a right

  3. On Estimating The Welfare Gains from Trade Liberalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiwen Lai; Daniel Trefler

    Estimating general equilibrium price feed- backs is notoriously difficult. This has deterred most researchers from econometrically estimating the welfare gains from trade liberalization. Using a CES monopolistic competition example, we show that this difficulty has been greatly exaggerated. The paper achieves three goals. First, we provide dynam- ically consistent, general equilibrium estimates of elasticit- ies of substitution. Second, with the

  4. Welfare effects of aid under quantitative trade restrictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sajal Lahiri; Pascalis Raimondos

    1995-01-01

    The paper examines the effects of tied-aid on the welfare of both the donor and the recipient countries. We depart from the previous literature by assuming preexistence of quantitative trade distortions. To mitigate these distortions the donor country provides aid that is tied to the rationed good. Conditions for the presence of the transfer paradox and of the enrichment of

  5. Economic welfare impacts from renewable energy consumption: The China experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiping Fang

    2011-01-01

    Over the last years renewable energy sources have increased their share on electricity generation of China due to environmental and security of supply concerns. In this work author assesses the role of both the amount and share of renewable energy consumption in economic welfare using Cobb–Douglas type production functions. This assessment is carried out by multivariate OLS and SPSS software

  6. National Resource Center On Child Welfare Training & Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Becky Antle; Anita Barbee; Mavin Martin; Dana N. Christensen

    2003-01-01

    ith the passage of the Adoptions and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997, the nation's child welfare systems have experienced dramatic changes in an attempt to improve safety, perma- nency, and well-being outcomes of children and families. There has been extensive discussion of the policy changes needed to meet the intent and out- comes of ASFA, but much less discussion

  7. Does Self-regulation of Advertisement Length Improve Consumer Welfare?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taisuke Matsubae; Noriaki Matsushima

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, TV platforms regulate themselves as to the length of the advertisements they air. Using modified Hotelling models, we investigate whether such self-regulation improves consumer and social welfare or not. When all consumers choose a single TV program (the utility functions of consumers satisfy the standard \\

  8. Child Welfare League of America 1997 Salary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Patrick A.; Laitin, Anna

    This report details a study of trends in the salaries of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and other personnel at member agencies of the Child Welfare League of America. Responding to the study's mail survey were 377 out of 780 member agencies (48 percent return) and 327 out of 640 direct service CWLA agencies (51 percent return), including state…

  9. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  10. Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

  11. Families Hardest Hit: Effects of Welfare Reform on Homeless Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Julie

    This report presents data from 1999 surveys of people living in Chicago shelters and warming centers for families with children. The surveys asked about the impacts of welfare reform on respondents' lives. Researchers also surveyed housing and food assistance agencies, shelters, and other social service agencies. Of 481 families surveyed, 44…

  12. The welfare impact of microcredit on rural households in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Li; Christopher Gan; Baiding Hu

    2011-01-01

    Microcredit has gained worldwide acceptance in recent years as a flexible mechanism to expand individuals’ (especially the poor's) access to financial services, which is considered as an efficient way to achieve poverty reduction and other social development. A large number of empirical studies have been done to examine the welfare effects of microcredit on the borrowers and such effects are

  13. Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems Alan J. Auerbach Economics several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US viability of Pay-As-You-Go (PAYGO) pension programs in many countries. These programs promise a level

  14. The welfare cost of inflation in general equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Dotsey; Peter Ireland

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a general equilibrium monetary model in which inflation distorts a variety of marginal decisions. Although individually none of the distortions is very large, they combine to yield substantial welfare cost estimates. A sustained 4 percent inflation like that experienced in the US since 1983 costs the economy the equivalent of 0.41 percent of output per year when

  15. Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This sixth annual report provides welfare dependence indicators through 2000, reflecting changes since enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act in 1996 and highlighting benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); the Food Stamp program; and Supplement…

  16. Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

    This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

  17. WHY SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market driven demands for verification that animals used to produce food receive humane care, have resulted in welfare audits becoming a reality for beef and chicken products sold to fast food chains. Dairy is targeted for similar audits and the Dairy Quality Assurance Center was approved by the re...

  18. The effect of groundwater allocation on economic welfare loss.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jun; Yang, Yi-Chen E; Lin, Yu-Feng F

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity has become a constraint for regional economic development in many cities and regions. Water rationing serves as one instrument to constrain water consumption to persuade users to save water and to moderate their consumption. When the supply of water is unable to satisfy demand, a loss of welfare for the water users will usually occur. This paper conducts an empirical case study on a Chicago suburban county, McHenry County, to evaluate effective water allocation strategies under possible water scarcity scenarios, by specifically taking into consideration of the economic welfare loss under water rationing. It points out the inefficiency of equal rationing and tests a more effective optimal rationing regime which could significantly lower the overall welfare loss for McHenry County. Instead of a conventional watershed-based approach that would provide little advantage for an area that mostly relies on groundwater, this study adopts regional planning/political boundaries as its spatial analytical units. The outcomes suggest that municipality-level water resources management models, powered under economic welfare objective functions, are both possible and practical. The planning strategy drawn under such optimization models suggests a variety of promising approaches to manage groundwater resources at county scales. PMID:23036236

  19. Collage of Welfare-to-Work Perspectives: Views Inside and Outside the System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Barbara

    The political interests and educational orientations that adult education advocates who work on behalf of welfare recipients have about welfare-to-work programs influence the strategies they use to advance poor women's education. Adult Basic Education (ABE) providers face many conflicts as they engage in implementing programs under welfare reform,…

  20. FlashReport Mangy mutt or furry friend? Anthropomorphism promotes animal welfare

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    a shelter, and more support for animal rights, animal welfare, and vegetarian and vegan attitudes. MoreoverFlashReport Mangy mutt or furry friend? Anthropomorphism promotes animal welfare Max E. Butterfield Animal welfare Recent research has demonstrated that people have an affinity for non-human entities

  1. States Can Use Family Literacy Programs To Support Welfare Reform Goals. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Tony; Wheeler, Mary Gwen; Dalton, Debbie

    Studies have shown an inextricable link between under-education and chronic, intergenerational welfare dependency. With welfare reform focusing on moving individuals into the workforce more quickly, state welfare reform efforts to assist low-income parents and their children are needed. Incorporating family literacy instruction into…

  2. The Link: Connecting Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare. Volume 4, Number 4, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare League of America (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "The Link" is a periodical published by the Child Welfare League. The Child Welfare League of America is the nation's oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization. They are committed to engaging people everywhere in promoting the well-being of children, youth, and their families and protecting every child from harm. This issue of…

  3. Animal welfare in poultry production systems: impact of European Union standards on world trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. M. Van Horne; T. J. Achterbosch

    SUMMARY Animal welfare receives more legislative attention in the European Union (EU) than in many other regions of the world. Animal welfare standards for poultry are generally taken to be higher in the EU than in producing countries exporting to the EU, particularly developing countries. The recent action plan for animal welfare introduced by the European Commis- sion aims to

  4. Animal welfare in poultry production systems: impact of EU standards on world trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horne van P. L. M; T. J. Achterbosch

    2008-01-01

    Animal welfare receives more legislative attention in the European Union (EU) than in many other regions of the world. Animal welfare standards for poultry are generally taken to be higher in the EU than in producing countries exporting to the EU, particularly developing countries. The recent action plan for animal welfare introduced by the European Commission aims to further expand

  5. For Better and for Worse: Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay, Ed.

    Although the 1996 welfare reform bill reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. This book examines the evidence and evaluates whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals--improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. The chapters of the book are as follows: (1)…

  6. Welfare Time Limits: An Update on State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Mary; Rich, Sarah; Turner, Lesley; Seith, David; Bloom, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Time limits on benefit receipt became a central feature of federal welfare policy in the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA). Proponents of welfare reform argued that the time limits in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, would send a firm message to recipients that welfare is…

  7. Great Expectations: From Welfare to Work in the South. Rural Development Issues Impacting the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tootle, Deborah M.

