Science.gov

Sample records for welfare equipment chromosome

  1. Chromosome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Y chromosome) determine if you are born a boy or a girl (your gender). They are called sex chromosomes: Females ... the father determines if the baby is a girl or a boy. The remaining chromosomes are called autosomal chromosomes. They ...

  2. Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Industrial facilities that plan the shutdown of equipment for service have large financial savings compared to those managing unplanned shutdowns. To this end, a variety of algorithms have been developed and published in ...

  3. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Micha?

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  4. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  5. 45 CFR 2541.320 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment. 2541.320 Section 2541.320 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Changes, Property and Subawards §...

  6. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment. 2543.34 Section 2543.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards...

  7. 45 CFR 2541.320 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment. 2541.320 Section 2541.320 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Changes, Property and Subawards §...

  8. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment. 2543.34 Section 2543.34 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards...

  9. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment. 602.32 Section 602.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be...

  10. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment. 602.32 Section 602.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be...

  11. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment. 602.32 Section 602.32 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... of disposal and sale price of the property. (2) A physical inventory of the property must be...

  12. 45 CFR 92.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 92.32 Section 92.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE, LOCAL, AND TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Changes, Property, and Subawards § 92.32 Equipment....

  13. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  14. Undergraduate Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    with one on study skills before going on to look at: ethology, genetics and the development of behaviourUndergraduate Companion Animal Welfare and Behaviour Rehabilitation Faculty of Medical and Behavioural Rehabilitation is based in the University's internationally renowned Animal Welfare and Behaviour

  15. animal welfare and behavioural

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    going on to look at: ethology, genetics and the development of behaviour; understanding learning theoryCompanion animal welfare and behavioural rehabilitation Undergraduate #12;bristol.ac.uk/ug-study The Certificate of Higher Education in Companion Animal Welfare and Behavioural Rehabilitation is based

  16. Minnesota's Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Kids Count, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on welfare reform and programs that help low-income children in Minnesota, including articles on the basic values which should guide welfare reform; current welfare reform proposals; the cost of welfare; the role of charities and the religious community; an overview of programs in Minnesota which assist low-income…

  17. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  18. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  19. 45 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...

  20. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a condition caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is marked by mental retardation, learning difficulties, ... muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than ...

  1. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-01-01

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  2. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  3. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  4. Thoughts on farm animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestating sow welfare remains a complex and contentious issue in the US, and stakeholders keep calling for objective, scientific welfare assessments. The Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association recently published a Commentary that attempted to compare sow welfare in "the Swedish deep-...

  5. Chromosome structural aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 9, discusses chromosome structural aberrations, including chromosome breaks and rearrangements, chromatid breaks and rearrangements, telomeres and telomere associations, dicentric chromosomes, inactivation of the centromere, misdivision, centric fusion, triradial and multiradial chromosomes, and fragile sites. 48 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  7. Evaluation of Patient Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Piedmont, Eugene B.; Dornblaser, Bright M.

    1970-01-01

    A multifaceted attempt is made to measure patients' well-being quantitatively in a complex interdisciplinary research and experimental construction project. Parallel studies were conducted in adjoining traditionally shaped and spoke-design hospital buildings. Major innovations were made, in both plants, in the organization of nursing staffs and in communications and logistical support. Smaller nursing staffs achieved significant increases in time spent in direct patient (“bedside”) care, without negative effects on patient welfare, in both buildings; but these effects were maximized in the spoke-design building. PMID:5494267

  8. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a so...

  9. Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon H., Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers on three key questions regarding the effects of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), which ended the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program: why welfare caseloads are falling; how welfare recipients are faring; and how the states are responding to changing…

  10. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  11. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  12. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities. 205.170 Section 205.170 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control. PMID:22688439

  14. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  15. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition. 95.707 Section 95.707 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  16. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition. 95.707 Section 95.707 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  17. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition. 95.707 Section 95.707 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  18. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition. 95.707 Section 95.707 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  19. Chromosomes Store genetic information

    E-print Network

    Evans, Brian L.

    1 #12;2 Chromosomes · Store genetic information · Images reveal state of individual's health · 46 human chromosomes form 24 classes ­ 22 different pairs ­ 2 sex chromosomes, X and Y · Goal: Segment and classify each chromosome in image #12;3 M-FISH · Multiplex Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization [1996] ­ Five

  20. Risk and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Gooby, P; Dean, H; Munro, M; Parker, G

    1999-06-01

    The British welfare state developed as a state-centred response to the problem of handling the risks encountered in a typical life-course. The influential work of Giddens and others implies that the traditional welfare state is under attack from two directions: a changing international politico-economic environment limits the freedom of national governments to pursue independent policies involving relatively high taxation to finance social spending. At the same time, changes in the experience of risk and declining confidence in the expertise of welfare state planners and professionals undermine support for state-centred solutions. This approach fails to acknowledge that available non-state services are often inadequate to meet many everyday life risks and that the authority of private sector advisers, insurers and professionals is also increasingly open to question. This article discusses whether people reject welfare state solutions to problems of risk in the context of research on the perceptions and behaviour of people buying or selling their homes, considering provision for long-term care needs and defrauding social security carried out by the ESRC's Economic Beliefs and Behaviour programme. Individual responses endorse the continued provision of state welfare in order to meet unprovided risks alongside disenchantment with the record of both state and private professionals and planners and awareness that state retrenchment requires greater individual responsibility for meeting one's own needs. The theory of risk society requires development to recognize that citizens are not necessarily alienated from state welfare. PMID:15260022

  1. University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt and Capital Asset Accounting, 6054 S Drexel Ave. Suite 300 or skgill@uchicago.edu Asset Information Equipment Equipment Purchased on Federal Funds: By checking this box, I confirm this disposal complies

  2. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  3. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted. PMID:23535125

  4. On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2014-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

  5. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  7. Scaffold Assisted Chromosome Condensation

    E-print Network

    Poonen, Bjorn

    resembling the X-shape of the chromosome #12;Great Thanks to: PRIMES Prof. Leonid Mirny Geoffrey FudenbergScaffold Assisted Chromosome Condensation: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Dong-Gil Shin MIT PRIMES May 21, 2011 #12;Mitosis and Chromosome Condensation Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

  8. Chromosomal development of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 30, describes the chromosomal development of cancer. It has been established through cytological research that the number of chromosomes in cancer cells often deviates greatly from the usual number in healthy cells of the host organism. This chapter includes discussions on chromosome studies in ascites tumors, stemline and tumor development, mitotic aberrations in cancer, and selection and tumor progression. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Progressing beyond the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

  10. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  11. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental…

  12. Is Welfare Bad for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Jacqueline

    A major fear of many who are concerned with the welfare system is that the system itself tends to create pathology among recipients, and in the case of children, to cause mal-socialization. There are a number of problems with these assertions. The chief problem is that there is not much good evidence, one way or another, concerning the effects of…

  13. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  14. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  15. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  16. Welfare Reform: Serving America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The poorest group in our population is children. This article discusses past and present public assistance programs that affect children and the disproportionate number of minority group children and children in single-parent homes who live in poverty. The need for welfare reform is discussed also. (IAH)

  17. OFFICIAL NOTICE INDUSTRIAL WELFARE COMMISSION

    E-print Network

    OFFICIAL NOTICE INDUSTRIAL WELFARE COMMISSION ORDER NO. 4-2001 REGULATING WAGES, HOURS AND WORKING as amended Sections 4(A) and 10(C) amended and republished by the Department of Industrial Relations NOTICE: To employers and representatives of persons working in industries and occupations in the State

  18. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  19. The Welfare of Cattle Jeffrey Rushen

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    The Welfare of Cattle Jeffrey Rushen Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri of research into the welfare of dairy, veal and beef cattle. The book provides a thorough and critical review of the most up-to-date research on the welfare of cattle, covering behaviour, nutrition and feeding, housing

  20. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) An item of equipment is subject to the property rules in subpart O of 45 CFR part 74 if the total... charged to more than one program) are not subject to the specific requirements in subpart O of 45 CFR part... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition....

  1. Chromosome Oscillations in Mitosis

    E-print Network

    Otger Campas; Pierre Sens

    2005-07-29

    Successful cell division requires a tight regulation of chromosome motion via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the movement have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. The protein complex Kinetochore on the chromosome associates with microtubules emanating from one of the spindle poles and drives the chromosome toward the pole. Chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms also interact with microtubules, ejecting the chromosome away from the pole. In animal cells, a monooriented chromosome (associated to a single pole) periodically switches between phases of poleward and away from the pole movement[, a behavior tentatively explained so far by the existence of a complex switching mechanism within the kinetochore itself. Here we show that the interplay between the morphology of the mitotic spindle and the collective kinetics of chromokinesins can account for the highly non-linear periodic chromosome motion. Our analysis provides a natural explanation for the origin of chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes feel their position in space.

  2. Simplifying the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for broiler chicken welfare.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I C; Hindle, V A; Butterworth, A; Engel, B; Ferrari, P; Gunnink, H; Perez Moya, T; Tuyttens, F A M; van Reenen, C G

    2016-01-01

    Welfare Quality® (WQ) assessment protocols place the emphasis on animal-based measures as an indicator for animal welfare. Stakeholders, however, emphasize that a reduction in the time taken to complete the protocol is essential to improve practical applicability. We studied the potential for reduction in time to complete the WQ broiler assessment protocol and present some modifications to the protocol correcting a few errors in the original calculations. Data was used from 180 flocks assessed on-farm and 150 flocks assessed at the slaughter plant. Correlations between variables were calculated, and where correlation was moderate, meaningful and promising (in terms of time reduction), simplification was considered using one variable predicted from another variable. Correlation analysis revealed a promising correlation between severe hock burn and gait scores on-farm. Therefore, prediction of gait scores using hock burn scores was studied further as a possible simplification strategy (strategy 1). Measurements of footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait score on-farm correlated moderately to highly with slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and/or hock burn, supporting substitution of on-farm measurements with slaughter plant data. A simplification analysis was performed using footpad dermatitis, hock burn, cleanliness and gait scores measured on-farm predicted from slaughter plant measurements of footpad dermatitis and hock burn (strategy 2). Simplification strategies were compared with the full assessment protocol. Close agreement was found between the full protocol and both simplification strategies although large confidence intervals were found for specificity of the simplified models. It is concluded that the proposed simplification strategies are encouraging; strategy 1 can reduce the time to complete the on-farm assessment by ~1 h (25% to 33% reduction) and strategy 2 can reduce on-farm assessment time by ~2 h (50% to 67% reduction). Both simplification strategies should, however, be validated further, and tested on farms with a wide distribution across the different welfare categories of WQ. PMID:26306882

  3. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  4. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-10-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440493

  5. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  6. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  7. Chromosomal differentiation of cells

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 16, discusses the chromosomal differentiation of cells. The chromosomes of differentiated cells have been much less studies than those of meristematic or germline cells, probably because such cells do not usually divide spontaneously. However, in many cases they can be induced to undergo mitosis. 26 refs., 2 figs.

  8. The climate of child welfare employee retention.

    PubMed

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying versus leaving. The empirical evidence suggests that efforts to retain highly skilled and educated public child welfare workers should focus on creating positive organizational climates within agencies. PMID:18575259

  9. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region. PMID:25000776

  10. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  11. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  12. Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare

  13. New Welfare-to-Work Program Helps Adjustment to Welfare Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Lowell

    1998-01-01

    Describes provisions, implementation processes, and successes of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Welfare-to-Work grants to promote employment of the least employable welfare recipients, including many in rural poverty areas. Addresses other welfare modifications concerning legal immigrants, disabled children, food stamp recipients,…

  14. Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

    This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

  15. Welfare: Its Relationship to Social Origins. Personal and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensminger, Margaret E.

    An attempt was made to identify variables associated with black mothers in a high risk community who stayed on welfare, who moved off welfare, who moved on and off welfare, and who did not participate in welfare. Three kinds of variables were explored to explain such variations in welfare participation: (1) social origin characteristics, (2)…

  16. A history of animal welfare science.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made. PMID:21347723

  17. Chromosomal Aberrations and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations associated with schizophrenic disorders may suggest regions in which to focus a search for genes predisposing to schizophrenia by a linkage strategy. As for other genetic illnesses, chromosomal abnormalities may also provide useful tools for subsequent physical mapping, fine localisation, and isolation of important susceptibility genes. Identification of several chromosomal aberrations may be especially important, given the unknown pathophysiology, the paucity of known brain genes, and the probable genetic heterogeneity of schizophrenia and manic-depression. However, because psychiatric disorders are common and inherited in a complex manner, researchers must use caution when drawing inferences about associations with chromosomal aberrations. Reported abnormalities involving autosomes (chromosomes 1 –22) associated with psychotic disorders are reviewed. Their relevance to linkage studies localising genes for schizophrenia was estimated by standardised criteria for specificity, diagnosis, family history, and overall weight of evidence. Four ‘possibly relevant’ chromosomal regions were identified: 5q, 11q, 18q, and 19p. This paper outlines strategies for future studies to detect new chromosomal aberrations associated with major psychotic disorders that may be relevant to isolating the genes for schizophrenia. PMID:1393302

  18. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  19. Human chromosome 22.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J C; Aurias, A; Julier, C; Prieur, M; Szajnert, M F

    1987-01-01

    The acrocentric chromosome 22, one of the shortest human chromosomes, carries about 52 000 kb of DNA. The short arm is made up essentially of heterochromatin and, as in other acrocentric chromosomes, it contains ribosomal RNA genes. Ten identified genes have been assigned to the long arm, of which four have already been cloned and documented (the cluster of lambda immunoglobulin genes, myoglobin, the proto-oncogene c-sis, bcr). In addition, about 10 anonymous DNA segments have been cloned from chromosome 22 specific DNA libraries. About a dozen diseases, including at least four different malignancies, are related to an inherited or acquired pathology of chromosome 22. They have been characterised at the phenotypic or chromosome level or both. In chronic myelogenous leukaemia, with the Ph1 chromosome, and Burkitt's lymphoma, with the t(8;22) variant translocation, the molecular pathology is being studied at the DNA level, bridging for the first time the gap between cytogenetics and molecular genetics. PMID:3550088

  20. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  1. A new chromosome was born: comparative chromosome painting in Boechera.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marcus A

    2015-09-01

    Comparative chromosome painting is a powerful tool to study the evolution of chromosomes and genomes. Analyzing karyotype evolution in cruciferous plants highlights the origin of aberrant chromosomes in apomictic Boechera and further establishes the cruciferous plants as important model system for our understanding of plant chromosome and genome evolution. PMID:26228436

  2. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  3. USGS Equipment

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS traveling equipment above Minot, North Dakota. USGS personnel were measuring the streamflow of the Souris River above Minot, ND on June 24, 2011.  Streamflow was approximately 20,800 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 23.46 feet....

  4. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  5. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  6. Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

  7. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  8. Child Welfare in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldgate, Jane; Hill, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Gives an overview of recent changes in legislation and social policy with respect to child welfare in England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Discusses the effect of the Children Act 1989 on children's services in England and contrasts England's services with the organization of child welfare services in Scotland and Northern Ireland.…

  9. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg production systems have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny due to animal welfare concerns. Multiple factors such as disease, skeletal and foot health, pest and parasite load, behavior, stress, affective states, nutrition, and genetics influence the level of welfare laying hens exper...

  10. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  11. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  12. CHAPTER 4: WELFARE OF GESTATING SOWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The welfare of sows during gestation continues to be a controversial topic, with both close confinement systems, such as stalls, and loose-housing, group-based systems both having welfare advantages and disadvantages. Within the European Union, legislation has already been enacted that prohibits the...

  13. Prevention of Welfare Dependency--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jan

    2001-01-01

    This document examines strategies for preventing working families and disadvantaged youth from needing cash assistance and becoming dependent on welfare. The document begins with a brief discussion of the tenuous nature of the boundary between families who need public assistance and families who don't and factors contributing to welfare

  14. Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerm, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

  15. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

  16. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  17. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  18. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  19. Welfare indicators during broiler slaughtering.