    Welfare caseloads across the nation have declined dramatically since welfare reform became law in August 1996. These declines have been interpreted to mean that welfare-to-work strategies are effective, but not enough is known to make such an assessment. In the rural South, unique social and economic conditions may affect the implementation and…

  8. Breaking the Bonds of Poverty: A Motivational Profile of Selected Welfare Single Mothers Entering College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Barbara Davis

    Single mothers on welfare were recruited for a program at Trinity College of Vermont using a variety of methods: newspaper advertisements, admission office applicants, and welfare office solicitation. Eligible for the program were single mothers on welfare meeting all Trinity College entrance requirements and having an interest in and commitment…

  9. The Kansas Child Welfare System: Where Are We? Where Should We Be Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    In 1996, Kansas launched the nation's most sweeping attempt to radically transform the child welfare system by implementing a privatized form of managed care. Four years later, the child welfare system shows signs of instability and seems very much in transition. This report examines the current status of the child welfare system in Kansas and…

  10. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...health and welfare and pension benefits. (1) Health and welfare and...quarterly. However, where fringe benefit determinations contemplate...employee, and a contractor exercises his option to make hourly cash...health and welfare and pension benefits to temporary and...

  11. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...health and welfare and pension benefits. (1) Health and welfare and...quarterly. However, where fringe benefit determinations contemplate...employee, and a contractor exercises his option to make hourly cash...health and welfare and pension benefits to temporary and...

  12. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...health and welfare and pension benefits. (1) Health and welfare and...quarterly. However, where fringe benefit determinations contemplate...employee, and a contractor exercises his option to make hourly cash...health and welfare and pension benefits to temporary and...

  13. 29 CFR 4.175 - Meeting requirements for health, welfare, and/or pension benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...health and welfare and pension benefits. (1) Health and welfare and...quarterly. However, where fringe benefit determinations contemplate...employee, and a contractor exercises his option to make hourly cash...health and welfare and pension benefits to temporary and...

  14. New roles for families in child welfare: Strategies for expanding family involvement beyond the case level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Williamson; Aracelis Gray

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies and approaches child welfare agencies used to integrate meaningful family involvement into their service delivery systems, under the Children's Bureau Improving Child Welfare Outcomes Through Systems of Care demonstration initiative. Through a series of retrospective interviews with child welfare agency staff, systems of care project staff, family members actively involved in implementing the systems of

  15. How Large Are the Welfare Gains from Technological Innovation Induced by Environmental Policies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Parry; William Pizer; Carolyn Fischer

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines whether the welfare gains from technological innovation that reduces future abatement costs are larger or smaller than the “Pigouvian” welfare gains from optimal pollution control. The relative welfare gains from innovation depend on three key factors - the initially optimal level of abatement, the speed at which innovation reduces future abatement costs, and the discount rate. We

  16. How Large Are the Welfare Gains from Technological Innovation Induced by Environmental Policies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Parry; William Pizer; Carolyn Fischer

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines whether the welfare gains from technological innovation that reduces future abatement costs are larger or smaller than the “Pigouvian” welfare gains from optimal pollution control. The relative welfare gains from innovation depend on three key factors: the initially optimal level of abatement, the speed at which innovation reduces future abatement costs, and the discount rate. We calculate

  17. How Large are the Welfare Gains from Technological Innovation Induced by Environmental Policies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian W. H. Parry; William A. Pizer; Carolyn Fischer

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines whether the welfare gains from technological innovation that reduces future abatement costs are larger or smaller than the “Pigouvian” welfare gains from optimal pollution control. The relative welfare gains from innovation depend on three key factors—the initially optimal level of abatement, the speed at which innovation reduces future abatement costs, and the discount rate. We calculate the

  18. Andr Lapidus The Valuation of Decision and Individual Welfare: A Humean Approach October 2, 2008

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    André Lapidus ­ The Valuation of Decision and Individual Welfare: A Humean Approach October 2, 2008 1 The Valuation of Decision and Individual Welfare: A Humean Approach André Lapidus* * PHARE, for the same individual, between decisional valuation and the valuation of individual welfare: if our decision

  19. Business Participation in Welfare-to-Work: Lessons from the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jack; Kazis, Richard

    Case studies of 19 U.S. companies involved in welfare-to-work programs found that political and economic factors have accelerated the rate at which employers are hiring welfare recipients. Although participation in welfare-to-work programs is dominated by larger firms in a few industries (such as service and retail sectors), there is potential for…

  20. Testing the new welfare: Lessons from a survey of small business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oren M. Levin-Waldman

    2000-01-01

    During the summer of 1996, the federal government enacted the most sweeping welfare reform since its inception in 1935. Under the new law, the duration of welfare bene¢ts are limited and those qualifying for bene¢ts are required to work or participate in some type of educational or training program. The crux of the reform, however, is the devolution of welfare

  1. Repeatability of lameness, fear and slipping scores to assess animal welfare upon arrival in pig slaughterhouses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dalmau; N. A. Geverink; A. Van Nuffel; L. van Steenbergen; Reenen van C. G; V. Hautekiet; K. Vermeulen; A. Velarde; F. A. M. Tuyttens

    2010-01-01

    The EU project Welfare Quality (R) proposes an overall assessment system for animal welfare based on animal outcomes. The objective of this study was to test inter-observer reliability (IOR) when assessing lameness, fear and slipping and falling scores as parameters for monitoring the welfare of killing pigs during arrival at the slaughterhouse. Two Belgian and two Spanish slaughterhouses were visited

  2. Fluctuating asymmetry as an animal welfare indicator — A review of methodology and validity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Knierim; S. Van Dongen; B. Forkman; F. A. M. Tuyttens; M. Špinka; J. L. Campo; G. E. Weissengruber

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that fluctuating asymmetry (FA) reflects an animal's ability to cope with the sum of challenges during its growing period and, thus, is a potential welfare indicator. In this review we investigate the evidence of associations between FA and other welfare indicators measured at the level of the individual and of effects of welfare-relevant environmental conditions on

  3. Do citizens and farmers interpret the concept of farm animal welfare differently?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filiep Vanhonacker; Wim Verbeke; Els Van Poucke; Frank A. M. Tuyttens

    2008-01-01

    Animal welfare is of increasing importance in livestock production and consumption debates. However, discordance exists between citizens' and farmers' perception of animal welfare. Since the search for, and the realization of improvements towards farm animal welfare is strongly driven by citizen expectations, it is of utmost importance to better understand this perceptual discordance. A quantitative study was done in Flanders,

  4. The effects of a Minnesota Welfare Reform Program on marital stability six years later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa A. Gennetian; Virginia Knox

    2005-01-01

    Do welfare reform policies affect marital stability among two-parent families? Long term findings from an experiment in Minnesota, evaluated via a random assignment design, contribute to the little evidence to date about whether or not welfare and income-support policies can affect marital stability. In 1994, Minnesota began to test a major welfare reform initiative that emphasized financial incentives for work,

  5. Using Chromosomes to Teach Evolution: Chromosomal Rearrangements in Speciation Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Uses diagrams to aid in discussing how the English map of the human chromosomes, published by Offner in 1993, can be used to illustrate some important questions in evolution, as well as give students a glimpse into some of the mechanisms underlying evolutionary change. (ZWH)

  6. Gallery 31: mys inserted in chromosomes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-12-26

    Repetitive DNA can have preferred insertion sites. In this example, yellow represents the distribution of mys (a type of LINE) over a mouse genome where chromosomes are orange. There are more mys inserted in the sex (X) chromosomes.

  7. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

  8. An Automated System for Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Melnyk, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a complete system to produce karyotypes and chromosome measurement data from human blood samples, and to provide a basis for statistical analysis of quantitative chromosome measurement data are described.

  9. Mathematical glimpse on the Y chromosome degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, M. P.

    2006-04-01

    The Y chromosomes are genetically degenerate and do not recombine with their matching partners X. Non-recombination of XY pairs has been pointed out as the key factor for the degeneration of the Y chromosome. The aim here is to show that there is a mathematical asymmetry in sex chromosomes which leads to the degeneration of Y chromosomes even in the absence of XX and XY recombination. A model for sex-chromosome evolution in a stationary regime is proposed. The consequences of their asymmetry are analyzed and lead us to a couple of conclusions. First, Y chromosome degeneration shows up sqrt{2} more often than X chromosome degeneration. Second, if nature prohibits female mortalities from beeing exactly 50%, then Y chromosome degeneration is inevitable.

  10. The Development of Economic Self-Sufficiency among Former Welfare Recipients: Lessons Learned from Wisconsin's Welfare to Work Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfred, Mary V.; Martin, Larry G.

    2007-01-01

    In 1996, the US Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, changing the culture of welfare from a system of dependency to one of personal responsibility and economic self-sufficiency through workplace participation. Through the expert views of case managers and area employers of Wisconsin, this research…

  11. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research. PMID:24684087

  12. Using Experiments To Evaluate Performance Standards. What Do Welfare-to-Work Demonstrations Reveal to Welfare Reformers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Data from experimental evaluations of four state welfare-to-work programs were combined with information on the selection process in order to determine the efficacy of social programs in light of performance standards. Data suggest that either the federal requirements cannot be met or that standards can only be met under special circumstances.…

  13. Deriving welfare measures from discrete choice experiments: inconsistency between current methods and random utility and welfare theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Lancsar; Elizabeth Savage

    2004-01-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are being used increasingly in health economics to elicit preferences for products and programs. The results of such experiments have been used to calculate measures of welfare or more specifically, respondents' 'willingness to pay' (WTP) for products and programs and their 'marginal willingness to pay' (MWTP) for the attributes that make up such products and programs.

  14. Reverse chromosome painting: a method for the rapid analysis of aberrant chromosomes in clinical cytogenetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N P Carter; M A Ferguson-Smith; M T Perryman; H Telenius; A H Pelmear; M A Leversha; M T Glancy; S L Wood; K Cook; H M Dyson

    1992-01-01

    We describe a method, termed reverse chromosome painting, which allows the rapid analysis of the content and breakpoints of aberrant chromosomes. The method involves the sorting of small numbers of the aberrant chromosome from short term blood culture preparations or cell lines by using bivariate flow karyotype analysis. The sorted chromosomes are amplified and biotin labelled enzymatically using a degenerate

  15. Chromosome 2-specific DNA clones from flow-sorted chromosomes of tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Arumuganathan; Gregory B. Martin; Håkan Telenius; Steven D. Tanksley; Elizabeth D. Earle

    1994-01-01

    We obtained DNA clones specific to tomato chromosome 2 from a small number of chromosomes collected by flow sorting. Suspensions of metaphase chromosomes were prepared from 3-month-old tomato cell cultures of Lycopersicon pennellii. Isolated chromosomes stained with chromomycin A3 and Hoechst 33258 were analyzed on an EPICS 753 flow cytometer using a UV laser to excite Hoechst fluorescence and a

  16. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  17. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1995-09-05

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

  18. Chromosome Identification and Nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Soon Kim; Patricia E. Klein; Robert R. Klein; H. James Price; John E. Mullet; David M. Stelly

    2005-01-01

    Linkage group identities and homologies were determined for metaphase chromosomes of Sorghum bicolor (2n 20) by FISH of landed BACs. Relative lengths of chromosomes in FISH-karyotyped metaphase spreads of the elite inbred BTx623 were used to estimate the molecular size of each chromosome and to establish a size-based nomenclature for sorghum chromosomes (SBI-01-SBI-10) and linkage groups (LG-01 to LG-10). Lengths

  19. 7 CFR 550.38 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Equipment/property Standards...costs of the replacement equipment subject to the approval...Cooperator's property management standards for equipment acquired with...

  20. 7 CFR 550.38 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Equipment/property Standards...costs of the replacement equipment subject to the approval...Cooperator's property management standards for equipment acquired with...

  1. 7 CFR 550.38 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Equipment/property Standards...costs of the replacement equipment subject to the approval...Cooperator's property management standards for equipment acquired with...

  2. 7 CFR 550.38 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Equipment/property Standards...costs of the replacement equipment subject to the approval...Cooperator's property management standards for equipment acquired with...

  3. 7 CFR 550.38 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Equipment/property Standards...costs of the replacement equipment subject to the approval...Cooperator's property management standards for equipment acquired with...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION Inducing chromosome pairing through premature

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Peter

    . This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract At the onset of meiosis, chromosomes be introduced into wheat interspecific hybrids prior to meiosis to induce chromosome pairing. This pairing of meiosis is an important factor in controlling chromosome pairing. Keywords Ph1 locus . Chromatin . Meiosis

  5. Architecture of the Chinese hamster metaphase chromosome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elton Stubblefield; Wayne Wray

    1971-01-01

    The development of procedures for the isolation of unfixed metaphase chromosomes has made feasible a direct analysis of their morphology. Wholemount stereo electron microscopy was used to examine intact and partially disrupted chromosomes produced by physical shearing and extraction with salt and urea solutions. A model of chromosome architecture was developed to accommodate evidence from studies using both light and

  6. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  7. Melanoma Associated with Ring Chromosome 7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vollenweider Rotern; C. D. Delozier-Blanchet; I. Masouyé; J. H. Saurat

    1993-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with a constitutional chromosome anomaly (ring chromosome 7), associated with multiple pigmented skin lesions, who developed malignant melanoma. Eight other cases of ring chromosome 7 are described in the literature; all present vascular or pigmented skin lesions, but our patient was the first to develop a malignant tumor. Genetic studies in malignant

  8. GSK-3 inhibitors induce chromosome instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Tighe; Arpita Ray-Sinha; Oliver D Staples; Stephen S Taylor

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms operate during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, during tumour evolution these mechanisms go awry resulting in chromosome instability. While several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) may promote chromosome instability, at least in colon cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we turn our attention to GSK-3 – a protein

  9. Structural Dynamics of Eukaryotic Chromosome Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan E. Eichler; David Sankoff

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing is providing a comprehensive view of the complex evolutionary forces that have shaped the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes. Comparative sequence analyses reveal patterns of apparently random rearrangement interspersed with regions of extraordinarily rapid, localized genome evolution. Numerous subtle rearrangements near centromeres, telomeres, duplications, and interspersed repeats suggest hotspots for eukaryotic chromosome evolution. This localized chromosomal instability may

  10. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  11. Incomplete sister chromatid separation of long chromosome arms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Rens; L. Torosantucci; F. Degrassi; M. A. Ferguson-Smith

    2006-01-01

    Chromosome segregation ensures the equal partitioning of chromosomes at mitosis. However, long chromosome arms may pose a problem for complete sister chromatid separation. In this paper we report on the analysis of cell division in primary cells from field vole Microtus agrestis, a species with 52 chromosomes including two giant sex chromosomes. Dual chromosome painting with probes specific for the

  12. CHROMOSOMES OF FIVE NORTH AMERICAN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BUTEONINE HAWKS; SHEILA M. SCHMUTZ; JANE S. MOKER; TRACEY D. THUE

    Five species of buteonine hawks were karyotyped for the first time, including the Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni), Gray Hawk (B. nitidus), Ferruginous Hawk (B. regalis), Harris' Hawk (Parabu- teo unicinctus), and Broad-winged Hawk (B. platypterus). All five species have 68 chromosomes. The karyotypes of the first four species appear to be very similar to each other and to other buteos

  13. Sex chromosomes and their abnormalities

    E-print Network

    Dellaire, Graham

    -X-Y pairing in meiosis SRY gene-testis determining factor Fewer than 50 genes-most related to gonadal In the presence of Y chromosome (TDF), testis develop Androgens complexed with 5a- reductase bind to the androgen linked recessive disease, it would be expressed in females Norandom X-inactivation Identifies carriers

  14. Genomic signals for whole chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2003-06-01

    The paper presents some new results in the analysis of genomic information at the scale of whole chromosomes or whole genomes based on the conversion into genomic signals. Mainly, the phase analysis -- phase, cumulated phase and unwrapped phase, and the sequence path analysis are presented. The unwrapped phase displays an almost linear variation along whole chromosomes. The property holds for all the investigated genomes, being shared by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, while the magnitude and sign of the unwrapped phase slope is specific for each taxon and chromosome. Such a behavior proves a rule similar to Chargaff's rule, but reveals a statistical regularity of the succession of the nucleotides -- a second order statistics, not only of the distribution of nucleotides -- a first order statistics. The cumulated phase of the genomic signal of certain prokaryotes also shows interesting specific behavior. The comparison between the behavior of the cumulated phase and of the unwrapped phae across the putative origins and termini of the replichores suggests an interesting model for the structure of chromosomes.