    PubMed

    Grilli, C; Loschi, A R; Rea, S; Stocchi, R; Leoni, L; Conti, F

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to identify the most relevant welfare indicators for unloading, lairage, stunning, killing and post-mortem inspection in a poultry slaughter plant. Different indicators were unloading duration, lairage time, environmental variables in the lairage facilities, shackling time and electrical variables used in the water bath. 2. Lairage time did not correlate strongly with dead on arrival. Heat stress was limited by means of ventilation systems, correct cage placement and appropriate stocking density per crate. The acceptable shackling period was about 30 s. 3. The presence of a corneal reflex showed that an animal was alive, while spontaneous wing flapping, spontaneous eye blinking and response to a painful stimulus were regarded as indicators of stunning efficiency. 4. It was concluded that the presence of recent traumatic injuries during the post-mortem inspection could be a valid means to establish whether corrective measures concerning the handling, transport and loading procedures should be taken. PMID:25567419

  20. Genetic markers on chromosome 7.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, L C

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome 7 is frequently associated with chromosome aberrations, rearrangements, and deletions. It also contains many important genes, gene families, and disease loci. This brief review attempts to summarise these and other interesting aspects of chromosome 7. With the rapid accumulation of cloned genes and polymorphic DNA fragments, this chromosome has become an excellent substrate for molecular genetic studies. PMID:3290488

  1. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F.

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed.

  2. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  3. EQUIPMENT ROOM Professional Organizations

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    EQUIPMENT ROOM Professional Organizations: Athletic Equipment Managers Association (AEMA) NationalSoft classes Athletic Equipment Managers Association (AEMA) convention Education & Certifications: Athletic Equipment Managers Association (AEMA) Certification Independent Learning: Publications: Athletic Equipment

  4. Welfare monitoring schemes: using research to safeguard welfare of animals on the farm.

    PubMed

    Barnett, John L; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of nonhuman animal welfare monitoring schemes for animals on the farm in Australia and in other countries. Although the majority of such schemes are voluntary rather than legislated, some are nevertheless enforced through a number of customer requirements that industries must meet to gain access to markets. Animal welfare monitoring schemes rely on a number of measures, but the majority are based on simple measures of resource or management inputs with fewer animal-based measures; few are specific to animal welfare outcomes. Furthermore, most measures are used retrospectively, particularly where there has been a problem, to improve welfare for the next "batch" of animals and thus few measures can be used to predict animal welfare outcomes with these schemes. There is considerable uncertainty about the concept and consequently the measurement of animal welfare. Science has a clear contribution to make in forging better agreement on animal welfare assessment and also has important roles in both developing practical animal-based measures of animal welfare and validating that animal welfare monitoring schemes are worthwhile in improving at least some aspects of animal welfare. PMID:19319714

  5. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented. PMID:24079487

  6. Assessment of welfare of Brazilian and Belgian broiler flocks using the Welfare Quality protocol.

    PubMed

    Tuyttens, F A M; Federici, J F; Vanderhasselt, R F; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; Sans, E C O; Molento, C F M

    2015-08-01

    The Welfare Quality consortium has proposed a science-based protocol for assessing broiler chicken welfare on farms. Innovative features make the protocols particularly suited for comparative studies, such as the focus on animal-based welfare measures and an integration procedure for calculating an overall welfare status. These protocols reflect the scientific status up to 2009 but are meant to be updated on the basis of inter alia implementation studies. Because only few such studies have been done, we applied the Welfare Quality protocol to compare the welfare of broiler flocks in Belgium (representing a typical European Union (EU) country which implies stringent animal welfare legislation) versus Brazil (the major broiler meat exporter to the EU and with minimal animal welfare legislation). Two trained observers performed broiler Welfare Quality assessments on a total of 22 farms in Belgium and south Brazil. All of the farms produced for the EU market. Although the overall welfare was categorized as 'acceptable' on all farms, many country differences were observed at the level of the welfare principles, criteria, and measures. Brazilian farms obtained higher scores for 3 of the 4 welfare principles: 'good feeding' (P = 0.007), 'good housing' (P < 0.001), and 'good health' (P = 0.005). Four of the 10 welfare criteria scores were, or tended to be, higher on Brazilian than Belgian farms: 'absence of prolonged thirst' (P < 0.001), 'ease of movement' (P < 0.001), 'absence of injuries' (P = 0.002), and 'positive emotional state' (P = 0.055). The only criteria with a higher score for the Belgian farms than their Brazilian counterparts were 'absence of prolonged hunger' (P = 0.048) and 'good human-animal relationship' (P = 0.002). Application of the Welfare Quality protocol has raised several concerns about the validity, reliability, and discriminatory potential of the protocol. The results also call for more research into the effect of animal welfare legislation as broiler welfare on the south Brazilian farms appeared to be superior to that on the Belgian farms. Animal-based welfare assessments on a larger sample of farms are needed to evaluate to what extent these findings may be generalized. PMID:26049803

  7. Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios. PMID:15629946

  8. 45 CFR 95.641 - Applicability of rules for charging equipment in Subpart G of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of rules for charging equipment in Subpart G of this part. 95.641 Section 95.641 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE...

  9. Editorial Resources in Work and Welfare 

    E-print Network

    PUDIACwowe

    2010-01-01

    This paper collates information on the top English-language publishing outlets in the field of work and welfare, including peer-reviewed journals and book series with large academic publishers. It is intended as a bookshelf ...

  10. The Child Welfare Agency as School Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schild, Judith S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes the School Consultation Program offered by the Jewish Children's Bureau (JCB) to the special education personnel of four elementary schools in a suburban school district. Discusses problems and special techniques of applying child welfare to school consultation. (JH)

  11. The Welfare State vs. the Redistributive State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plattner, Marc F.

    1979-01-01

    While the principles of progressive taxation and the welfare state have come to be almost universally accepted, it would be a serious error to infer that American policy has ever embraced the idea of income redistribution. (Author)

  12. Child Support Enforcement and Welfare Caseloads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chein-Chung Huang; Garfinkel, Irwin; Waldfogel, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Annual state panel data from 1980 to 1999 was examined to understand the effects of child support enforcement (CSE). However, in recent years, it has been found that the CSE among current and former welfare families are dramatically improved.

  13. Health insurance: an eye on American welfare.

    PubMed

    Draper, J

    1980-02-15

    One of the great myths about the United States is that it does not have a welfare state. The myth is largely founded on the fact that America is one of the few remaining western nations with no national health insurance scheme to protect its citizens against the crippling costs of medical and hospital care. However, that does not mean that the United States does not have an extensive welfare system, writes John Draper. PMID:10245813

  14. A Look at Child Welfare from a Homeless Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Although navigating the child welfare system can be daunting for those working in the field of homeless education, local liaisons and others must determine whether children in the child welfare system are eligible for McKinney-Vento services and collaborate with child welfare staff. This document provides an overview of the U.S. child welfare

  15. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  16. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  17. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other...) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on...

  18. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  19. [Animal welfare policy between democracy and lobbyism

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jean-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The egalitarian pathocentrism postulates, that all sentient beings should have the same moral regard. This opinion is the backbone of a radical animal welfare policy which logically cannot accept violence against man, also. Painful and very stressing experiments could only be justified with freely and rationally agreeing persons. Animal ethics based upon self-interests is superior to altruistic considerations. The latter are addressed to "saints and heroes" and cannot be a common ideal. But the good moral reasons for respecting the self-worth and the individual lifeplan of animals always have to be called to attention by strong animal welfare organizations. Dangerous in the argumentation is the trichotomy: thing-animal-man. It leads to equalize amoebas with elephants. From the moral point of view only the difference between sentient and insentient beings is relevant, even if it is sometimes difficult to draw the line. In a democracy animal welfare has to articulate itself as a lobby, and must not loose sight of the welfare of animals aside from its own interests. Radical animal welfare activists not resorting to violence would represent animal welfare policy under different coalitions. PMID:11178450

  20. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  1. Phenylbutazone and chromosomal damage.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, S; Price Evans, A; Benn, P A; Littler, T R; Halliday, L D

    1975-01-01

    Investigation of 44 paired test and control patients, all suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, following exposure to phenylbutazone (PBZ) and/or oxyphenbutazone (OPB), suggests that there is no significant increase in the level of chromosomal damage in lymphocytes. The control subjects comprised two series, one previously exposed to PBZ and/or OPB, but not for at least 1-5 years, and the other never exposed to PBZ or OPB. No significant difference in the level of chromosome damage was found between patients never exposed, previously exposed, or now receiving PBZ and/or OPB. PMID:769706

  2. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    E-print Network

    Kirkup, Benjamin

    Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it ...

  3. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    E-print Network

    Kirkup, Benjamin

    Background: While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an ...

  4. General instructions Chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    General instructions Chromosomes Genotypes Data upload Trait-specific instructions 1) Results, BEAGLE). No exclusions based on MAF or imputation score. Upload files to the GIANT ftp-site: username: NA depending on study size and on visual inspection of the data. Upload files in the trait-specific folders

  5. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-08-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

  6. The Y Chromosome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  7. 45 CFR 95.705 - Equipment costs-Federal financial participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment costs-Federal financial participation... financial participation. (a) General rule. In computing claims for Federal financial participation, equipment having a unit acquisition cost of $25,000 or less may be claimed in the period acquired...

  8. Services and Equipment List EQUIPMENT TABLES

    E-print Network

    Deng, Baolin

    Services and Equipment List EQUIPMENT TABLES Card Tables 36" square and 36" rounds available. Hi Logo Tent | Availability is limited to location. 10'x10' ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT Audio/Visual Cart Cart Brady Commons LCD Projector Requires Unions Administration approval AUDIO/VISUAL EQUIPMENT $15.00 $45

  9. A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouallegue, K.

    Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

  10. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  11. Methamphetamine and the Changing Face of Child Welfare: Practice Principles for Child Welfare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet child…

  12. Engaging Parents in Child Welfare Services: Bridging Family Needs and Child Welfare Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Susan P.; Marcenko, Maureen O.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Vesneski, William

    2009-01-01

    Calls for expanded use of tested child mental health interventions in child welfare practice add new urgency to the longstanding question of how to enhance parent engagement in child welfare services, where low and uneven levels of engagement are pervasive, and services to parents and children tend to be separated, leaving important opportunities…

  13. Appendix D6: Groundfish, Welfare Analysis, and Catch Shares Groundfish, Welfare Analysis, and Catch Shares

    E-print Network

    Appendix D6: Groundfish, Welfare Analysis, and Catch Shares D6-1 #12;Groundfish, Welfare Analysis, and Catch Shares Min-Yang Lee and Eric Thunberg Protected Resources Workshop La Jolla, CA. Outline 1 and Motivation New England Groundfish switched from Days-at-Sea to catch shares and saw big reductions in catch

  14. Education and Partnerships in Child Welfare: Mapping the Implementation of a Child Welfare Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Scottye J.; Mathiesen, Sally G.; Barbanell, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of focus groups conducted with participants following the completion of a Child Welfare Practice Certificate Program. Concept mapping was used as the guiding research method for the data collection and analysis. Social work students and child welfare workers generated statements during the focus group session that…

  15. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  16. Degeneration of a Nonrecombining Chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, William R.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative studies suggest that sex chromosomes begin as ordinary autosomes that happen to carry a major sex determining locus. Over evolutionary time the Y chromosome is selected to stop recombining with the X chromosome, perhaps in response to accumulation of alleles beneficial to the heterogametic but harmful to the homogametic sex. Population genetic theory predicts that a nonrecombining Y chromosome should degenerate. Here this prediction is tested by application of specific selection pressures to Drosophila melanogaster populations. Results demonstrate the decay of a nonrecombining, nascent Y chromosome and the capacity for recombination to ameliorate such decay.

  17. High-speed chromosome sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Dean, P.N.; Fuscoe, J.C.; Peters, D.C.; Trask, B.J.; van den Engh, G.J.; van Dilla, M.A.

    1987-10-16

    Dual-beam high-speed sorting has been developed to facilitate purification of chromosomes based on DNA staining with the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin A3. Approximately 200 chromosomes per second of two types can be sorted from a suspension of chromosome isolated from human lymphoblasts while fluorescent objects (chromosomes, debris fragments, chromosome clumps, and nuclei) are processed at the rate of about 20,000 per second. This sorting rate is approximately ten times that possible with conventional sorters. Chromosomes of a single type can be sorted with a purity of about 90 percent. DNA from the sorted chromosomes is suitable for construction of recombinant DNA libraries and for gene mapping.

  18. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. . Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. . Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. )

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  19. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality. PMID:26421356

  20. Social welfare with a foreign competitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a mixed market in which a state-owned welfare-maximizing public (domestic) firm competes against a profit-maximizing private (foreign) firm. We suppose that the domestic firm is less efficient than the foreign firm. However, the domestic firm can lower its marginal costs by conducting cost-reducing R&D investment. We examine the impacts of entry of a foreign firm on decisions upon cost-reducing R&D investment by the domestic firm and how these affect the domestic welfare.

  1. 75 FR 43188 - Request for Public Comment Concerning the Redesign of Statewide Automated Child Welfare...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS) Requirements AGENCY...Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS) Requirements...Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System (SACWIS). The...

  2. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  3. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  4. Equipment Program Program Description

    E-print Network

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    Equipment Program Program Description · Emergency Equipment grants are intended as an aid to replace or repair intensively used equipment that unexpectedly breaks down or to upgrade existing equipment. The Emergency Equipment grants are not intended to cover routine or anticipated repair

  5. ARMY EQUIPMENT MODERNIZATION

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ARMY EQUIPMENT MODERNIZATION STRATEGY Equipping the Total Force to Win in a Complex World.mil #12;#12;iv This page intentionally left blank #12;Army Equipment Modernization Strategy Equipping the Total Force to Win in a Complex World 1 Table of Contents Overview 2 Strategic Environment 5 Equipping

  6. STATEWIDE AUTOMATED CHILD WELFARE INFORMATION SYSTEM (SACWIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SACWIS stands for Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System(s). It was authorized by Congress in 1993 to help states meet data collection and reporting requirements of the Social Security Act. The regulations at 45 CFR 1355.50 through 1355.57 provide the basis for Stat...

  7. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  8. The use of animal welfare indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At any given time, an animal’s welfare ranges on a scale of very good to very poor. It contains both physical elements and mental elements. The physical elements, such as behaviour, physiology, health, productivity and pathology, can be measured relatively easily, in an experimental setting, but the...

  9. Hen Welfare in Different Housing Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the public has begun to question the conditions under which intensively-managed livestock are housed. As a consequence of this concern, animal production practices, including egg production systems, have become subject to heightened levels of scrutiny. Animal welfare issues lie at the he...

  10. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  11. Work and Training in Public Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigilante, Joseph L.

    This study described and compared 12 current national work and training programs under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 and the 1962 Amendments to the Social Security Act; investigated whether operation of the two public welfare systems reflected the intent of national policy and client needs; and identified operational problems encountered in…

  12. Multiple-Father Families and Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhouse, Eirik; Reilly, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, multipartnered fertility (MPF) has become commonplace. This study provides the first nationally representative measures of women's MPF, across multiple years, using the U.S. Census Bureau's Surveys of Income and Program Participation. Because welfare rules contain strong incentives for MPF, and because MPF is especially…

  13. Devolution, Workforce Development and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savner, Steve

    Congress will likely soon enact work force development legislation that consolidates education and training programs, reduces federal funding, and gives states greater discretion in program and services design. It may also adopt welfare reform legislation that creates a block grant commingling cash assistance and Job Opportunities and Basic Skills…

  14. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  15. Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

  16. Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

    Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

  17. Heel Erosion in Dairy Cattle ANIMAL WELFARE

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    Heel Erosion in Dairy Cattle ANIMAL WELFARE PROGRAM Heel Erosion in Dairy Cattle Lorna Baird, Luis erosion is a common problem in dairy cattle. An eroded heel provides less shock absorbance and increases erosion is associated with standing in moisture and manure, but little is known about other risk factors

  18. Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

    A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

  19. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  20. SWINE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS: ANIMAL WELFARE CONSIDERATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A general public perception is that it is easy to visualize when an animals welfare is adequate. Scientifically, this determination is quite difficult. The difficulty resides in our ability to objectively assess the animals physical and psychological state; as well as to determine the difference b...

  1. Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

  2. Essays on the political economy of welfare and redistribution

    E-print Network

    Roh, Jungho

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores two main puzzles. First, why do some countries have more generous welfare policies than others? Second, why do some people support welfare policies more than others? This collection of essays ...

  3. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...24.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare...

  4. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...24.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare...