  15. [Ring (20) chromosome epileptic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2015-05-01

    Ring (20) chromosome epilepsy syndrome is characterized by highly refractory epilepsy that is often associated with non-pathognomonic, electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. Seizures typically begin during the stage of childhood around the age of 6 years. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is the most common seizure types and is distinguished by a long-lasting, confusional state that is often associated with EEG patterns in the form of prolonged, high-voltage slow waves with occasional spike/sharp components. Patients with this syndrome suffer from intractable seizures with cognitive decline and frequent epileptic episodes. Accompanying features of this rare disorder, such as superficial minor dysmorphic abnormalities if any, mental retardation and behavioral changes are quite variable. Because of the variability in clinical presentation, in particular the lack of clear dysmorphic features, the clinical diagnosis of this disorder can be delayed before being diagnosed genetically. Most patients with this syndrome have chromosomal changes in the form of a mosaic. High levels of mosaicism correlate well with a lower age of onset and severe cognitive impairment. Here, we emphasize the importance of early G-banding chromosomal analysis when patients present with unexplainable severe seizures and repetitive NCSE, even in the absence of any dysmorphic features suggestive of a chromosomal disorder. PMID:25957205

  16. Autosyndesis among Crepis setosa Chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Collins; Lillian Hollingshead; Priscilla Avery

    1930-01-01

    IN a paper1 dealing with the connexion between cytology and taxonomy, Prof. Tischler makes a statement to the effect that the four haploid chromosomes of Crepis setosa conjugate to form two pairs at the time of meiosis in the species hybrid Crepis biennis (n = 20) × C. setosa (n = 4). This he credits to us in a paper2

  17. Microdissection and Chromosome Painting of the Alien Chromosome in an Addition Line of Wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat - Thinopyrumintermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneriaspicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a Js genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (Js, J and St) in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the Js genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different genomes in polyploid plants. PMID:23967319

  18. Programmatic approaches to assessing and improving animal welfare in zoos and aquariums.

    PubMed

    Barber, Joseph C E

    2009-11-01

    There continues to be intense public, professional, and scientific focus on the welfare of animals in zoos and aquariums, but implementing welfare assessment tools consistently throughout this community remains challenging. Indirect measures can be used to assess "welfare potential"-the potential that animals will experience good welfare based on the care that they are provided with. Zoos and aquariums focus on welfare potential with their continued commitment to develop animal care guidelines (e.g. Animal Care Manuals) that can play a role within institutional accreditation or certification. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums Animal Welfare Committee has been pursuing approaches to maximize welfare potential by developing the concept of an integrated welfare approach or framework-an attempt to identify recommended animal care programs (e.g. enrichment, nutrition, veterinary care, research, and animal training programs) and their programmatic components. Objectively assessing the influence that animal care recommendations have on the welfare of individual animals is important to determine the efficacy of programmatic approaches. The future of welfare assessment within zoos and aquariums will include population-level evaluations-tracking emerging trends in health and behavior that come from both formal and informal institutional animal reports. Sharing this information, and performing meta-analyses of the data using epidemiological approaches, will become easier with advances in technology and database management software. Identifying welfare "red/green flags" throughout captive populations will provide direction for more focused assessments that will ultimately inform the design of more effective animal care programs. PMID:19593774

  19. Micromanipulation studies of chromosome movement. II. Birefringent chromosomal fibers and the mechanical attachment of chromosomes to the spindle

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The degree of mechanical coupling of chromosomes to the spindles of Nephrotoma and Trimeratropis primary spermatocytes varies with the stage of meiosis and the birefringent retardation of the chromosomal fibers. In early prometaphase, before birefringent chromosomal fibers have formed, a bivalent can be displaced toward a spindle pole by a single, continuous pull with a microneedle. Resistance to poleward displacement increases with increased development of the chromosomal fibers, reaching a maximum at metaphase. At this stage kinetochores cannot be displaced greater than 1 micrometer toward either spindle pole, even by a force which is sufficient to displace the entire spindle within the cell. The abolition of birefringence with either colcemid or vinblastine results in the loss of chromosome-spindle attachment. In the absence of birefringent fibers a chromosome can be displaced anywhere within the cell. The photochemical inactivation of colcemid by irradiation with 366-nm light results in the reformation of birefringent chromosomal fibers and the concomitant re-establishment of chromosome attachment to the spindle. These results support the hypothesis that the birefringent chromosomal fibers anchor the chromosomes to the spindle and transmit the force for anaphase chromosome movement. PMID:479316

  20. The Relationship between Farmers’ Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms

    PubMed Central

    K?l?ç, ?.; Bozkurt, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers’ perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers’ characteristics, our observations, and farmers’ expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers’ perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers’ perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare. PMID:25049916

  1. The Relationship between Farmers' Perceptions and Animal Welfare Standards in Sheep Farms.

    PubMed

    K?l?ç, I; Bozkurt, Z

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between welfare standards in sheep farms and farmers' perceptions of factors affecting animal welfare. We developed a scale of 34 items to measure farmers' perceptions of animal welfare. We examined the relationships among variables in farmers' characteristics, our observations, and farmers' expressed perceptions through a t test, variance analysis and correlation analysis. Results of the research suggested that higher welfare standards for sheep exist on farms run by farmers who have a higher perception level of animal welfare. These farmers believed that personnel and shelter conditions were more effective than veterinary inspection, feeding and other factors in terms of animal welfare. In addition, we detected a significant relationship between the farmers' perceptions and their gender, educational level, whether they enjoyed their work, or whether they applied the custom of religious sacrifice. Our results showed that emotional and cognitive factors related to farmers' perceptions may offer opportunities for progress in the domain of animal welfare. PMID:25049916

  2. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  3. Equipment replacement policy: a survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J I

    1990-08-01

    Over the past ten years there has been a considerable increase in application of theoretically correct measurement methods in determining the economic life of equipment. Approximately 89% of the firms surveyed have equipment replacement policies. The discounted rate of return method is the most widely used in determining the service life of equipment; the MAPI formula is not widely used. Difficulties in applying a replacement policy can be classified into three groups: operational, organizational, and economic. The problems mentioned most often are operational. In organizational difficulties there is usually a lack of coordination between staff and line managers. Economic problems are generally the limited funds available for equipment replacement. Formal educational programs are lacking for the development of equipment replacement managers. For the firms having replacement policies, individuals with engineering degrees are preferred over those in other disciplines for the management of the equipment replacement policy. PMID:10105562

  4. Portable Equipment Management in Hospitals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nebil Buyurgan; Ashraf Hajiyev; Nabil Lehlou; Ronald Rardin; Raja Jayaraman

    This study presents an analysis of portable equipment management in hospital environments. Considering the significant amount of personnel time for equipment search, this research investigates management models, tracking activities, and technology involvement in equipment management. A simulation-based decision support tool is developed to analyze the different processes and the impact of RFID technology on the widely-adopted organizational systems: centralized, semi-centralized

  5. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

  6. Mechanisms of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Sevinç

    2015-01-01

    In many animals, males have one X and females have two X chromosomes. The difference in X chromosome dosage between the two sexes is compensated by mechanisms that regulate X chromosome transcription. Recent advances in genomic techniques have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation. In this review, I summarize our current understanding of dosage imbalance in general, and then review the molecular mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation with an emphasis on the parallels and differences between the three well-studied model systems, M. musculus, D. melanogaster and C. elegans. PMID:25628761

  7. Automated clinical system for chromosome analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Friedan, H. J.; Johnson, E. T.; Rennie, P. A.; Wall, R. J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic chromosome analysis system is provided wherein a suitably prepared slide with chromosome spreads thereon is placed on the stage of an automated microscope. The automated microscope stage is computer operated to move the slide to enable detection of chromosome spreads on the slide. The X and Y location of each chromosome spread that is detected is stored. The computer measures the chromosomes in a spread, classifies them by group or by type and also prepares a digital karyotype image. The computer system can also prepare a patient report summarizing the result of the analysis and listing suspected abnormalities.

  8. Unattended optical surveillance equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Mangan, D.L.; Johnson, C.S.; Schneider, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    In many security situations, it is necessary to utilize unattended optical surveillance systems. Sandia National Laboratories has developed three optical surveillance systems which operate in the unattended surveillance mode. The first of these systems is known as the Modular Integrated Video System (MIVS). The MIVS is a microprocessor controlled video system which records scenes at selectable intervals. Each scene consists of six to ten frames recorded on a 8mm videotape. A MIVS video recorder has the capacity to record approximately 26,000 scenes. Scenes can be recorded at intervals ranging from 1 to 99 minutes between recordings. The unit has been designed for permanent installation with facility power. The camera can be located up to 30 m from the recording module with the authentication technology protecting the cable connecting the camera to the recording unit. The Portable Surveillance unit (PSU) is a second system which has been designed for unattended operation. The PSU is designed for situations where quick set up of an optical surveillance device is required. The PSU operates in a manner similar to the MIVS and can be operated off of facility power for long time periods, or from an internal battery pack for short term surveillance applications. The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) provides similar capabilities for permanent rack mounted installations. This paper describes the MIVS, the PSU, and the VSU, and discusses potential applications for the system. Equipment for reviewing the videotapes produced by the systems is also described. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    The Used Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment(ERLE) Grant Program of the US Department of Energy "was established to grant available excess equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research." The corresponding Web site lets users search and find all the relevant information for various pieces of equipment, including its current availability, condition, contact information, and more. Examples of available equipment include x-ray scanners, flow meters, gas chromatograph analyzer, digital manometer, lasers, and many more. Other links on the site provide information on program guidelines, approval processes, FAQs, and other relevant facts for potential borrowers.

  10. 46 CFR 154.1430 - Equipment locker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment locker. 154.1430 Section 154.1430...VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Safety Equipment § 154.1430 Equipment locker. One...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1430 - Equipment locker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment locker. 154.1430 Section 154.1430...VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Safety Equipment § 154.1430 Equipment locker. One...

  12. 40 CFR 265.32 - Required equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment; and (d) Water at adequate...pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or...

  13. 40 CFR 264.32 - Required equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment; and (d) Water at adequate...pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or...

  14. 40 CFR 264.32 - Required equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment; and (d) Water at adequate...pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or...

  15. 40 CFR 265.32 - Required equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...extinguishing equipment, such as that using foam, inert gas, or dry chemicals), spill control equipment, and decontamination equipment; and (d) Water at adequate...pressure to supply water hose streams, or foam producing equipment, or...

  16. 21 CFR 225.30 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...30 Equipment. (a) Equipment which is designed to...of medicated feeds. Such equipment permits production of feeds of uniform quality, facilitates cleaning...product. (b)(1) All equipment shall possess the...

  17. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  18. Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K; Magiera, Maria M; Zaytsev, Anatoly V; Pereira, Ana L; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Maiato, Helder

    2015-05-15

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically toward the equator. We found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific posttranslational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules, and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  19. [The evolution of human Y chromosome].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianrong; Wang, Meiqin; Li, Shaohua

    2014-09-01

    The human Y chromosome is always intriguing for researchers, because of its role in gender determination and its unusual evolutionary history. The Y chromosome evolves from an autosome, and its evolution has been characterized by massive gene decay. The lack of recombination and protein-coding genes and high content of repetitive sequences have hindered the progress in our understanding of the Y chromosome biology. Recently, with the advances in comparative genomics and sequencing technology, the research on Y chromosome has become a hotspot, with an intensified debate about Y-chromosome final destination resulting from degeneration. This review focuses on the structure, inheritance characteristics, gene content, and the origin and evolution of Y chromosome. We also discuss the long-term destiny of Y chromosome. PMID:25252301

  20. Motivated but fearful: welfare reform, disability, and race.

    PubMed

    Crewe, Sandra Edmonds

    2002-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996) instituted reforms in welfare that focused on mandatory work requirements. It imposes strict requirements and lifetime limits that force non-exempt individuals to work or risk sanctions. The law particularly impacts persons with disabilities because of the substantial numbers who believe they are unable to work. This article uses findings from a research study to discuss barriers faced by individuals with physical disabilities who are forced to find work under welfare reform. It highlights the experiences of African Americans who have the added burden of health disparities because of discriminatory and differential practices in diagnoses, treatment, access, and utilization. It also presents practice implications. PMID:12809378

  1. Militarism, human welfare, and the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists.

    PubMed

    Summers, Craig

    1992-01-01

    A case study is presented of the American Psychological Association (APA), as a health care organization that promotes human welfare. APA includes policies on human welfare in its Ethical Principles of Psychologists and even lists the advancement of psychology "as a means of promoting human welfare" on its letterhead. Nevertheless, APA has other policies and activities based on military and weapons work that appear to conflict with its promotion of human welfare. Although military work in and of itself may not necessarily be problematic, work that contributes to people purposely being harmed or killed should be squared with the association's ethical guidelines. The results presented here show that this may not be the case: There currently appears to be little justification in the Ethical Principles for work intended to harm people. APA's active lobbying, research, and development for the military are documented here, in relation to an analysis of the Ethical Principles. APA's uncritical support for Operation Desert Storm is examined specifically, with regard to weapons technology and therapeutic treatment of U.S. soldiers on the battlefield. This one-sided support for victims of the war is not in keeping with a Hippocratic health care ethic to treat patients needing care, and to do so with neutrality and impartiality. Similarities to a historical example of nationalistic mental health ethics are discussed, with a review of the development of the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy and of the German Society for Psychology in the Nazi wartime effort and the Holocaust. The results here show similar deficiencies in APA's ethical standards, not the least of which is that the code applies to individual members but not to APA policies, committees, or activities. This article concludes with suggested criteria for the Ethical Principles that would at least (a) recognize the ambiguities in systematically developing and using weapons to hurt people and (b) provide an initial rationale of potential justifications. PMID:11651615

  2. An economic analysis of the welfare crisis in Texas

    E-print Network

    Ledbetter, Harry Laughlin

    1972-01-01

    Medical Services Utilization of Medical Services The Growth of Medicaid Expenditures Hypothesis I: Medicaid Attracts Welfare Applicants Test Number 1: Test Number 2: Test Number 3: Summary Rate of Change in Caseloads Distri'oution of Grants... OF TABLES TABLE Page I. Medical Assistance Expenditures, State Funds II. Caseloads and Medical Expenditures 18 20 III. AFDC Caseloads and Medical Expenditures, State Funds 23 IV. Distribution of Payments to Aid to Families with Dependent Children 24...