  5. Massachusetts and Scotland: from juvenile justice to child welfare?

    PubMed

    McGhee, Janice; Alice, Lorraine; Waterhouse, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Comparative data from two systems of dual jurisdiction, the Massachusetts juvenile court and the Scottish children's hearings, is examined to explore the relative use of child welfare and juvenile justice referrals in the lives of children. In Scotland, a radical shift away from juvenile delinquency toward child welfare cases has altered the system's capacity to fulfill a welfare-oriented approach to older adolescents. In Massachusetts, the juvenile court is becoming more welfare-oriented as older adolescents are claimed. PMID:24205555

  6. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  7. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  8. Y Chromosome DNA Variation Monitored by SNP

    E-print Network

    Y Chromosome DNA Variation Monitored by SNP and STR Analysis John M. Butler NIST Biotechnology · Advantages of Y Chromosome Markers · Y Chromosome Structure and Variation · Commonly Used Y Chromosome Markers · Y STR Multiplex Assays · Population Studies · Y SNP Markers · Y Chromosome Work at NIST #12;Why

  9. VERIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT NON-AVAILABILITY Equipment Description

    E-print Network

    Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    OF EQUIPMENT NON-AVAILABILITY Equipment Description: University Equipment Class Code: ____________________________________________ Approximate Value of Equipment: _____________________________________________ Source of Funding (Fund. __ For equipment items costing at least $25,000.00 but not more than $49,999.99, departmental equipment inventory

  10. Spatial organization of bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xindan; Rudner, David Z.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are organized in stereotypical patterns that are faithfully and robustly regenerated in daughter cells. Two distinct spatial patterns were described almost a decade ago in our most tractable model organisms. In recent years, analysis of chromosome organization in a larger and more diverse set of bacteria and a deeper characterization of chromosome dynamics in the original model systems have provided a broader and more complete picture of both chromosome organization and the activities that generate the observed spatial patterns. Here, we summarize these different patterns highlighting similarities and differences and discuss the protein factors that help establish and maintain them. PMID:25460798

  11. Chromosome assortment in Saccharum.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, S M; Honeycutt, R J; Sobral, B W

    1994-12-01

    Recent work has revealed random chromosome pairing and assortment in Saccharum spontaneum L., the most widely distributed, and morphologically and cytologically variable of the species of Saccharum. This conclusion was based on the analysis of a segregating population from across between S. spontaneum 'SES 208' and a spontaneously-doubled haploid of itself, derived from anther culture. To determine whether polysomic inheritance is common in Saccharum and whether it is observed in a typical biparental cross, we studied chromosome pairing and assortment in 44 progeny of a cross between euploid, meiotically regular, 2n=80 forms of Saccharum officinarum 'LA Purple' and Saccharum robustum ' Mol 5829'. Papuan 2n=80 forms of S. robustum have been suggested as the immediate progenitor species for cultivated sugarcane (S. officinarum). A total of 738 loci in LA Purple and 720 loci in Mol 5829 were amplified and typed in the progeny by arbitrarily primed PCR using 45 primers. Fifty and 33 single-dose polymorphisms were identified in the S. officinarum and S. robustum genomes, respectively (? 2 at 98%). Linkage analysis of single-dose polymorphisms in both genomes revealed linkages in repulsion and coupling phases. In the S. officinarum genome, a map hypothesis gave 7 linkage groups with 17 linked and 33 unlinked markers. Four of 13 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase and 9 were in coupling phase. In the S. robustum genome, a map hypothesis gave 5 linkage groups, defined by 12 markers, with 21 markers unlinked, and 2 of 9 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase. Therefore, complete polysomic inheritance was not observed in either species, suggesting that chromosomal behavior is different from that observed by linkage analysis of over 500 markers in the S. spontaneum map. Implications of this finding for evolution and breeding are discussed. PMID:24178110

  12. The Implications of Welfare Reform for Housing and School Instability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Gault, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Discusses studies on the housing outcomes of welfare recipients to examine the potential influence of welfare reform on housing instability, which influences school instability. State studies suggest that welfare reform has increased rates of family mobility, evictions, and sharing housing. Limited research suggests that housing instability and…

  13. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  14. A short course by distance learning Animal Welfare

    E-print Network

    Daley, Monica A.

    11 Farm animal welfare ­ avians Unit 12 Welfare of animals in intensive farming systems Unit 13 international course aims to give a balanced overview of welfare and ethics of farm, companion, competition, recreation and under extensive farming systems. It questions your views about many practices and allows you

  15. The Effects of Welfare on Marital Stability and Remarriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates the effects of welfare on marital dissolution and remarriage. Data from females indicated that those who received AFDC, food stamps, or other public assistance dissolved their marriages more frequently than those not receiving welfare. The relationship between welfare and marital dissolution decreased somewhat as duration of marriage…

  16. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  17. The American Welfare System and Family Structure: An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehling, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies find a positive relationship between a state's welfare benefits and single motherhood. But is this evidence of a "welfare effect" or rather of cross state differences in social attitudes that influence both policy and behavior? This paper demonstrates that the spatial variation in welfare policy long preceded the spatial…

  18. Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

  19. A Profile of Families Cycling on and off Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richberg-Hayes, Lashawn; Freedman, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the experiences of welfare "cyclers," a group that has received relatively little attention in previous research on welfare dynamics. For this study, "cycling" is defined as receipt of welfare benefits during three or more discrete spells during a four-year observation period. The goals of this report are to understand the…

  20. After the Revolution: Welfare Patterns since TANF Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.; Wu, Chi-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Welfare programs changed dramatically in 1996. Caseloads dropped by more than 9 million recipients over an eight-year period, and millions entered the labor market in the wake of these changes. Since the start of the "welfare revolution," research has emerged to document the new ways former welfare recipients are using federal entitlement programs…

  1. Indicators of Welfare Dependence. Annual Report to Congress, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This fourth annual report addresses the extent to which U.S. families depend on income from welfare programs, providing updated data on measures of welfare recipiency, dependency, and predictors of welfare dependence developed for previous reports. It highlights benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary…

  2. UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL BSc ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE SCIENCE

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL BSc ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR AND WELFARE SCIENCE POST-OFFER VISIT DAY PROGRAMME your fellow offer holders and members of the Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science team. 10.45am Welcome, General Introduction and Overview of the Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science programme A brief

  3. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients...

  4. 43 CFR 17.250 - Health, welfare, and social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health, welfare, and social services. 17... § 17.250 Health, welfare, and social services. This subpart applies to health, welfare, and other social service programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance and to recipients...

  5. Governmental and Nongovernmental Youth Welfare in the New German Lander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlik, Marion; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Survey of the general conditions of youth welfare departments in eastern Germany revealed severe money shortages. Increasing demands on youth welfare, rising social problems, right-wing extremism, and widespread unemployment among youths cause long-term social problems and prohibit effective youth welfare. (RJM)

  6. Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gayle

    The findings of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) were analyzed to identify ways of improving the process of moving people from welfare to work. Selected lessons from the analysis were as follows: (1) welfare-to-work programs that rely on adult basic education programs for the general population are unlikely to improve…

  7. Reconstructing the Evolution of Vertebrate Sex Chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Bellott, Daniel W.

    Sex chromosomes and their evolution have captivated researchers since their discovery. For more than 100 years, the dominant model of sex chromosome evolution has held that differentiated sex chromosomes, such as the X and ...

  8. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H.; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  9. Organization of the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Krawiec, S; Riley, M

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in studies on the bacterial chromosome is summarized. Although the greatest amount of information comes from studies on Escherichia coli, reports on studies of many other bacteria are also included. A compilation of the sizes of chromosomal DNAs as determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis is given, as well as a discussion of factors that affect gene dosage, including redundancy of chromosomes on the one hand and inactivation of chromosomes on the other hand. The distinction between a large plasmid and a second chromosome is discussed. Recent information on repeated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements is presented. The growing understanding of limitations on the rearrangements that can be tolerated by bacteria and those that cannot is summarized, and the sensitive region flanking the terminator loci is described. Sources and types of genetic variation in bacteria are listed, from simple single nucleotide mutations to intragenic and intergenic recombinations. A model depicting the dynamics of the evolution and genetic activity of the bacterial chromosome is described which entails acquisition by recombination of clonal segments within the chromosome. The model is consistent with the existence of only a few genetic types of E. coli worldwide. Finally, there is a summary of recent reports on lateral genetic exchange across great taxonomic distances, yet another source of genetic variation and innovation. PMID:2087223

  10. A Survey of Chinese Citizens’ Perceptions on Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of ‘animal welfare’; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  11. A survey of Chinese citizens' perceptions on farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of 'animal welfare'; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China. PMID:25314159

  12. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    PubMed

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. PMID:21887810

  13. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required. PMID:25653085

  14. Welfare during stunning and slaughter of poultry.

    PubMed

    Raj, M

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes research on the electrical stunning of poultry and the problems of achieving an effective humane stun with water bath stunners. The welfare and meat quality advantages of using gas mixtures to stun and kill birds are then described. The evidence strongly suggests that chickens and turkeys can be killed very humanely using either 90% argon in air or a mixture of 30% carbon dioxide and 60% argon in air. PMID:9872584

  15. Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Temple

    2010-09-01

    The OIE Welfare Standards on slaughter transport, and killing of animals for disease control are basic minimum standards that every country should follow. The OIE, European Union, and many private standards used by commercial industry have an emphasis on animal based outcome standards instead of engineering based standards. Numerical scoring is used by both private industry and some governments to access animal welfare at slaughter plants. Five variables are measured. They are: 1) Percentage of animals effectively stunned on the first attempt, 2) Percentage rendered insensible, 3) Percentage that vocalize (bellow, moo, squeal) during handling and stunning, 4) Percentage that fall during handling, and 5) Percentage moved with an electric goad. Each one of these critical control points measures the outcome of many problems. A good animal welfare auditing system also has standards that prohibit really bad practices such as dragging, dropping, throwing, puntilla, and hoisting live animals before ritual slaughter. On farm and transport problems that can be measured at the slaughter plant are: percentage of lame animals, percentage of thin animals, percentage of dirty animals, percentage with sores, bruises or lesions, death losses, morbidity, and percentage of birds with broken wings and legs. PMID:20599326

  16. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach.

    PubMed

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-09-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  17. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  18. Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?

    PubMed

    Nicks, B; Vandenheede, M

    2014-04-01

    The concepts of 'health' and 'welfare', whether applied to humans or animals, are increasingly becoming linked. But are they really indissociable, or even synonymous? Although human health is generally defined as a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, animal health is still considered as simply the absence of disease. However, recent advances in scientific knowledge are forcing us to revise our ideas about the mental complexity of animals and to recognise their ability to feel emotions and to have needs and a degree of consciousness. The precise objective of animal welfare science is to study their mental states and their ability to adapt to domestication. Pending a global application of this concept of health, including mental health, to animals as well as to humans, the idea of welfare remains an important element in addition to traditional health concerns. More generally, this linkage fuels the ethical debate about the ways in which people use animals, prompting society to change its stance on some aspects of the issue. PMID:25000781

  19. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A.; Morris, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  20. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of proteins and their co-operation in establishing the final mitotic chromosome structure.

  1. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  2. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  3. Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones.

    PubMed Central

    Tassone, F; Cheng, S; Gardiner, K

    1992-01-01

    Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span > 100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total approximately 6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:1463009

  4. Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones

    SciTech Connect

    Tassone, F. A. Gemelli School of Medicine, Rome ); Cheng, S.; Gardiner, K. )

    1992-12-01

    Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span >100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total [approximately]6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. 48 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Stable Chromosome Condensation Revealed by Chromosome Conformation Capture.

    PubMed

    Eagen, Kyle P; Hartl, Tom A; Kornberg, Roger D

    2015-11-01

    Chemical cross-linking and DNA sequencing have revealed regions of intra-chromosomal interaction, referred to as topologically associating domains (TADs), interspersed with regions of little or no interaction, in interphase nuclei. We find that TADs and the regions between them correspond with the bands and interbands of polytene chromosomes of Drosophila. We further establish the conservation of TADs between polytene and diploid cells of Drosophila. From direct measurements on light micrographs of polytene chromosomes, we then deduce the states of chromatin folding in the diploid cell nucleus. Two states of folding, fully extended fibers containing regulatory regions and promoters, and fibers condensed up to 10-fold containing coding regions of active genes, constitute the euchromatin of the nuclear interior. Chromatin fibers condensed up to 30-fold, containing coding regions of inactive genes, represent the heterochromatin of the nuclear periphery. A convergence of molecular analysis with direct observation thus reveals the architecture of interphase chromosomes. PMID:26544940

  6. Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Esteban; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are generally ?1000 times longer than the cells in which they reside, and concurrent replication, segregation, and transcription/translation of this crowded mass of DNA poses a challenging organizational problem. Recent advances in cell-imaging technology with subdiffraction resolution have revealed that the bacterial nucleoid is reliably oriented and highly organized within the cell. Such organization is transmitted from one generation to the next by progressive segregation of daughter chromosomes and anchoring of DNA to the cell envelope. Active segregation by a mitotic machinery appears to be common; however, the mode of chromosome segregation varies significantly from species to species. PMID:20182613

  7. Repetitive telomeric sequences in chromosomal translocations involving chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Dallaire, L.; Fetni, R.

    1994-09-01

    Telomeres perform key functions in maintaining chromosome integrity. In some structural rearrangements the structure and polymorphism in human telomeres may play a significant role. However, of all the telomeric and subtelomeric sequences, only the terminal TTAGGG repeats are believed essential for telomere function. During the course of a study on the role of telomere structure and polymorphism in chromosomal rearrangements observed in families referred for prenatal diagnosis, we studied three cases in which chromosome 21 was involved. Repetitive TTAGGG sequences for all human chromosomes were used as probes (Oncor). Case 1, a de novo cryptic translocation (2;21) was initially identified as monosomy 21 in a child with psychomotor delay and mild dysmorphism. Using a cosmid probe specific for region 21q22.3 and whole chromosome 21 specific painting probe, the long arm of 21 was found on the short arm of chromosome 2 with an interstitial telomere at the breakpoint junction. All the cells were monosomic for 21pter{yields}q21. Case 2 is a familial (19;21) translocation. GTG-banding and FISH with a satellite probe showed no apparent loss of material at the end of either 19q or 21q, with an interstitial telomere at the fusion site of the two intact chromosomes. In case 3, a four generation reciprocal (20;21) translocation, there was no interstitial telomere. The persistence of an interstitial telomere is a relatively rare event which can now be observed with in situ hybridization. Its study may lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of translocations and of chromosome imbalance.

  8. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  9. THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON

    E-print Network

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON Sutton, W. S. 1903. The chromosomes in heredity or redistributed for commercial purposes without permission. Sutton, W. S. 1903. The chromosomes in heredity. Biological Bulletin, 4:231-251. THE CHROMOSOMES IN HEREDITY W. S. SUTTON IN A RECENT ANNOUNCEMENT of some

  10. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    PubMed

    Sz?cs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  12. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  13. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-12-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training. PMID:22125356

  14. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  15. Retrotransposons that maintain chromosome ends

    E-print Network

    Pardue, Mary-Lou

    Reverse transcriptases have shaped genomes in many ways. A remarkable example of this shaping is found on telomeres of the genus Drosophila, where retrotransposons have a vital role in chromosome structure. Drosophila lacks ...

  16. X chromosome evolution in Drosophila 

    E-print Network

    Vicoso, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    Although the X chromosome is usually similar to the autosomes in size, gene density and cytogenetic appearance, theoretical models predict that its hemizygosity in males may cause unusual patterns of evolution. The ...

  17. Chromosome arrangement within a bacterium

    E-print Network

    Teleman, Aurelio A.

    Background: The contour length of the circular chromosome of bacteria is greater than a millimeter but must be accommodated within a cell that is only a few micrometers in length. Bacteria do not have nucleosomes and little ...