  3. Welfare Reform and Lone Parents in the UK &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Gregg; Susan Harkness; Sarah Smith

    2009-01-01

    A series of reforms to help low income families with children were introduced in the UK in 1999, including in-work tax credits and welfare-to-work programmes. Lone parents were a key target for these reforms – they comprised 22% of all families by 1998 but 55% of families with children in poverty. Previous studies have shown that the reforms raised employment

  4. China and the WTO: Tariff offers, exemptions, and welfare implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian F. Bach; Will Martin; Jennifer A. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    China and the WTO: Tariff Offers, Exemptions, and Welfare Implications. — Trade reforms have opened the Chinese economy and\\u000a the reforms offered for WTO accession involve further liberalization. To assess the implications of these offers, the authors\\u000a take into account the tariff exemptions that are especially important in China’s trade regime, and the reductions in the variability\\u000a of tariffs at

  5. A welfare reform based on help for working parents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Bergmann; Heidi Hartmann

    1995-01-01

    The Help for Working Parents Plan-developed by Dr. Heidi Hartmann and Dr. Barbara Bergmann in collaboration with the Economists' Policy Group for Women's Issues, which they co-chair – offers an innovative welfare reform program that encouragesjob holding, and sustains working parents and their children in decency. The HWP provides benefits to both single- and dual-parent households, to families who are

  6. GSK-3 inhibitors induce chromosome instability

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Anthony; Ray-Sinha, Arpita; Staples, Oliver D; Taylor, Stephen S

    2007-01-01

    Background Several mechanisms operate during mitosis to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, during tumour evolution these mechanisms go awry resulting in chromosome instability. While several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) may promote chromosome instability, at least in colon cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we turn our attention to GSK-3 – a protein kinase, which in concert with APC, targets ?-catenin for proteolysis – and ask whether GSK-3 is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Results To probe the role of GSK-3 in mitosis, we inhibited GSK-3 kinase activity in cells using a panel of small molecule inhibitors, including SB-415286, AR-A014418, 1-Azakenpaullone and CHIR99021. Analysis of synchronised HeLa cells shows that GSK-3 inhibitors do not prevent G1/S progression or cell division. They do, however, significantly delay mitotic exit, largely because inhibitor-treated cells have difficulty aligning all their chromosomes. Although bipolar spindles form and the majority of chromosomes biorient, one or more chromosomes often remain mono-oriented near the spindle poles. Despite a prolonged mitotic delay, anaphase frequently initiates without the last chromosome aligning, resulting in chromosome non-disjunction. To rule out the possibility of "off-target" effects, we also used RNA interference to selectively repress GSK-3?. Cells deficient for GSK-3? exhibit a similar chromosome alignment defect, with chromosomes clustered near the spindle poles. GSK-3? repression also results in cells accumulating micronuclei, a hallmark of chromosome missegregation. Conclusion Thus, not only do our observations indicate a role for GSK-3 in accurate chromosome segregation, but they also raise the possibility that, if used as therapeutic agents, GSK-3 inhibitors may induce unwanted side effects by inducing chromosome instability. PMID:17697341

  7. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L. [Kuwait Medical Genetics Centre, Sulaibikat (Kuwait)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq region or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.

  8. Laptop image transmission equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocenter, Michael M.

    1991-12-01

    Imagery and other visual information have become a critical element in planning and performing modern military operations. The effectiveness of this imagery information is often directly tied to the time it takes to get from the collector of this imagery to the user of the imagery. Hard copy distribution of annotated imagery to the tactical commander is hampered by the lack of effective communications paths, and the tactical use of hand held imagery is restricted by the lack of film processing facilities. The military has begun to rely on electronic imagery and digital communications technology for answers, with some success. The new obstacles created by applied electronic imagery are interoperability standards and effective use of communications bandwidth in a tactical environment. New technological developments in computer hardware/software have changed this situation by allowing for the gathering, dissemination, and transfer of near-real-time information to various intelligence audiences at any location. The Naval Air Development Center (NAVAIRDEVCEN) has coupled commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology with National Image Transmission Formats (NITF) Standards to develop a Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS) package that is designed to meet the flexibility challenge of the tactical military environment. This tailorable SIDS package is called Laptop Image Transmission Equipment (LITE). The LITE system is an extension of the Navy's existing Fleet Imagery Support Terminal (FIST) into the man-portable tactical environment. As such, LITE development is focused on developing flexible imagery input (from sources such as filmless cameras) and connectivity to tactical communications paths and ruggedization/miniaturization issues. The LITE system, in prototype form, has already found application through operational use in special operations, counter narcotics operations, and classic air/ground/sea military operations. This paper provides an overview of the LITE components, specifications, operations, and future developments for the system.

  9. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adams-Ciardullo, Diana.

    2002-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, Connecticut's Job First Welfare Reform Program has been under rigorous evaluation. As a result, under a contract with the Connecticut Department of Social Services, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (MDRC) decided to study the effects of the Job First Program. During the study, nearly 5,000 single-parent welfare applicants and recipients in Manchester and New Haven were randomly assigned to either the Jobs First Program or to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) group (which operated under the prior welfare rules). The effects of the Jobs First Program were estimated by comparing how the two groups fared over a four-year period, and the results are revealed in this report. Users may choose to view the Executive Summary (a short review in HTML), the Summary Report (52 pages), or the Full Report (406 pages). In addition, the Web page provides access to the report's press release (issued February 20, 2002) and a description of Connecticut's Job First Program.

  10. Chronic welfare restrictions and adrenal gland morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Müller, Bruno R; Medeiros, Hisly Any S; de Sousa, Renato S; Molento, Carla F M

    2015-04-01

    Gait problems constitute an important and chronic welfare restriction for broiler chickens. The objective of the present study was to determine if adrenal gland morphology indicates chronic welfare restrictions in broiler chickens, using gait problems as the stressor. Sixty-six birds raised on a commercial unit were selected at 40 d of age and separated into groups according to gait score. One group was apparently healthy birds (AH) with gait scores of 0 to 2, and the other group had birds with gait problems (GP) that showed gait scores of 4 to 5. Birds were slaughtered and weighed, and their adrenal glands were measured and weighed; proportions of medullary and adrenocortical tissues, and lymphatic tissue and blood vessels were studied. GP birds had lower BW when compared to AH birds, and when adrenal gland weight values were adjusted to BW, a greater relative adrenal weight was observed for the GP group. Adrenals from GP birds also presented a higher proportion of blood vessels when compared to AH birds. These results might indicate increased adrenal activity and evidence of the inflammatory process as a consequence of chronic stress. Results showed that gait problems caused significant adrenal gland changes, suggesting a possible role for the study of adrenal gland morphology as an indicator of chronic welfare problems in broiler chickens. PMID:25701206

  11. Animal welfare towards sustainability in pork meat production.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Antonio; Fàbrega, Emma; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Dalmau, Antoni

    2015-11-01

    Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs. PMID:26013042

  12. Comparative analysis of sex chromosomes in Leporinus species (Teleostei, Characiformes) using chromosome painting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Leporinus genus, belonging to the Anostomidae family, is an interesting model for studies of sex chromosome evolution in fish, particularly because of the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes only in some species of the genus. In this study we used W chromosome-derived probes in a series of cross species chromosome painting experiments to try to understand events of sex chromosome evolution in this family. Results W chromosome painting probes from Leporinus elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens were hybridized to each others chromosomes. The results showed signals along their W chromosomes and the use of L. elongatus W probe against L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens also showed signals over the Z chromosome. No signals were observed when the later aforementioned probe was used in hybridization procedures against other four Anostomidae species without sex chromosomes. Conclusions Our results demonstrate a common origin of sex chromosomes in L. elongatus, L. macrocephalus and L. obtusidens but suggest that the L. elongatus chromosome system is at a different evolutionary stage. The absence of signals in the species without differentiated sex chromosomes does not exclude the possibility of cryptic sex chromosomes, but they must contain other Leporinus W sequences than those described here. PMID:23822802

  13. Swansea University has been presented with a Good Farm Animal Welfare Award for its efforts to help improve the welfare of millions of farm animals.