  18. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on any object the patient touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  19. Energy Audit Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  20. [Type text] Equipment Use

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Megan

    #12;[Type text] Equipment Use The library has laptops and other equipment for checkout. Personal access times: Harbert 301, Humanities Computer Lab 118, Library ARC, Olin 104, Olin 201, Stevens Science

  1. Revolutionizing child welfare with outcomes management.

    PubMed

    Toche-Manley, Linda L; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid

    2013-07-01

    Outcomes management technology holds great promise for improving the quality of services provided to youth in the child welfare system. Advantages include better detection of behavioral health and trauma-related issues, early indicators of case progress or risk of failure, and program- and system-level learning. Yet organizational barriers to implementation persist. Attention is spent in this paper on addressing these barriers so the use of outcomes management technology becomes a common practice. A model for predicting resiliency is presented, along with case examples demonstrating its potential use for treatment planning and monitoring progress. PMID:23460130

  2. Revolutionizing Child Welfare with Outcomes Management

    PubMed Central

    Toche-Manley, Linda L.; Dietzen, Laura; Nankin, Jesse; Beigel, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Outcomes management technology holds great promise for improving the quality of services provided to youth in the child welfare system. Advantages include better detection of behavioral health and trauma-related issues, early indicators of case progress or risk of failure and program- and system-level learning. Yet organizational barriers to implementation persist. Attention is spent in this paper on addressing these barriers so the use of outcomes management technology becomes a common practice. A model for predicting resiliency is presented, along with case examples demonstrating its potential use for treatment planning and monitoring progress. PMID:23460130

  3. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  4. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  5. Chromosome Architecture and Genome Organization

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    How the same DNA sequences can function in the three-dimensional architecture of interphase nucleus, fold in the very compact structure of metaphase chromosomes and go precisely back to the original interphase architecture in the following cell cycle remains an unresolved question to this day. The strategy used to address this issue was to analyze the correlations between chromosome architecture and the compositional patterns of DNA sequences spanning a size range from a few hundreds to a few thousands Kilobases. This is a critical range that encompasses isochores, interphase chromatin domains and boundaries, and chromosomal bands. The solution rests on the following key points: 1) the transition from the looped domains and sub-domains of interphase chromatin to the 30-nm fiber loops of early prophase chromosomes goes through the unfolding into an extended chromatin structure (probably a 10-nm “beads-on-a-string” structure); 2) the architectural proteins of interphase chromatin, such as CTCF and cohesin sub-units, are retained in mitosis and are part of the discontinuous protein scaffold of mitotic chromosomes; 3) the conservation of the link between architectural proteins and their binding sites on DNA through the cell cycle explains the “mitotic memory” of interphase architecture and the reversibility of the interphase to mitosis process. The results presented here also lead to a general conclusion which concerns the existence of correlations between the isochore organization of the genome and the architecture of chromosomes from interphase to metaphase. PMID:26619076

  6. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  7. RESEARCH FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    RESEARCH FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT Trenchless Technology Center Louisiana Tech University OVERVIEW acquisition equipment Materials and sample preparation room Extruder for cementitious samples Liner inversion-controlled hydraulic ram, small 150,000 lb with 42-in stroke #12;Test control and data acquisition equipment Control

  8. Geophysical Equipment Facility

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Geophysical Equipment Facility NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL The Seismic signal associated://www.le.ac.uk/seis-uk) is a NERC funded national facility that provides equipment normally used for the study of Earthquakes and Volcanism. Although the facility is based within University of Leicester most of it equipment is deployed

  9. Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Therman, E.; Susman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

  10. Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

  11. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  12. Racial and Spatial Equity in Welfare Programs: Interstate and Intercounty Differences in Welfare Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    1999-01-01

    States where a large proportion of the poor are rural residents or racial/ethnic minorities provided less welfare support per poor child under Aid to Families with Dependent Children than did other states. No corresponding rural or racial/ethnic disadvantage was observed for the Food Stamp program, which has nationwide eligibility criteria and…

  13. Evaluating welfare losses in the health care market.

    PubMed

    Peele, P B

    1993-07-01

    According to traditional welfare analysis, consumers facing a price increase forego consumption of the least valued units of a commodity. Studies, such as the Rand HIE, show that patients decrease their consumption of all types of health care when faced with a price increase for health care. From this observation, Thomas Rice (1992) concludes that traditional welfare analysis is inadequate for evaluating insurance-related welfare losses in health care. In this note, I argue that it is not traditional welfare analysis which is inadequate, but the method of assigning marginal valuations to units of health care. PMID:10127779

  14. Welfare and the intensive production of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Maurice, R

    1994-03-01

    Rabbit production in Europe is concentrated largely in the "Latin" countries of Italy, France and Spain, in which animal protectionist attitudes are considered moderate. However, in the case of rabbits, the intensification of husbandry necessitates strict observance of physiological, behavioural and health requirements, in view of the very special needs of the species and the sensitivity of rabbits to environmental conditions. Rabbits are described as anxious, timid and emotional, with unusual arrangements for reproduction (induced ovulation) and digestion (caecotrophy). Therefore, these animals could not be reared intensively until the completion of extensive research, which has been conducted over the past twenty years, into the environmental and nutritional needs of rabbits, and the selection of lines having a calm temperament and maternal aptitude. This research was required to meet the welfare needs of this species. These concepts are perfectly integrated into the current operation of intensive units, and should not be brought into question on the basis of fragmentary observations by some researchers who would wish to see a return to rearing on litter. A discussion of rabbit welfare conducted in 1992 by specialists of the German branch of the World Rabbit Science Association approved modern methods of keeping rabbits on wire grids, provided that some changes were made to current procedures. PMID:8173093

  15. Generalized Nutrient Taxes Can Increase Consumer Welfare.

    PubMed

    Bishai, David

    2015-11-01

    Certain nutrients can stimulate appetite making them fattening in a way that is not fully conveyed by the calorie content on the label. For rational eaters, this information gap could be corrected by more labeling. As an alternative, this paper proposes a set of positive and negative taxes on the fattening and slimming nutrients in food rather than on the food itself. There are conditions under which this tax plus subsidy system could increase welfare by stopping unwanted weight gain while leaving the final retail price of food unchanged. A nutrient tax system could improve welfare if fattening nutrients, net of their effect on weight, are inferior goods and the fiscal cost of administering the tax is sufficiently low. More data on the price elasticity of demand for nutrients as well as data on how specific nutrients affect satiety and how total calorie intake would be necessary before one could be sure a nutrient tax would work in practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25241653

  16. 45 CFR 605.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 605.52 Section 605.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and...

  17. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  18. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap:...

  19. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap:...

  20. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap:...

  1. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52..., Welfare, and Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits, a recipient may not, on the basis of handicap:...

  2. 45 CFR 95.705 - Equipment costs-Federal financial participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... computed in accordance with the cost principles precribed in subpart Q of 45 CFR part 74. (b) Exceptions... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment costs-Federal financial participation... financial participation. (a) General rule. In computing claims for Federal financial...

  3. Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, W.

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

  4. Medicine As a Corporate Enterprise, Patient Welfare Centered Profession, or Patient Welfare Centered Professional Enterprise?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    There is an alarming trend in the field of medicine, whose portents are ominous but do not seem to shake the complacency and merry making doing the rounds. The wants of the medical man have multiplied beyond imagination. The cost of organizing conferences is no longer possible on delegate fees. The bottom-line is: Crores for a Conference Millions for a Mid-Term. However, the problem is that sponsors keep a discreet but careful tab on docs. All in all, costs of medicines escalate, and quality medical care becomes a luxury. The whole brunt of this movement is borne by the patient. Companies like GlaxoSmithKline, Bayer, Pfizer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Schering-Plough, Abbott Labs, TAP Pharmaceuticals, Wyeth and Merck have paid millions of dollars each as compensation in the last few years. The financial condition of many pharmaceutical majors is not buoyant either. Price deflation, increased Rand D spending, and litigation costs are the main reasons. In the future, the messy lawsuits situation would no longer be restricted to industry. It would involve academia and practising doctors as well. Indian pharma industry captains, who were busy raking in the profits at present, would also come under the scanner. If nothing else, it means industry and docs will have to sit down and do some soul searching. Both short and long-term measures will have to be put into place. Short-term measures involve reduction in i) pharma spending over junkets and trinkets; ii) hype over ‘me too’ drugs; iii) manipulation of drug trials; iv) getting pliant researchers into drug trials; iv) manipulation of Journal Editors to publish positive findings about their drug trials and launches; v) and for Indian Pharma, to conduct their own unbiased clinical trial of the latest drug projected as a blockbuster in the West, before pumping in their millions. The long-term measures are related to the way biomedical advance is to be charted. We have to decide whether medicine is to become a corporate enterprise or remain a patient welfare centered profession. A third approach involves an eclectic resolution of the two. Such amount of patient welfare as also ensures profit, and such amount of profit as also ensures patient welfare is to be forwarded. For, profit, without patient welfare, is blind. And patient welfare, without profit, is lame. According to this approach, medicine becomes a patient welfare centered professional enterprise. The various ramifications of each of these approaches are discussed in this monograph. PMID:22679354

  5. Another way to move chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Chikashige, Yuji; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    A typical way of moving chromosomes is exemplified by mitotic segregation, in which the centromere is directly captured by spindle microtubules. In this study, we highlight another way of moving chromosomes remotely from outside the nucleus, which involves SUN and KASH domain nuclear envelope proteins. SUN and KASH domain protein families are known to connect the nucleus to cytoskeletal networks and play a role in migration and positioning of the nucleus. Recent studies in the fission yeast Schizossacharomyces pombe demonstrated an additional role for the SUN-KASH protein complex in chromosome movements. During meiotic prophase, telomeres are moved to rearrange chromosomes within the nucleus. The SUN-KASH protein complex located in the nuclear envelope is involved in this process. Telomeres are connected to the SUN protein on the nucleoplasmic side, and the dynein motor complex binds to the KASH protein on the cytoplasmic side. Telomeres are then moved along the nuclear envelope using cytoplasmic microtubules. These findings illustrate a general mechanism for transmitting a cytoskeletal driving force to chromosomes across the nuclear envelope. PMID:17639451

  6. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zamariola, Linda; Tiang, Choon Lin; De Storme, Nico; Pawlowski, Wojtek; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved. PMID:24987397

  7. Disorders caused by chromosome abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Aaron; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2010-01-01

    Many human genetic disorders result from unbalanced chromosome abnormalities, in which there is a net gain or loss of genetic material. Such imbalances often disrupt large numbers of dosage-sensitive, developmentally important genes and result in specific and complex phenotypes. Alternately, some chromosomal syndromes may be caused by a deletion or duplication of a single gene with pleiotropic effects. Traditionally, chromosome abnormalities were identified by visual inspection of the chromosomes under a microscope. The use of molecular cytogenetic technologies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and microarrays, has allowed for the identification of cryptic or submicroscopic imbalances, which are not visible under the light microscope. Microarrays have allowed for the identification of numerous new syndromes through a genotype-first approach in which patients with the same or overlapping genomic alterations are identified and then the phenotypes are described. Because many chromosomal alterations are large and encompass numerous genes, the ascertainment of individuals with overlapping deletions and varying clinical features may allow researchers to narrow the region in which to search for candidate genes. PMID:23776360

  8. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  9. Demystifying Welfare: Its Feminization and Its Effect on Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    Welfare is misunderstood, mystified, and feminized by many stakeholders (i.e. government, media, majoritarian culture, etc.). This text analysis will assess how well the text achieved the following: (1) articulate why the current U.S. welfare state is based upon myths or false assumptions, (2) analyze what these false assumptions mean for…

  10. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  11. Literacy, Welfare & Work: Longitudinal Research Project. Final Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    The 3-year Literacy, Welfare, and Work Longitudinal Research Project explored the complex relationship between literacy and employment within the context of welfare reform in Manitoba, in an attempt to identify the barriers to education and employment that adult learners experience, as well as the policies, programs, and support services that best…

  12. RESEARCH PAPER Ethical and welfare considerations when using cephalopods

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    RESEARCH PAPER Ethical and welfare considerations when using cephalopods as experimental animals N+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract When using cephalopods as experimental animals, a number of factors, including of cephalopod welfare in both laboratory and field studies. To this end, existing literature that provides

  13. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  14. Welfare Attitudes and Social Expenditure: Do Regimes Shape Public Opinion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Tor Georg

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the link between regime types, social expenditure, and welfare attitudes. By employing data on 19 countries taken from the World Values Survey, the main aim is to see to what degree the institutions of a country affect the attitudes of its citizens. According to Esping-Andersen ("The three worlds of welfare capitalism".…

  15. Families' Experience with Welfare Reform on Reservations in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Zhan, Min; Collier-Tenison, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    This article documents the impact of the 1996 federal welfare legislation on American Indian families in the state of Arizona over a period of four years. The authors analyzed primary data obtained from interviews with 445 former or current welfare families with children from three Indian reservations: Navajo, San Carlos, and Salt River. Compared…

  16. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  17. A Framework for Child Welfare Reform in Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.

    This report creates a framework for child welfare reform in Arizona that balances continued improvements in the current system with simultaneous testing of a more fundamentally restructured system. A new service delivery system that integrates the separate child welfare, juvenile justice, and children's mental health systems is recommended.…

  18. Depression and Welfare Reform: From Barriers to Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dan A.; Lee, Bong Joo; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors identify ways to facilitate work among current and recent welfare recipients with mental illness. Their analysis assesses the relationship between a particular mental illness, depression, and labor force involvement in a statewide sample of welfare recipients, identifies the factors that promote work for those with depression, and…

  19. Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation

    E-print Network

    1 ABSTRACT Effects of Globalization in Welfare An Islamic Economic Evaluation Al-Jayousi, Ahmed, Effects of Globalization in Welfare: An Islamic Economic Evaluation, The Objective of this study, Distribution of wealth among people, Role of the state, Levels of education and health, Effects on ecology

  20. Making the Link: Pregnancy Prevention and the New Welfare Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Phyllida; Hutson, Rutledge; Levin-Epstein, Jodie

    This report offers strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy in an era when the nation's welfare program has a changed mission, more money, and greater reach. The report discusses types of links between welfare offices and family planning services being developed in California, Georgia, and Washington, identifying barriers and challenges to…

  1. Effective Teaching and Learning in Interprofessional Education in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Robert F.; Gillespie, Judy; Robinson, Cathy; Watts, Wilda; Carter, Deb

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research regarding interprofessional education (IPE) in child welfare conducted in 2009 and 2010. Pre service nursing, social worker and teacher education candidates participated in a workshop that "exposed" (Charles, Bainbridge & Gilbert, 2010) students to IPE in child welfare. This paper addresses a gap in…

  2. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  3. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  4. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  5. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  6. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  7. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  8. Did Welfare Reform Influence the Fertility of Young Teens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopoo, Leonard M.; DeLeire, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s, states made several reforms to their welfare programs designed to reduce teenage fertility among minors. Among the most prominent of these changes, states started requiring teenage mothers younger than 18 to live with a parent or legal guardian and enroll in high school in order to receive welfare benefits. Using natality data…

  9. Child Welfare Services and Delinquency: The Need to Know More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the need for a better understanding of the moderating effects of child welfare services on delinquency. Although juvenile delinquency is a commonly studied issue, researchers have paid little attention to the degree to which child welfare services may be associated with changes in subsequent delinquency rates. Emerging…

  10. Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

  11. Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

  12. Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

  13. Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2010-01-01

    Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

  14. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  15. Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005. Report to Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005: Report to Congress" (Child Welfare Outcomes Report) is the seventh in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the Department). The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997)…

  16. Child Welfare Worker Characteristics and Job Satisfaction: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.; Lloyd, E. Christopher; Christ, Sharon L.; Chapman, Mimi V.; Dickinson, Nancy S.

    2008-01-01

    The education, recruitment, training, and retention of a quality child welfare workforce is critical to the successful implementation of public policy and programs for the nation's most vulnerable children. Yet, national information about child welfare workers has never been collected. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being is a…

  17. What Students Should Know about the Health and Welfare Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donabedian, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    A working knowledge of governmental health and welfare services can help nursing students in their professional work. The self-instructional module described by the author outlines the structure of government health and welfare agencies, explains the different types of benefits, and aims at clarifying personal values regarding the economically…

  18. University Based Welfare to Work Project and Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Maxie P.

    Staff from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and the Jefferson County, Alabama, Department of Human Resources (DHS) worked together to create a "pipeline to employment" at UAB for welfare recipients by combining on-the-job training with educational opportunities. Welfare recipients referred to UAB by the Jefferson County DHS were given…

  19. Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

  20. Sponsored Privatization of Schooling in a Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Michael

    This paper examines the emergence of privatization in Israel's educational system. The first part provides an overview of the provision of educational services in a welfare state. The second part describes educational privatization in a welfare state, and the third part presents examples of two forms of privatization that have emerged in the…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

    2007-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

  2. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  3. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  4. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  5. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  6. Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Social Welfare Orderings for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute-mail: anna@math.huji.ac.il, anna@AK3141.spb.edu) Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare orderings subgroups scales, every corre- sponding social ordering is fully determined by the opinions of only one

  7. Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Social Welfare Functions for Different Subgroup Utility Scales Anna B. Khmelnitskaya SPb Institute Abstract. This paper characterizes social welfare functions for different scales of individual utility or independent. We show that for combinations of independent subgroup utility scales every corresponding social

  8. Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 1 Category Item Information with T3i underwater case #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 2 Small black SLR camera bag - good #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

  9. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION...Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other...

  10. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION...Social Services § 84.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other...

  11. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 142.62 - Health, welfare, social, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Health, welfare, social, and other services. 142.62 Section...FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, Social, and Other Services § 142.62 Health, welfare, social, and other services. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. 49.135 Section...Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the...reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who is...

  14. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare...

  15. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400...Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare...

  16. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  17. An animal welfare view of wildlife contraception.

    PubMed

    Grandy, J W; Rutberg, A T

    2002-01-01

    Although there is some dissent, the animal protection community generally supports the concept of wildlife contraception. However, some contraceptive agents, delivery mechanisms and specific applications will be opposed by animal welfare advocates on environmental, humane or other ethical grounds, and some animal rights advocates may oppose wildlife contraception entirely. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) has supported and conducted wildlife contraception studies for more than 10 years. In general, we have invested in contraceptive agents (such as porcine zona pellucida) that we believe will prove environmentally, physiologically and behaviourally benign, and in delivery mechanisms that are narrowly targeted. As we consider contraception to be a major intervention into natural processes, we believe that wildlife contraception should be applied judiciously, locally and in a manner that is sensitive to the needs of animals, humans and ecosystem function. PMID:12220149

  18. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services. PMID:12293169

  19. Multiscale image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Castleman, Kenneth R.

    1996-10-01

    Visual examination of chromosome banding patterns is an important means of chromosome analysis. Cytogeneticists compare their patient's chromosome image against the prototype normal/abnormal human chromosome banding patterns. Automated chromosome analysis instruments facilitate this by digitally enhancing the chromosome images. Currently available systems employing traditional highpass/bandpass filtering and/or histogram equalization are approximately equivalent to photomicroscopy in their ability to support the detection of band pattern alterations. Improvements in chromosome image display quality, particularly in the detail of the banding pattern, would significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these systems. In this paper we present our work on the use of multiscale transform and derivative filtering for image enhancement of chromosome banding patterns. A steerable pyramid representation of the chromosome image is generated by a multiscale transform. The derivative filters are designed to detect the bands of a chromosome, and the steerable pyramid transform is chosen based on its desirable properties of shift and rotation invariance. By processing the transform coefficients that correspond to the bands of the chromosome in the pyramid representation, contrast enhancement of the chromosome bands can be achieved with designed flexibility in scale, orientation and location. Compared with existing chromosome image enhancement techniques, this new approach offers the advantage of selective chromosome banding pattern enhancement that allows designated detail analysis. Experimental results indicate improved enhancement capabilities and promise more effective visual aid to comparison of chromosomes to the prototypes and to each other. This will increase the ability of automated chromosome analysis instruments to assist the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities in clinical samples.

  20. The Reality of Welfare-to-Work: Employment Opportunities for Women Affected by Welfare Time Limits in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Leslie O.; King, Christopher T.

    Researchers assembled a database of current and projected information on the following: welfare recipients; other female participants in the labor market; employment, occupational availability, and job openings; and occupational characteristics. The database was used in a multistep process to project the number of women forced to leave welfare

  1. Child Welfare: Most States Are Developing Statewide Information Systems, but Reliability of Child Welfare Data Could Be Improved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietrowiak, Diana; Schibanoff, Sara L.

    To better monitor children and families served by state child welfare agencies, Congress authorized matching funds for the development of statewide automatic child welfare information systems (SACWIS) and required that U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) compile information on children served by state agencies. This report to…

  2. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  3. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  4. High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    High-pressure treatment of polytene chromosomes improves structural resolution Dmitri V Novikov1 to the heat-shock puff boundaries remains debated years after their discovery7. All polytene chromosome

  5. Detection Of Amplified Or Deleted Chromosomal Regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, Trond (San Fransisco, CA), Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA), Gray, Joe W. (San Fransisco, CA)

    1997-05-27

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  6. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, Trond (San Francisco, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Gray, Joe W. (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20.

  7. NCI Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology

    Cancer.gov

    Chromosome biology in the 21st century focuses on genome function in the context of the intact eukaryotic cell nucleus. Its goals are a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in chromosome function, and the correction of aberrations in the

  8. Detection of amplified or deleted chromosomal regions

    DOEpatents

    Stokke, T.; Pinkel, D.; Gray, J.W.

    1995-12-05

    The present invention relates to in situ hybridization methods for the identification of new chromosomal abnormalities associated with various diseases. In particular, it provides probes which are specific to a region of amplification in chromosome 20. 3 figs.

  9. Measuring chromosome conformation with degenerate labels

    E-print Network

    Ross, Brian Christopher

    Although DNA conformation plays an integral role in all genetic processes from transcription to chromosome segregation, there is as yet no tractable method for capturing the in vivo conformation of a chromosome at high ...

  10. Architecture and function of the eukaryotic chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 8, discusses the architecture and function of the eukaryotic chromosome. The chromosomal architecture is described in detail and related to regulation of gene function and nuclear architecture. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Mathematical glimpse on the Y chromosome degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, M. P.

    2006-04-01

    The Y chromosomes are genetically degenerate and do not recombine with their matching partners X. Non-recombination of XY pairs has been pointed out as the key factor for the degeneration of the Y chromosome. The aim here is to show that there is a mathematical asymmetry in sex chromosomes which leads to the degeneration of Y chromosomes even in the absence of XX and XY recombination. A model for sex-chromosome evolution in a stationary regime is proposed. The consequences of their asymmetry are analyzed and lead us to a couple of conclusions. First, Y chromosome degeneration shows up sqrt{2} more often than X chromosome degeneration. Second, if nature prohibits female mortalities from beeing exactly 50%, then Y chromosome degeneration is inevitable.

  12. An Automated System for Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Melnyk, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a complete system to produce karyotypes and chromosome measurement data from human blood samples, and to provide a basis for statistical analysis of quantitative chromosome measurement data are described.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Isodicentric chromosome 15 syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficulty with changes in routine, and problems with social interaction. About two-thirds of people with isodicentric chromosome ... Additional NIH Resources - National Institutes of Health National Human Genome Research Institute: Chromosome Abnormalities Educational resources - Information ...

  14. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1995-09-05

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogeneous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include ways for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes. 3 figs.

  15. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  16. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  17. Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

  18. Multiple jeopardy: poor, economically disconnected, and child welfare involved.

    PubMed

    Marcenko, Maureen O; Hook, Jennifer L; Romich, Jennifer L; Lee, JoAnn S

    2012-08-01

    Although the welfare literature reveals a growing number of parents who are economically disconnected, meaning neither employed nor receiving cash assistance, little is known about the prevalence and impacts of disconnection among child welfare-involved parents. This study took advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare-involved parents to examine economic disconnection in this population and to explore the relationship between disconnection and parent engagement in child welfare. One fifth of the sample reported that they were economically disconnected, with several patterns differentiating disconnected caregivers from those who received benefits or earned income through employment. Disconnected caregivers were younger and more frequently had children in out-of-home placements as opposed to receiving services in home than economically connected caregivers. They also reported higher unmet needs for basic services, such as housing and medical care, but were more likely to report financial help from their informal network. Finally, disconnected caregivers reported lower engagement in child welfare services even when controlling for demographic characteristics, chronic psychosocial risk factors, placement status, and maltreatment type. The findings document economic disconnection among child welfare-involved parents and raise important questions about the implications of disconnection for families and for child welfare outcomes. PMID:22917897

  19. Chromosomal destabilization during gene amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, J C; Wahl, G M

    1990-01-01

    Acentric extrachromosomal elements, such as submicroscopic autonomously replicating circular molecules (episomes) and double minute chromosomes, are common early, and in some cases initial, intermediates of gene amplification in many drug-resistant and tumor cell lines. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the amplification process, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which such extrachromosomal elements are generated and we traced the fate of these amplification intermediates over time. The model system consists of a Chinese hamster cell line (L46) created by gene transfer in which the initial amplification product was shown previously to be an unstable extrachromosomal element containing an inverted duplication spanning more than 160 kilobases (J. C. Ruiz and G. M. Wahl, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4302-4313, 1988). In this study, we show that these molecules were formed by a process involving chromosomal deletion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed at multiple time points on cells with amplified sequences. These studies reveal that the extrachromosomal molecules rapidly integrate into chromosomes, often near or at telomeres, and once integrated, the amplified sequences are themselves unstable. These data provide a molecular and cytogenetic chronology for gene amplification in this model system; an early event involves deletion to generate extrachromosomal elements, and subsequent integration of these elements precipitates a cascade of chromosome instability. Images PMID:2188107

  20. Targeted chromosome elimination from ES-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    hybrid-cell pluripotency to the expression of Nanog from the reprogrammed somatic-cell nuclei. ESCs possess nuclear reprogramming capacity capable of conferring pluripotency on somatic cell­derived nuclei lethality in diploid cells. To eliminate ESC-derived chromosomes from tetraploid hybrid nuclei, we designed

  1. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  2. Worm chromosomes call for recognition!

    E-print Network

    Meller, Victoria

    Worm chromosomes call for recognition! Barbara P. Rattner1 and Victoria H. Meller2 * Summary Many to the compensation of X- linked gene expression in worms.(1) Extrachromosomal arrays composed of a C. elegans, flies and the worm C. elegans. These strategies, grouped under the term `dosage compensation', appear

  3. Genomic signals for whole chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul D.

    2003-06-01

    The paper presents some new results in the analysis of genomic information at the scale of whole chromosomes or whole genomes based on the conversion into genomic signals. Mainly, the phase analysis -- phase, cumulated phase and unwrapped phase, and the sequence path analysis are presented. The unwrapped phase displays an almost linear variation along whole chromosomes. The property holds for all the investigated genomes, being shared by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, while the magnitude and sign of the unwrapped phase slope is specific for each taxon and chromosome. Such a behavior proves a rule similar to Chargaff's rule, but reveals a statistical regularity of the succession of the nucleotides -- a second order statistics, not only of the distribution of nucleotides -- a first order statistics. The cumulated phase of the genomic signal of certain prokaryotes also shows interesting specific behavior. The comparison between the behavior of the cumulated phase and of the unwrapped phae across the putative origins and termini of the replichores suggests an interesting model for the structure of chromosomes.

  4. CHROMOSOMAL MULTIPLICITY IN BURKHOLDERIA CEPACIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used CHEF gel electrophoresis to screen preparations of large DNA from different Burkholderia cepacia isolates for the presence of DNA species corresponding to the linearized forms of the three chromosomes of 3.4,2.5, and 0.9 Mb identified in B. cepacia strain 17616. DNA ...

  5. Characterization of a Lolium multiflorum Accessory Chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accessory chromosomes, also called B-chromosomes, have been reported in more than 1300 species of plants. Accessory chromosomes show numerical polymorphism and when present in high number, are known to negatively affect the growth and vigor of the plants, while in low numbers they may be beneficial...

  6. autosomal segments to the sex chromosomes.

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    , J., and Ellegren, H. (1998). Evolution of the avian sex chromosomes from an ancestral pair in snakes, birds, and mammals and step-wise differentiation of snake sex chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci in the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Heredity 95, 118­128. 7. Beninda-Emonds, O.R.P., Cardillo, M

  7. Genomics of Sex and Sex Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes are distinctive, not only because of their gender determining role, but also for genomic features that reflect their evolutionary history. The genomic sequences in the ancient sex chromosomes of humans and in the incipient sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and papaya exhibit u...

  8. NIST Y Chromosome Standards and Multiplex Assays

    E-print Network

    1 NIST Y Chromosome Standards and Multiplex Assays John Butler National Institute of Standards and Technology International Y Chromosome User's Group Porto, Portugal November 7, 2002 Outline for Presentation for Y STR Alleles · NIST Web Resources for Y Chromosome Information · U.S. Efforts Towards Selection

  9. Morphology and structure of polytene chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhimulev, I.F.

    1996-12-31

    The morphology and structure of polytene chromosomes is the subject of this detailed volume of Advances in Genetics. Polytene chromosomes are the only interphase chromosomes that appear throughout as individual structures, and therefore offer the kind of detail of the molecular biology that geneticists need. 2869 refs., 123 figs., 27 tabs.

  10. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  11. Mapping strategies: Chromosome 16 workshop. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The following topics from a workshop on chromosome 16 are briefly discussed: genetic map of chromosome 16; chromosome breakpoint map of chromosome 16; integrated physical/genetic map of chromosome 16; pulsed field map of the 16p13.2--p13.3 region (3 sheets); and a report of the HGM10 chromosome 16 committee.

  12. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  13. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms. PMID:23564721

  14. Microdissection and Chromosome Painting of the Alien Chromosome in an Addition Line of Wheat - Thinopyrum intermedium

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weibo; Zhang, Yingxin; Chen, Yuhong; Wang, Richard R.-C.; Zhang, Xiangqi; Han, Fangpu; Hu, Zanmin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat - Thinopyrumintermedium addition line, and the chromosomes of the three different genomes of Th. Intermedium. The smallest alien chromosome of TAi-27 was microdissected and its DNA amplified by DOP-PCR was used as a probe to hybridize with metaphase chromosomes of TAi-27 and Th. intermedium. Results showed that hybridization signals were observed in all regions of a pair of the smallest alien chromosomes and the pericentromeric area of another pair of alien chromosomes in TAi-27, indicating that the probe from microdissected chromosome is species specific. In Th. intermedium, 14 chromosomes had wide and strong hybridization signals distributed mainly on the pericentromere area and 9 chromosomes with narrow and weak signals on the pericentromere area. The remaining chromosomes displayed a very weak or no signal. Sequential FISH/GISH on Th. intermedium chromosomes using the DNAs of microdissected chromosome, Pseudoroegneriaspicata (St genome) and pDbH12 (a Js genome specific probe) as the probes indicated that the microdissected chromosome belonged to the St genome, three genomes (Js, J and St) in Th. intermedium could be distinguished, in which there is no hybridization signal on J genome that is similar to the genome of Th. bessarabicum. Our results showed that the smallest alien chromosomes may represent a truncated chromosome and the repetitive sequence distribution might be similar in different chromosomes within the St genome. However, the repetitive sequence distributions are different within the Js genome, within a single chromosome, and among different genomes in Th. intermedium. Our results suggested that chromosome painting could be feasible in some plants and useful in detecting chromosome variation and repetitive sequence distribution in different genomes of polyploidy plants, which is helpful for understanding the evolution of different genomes in polyploid plants. PMID:23967319

  15. Equipment Purchasing Changes New Equipment Threshold of $5,000.

    E-print Network

    Wawrzynek, John

    of equipment, such as fabricated equipment, furniture, art, special collections, etc.? Yes. The new threshold will apply to all equipment items. Please note that this does not apply to library collectionsEquipment Purchasing Changes and New Equipment Threshold of $5,000. Changing the Capitalization

  16. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

  17. Mechanisms of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Sevinç

    2015-01-01

    In many animals, males have one X and females have two X chromosomes. The difference in X chromosome dosage between the two sexes is compensated by mechanisms that regulate X chromosome transcription. Recent advances in genomic techniques have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation. In this review, I summarize our current understanding of dosage imbalance in general, and then review the molecular mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation with an emphasis on the parallels and differences between the three well-studied model systems, M. musculus, D. melanogaster and C. elegans. PMID:25628761

  18. Automated clinical system for chromosome analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Friedan, H. J.; Johnson, E. T.; Rennie, P. A.; Wall, R. J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic chromosome analysis system is provided wherein a suitably prepared slide with chromosome spreads thereon is placed on the stage of an automated microscope. The automated microscope stage is computer operated to move the slide to enable detection of chromosome spreads on the slide. The X and Y location of each chromosome spread that is detected is stored. The computer measures the chromosomes in a spread, classifies them by group or by type and also prepares a digital karyotype image. The computer system can also prepare a patient report summarizing the result of the analysis and listing suspected abnormalities.

  19. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  20. Flow cytometric detection of aberrant chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Yu, L.C.; Langlois, R.