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Swansea University has been presented with a Good Farm Animal Welfare Award for its efforts to help improve the welfare of millions of farm animals. Swansea University was among some 40 hospitals, education centres and local councils from across the UK to be presented with Compassion in World Farming, Public

  14. Quantitative verification of the correspondence between the Welfare Quality® operational definition of farm animal welfare and the opinion of Flemish farmers, citizens and vegetarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. M. Tuyttens; Filiep Vanhonacker; Els Van Poucke; Wim Verbeke

    2010-01-01

    The Welfare Quality® project has developed an operational definition of farm animal welfare, which consists of 12 criteria grouped into four principles (‘good feeding’, ‘good housing’, ‘good health’ and ‘appropriate behaviour’). As part of a larger survey, 204 farmers, 72 vegetarians, and a representative sample of 459 adult citizens in Flanders (Belgium) scored the importance of each of the 12

  15. Effects of harmonics on equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. Wagner; J. C. Balda; T. M. Barnes; A. E. Emannuel; R. J. Ferraro; D. C. Griffith; D. P. Hartmann; W. F. Horton; W. T. Jewell; A. McEachern; D. J. Phileggi; W. E. Reid

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state-of-knowledge of the effects of power system harmonics on equipment. The general mechanisms presented are thermal overloading, disruption, and dielectric stressing. Quantitative effects are presented or referenced whenever possible. However, many of the effects can only be qualitatively described. The equipment considered are adjustable speed drives, capacitors, circuit breakers, fuses, conductors,

  16. Equipment Investment and Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bradford De Long; Lawrence H. Summers

    1991-01-01

    Using data from the United Nations Comparison Project and the Penn World Table, we find that machinery and equipment investment has a strong association with growth: over 1960-85 each extra percent of GDP invested in equipment is associated with an increase in GDP growth of one third of a percentage point per year. This is a much stronger association than

  17. A new equipment management approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pesesse

    1991-01-01

    An equipment management method that is based on analysis of productivity losses, search for best actors, adaption of structures, and training programs is discussed. It is concluded that the program, implemented on an active production line, increased equipment performance and enriched the tasks of all employees on the production line, enabling the establishment of a coherent staff evolution policy

  18. Food Service Equipment and Appurtenances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Equipment design specifications are presented relating to tables of all kinds, counters, sinks and drainboards, bins, shelves, drawers, hoods and similar kitchen appurtenances, not including baking, roasting, toasting, broiling or frying equipment, food preparation machinery such as slicers, choppers, and cutters, mixers and grinders, steam…

  19. OPEN DESIGN OF MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Vallance; S. Kiani; S. Nayfeh

    In this paper, we discuss open design of manufacturing equipment as an approach to the design, test, and continuous improvement of modular and reconfigurable manufacturing equipment. Open design fosters collaborative efforts by providing a framework for freely sharing information such as design documentation and performance data. This paper presents the principles of open design by introducing the Open Design Definition,

  20. Heavy Equipment Mechanic. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Laborn J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist heavy equipment instructors in teaching the latest concepts and functions of heavy equipment. It includes 7 sections and 27 instructional units. Sections (and units) are: orientation (shop safety and first aid, hand tools and miscellaneous tools, measuring, basic rigging and hoisting), engines (basic engine…

  1. Heavy Equipment Mechanic Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    Designed to train an entry-level mechanic, this heavy equipment mechanic program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a heavy equipment mechanic program. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  2. Marijuana and cocaine use among female African-American welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chyvette T; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2004-08-16

    A key issue that came to the forefront during the welfare reform debate in the United States during the 1990s concerned the relationship between welfare receipt and drug use and abuse. This paper examines the relationship between persistent welfare assistance, welfare background, and marijuana and cocaine use among African-American women. We hypothesize that women who have received welfare assistance for a period of 5 years or more will be more likely to use drugs compared to those who have never received welfare assistance or who have received it for a shorter duration. Data for this analysis comes from a longitudinal study of African-Americans living in a Chicago community followed from first grade (N = 1242) to age 32. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between years of welfare receipt and three categories of marijuana and cocaine use (never, past, and current) among female respondents (N = 496). Results indicate an increased risk of past-year cocaine and marijuana use for women who reported receiving welfare benefits for 5 years or more. Growing up in a family that received welfare did not significantly predict adult drug use, but did significantly predict an adult welfare experience. Implications of results are discussed. PMID:15276224

  3. International workshop of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States). Div. of Neurology); Carrano, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-09-16

    This document summarizes the workshop on physical and genetic mapping of chromosome 19. The first session discussed the major disease loci found on the chromosome. The second session concentrated on reference families, markers and linkage maps. The third session concentrated on radiation hybrid mapping, somatic cell hybrid panels, macro restriction maps and YACs, followed by cDNA and long range physical maps. The fourth session concentrated on compiling consensus genetic and physical maps as well as discussing regions of conflict. The final session dealt with the LLNL cosmid contig database and comparative mapping of homologous regions of the human and mouse genomes, and ended with a discussion of resource sharing. 18 refs., 2 figs. (MHB)

  4. Aeration equipment for small depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  5. Molecular mapping of rice chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. McCouch; G. Kochert; Z. H. Yu; Z. Y. Wang; G. S. Khush; W. R. Coffman; S. D. Tanksley

    1988-01-01

    We report the construction of an RFLP genetic map of rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes. The map is comprised of 135 loci corresponding to clones selected from a PstI genomic library. This molecular map covers 1,389 cM of the rice genome and exceeds the current classical maps by more than 20%. The map was generated from F2 segregation data (50 individuals)

  6. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  7. Biological dosimetry by interphase chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T.C. [Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Both fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads with whole-chromosome probes and premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei have been used in the past to estimate the radiation dose to lymphocytes. We combined these techniques to evaluate the feasibility of using painted interphase chromosomes for biodosimetry. Human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to {gamma} rays and fused to mitotic Chinese hamster cells either immediately after irradiation or after 8 h incubation at 37{degrees}C. Interphase or metaphase human chromosomes were hybridized with a composite probe specific for human chromosomes 3 and 4. The dose-response curve for fragment induction immediately after irradiation was linear; these results reflected breakage frequency in the total genome in terms of DNA content per chromosome. At 8 h after irradiation, the dose-response curve for chromosome interchanges, the prevalent aberration in interphase chromosomes, was linear-quadratic and similar to that observed for metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that painting prematurely condensed chromosomes can be useful for biological dosimetry when blood samples are available shortly after the exposure, or when interphase cells are to be scored instead of mitotic cells. 32 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. [Toward further reform of mental health care and welfare].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Teruhiko

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Investigating the Future of Mental Health Care and Welfare, launched in 2008 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, issued its final report in September 2009. The 2009 report was an expert-driven interim review of implementation of the 10-year plan proposed in the 2004 "Vision for Reforming Mental Health Care and Welfare," which marked its midpoint in 2009, and was conducted in order to identify priority issues in the final five years of the plan. The report recognizes that "mental illness significantly impairs quality of life and causes great socioeconomic loss"; that "health care and welfare assistance systems that support the ability of people with mental disorders to live in the community are inadequate"; and that "large numbers of patients with schizophrenia remain institutionalized over the long term. The report notes that this is due to previous policies that promoted institutionalized care, with regard to which concerned parties, including government entities, have expressed regret." The new approach described in the report can be summarized as (1) promoting the basic principle of moving from institutionalized care toward community-based care, based on the vision for reform noted above; (2) creating a society where patients who have mental disorders can receive high-quality health care, and depending on the patients' symptoms and wishes where they can receive appropriate health care and welfare services while continuing to live independently and securely in the community; and (3) speeding up the process of reform in mental health care and welfare. The core focus of reform is expressed in four fundamental principles: (1) restructuring mental health care (restructuring and improving the healthcare system by upgrading community-centered healthcare, shifting the focus of hospital care to the acute stage, and similar efforts) ; (2) improving the quality of mental health care (improving the quality of health care provided to each individual patient, whether it involves pharmacological or psychosocial therapy, and also improving the quality of health care by promoting staff development) ; (3) strengthening community living support systems (developing welfare services that support the ability of persons with disabilities to live in the community, improving care management, improving emergency and community health services, securing places of residence, etc.) ; and (4) prioritizing increased awareness and understanding of psychiatric illness (promoting an accurate understanding of mental disorders so that patients can obtain help at an early stage, and so that people with mental disorders can live as fully-participating members of the community). The committee also reviewed the targets stated in the vision for reform, and established a new maximum limit of 150,000 patients institutionalized with schizophrenia (the number was 196,000 in 2005). By 2011, the committee will also set a concrete target for the number of patients institutionalized with dementia. Preserving the 2004 goals expressed under the vision for reform, the mean target ratio of patients remaining hospitalized in psychiatric wards less than one year, for all prefectures, was set at 24% or less, while the target discharge rate for patients hospitalized for one year or longer, for each prefecture, was fixed at a minimum of 29%. PMID:21706855

  9. Characterization of deletions in common wheat induced by an Aegilops cylindrica chromosome: detection of multiple chromosome rearrangements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Hohmann; T. R. Endo; R. G. Herrmann; B. S. Gill