    1983-05-11

    This report describes the quantification of chromosomal aberrations by flow cytometry. Both homogeneously and heterogeneously occurring chromosome aberrations were studied. Homogeneously occurring aberrations were noted in chromosomes isolated from human colon carcinoma (LoVo) cells, stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin A3 and analyzed using dual beam flow cytometry. The resulting bivariate flow karyotype showed a homogeneously occurring marker chromosome of intermediate size. Heterogeneously occurring aberrations were quantified by slit-scan flow cytometry in chromosomes isolated from control and irradiated Chinese hamster cells and stained with propidium iodide. Heterogeneously occurring dicentric chromosomes were detected by their shapes (two centrometers). The frequencies of such chromosomes estimated by slit-scan flow cytometry correlated well with the frequencies determined by visual microscopy.

  1. Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K; Magiera, Maria M; Zaytsev, Anatoly V; Pereira, Ana L; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Maiato, Helder

    2015-05-15

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically toward the equator. We found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific posttranslational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules, and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  2. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Magiera, Maria M.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Pereira, Ana L.; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.; Maiato, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. CENP-E/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically towards the equator. Here we found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific post-translational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  3. Heterogeneous Risk Preferences and the Welfare Cost of Business Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam

    2009-01-01

    I study the welfare cost of business cycles in a complete-markets economy where some people are more risk averse than others. Relatively more risk-averse people buy insurance against aggregate risk, and relatively less risk-averse people sell insurance. These trades reduce the welfare cost of business cycles for everyone. Indeed, the least risk-averse people benefit from business cycles. Moreover, even infinitely risk-averse people suffer only finite and, in my empirical estimates, very small welfare losses. In other words, when there are complete insurance markets, aggregate fluctuations in consumption are essentially irrelevant not just for the average person – the surprising finding of Lucas (1987) – but for everyone in the economy, no matter how risk averse they are. If business cycles matter, it is because they affect productivity or interact with uninsured idiosyncratic risk, not because aggregate risk per se reduces welfare. PMID:21709768

  4. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  5. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  6. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  7. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  8. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  9. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  10. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  11. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  12. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  13. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN...

  14. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include a program under which contributions are made to provide remembrances such as flowers, an obituary notice in a newspaper or a small gift on occasions such as the sickness, hospitalization, death or...

  15. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...plan” and “welfare plan” shall not include a program under which contributions are made to provide remembrances such as flowers, an obituary notice in a newspaper or a small gift on occasions such as the sickness, hospitalization, death or...

  16. Health insurance and access to care among welfare leavers.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Davis, Matthew M; Orzol, Sean; Pollack, Harold A

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the effects of the 1996 welfare reform on health insurance coverage and access to care among former recipients of cash aid. Using panel data from the Women's Employment Study, which conducted five interviews between 1997 and 2003 in one Michigan county, we find that 25% of welfare leavers lacked health insurance coverage in fall 2003. Uninsured adults were significantly more likely than others to report that they could not afford a medical or dental visit during the year prior to the 2003 interview. Fixed-effect logistic regression analysis indicates that women who had been off the welfare rolls for at least 12 months (the duration of transitional Medicaid) were significantly more likely to be uninsured than women who had made more recent welfare exits, and were significantly more likely to report financial obstacles to the receipt of medical and dental care. PMID:18767383

  17. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce 

    E-print Network

    Pakdeethai, Pimrak

    2010-10-12

    marital and non-marital statuses suggesting that bearing a child is not appealing for women who are more progressive in careers. However, the most aggressive welfare policy significantly increases marital birth as expected. Birth rates among teenage girls...

  18. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee welfare benefit plan. 2510.3-1...Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... DEFINITIONS AND COVERAGE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  19. Social Welfare in One-sided Matching Markets without Money

    E-print Network

    Bhalgat, Anand; Khanna, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    We study social welfare in one-sided matching markets where the goal is to efficiently allocate n items to n agents that each have a complete, private preference list and a unit demand over the items. Our focus is on allocation mechanisms that do not involve any monetary payments. We consider two natural measures of social welfare: the ordinal welfare factor which measures the number of agents that are at least as happy as in some unknown, arbitrary benchmark allocation, and the linear welfare factor which assumes an agent's utility linearly decreases down his preference lists, and measures the total utility to that achieved by an optimal allocation. We analyze two matching mechanisms which have been extensively studied by economists. The first mechanism is the random serial dictatorship (RSD) where agents are ordered in accordance with a randomly chosen permutation, and are successively allocated their best choice among the unallocated items. The second mechanism is the probabilistic serial (PS) mechanism of...

  20. Role Consensus and Supervisor Involvement in Small Welfare Agencies

    E-print Network

    Weed, Frank J.

    1970-01-01

    in Small Welfare Agencies by Frank J. Weed University of Missouri The relationship between a supervisor and his caseworkers in an agency has be come the focus of research dealing with structural variables such as organizational size, span...

  1. Genetic selection for health and welfare traits in lambs 

    E-print Network

    Matheson, Stephanie

    2012-06-22

    Lamb mortality remains a significant welfare and economic issue for sheep production. Two significant causes of mortality are dystocia and low lamb vigour; both requiring high levels of human care to ensure lamb survival. ...

  2. Reducing Revenue to Welfare Maximization: Approximation Algorithms and Other Generalizations

    E-print Network

    Cai, Yang

    2013-01-01

    It was recently shown in [12] that revenue optimization can be computationally efficiently reduced to welfare optimization in all multi-dimensional Bayesian auction problems with arbitrary (possibly combinatorial) feasibility ...

  3. Y-chromosome polymorphism: Possible largest Y chromosome in man?

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, D.S.K.; Al-Awadi, S.A.; Bastaki, L.

    1994-09-01

    The role of variations (inversions/deletion or duplication) in the heterochromatin in gonadal development and function, reproductive fitness, and malignant disease has been extensively studied. However, the causal-relationship of large Y (Yqh+) and repeated fetal loss has not been established unequivocally. An Arab couple (?Bedouin origin) with a history of repeated abortions were investigated. Karyotype analysis of the husband showed a very large Y chromosome, confirmed by GTG-, QFQ- and CBG-banding techniques. C-banding showed discontinuous distribution of the heterochromatin blocks separated by pale bands. The origin of the large heterochromatin segment could be due to tandem duplication of the Yq region or translocation (Yq:Yq). No other relatives (males) of the propositus have been available for investigation. Polymorphism of the Y chromosome could be attributed to evolutionary changes from an ancestral type, either by deletion or duplication of the heterochromatin segment. More detailed studies on isolated, aboriginal/tribal human populations will enable us to better understand the significance of the Y chromosome polymorphism.

  4. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  5. MERIT Equipment MERIT Video Conference

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    MERIT Equipment Disposal Van Graves MERIT Video Conference September 1, 2010 #12;MERIT Equipment Chronology Description Date(s) MERIT Experiment at CERN Oct/Nov 2007 Equipment removal from TT2/TT2A 8-Feb-2008 Shipment of mercury equipment from CERN 7-Oct-2009 Receipt of mercury equipment at ORNL 19 Oct

  6. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  7. Magnetotelluric Equipment Installation

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS scientist, Jared Peacock making sure the equipment is set up properly with good data coming in, and programming the data logger to collect magnetotelluric data for 24 hours as NAGT intern, Monica Mustain looks on....

  8. Selecting Library Furniture & Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media & Methods, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selecting school library furniture and equipment. Describes various models of computer workstations; reading tables and chairs; and shelving. Sidebar lists names and addresses of library furniture manufactures and distributors. (AEF)

  9. Pecan Cleaning Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The methodology of developing an NC equipment controller in a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) System, which is based on a philosophy of hierarchical shop floor control, is presented in this research. The underlying ...

  10. Child welfare employee recruitment and retention: an organizational culture perspective.

    PubMed

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna LaFa

    2009-01-01

    Drawing data from an organizational culture study, this cross-sectional study investigates the effect of organizational culture on child welfare employee recruitment and retention (N=92). Findings from quantitative analyses of the organizational culture inventory suggest that constructive culture style in child welfare organizations, especially humanistic-encouraging and self-actualizing culture norms, highly predict recruitment through employees' perception of "fit" and satisfaction as a member of the organization. Limitations, future research, and relevant implications are discussed. PMID:20695293

  11. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  12. Animal welfare: what has changed in the past 50 years?

    PubMed

    2014-07-12

    The 3(rd) CABI symposium on animal welfare and behaviour was held on June 11, and featured a range of talks on 'animals as machines'. The symposium marked the 50(th) anniversary of the publication of the book 'Animal Machines' by Ruth Harrison. The book decried the conditions experienced at that time by many animals kept in intensive farming systems, and the speakers at the symposium discussed how far animal welfare had come since its publication. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:25013195

  13. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  14. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  15. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  16. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  17. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  18. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  19. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  1. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  2. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  3. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  4. 34 CFR 104.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 104.52... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.52 Health, welfare, and other social services. (a) General. In providing health, welfare, or other social services or benefits,...

  5. 45 CFR 84.52 - Health, welfare, and other social services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Health, welfare, and other social services. 84.52 Section 84.52 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services §...

  6. International workshop of chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. . Div. of Neurology); Carrano, A.J. )

    1991-09-16

    This document summarizes the workshop on physical and genetic mapping of chromosome 19. The first session discussed the major disease loci found on the chromosome. The second session concentrated on reference families, markers and linkage maps. The third session concentrated on radiation hybrid mapping, somatic cell hybrid panels, macro restriction maps and YACs, followed by cDNA and long range physical maps. The fourth session concentrated on compiling consensus genetic and physical maps as well as discussing regions of conflict. The final session dealt with the LLNL cosmid contig database and comparative mapping of homologous regions of the human and mouse genomes, and ended with a discussion of resource sharing. 18 refs., 2 figs. (MHB)

  7. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  8. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees

    PubMed Central

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the ‘method of difference’ with the ‘method of agreement’, the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power. PMID:26663983

  9. Public Welfare Agenda or Corporate Research Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict. There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests. Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers. Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research. It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to be resisted at all costs. In this even pliant researchers need have no fear, for if they indeed publish what will work, the concerned sponsor will benefit in the long run. The only decision academia has to make is refuse to comply with predestined conclusions of sponsors for the ‘thirty pieces of silver’. Instead do genuine research and make sixty for themselves. The useful rule of thumb is: Keep the critical antenna on, especially with regard to drug trials, and more especially their methodology, and study closely the conflict of interest disclosed, and if possible undisclosed, before you jump on the band wagon to herald the next great wonder drug. There are three important lessons to be learnt by academia in all academia-industry relationships: i)Lesson number one: incorporate the right to publish contrary findings in the research contract itself. Which means, it makes great sense for academia to concentrate on the language and contractual provisions of sponsored research, to read the fine print very closely, and protect their research interests in case of conflict.ii)Lesson number two: a number of lawsuits successfully brought up against industry recently reflect earnest attempts by patient welfare bodies and others to remedy the tilt. It will result in a newfound confidence in academia that augurs well for academia industry relationship in the long run. Hence the second lesson for academia: do not get browbeaten by threats of legal actioniii)Lesson number three: Academia should keep itself involved right from inception of the clinical trial through to ultimate publication. And this must be an integral part of the written contract. The time to repeat cliches about the exciting future of the academia-industry connect is past. A concerted effort to lay a strong foundation of the relationship on practical ethical grounds has become mandatory. PMID:22679348

  10. Chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. I

    SciTech Connect

    Vig, B.K.

    1993-12-31

    Of all genetic afflictions of man, aneuploidy ranks as the most prevalent. Among liveborn babies aneuploidy exist to the extent of about 0.3%, to about 0.5% among stillborns and a dramatic 25% among miscarriages. The burden is too heavy to be taken lightly. Whereas cytogeneticists are capable of tracing the origin of the extra or missing chromosome to the contributing parent, it is not certain what factors are responsible for this {open_quote}epidemic{close_quote} affecting the human genome. The matter is complicated by the observation that, to the best of our knowledge, all chromosomes do not malsegregate with equal frequency. Chromosome number 16, for example, is the most prevalent among abortuses - one-third of all aneuploid miscarriages are due to trisomy 16 - yet it never appears in aneuploid constitution among the liveborn. Some chromsomes, number 1, for example, appear only rarely, if at all. In the latter case painstaking efforts have to be made to karyotype very early stages of embryonic development, as early as the 8-cell stage. Even though no convincing data are yet available, it is conceivable that the product of most aneuploid zygotes is lost before implantation.

  11. Research Equipment Program Past Recipients

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Research Equipment Program Past Recipients Winter 2015 Stephanie Brock, Chemistry Acquisition Sandeep Mittal, Neurosurgery and Oncology Equipment requested: Cellometer K2 Image Cytometer Hongwhei for single-molecule studies Michael Rybak, Pharmacy Practice Equipment Grant Request for digital fluorescent

  12. Biological dosimetry by interphase chromosome painting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Both fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads with whole-chromosome probes and premature chromosome condensation in interphase nuclei have been used in the past to estimate the radiation dose to lymphocytes. We combined these techniques to evaluate the feasibility of using painted interphase chromosomes for biodosimetry. Human peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to gamma rays and fused to mitotic Chinese hamster cells either immediately after irradiation or after 8 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Interphase or metaphase human chromosomes were hybridized with a composite probe specific for human chromosomes 3 and 4. The dose-response curve for fragment induction immediately after irradiation was linear; these results reflected breakage frequency in the total genome in terms of DNA content per chromosome. At 8 h after irradiation, the dose-response curve for chromosome interchanges, the prevalent aberration in interphase chromosomes, was linear-quadratic and similar to that observed for metaphase chromosomes. These results suggest that painting prematurely condensed chromosomes can be useful for biological dosimetry when blood samples are available shortly after the exposure, or when interphase cells are to be scored instead of mitotic cells.

  13. Cancer cells preferentially lose small chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Duijf, Pascal H.G.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Benezra, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and genomic aberrations are the primary cause of cancer. Chromosome missegregation leads to aneuploidy and provides cancer cells with a mechanism to lose tumor suppressor loci and gain extra copies of oncogenes. Using cytogenetic and array-based comparative genomic hybridization data, we analyzed numerical chromosome aneuploidy in 43,205 human tumors and found that 68% of solid tumors are aneuploid. In solid tumors, almost all chromosomes are more frequently lost than gained with chromosomes 7, 12 and 20 being the only exceptions with more frequent gains. Strikingly, small chromosomes are lost more readily than large ones, but no such inverse size correlation is observed with chromosome gains. Due to increasing levels of proteotoxic stress, chromosome gains have been shown to slow cell proliferation in a manner proportional to the number of extra gene copies gained. However, we find that the extra chromosome in trisomic tumors does not preferentially have a low gene copy number, suggesting that a proteotoxicity-mediated proliferation barrier is not sustained during tumor progression. Paradoxically, despite a bias towards chromosome loss, gains of chromosomes are a poor prognostic marker in ovarian adenocarcinomas. In addition, we find that solid and non-solid cancers have markedly distinct whole-chromosome aneuploidy signatures, which may underlie their fundamentally different etiologies. Finally, preferential chromosome loss is observed in both early and late stages of astrocytoma. Our results open up new avenues of enquiry into the role and nature of whole-chromosome aneuploidy in human tumors and will redirect modeling and genetic targeting efforts in patients. PMID:23124507

  14. Cancer cells preferentially lose small chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Duijf, Pascal H G; Schultz, Nikolaus; Benezra, Robert

    2013-05-15

    Genetic and genomic aberrations are the primary cause of cancer. Chromosome missegregation leads to aneuploidy and provides cancer cells with a mechanism to lose tumor suppressor loci and gain extra copies of oncogenes. Using cytogenetic and array-based comparative genomic hybridization data, we analyzed numerical chromosome aneuploidy in 43,205 human tumors and found that 68% of solid tumors are aneuploid. In solid tumors, almost all chromosomes are more frequently lost than gained with chromosomes 7, 12 and 20 being the only exceptions with more frequent gains. Strikingly, small chromosomes are lost more readily than large ones, but no such inverse size correlation is observed with chromosome gains. Because of increasing levels of proteotoxic stress, chromosome gains have been shown to slow cell proliferation in a manner proportional to the number of extra gene copies gained. However, we find that the extra chromosome in trisomic tumors does not preferentially have a low gene copy number, suggesting that a proteotoxicity-mediated proliferation barrier is not sustained during tumor progression. Paradoxically, despite a bias toward chromosome loss, gains of chromosomes are a poor prognostic marker in ovarian adenocarcinomas. In addition, we find that solid and non-solid cancers have markedly distinct whole-chromosome aneuploidy signatures, which may underlie their fundamentally different etiologies. Finally, preferential chromosome loss is observed in both early and late stages of astrocytoma. Our results open up new avenues of enquiry into the role and nature of whole-chromosome aneuploidy in human tumors and will redirect modeling and genetic targeting efforts in patients. PMID:23124507

  15. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008). PMID:23444794

  16. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Medical Devices Products and Medical Procedures General Hospital Devices and Supplies Personal Protective Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet ...