    1995-01-01

    An Aegilops cylindrica chromosome induces terminal deletions of chromosomes in wheat as identified by C-banding. We are constructing high-density physical maps of wheat chromosomes and have detected additional chromosome rearrangements. Among 63 lines with chromosomal subarm deletions in group 7 chromosomes, 7 lines (11.1%) were shown to harbor additional chromosome rearrangements. Two other lines were also omitted from the physical

  10. Characterization of chromosome structures of Falconinae (Falconidae, Falconiformes, Aves) by chromosome painting and delineation of chromosome rearrangements during their differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chizuko Nishida; Junko Ishijima; Ayumi Kosaka; Hideyuki Tanabe; Felix A. Habermann; Darren K. Griffin; Yoichi Matsuda

    2008-01-01

    Karyotypes of most bird species are characterized by around 2n = 80 chromosomes, comprising 7–10 pairs of large- and medium-sized\\u000a macrochromosomes including sex chromosomes and numerous morphologically indistinguishable microchromosomes. The Falconinae\\u000a of the Falconiformes has a different karyotype from the typical avian karyotype in low chromosome numbers, little size difference\\u000a between macrochromosomes and a smaller number of microchromosomes. To characterize

  11. New image analysis methods for 3D visualization and assessment of mapping distance for chromosomes in interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ikizyan, I.; Burde, S.; Leary, J.F. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Confocal microscopy (Meridian Instruments, Inc.) images of interphase nuclei with portions or entire chromosomes singley- or doubly-labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization were analyzed with newly-developed software on an 80486 PC equipped with an autostereoscopic display (Dimension Technologies, Inc.). The computer display is hologram-like with the ability to address points in 3D space using the associated mouse. Software was developed which allowed for reduction of background by a 19 voxel (3x3x3 voxel cube without corner voxels) median filtering algorithm followed by rendering of a 3D surface and skeleton figure of a chromosome. Visualization at multiple viewing angles by animation allows approximate coordinate locations to be obtained with a 3D mouse to guide the process thereby reducing significantly the required calculation times. Two biological applications under development include (1) correct counting of a given chromosome's copy number using centromere/chromosome-specific probes, and (2) visualization of painted chromosomes and subregion-specific probes at different locations on that chromosome for physical mapping. In either application, real-world distances within each confocal plane and between planes are calculable to give physical mapping distances in three dimensions and along the chromosome.

  12. Fitting of protective football equipment.

    PubMed

    Gieck, J; McCue, F C

    1980-01-01

    As no other guide was found to illustrate and describe protective equipment and its fitting, we have prepared this treatise. Properly fitted protective equipment for football is a must to prevent injury from occurring. Many injuries result from improperly fitted equipment. The helmet and shoulder pads are the most important pieces of equipment that require proper fit. Adequate face masks and jaw pads are essential to the helmet. Cantilever shoulder pads are necessary for most positions, with straps for those with subluxating or dislocating shoulders. Other pieces of equipment that need attention are cervical collars, hip pads, thigh pads, knee pads, pants, and shoes. Elbow, forearm, wrist, hand, and mouthpieces are essential to the player and care must be taken to see that they are compatible with proper fit. Special materials such as Ensolite, Hexcelite, RTV-11, Orthoplast, Lightcast, or Therm-O-Foam may be utilized to construct special pads. Today's modern football equipment provides adequate protection. It is imperative that all personnel involved in fitting equipment be knowledgeable about the subject. PMID:7377452

  13. Minimal hierarchical analysis of global human Y-chromosome SNP diversity by PCR-RFLP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MURRAY P. COX

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetically informative binary polymorphisms on the Y-chromosome have become a standard source of markers for molecular anthropology studies. Although several analytical methods are currently available, most methodologies rely on specialized equipment or expensive reagents that research groups with a primarily anthropological focus often cannot afford. Here I present 15 Y-chro- mosome lineage assays based on a more widely accessible technique—Polymerase

  14. Origins of Eponymous Orthopaedic Equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifton Meals; Jeffrey Wang

    2010-01-01

    Background  Orthopaedists make great use of eponymous equipment, however the origins of these tools are unknown to many users. This history\\u000a enriches, enlightens, and enhances surgical education, and may inspire modern innovation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We explored the origins of common and eponymous orthopaedic equipment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We selected pieces of equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest use by modern orthopaedists. We do

  15. TRANSPORT AND EMPLACEMENT EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    1997-09-29

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) Transport and Emplacement in the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. The Transport and Emplacement equipment described in this document consists of the following: (1) WP Transporter; (2) Reusable Rail Car; (3) Emplacement Gantry; (4) Gantry Carrier; and (5) Transport Locomotive.

  16. Chromosomal changes associated with tumorigenic mineral fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Palekar, L.D.; Eyre, J.F.; Coffin, D.L.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the cytogenetic characteristics of mineral fiber-induced rat pleural mesotheliomas. Cell lines were established in vitro from 6 chrysotile- and 7 erionite-induced rat pleural mesotheliomas. Each cell line was composed of several cell populations that were heterogeneous in their chromosome make-up, but a predominant cell population was readily recognizable in each cell line based on chromosome number. The cell lines were characterized by either aneuploid or pseudodiploid cells with chromosome modal numbers ranging from 40-92. Karyotype analyses revealed a heterogeneous display of chromosome rearrangements. Each cell line had unique abnormalities. No recurrent abnormality could as yet be associated with either chrysotile or erionite-induced mesothelioma cells. However, frequent anomalies of chromosome No. 1 suggest chromosome No. 1 involvement in the pathogenesis of rat pleural mesotheliomas.

  17. [Advances and perspectives in artificial chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Chuan; Han, Fang-Pu

    2011-04-01

    Artificial chromosomes (ACs) are genetic-engineered vector systems with defined native chromosomal elements. ACs have large carrying capacity and genetic stability without integration into host genome, thus avoiding random insertion and positional effects. ACs were first successfully developed in yeast (Yeast artificial chromosome, YAC), and then in bacterium (Bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC), human (Human artificial chromosome, HAC), and plant (Plant artificial chromosome, PAC). Here, we summarized recent progress on ACs, especially, on PAC. To date, YAC and BAC have been widely applied in genome sequencing and gene isolation, while HAC and PAC have been subjected to gene therapy, protein production, and plant transgenesis, respectively. Recently, American scientists reported a man-made genome of prokaryote Mycoplasma mycoides. However, like ACs, this man-made genome was also genetic-engineered product and can't survive as an independent life without a cellular environment. PMID:21482517

  18. Chromosome counts and chromosome morphology of some selected species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    František Dvo?ák; Božena Dadáková

    1984-01-01

    In the years 1976–1981 we studied chromosome counts and karyotypic formulae of the following 29 species of plants from 41\\u000a localities (of these 6 from Bohemia, 32 from Moravia, 3 from Slovakia):Batrachium baudotii\\u000a (Godron) F. W. Schultz,Chenopodium rubrum L.,C. polyspermum L.,C. murale L.,C. ficifolium\\u000a Sm.,C. opulifolium\\u000a Schrader ex DC. inLam. et DC.,C. strictum Roth [subsp.strictum, subsp.glaucophyllum (Aellen)Aellen inJust etAellen, subsp.striatiforme

  19. PHYLETIC HOT SPOTS FOR B CHROMOSOMES IN ANGIOSPERMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald A. Levin; Brian G. Palestis; R. Neil Jones; Robert Trivers

    2005-01-01

    We determined whether supernumerary B chromosomes were nonrandomly distributed among major an- giosperm lineages and among lineages within families, as well as the identity of lineages with unusually high B- chromosome frequencies (hot spots). The incidence of B chromosomes for each taxon was gathered from databases showing species with and without these chromosomes (among species with known chromosome numbers). Hetero-

  20. The politics of employment-friendly welfare reforms in post-industrial economies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silja Häusermann; Bruno Palier

    2008-01-01

    The transition to post-industrialism has generated a range of new tensions between welfare arrangements and labour market performance, which confront today's welfare states with new challenges for employment-friendly recalibration, such as flexicurity, activation and work-care conciliation. Hence, the question of whether, how and to what extent current welfare states are able to adapt to the conditions and needs of post-industrial