  17. Scaling Chromosomes for an Evolutionary Karyotype: A Chromosomal Tradeoff between Size and Number across Woody Species

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guolu; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the expected scaling relationships between chromosome size and number across woody species and to clarify the importance of the scaling for the maintenance of chromosome diversity by analyzing the scaling at the inter- & intra-chromosomal level. To achieve for the goals, chromosome trait data were extracted for 191 woody species (including 56 evergreen species and 135 deciduous species) from the available literature. Cross-species analyses revealed a tradeoff among chromosomes between chromosome size and number, demonstrating there is selective mechanism crossing chromosomes among woody species. And the explanations for the result were presented from intra- to inter-chromosome contexts that the scaling may be compromises among scale symmetry, mechanical requirements, and resource allocation across chromosomes. Therein, a 3/4 scaling pattern was observed between total chromosomes and m-chromosomes within nucleus which may imply total chromosomes may evolve from more to less. In addition, the primary evolutionary trend of karyotype and the role of m-chromosomes in the process of karyotype evolution were also discussed. PMID:26657837

  18. Wellhead equipment support

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.P.

    1987-03-24

    A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

  19. Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

  20. Counterstaining human chromosomes for flow karyology

    SciTech Connect

    Meyne, J.; Bartholdi, M.F.; Travis, G.; Cram, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    Isolated human metaphase chromosomes stained with the fluorochromes 4'-6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and chromomycin A/sub 3/ (CA/sub 3/), and counterstained with nonfluorescent netropsin (NTR), have been analyzed by dual-laser flow cytometry. Counterstaining with NTR reduced DAPI fluorescence except at regions on chromosomes 1,9,15,16, and Y, corresponding to C-band heterochromatin. Bivariate flow karyology of human chromosomes treated with this triple-stain combination resolves chromosomes 1,9, and Y distinctly from the remaining chromosomes and resolves variations between chromosome homologues not detected by staining with propidium iodide (PI) or with the double stain combination Hoechst 33258 (HO) and CA/sub 3/. 15 references, 5 figures.

  1. Actin-mediated motion of meiotic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Koszul, R.; Kim, K. P.; Prentiss, M.; Kleckner, N.; Kameoka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Chromosome movement is prominent during meiosis. Here, using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we elucidate the basis for dynamic mid-prophase chromosome movement in budding yeast. Diverse finding reveal a process in which, at the pachytene stage, individual telomere/nuclear envelope (NE) ensembles attach passively to, and then move in concert with, nucleus-hugging actin cables that are continuous with the global cytoskeletal actin network. Other chromosomes move in concert with lead chromosome(s). The same process, in modulated form, explains the zygotene "bouquet" configuration in which, immediately preceding pachytene, chromosome ends colocalize dynamically in a restricted region of the NE. Mechanical properties of the system and biological roles of mid-prophase movement for meiosis, including recombination, are discussed. PMID:18585353

  2. Chromosome abnormalities in South African mental retardates.

    PubMed

    Ally, F E; Grace, H J

    1979-04-28

    Standard and differential staining techniques were employed in this cytogenetic study of mentally retarded Whites at the Umgeni Waterfall Institution. All of the 512 patients were karyotyped and 57 were found to have chromosome abnormalities. Of these, 42 had trisomy-21; there were 3 subjects with 5p deletion (cri-du-chat) syndrome, 3 had supernumerary small marker chromosomes, and 2 had complex structural rearrangements. Gonosomal aneuploidies were less common than the autosomal defects and only 2 poly-X males and 1 poly-X female were identified. Long Y chromosomes were found in 11 males and 4 others had deleted Y chromosomes. One abnormal chromosome, a deletion of the terminal region of 11q, was missed in unbanded karyotypes. Banding is essential to the identification of structurally abnormal chromosomes. PMID:156963

  3. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  4. Flow cytometric analysis and sorting of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dilla, M.A.; Dean, P.N.; Fuscoe, J.C.; Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.N.; Peters, D.C.; Trask, B.J.; van den Engh, G.J.

    1987-06-24

    For analysis by flow cytometry, metaphase chromosomes are isolated from mitotic cells, and then stained while in suspension with one or more usually two, DNA-specific fluorescent dyes. The chromosomes are then processed one at a time through a flow cytometer or sorter where their dye content is measured at high speed and with high precision. In the work described here, dual staining is used since bivariate analysis affords better discrimination among chromosomal types: two dyes commonly used are Hoechst 33258, which binds preferentially to AT-rich DNA, and chromomycin A3, which bind preferentially to GC-rich DNA. For bivariate flow studies the chromosomes pass sequentially through 2 laser beams; the wavelength of one laser beam is adjusted to match the absorption maximum of one dye, and the wavelength of the other laser beam is adjusted to match the absorption maximum of the other dye. Thus each chromosome emits two fluorescent signals which give information on its DNA content and base composition. In typical measurements lasting a few minutes, about 10/sup 5/ chromosomes are analyzed. The bivariate fluorescence distribution accumulated by the electric processing units contains quantitative information about the chromosome population in the form of peaks produced by one or more chromosomal types. This distribution is called a flow karyotype, in analogy to the standard karyotype obtained by the cytogeneticist via banding techniques. In a flow sorter, the two fluorescent signals generated by each chromosome are used to trigger sorting of specific chromosomal types. This report reviews the current work in this area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, including the work on the detection of chromosomal aberrations and on chromosome purification by sorting. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  6. Exceptional Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Kartapradja, Hannie; Marzuki, Nanis Sacharina; Pertile, Mark D.; Francis, David; Suciati, Lita Putri; Anggaratri, Helena Woro; Ambarwati, Debby Dwi; Idris, Firman Prathama; Lesmana, Harry; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Paramayuda, Chrysantine; Harahap, Alida Roswita

    2015-01-01

    We report an exceptional complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) found in three individuals in a family that involves 4 chromosomes with 5 breakpoints. The CCR was ascertained in a phenotypically abnormal newborn with additional chromosomal material on the short arm of chromosome 4. Maternal karyotyping indicated that the mother carried an apparently balanced CCR involving chromosomes 4, 6, 11, and 18. Maternal transmission of the derivative chromosome 4 resulted in partial trisomy for chromosomes 6q and 18q and a partial monosomy of chromosome 4p in the proband. Further family studies found that the maternal grandmother carried the same apparently balanced CCR as the proband's mother, which was confirmed using the whole chromosome painting (WCP) FISH. High resolution whole genome microarray analysis of DNA from the proband's mother found no evidence for copy number imbalance in the vicinity of the CCR translocation breakpoints, or elsewhere in the genome, providing evidence that the mother's and grandmother's CCRs were balanced at a molecular level. This structural rearrangement can be categorized as an exceptional CCR due to its complexity and is a rare example of an exceptional CCR being transmitted in balanced and/or unbalanced form across three generations. PMID:25722897

  7. Chromosomal intrachanges induced by swift iron ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, M.; Durante, M.; Johannes, C.; Obe, G.

    We measured the induction of aberrations in human chromosome 5 by iron ions using the novel technique of multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND). Human lymphocytes isolated from whole blood were exposed in vitro to 500 MeV/n (LET=200 keV/? m, doses 1 or 4 Gy) 56Fe nuclei at the HIMAC accelerator in Chiba (Japan). Chromosomes were prematurely condensed by calyculin A after 48 h in culture, and slides were painted by mBAND (MetaSystems). We found a frequency of 0.11 and 0.57 residual breakpoints per chromosome 5 after 1 Gy and 4 Gy Fe-ions, respectively. The distribution per unit length were similar in the p- and q-arm of chromosome 5, and >50% of the observed fragments measured <30% of the whole chromosome length. Only small fragments (<40% of the chromosome size) were involved in intra-chromosomal exchanges (interstitial deletions or inversions), whereas fragments up to 75% of the whole chromosome 5 were found in inter-chromosomal exchanges. We measured more inter-changes than intra-changes, and more intra-arm than inter-arm exchanges at both doses. No significant differences in the ratios of these aberrations were detected with respect to X-rays. On the other hand, Fe-ions induced a significantly higher fraction of complex-type exchanges when compared to sparsely ionizing radiation. Work supported by DLR, BMBF, INTAS and NIRS-HIMAC.

  8. Mechanisms of chromosome behaviour during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Walczak, Claire E.; Cai, Shang; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have strived to understand the mechanisms that govern the accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. The most intriguing feature of this process, which is particularly prominent in higher eukaryotes, is the complex behaviour exhibited by the chromosomes. This behaviour is based on specific and highly regulated interactions between the chromosomes and spindle microtubules. Recent discoveries, enabled by high-resolution imaging combined with the various genetic, molecular, cell biological and chemical tools, support the idea that establishing and controlling the dynamic interaction between chromosomes and microtubules is a major factor in genomic fidelity. PMID:20068571

  9. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for determining the Y chromosome in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Weier, H.U.

    1998-11-24

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences. 9 figs.

  10. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for identifying the Y chromosome in SITU

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Weier, H.U.

    1999-03-30

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences. 9 figs.

  11. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for identifying the Y chromosome in SITU

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe W.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences.

  12. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for determining the Y chromosome in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Weier, Heinz-Ulrich (Tracy, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences.

  13. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for determining the Y chromosome in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joe W.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences.

  14. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  15. [German poultry farming between animal welfare and global market].

    PubMed

    Erhard, Michael; Damme, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the positive tendencies concerning sales output in the poultry production, the margins per single animal are extremely low. This circumstance leads inevitably to an increasing number of animals per farm. Also the German egg production is currently confronted with a great challenge due to changes of the legislation of animal welfare in animal farming (German Tierschutz-Nutztierhaltungs-Verordnung), the EU-zoonosis-regulation (2160/2003) and because of the avian influenza difficulties. In addition, the globalization has tightened the competitive conditions during production. Therefore, innovation potential and specialization are mandatory premises for the continuity within a free market economy. In all farming systems there has to be made a consideration between animal welfare, economy and ecology, whereas, based on animal welfare, the "ethical limit" has the utmost importance. It has to be accounted for the concept of fulfilment of demand and prevention of harm. The success of agricultural animal farming depends, last but not least, on a good and robust state of health of the live stock. The German consumer will have to accept that a high quality and high welfare poultry product will have their price, even in the global market. The sale orientation on non-European production methods is not acceptable under the aspect of animal welfare. PMID:19681394

  16. Work or welfare after cancer? Explorations of identity and stigma.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Suzanne; Noble, Emma

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of people living with cancer, a greater focus is required on the social consequences of the disease. This article explores the connections between cancer and employment and the constraints imposed by ill health and wider structural conditions. Narrative data from 23 people of working age with cancer in north-east England collected longitudinally over 16 months highlight the impact of financial strain caused by temporary or permanent interruption to employment, and the positive benefits of an upstream welfare rights intervention in enabling participants to claim benefit entitlements and boost incomes. Returning to work, for those who were able, helped repair the disruption caused by the illness. For those unable to work, reliance on welfare benefits, while necessary, conferred a stigmatised identity that compounded the disruption wrought by cancer. While stigma occurs at the individual level, the structural dimensions of stigma need to be acknowledged in order to analyse the forces that cause, maintain and perpetuate the stigma associated with claiming welfare while ill. We conclude that current UK policies and welfare reforms to reduce sickness-related welfare claims will lead to greater hardship during periods of ill health and increase inequalities. PMID:26139163

  17. The X chromosome of monotremes shares a highly conserved region with the eutherian and marsupial X chromosomes despite the absence of X chromosome inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Spencer, J.A.; Graves, J.A.M. ); Riggs, A.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Eight genes, located on the long arm of the human X chromosome and present on the marsupial X chromosome, were mapped by in situ hybridization to the chromosomes of the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus, one of the three species of monotreme mammals. All were located on the X chromosome. The authors conclude that the long arm of the human X chromosome represents a highly conserved region that formed part of the X chromosome in a mammalian ancestor at least 150 million years ago. Since three of these genes are located on the long arm of the platypus X chromosome, which is G-band homologous to the Y chromosome and apparently exempt from X chromosome inactivation, the conservation of this region has evidently not depended on isolation by X-Y chromosome differentiation and X chromosome inactivation.

  18. New image analysis methods for 3D visualization and assessment of mapping distance for chromosomes in interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ikizyan, I.; Burde, S.; Leary, J.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Confocal microscopy (Meridian Instruments, Inc.) images of interphase nuclei with portions or entire chromosomes singley- or doubly-labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization were analyzed with newly-developed software on an 80486 PC equipped with an autostereoscopic display (Dimension Technologies, Inc.). The computer display is hologram-like with the ability to address points in 3D space using the associated mouse. Software was developed which allowed for reduction of background by a 19 voxel (3x3x3 voxel cube without corner voxels) median filtering algorithm followed by rendering of a 3D surface and skeleton figure of a chromosome. Visualization at multiple viewing angles by animation allows approximate coordinate locations to be obtained with a 3D mouse to guide the process thereby reducing significantly the required calculation times. Two biological applications under development include (1) correct counting of a given chromosome's copy number using centromere/chromosome-specific probes, and (2) visualization of painted chromosomes and subregion-specific probes at different locations on that chromosome for physical mapping. In either application, real-world distances within each confocal plane and between planes are calculable to give physical mapping distances in three dimensions and along the chromosome.

  19. Exploration equipment notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Aerial surveying equipment is one high-technology area that has received attention in exploration. Computers are the key to the successful use of aerial and other methods of exploration. Computers are used in many ways but are increasingly useful in providing detailed advance information about ores. The advantages and disadvantages of satellite exploration are discussed.

  20. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  1. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  2. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  3. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

  4. Early Equipment Management

    E-print Network

    Schlie, Michelle

    2007-05-18

    the quality, flexibility, reliability, safety, and life-time cost of equipment. This paper will give an introduction to the basics of TPM, discuss the major parts of EEM, and evaluate the lessons learned from the team’s first effort to execute the structured...

  5. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  6. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  7. [Diagnosis of MDS: morphology, chromosome abnormalities and genetic mutations].

    PubMed

    Hata, Tomoko

    2015-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of hematological neoplasms associated with ineffective hematopoiesis and that can transform into acute leukemia. The clinical classification of MDS which is defined by cytopenia, the rate of blasts in peripheral blood and bone marrow, dysplasia, and chromosomal abnormalities, has undergone continuous revision. To increase the accuracy of dysplastic evaluation, IWGM-MDS and the Research Committee for Idiopathic Hematopoietic Disorders, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan have proposed a quantitative and qualitative definition of dysplasia. Recently, refining the definition of dysgranulopoiesis was proposed by IWGM-MDS. Neutrophils with abnormal clumping of chromatin, and harboring more than 4 nuclear projections, were recognized as dysplastic features. At present, karyotypic abnormalities are detected in approximately 50% of de novo MDS and these remain the most critical prognostic factor. In the new cytogenetic scoring system, cytogenetic abnormalities were classified into five prognostic subgroups. This new classification was adopted by the revised IPSS. Approximately 80% to 90% of MDS patients have detectable mutations by whole-exon sequencing or whole genome sequencing. Many genetic mutations had biological and prognostic significance. It is important to further understand the utility of this factor in determining prognosis and in selecting among therapeutic options. PMID:26458436

  8. Training welfare caseworkers in service excellence: increasing children's Medicaid coverage.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Richard; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Calloway, Joy; Allen, Rochelle; Lopez, Ellen; Ross, Rachel; Johnson, Penni; Riley, Sherry

    2006-08-01

    Many low-income children who are eligible for public sector health insurance remain uninsured. There are many barriers to enrolling these children, but one key issue is parents' reluctance to use the services of the local enrollment agency, which is usually the welfare office. The Eastside Access Partnership, a community-academic coalition on the Eastside of Detroit, addressed the problem of uninsured-but-eligible children through a variety of interventions focused on (1) enhancing community members' understanding of the enrollment process and (2) reducing institutional barriers to enrollment. One of these interventions addressed the institutional barriers by developing a customer service excellence training program for welfare caseworkers. The training program curriculum, which was developed following the principles of community-based participatory research, included extensive input from community residents, welfare agency staff, and academic researchers. The training sessions received positive evaluations from participants and agency executives. A more thorough evaluation of the project is under way. PMID:16960316

  9. The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.

    PubMed

    Eggebø, Helga

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy. PMID:20821899

  10. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State...

  11. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State...

  12. Construction of rice mini-chromosomes by telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunhui; Cheng, Zhukuan; Yu, Weichang

    2012-06-01

    Telomere truncation has been shown to be an efficient technology for the creation of mini-chromosomes that can be used as artificial chromosome platforms for genetic engineering. Artificial chromosome-based genetic engineering is considered to be superior to the existing techniques of randomized gene integration by Agrobacterium or biolistic-mediated genetic transformation. It organizes multiple transgenes as a unique genetic linkage block for subsequent manipulations in breeding. Telomere truncation technology relies on three components: the telomere sequence that mediates chromosomal truncation, a selection marker that allows the selection of transgenic events, and a site-specific recombination system that can be used to accept future genes into the mini-chromosome by gene targeting. These elements are usually pre-assembled before transformation, a process that is both time and labor consuming. We found in this research that the three elements could be mixed to transform plant cells in a biolistic transformation, and produced efficient chromosomal truncations and mini-chromosomes in rice. This system will allow rapid construction of mini-chromosomes with a flexible selection of resistant markers, site-specific recombination systems and other desirable elements. In addition, a rice telotrisomic line was used as the starting material for chromosomal truncations. Mini-chromosomes from the truncations of both the telocentric chromosome and other chromosomes were recovered. The mini-chromosomes remained stable during 2 years of subculture. The construction of mini-chromosomes in rice, an economically important crop, will provide a platform for future artificial chromosome-based genetic engineering of rice for stacking multiple genes. PMID:22268496

  13. Viscoelasticity of model interphase chromosomes

    E-print Network

    Manon Valet; Angelo Rosa

    2014-12-19

    We investigated the viscoelastic response of model interphase chromosomes by tracking the three-dimensional motion of hundreds of dispersed Brownian particles of sizes ranging from the thickness of the chromatin fiber up to slightly above the mesh size of the chromatin solution. In agreement with previous computational studies on polymer solutions and melts, we found that the large-time behaviour of diffusion coefficient and the experienced viscosity of moving particles as functions of particle size deviate from the traditional Stokes-Einstein relation, and agree with a recent scaling theory of diffusion of non-sticky particles in polymer solutions. Interestingly, we found that at short times large particles are temporary "caged" by chromatin spatial constraints, which thus form effective domains whose size match remarkably well recent experimental results for micro-tracers inside interphase nuclei. Finally, by employing a known mathematical relation between the time mean-square displacement of tracked particles and the complex shear modulus of the surrounding solution, we calculated the elastic and viscous moduli of interphase chromosomes.

  14. Physics of the Bacterial Chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavans, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Genomic DNA in bacteria is concentrated in a distinct structure, the bacterial chromosome or nucleoid [Pettijohn, D.E. (1996) The Nucleoid. In Neidhardt, F.C., Curtis III, R., Ingraham, J.L., Lin, E.C.C., Low, K.B., Magasanik, B., Reznikoff, W.S., Riley, M., Schaechter, M. and Umbarger, H.E. (eds.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella. ASM Press, Washington D.C., pp. 158-166; Trun, N.J. and Marko, J.F. (1998) Architecture of a bacterial chromosome. Am. Soc. Microbiol. Rev., 64, 276-283]. Stripped of all bound proteins and RNA being produced during transcription and then stretched, the length of the DNA is circa 1.5 mm, a factor of about a thousandfold larger than typical bacterial dimensions. Thus, bacteria, like all living organisms, face the daunting challenge of compacting their genome to fit inside the cell in such a way that the information encoded in the DNA will be accessible for gene expression and replication of the genome. In the case of bacteria, members of the prokaryote world (cells without a nucleus), natural selection resulted in three mechanisms that act together to compact the genome and produce a functional, dynamic architecture: supercoiling, macromolecular crowding, and the association of the DNA with a class of nucleoid-associated or histone-like proteins. I will now describe briefly these mechanisms.

  15. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  16. Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer

    E-print Network

    Domany, Eytan

    Relationship of Gene Expression and Chromosomal Abnormalities in Colorectal Cancer Dafna Tsafrir, 1 chromosomal abnormalities in colon cancer. However, the relationships between DNA copy number and gene. This implies that whereas specific chromosomal abnormalities may arise stochastically, the associated changes

  17. Diverse outcomes of homologous recombination in the human Y chromosome

    E-print Network

    Lange, Julian H. (Julian Hendrik)

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sex chromosomes began diverging from an ordinary pair of autosomes roughly 300 million years ago. Inversions in the evolving Y chromosome sequentially suppressed recombination with the X chromosome. While ...

  18. Functional structure of the human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 23, describes the functional structure of the human X chromosome. It provides a functional map of the human X chromosome, discussing in depth the inactivation center, always-active regions, and critical region. Finally, it provides a summary of X inactivation. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.

    1998-05-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. The methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. The probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. The invention provides for automated means to detect and analyze chromosomal abnormalities. 17 figs.

  20. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with cyclopia and synophthalmia.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, R O

    1977-01-01

    At the present time, essentially all known facts concerning cyclopia are consistent with some chromosomal disease, including clinical features of the pregnancy (fetal wastage, prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal age factor, complications of pregnancy), the generalized developmental abnormalities, specific ocular dysgenesis, by the high incidence of chromosomal abnormality already demonstrated, and the possibility of error in those cases of cyclopia with normal chromosomes. Even if chromosomal aberrations represent only one group of several different etiologic factors leading to cyclopia, at the present time chromosomal errors would seem to be the most common cause of cyclopia now recognized. Further studies will establish or disprove a chromosomal error in those instances which are now considered to be the result of an environmental factor alone or those with apparent familial patterns of inheritance. This apparent diverse origin of cyclopia can be clarified if future cyclopic specimens are carefully investigated. The evaluation should include a careful gross and microscopic examination of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of all organs, including the eye, and chromosome banding studies of at least two cyclopic tissues. Then the presence or absence of multiple causative factors can be better evaluated. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 1 D FIGURE 1 E FIGURE 1 F FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 4 D FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B PMID:418547

  1. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells. PMID:26475094

  2. The sister bonding of duplicated chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion and separation are two fundamental chromosome dynamics that are essential to equal chromosome segregation during cell proliferation. In this review, I will discuss the major steps that regulate these dynamics during mitosis, with an emphasis on vertebrate cells. The implications of these machineries outside of sister chromatid cohesion and separation are also discussed. PMID:21497666

  3. Compositions for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods are provided to disable the hybridization capacity of shared, high copy repetitive sequences and/or remove such sequences to provide for useful contrast. Still further methods are provided to produce chromosome-specific staining reagents which are made specific to the targeted chromosomal material, which can be one or more whole chromosomes, one or more regions on one or more chromosomes, subsets of chromosomes and/or the entire genome. Probes and test kits are provided for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, in analysis of structural abnormalities, such as translocations, and for biological dosimetry. Further, methods and prenatal test kits are provided to stain targeted chromosomal material of fetal cells, including fetal cells obtained from maternal blood. Still further, the invention provides for automated means to detect and analyse chromosomal abnormalities.

  4. Chromosome structure deficiencies in MCPH1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, M; Trimborn, M; Sánchez, A; Hirano, T; Neitzel, H; Marchal, J A

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the MCPH1 gene result in primary microcephaly in combination with a unique cellular phenotype of defective chromosome condensation. MCPH1 patient cells display premature chromosome condensation in G2 phase of the cell cycle and delayed decondensation in early G1 phase, observable as an increased proportion of cells with prophase-like appearance. MCPH1 deficiency thus appears to uncouple the chromosome cycle from the coordinated series of events that take place during mitosis such as some phases of the centrosome cycle and nuclear envelope breakdown. Here, we provide a further characterization of the effects of MCPH1 loss-of-function on chromosome morphology. In comparison to healthy controls, chromosomes of MCPH1 patients are shorter and display a pronounced coiling of their central chromatid axes. In addition, a substantial fraction of metaphase chromosomes shows apparently unresolved chromatids with twisted appearance. The patient chromosomes also showed signs of defective centromeric cohesion, which become more apparent and pronounced after harsh hypotonic conditions. Taking together, the observed alterations indicate additional so far unknown functions of MCPH1 during chromosome shaping and dynamics. PMID:25845520

  5. Chromosomal instability-mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Shriram; Natarajan, Adayapalam T; Hande, M Prakash

    2015-11-01

    Chromosomal instability is defined as a state of numerical and/or structural chromosomal anomalies in cells. Numerous studies have documented the incidence of chromosomal instability, which acutely or chronically may lead to accelerated ageing (tissue-wide or even organismal), cancer or other genetic disorders. Potential mechanisms leading to the generation of chromosome-genome instability include erroneous/inefficient DNA repair, chromosome segregation defects, spindle assembly defects, DNA replication stress, telomere shortening/dysfunction - to name a few. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms for chromosomal instability in various human cells and tissues will be useful in elucidating the cause for many age associated diseases including cancer. This approach holds a great promise for the cytogenetic assays not only for prognosis but also for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings. In this review, a multi-dimensional approach has been attempted to portray the complexity behind the incidence of chromosome-genome instability including evolutionary implications at the species level for some of the mechanisms of chromosomal instability. PMID:26520388

  6. Chromosome spatial clustering inferred from radiogenic aberrations

    E-print Network

    computer simulations and mathematical modelling guided data analysis. Results and conclusions: Statistical. Introduction Organization of chromosomes during the cell cycle has been studied for more than a century (Rabl are com- monly used as probes to study chromosome structure, nuclear architecture and DNA repair

  7. Chromosomal Aneuploidies and Early Embryonic Developmental Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maria; Ebner, Thomas; Puchner, Manuela; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Shebl, Omar; Oppelt, Peter; Duba, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background Selecting the best embryo for transfer, with the highest chance of achieving a vital pregnancy, is a major goal in current in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. The high rate of embryonic developmental arrest during IVF treatment is one of the limitations in achieving this goal. Chromosomal abnormalities are possibly linked with chromosomal arrest and selection against abnormal fertilization products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in preimplantation embryos with developmental arrest. Materials and Methods This cohort study included blastomeres of embryos with early developmental arrest that were biopsied and analyzed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 13, 16, 18, 21 and 22. Forty-five couples undergoing IVF treatment were included, and 119 arrested embryos were biopsied. All probes were obtained from the Kinderwunsch Zentrum, Linz, Austria, between August 2009 and August 2011. Results Of these embryos, 31.6% were normal for all chromosomes tested, and 68.4% were abnormal. Eleven embryos were uniformly aneuploid, 20 were polyploid, 3 were haploid, 11 displayed mosaicism and 22 embryos exhibited chaotic chromosomal complement. Conclusion Nearly 70% of arrested embryos exhibit chromosomal errors, making chromosomal abnormalities a major cause of embryonic arrest and may be a further explanation for the high developmental failure rates during culture of the embryos in the IVF setting. PMID:26644858

  8. CHROMOSOMAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAIZE REPETITIVE SEQUENCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microarray technology used in conjunction with labeled DNA from oat-maize addition (OMA) lines enable chromosomal analysis of the organization and distribution of maize repetitive elements. Each OMA line contains an individual maize chromosome allowing for an analysis of its composition. The probes ...

  9. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    PubMed

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients. PMID:26214903

  10. A sexy spin on nonrandom chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Charville, Gregory W; Rando, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    Nonrandom chromosome segregation is an intriguing phenomenon linked to certain asymmetric stem cell divisions. In a recent report in Nature, Yadlapalli and Yamashita (2013) observe nonrandom segregation of X and Y chromosomes in Drosophila germline stem cells and shed light on the complex mechanisms of this fascinating process. PMID:23746972

  11. Human chromosome 17 comparative anchor loci are conserved on bovine chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.P.; Womack, J.E.

    1995-05-20

    Eight comparative anchor loci on human chromosome 17, TP53, CHRNB1, THRA1, CRYB1, NF1, MPO, MYL4, and P4HB, were mapped to bovine chromosome 19 using bovine x hamster and bovine x mouse hybrid somatic cell lines. This completes the synteny mapping of human chromosome 17 comparative anchor loci in cattle, all of which have been mapped to bovine chromosome 19 and mouse chromosome 11, with the exception of CSH1. It is likely that the suggested homologue of human CSH1, PL1 on cattle chromosome 23, is a not true homologue of the human gene. This study reveals the largest conserved synteny segment among human, cattle, and mouse autosomes described to date. While all of the genes mapped to cattle chromosome 19 are on human chromosome 17, genes on mouse chromosome 11 are distributed on 7 human chromosomes, supporting the hypothesis that there is greater conservation of synteny between human and bovine chromosomes than between human and mouse. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The Lived Experience of Welfare Reform in Drug-Using Welfare-Needy Households in Inner-City New York

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Eloise; Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Welfare reform has transformed a needs-based family income support into temporary assistance for persons entering the workforce. This paper uses observations from an ethnographic study covering the period from 1995–2001 to examine the impact on drug-using welfare-needy households in inner-city New York. The analysis suggests that studies may underestimate the extent to which substance use is associated with welfare problems. Nearly all of these already distressed households lost their AFDC/TANF benefits, had difficulty with work programs, and were having more difficulty covering expenses. The conclusion highlights ways to better study this population and policy initiatives that could help them reform their impoverished lives for themselves and their children. PMID:25382890

  13. Molecular genetics of human chromosome 21.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P C; Tanzi, R E; Cheng, S V; Gusella, J F

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome 21 is the smallest autosome, comprising only about 1.9% of human DNA, but represents one of the most intensively studied regions of the genome. Much of the interest in chromosome 21 can be attributed to its association with Down's syndrome, a genetic disorder that afflicts one in every 700 to 1000 newborns. Although only 17 genes have been assigned to chromosome 21, a very large number of cloned DNA segments of unknown function have been isolated and regionally mapped. The majority of these segments detect restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and therefore represent useful genetic markers. Continued molecular genetic investigation of chromosome 21 will be central to elucidating molecular events leading to meiotic non-disjunction and consequent trisomy, the contribution of specific genes to the pathology of Down's syndrome, and the possible role of chromosome 21 in Alzheimer's disease and other as yet unmapped genetic defects. PMID:2884319

  14. Chromosome interaction over a distance in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Mary; Paliulis, Leocadia V.

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of cell division is to distribute partner chromosomes (pairs of homologues, pairs of sex chromosomes or pairs of sister chromatids) correctly, one into each daughter cell. In the ‘standard’ meiosis, this problem is solved by linking partners together via a chiasma and/or sister chromatid cohesion, and then separating the linked partners from one another in anaphase; thus, the partners are kept track of, and correctly distributed. Many organisms, however, properly separate chromosomes in the absence of any obvious physical connection, and movements of unconnected partner chromosomes are coordinated at a distance. Meiotic distance interactions happen in many different ways and in different types of organisms. In this review, we discuss several different known types of distance segregation and propose possible explanations for non-random segregation of distance-segregating chromosomes. PMID:26064610

  15. Rhizobium tropici chromosomal citrate synthase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Lucas, I; Pardo, M A; Segovia, L; Miranda, J; Martínez-Romero, E

    1995-01-01

    Two genes encoding citrate synthase, a key enzyme in the Krebs cycle, have been found in Rhizobium tropici. One of them is in the bacterial chromosome, while the other is in the symbiotic plasmid. We sequenced the chromosomal gene and found that it is very similar to the previously reported plasmidic gene sequence in its structural region but not in its regulatory region. The chromosomal gene is able to complement an Escherichia coli citrate synthase mutant. In R. tropici, a mutant in the chromosomal citrate synthase gene has a diminished citrate synthase activity (in free-living bacteria), a diminished nodulation capacity, and forms nitrogen-fixing nodules. In contrast, the citrate synthase double mutant forms ineffective nodules devoid of bacteroids and forms less nodules than the single chromosomal mutant. It is inferred that both genes are functional and required during the nodulation process in R. tropici. PMID:8526514

  16. FISH probes for mouse chromosome identification

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yu-Ping; Mohapatra, G.; Hanahan, D.; Miller, J.

    1997-10-01

    P1 clones near the telomeres and centromeres of each mouse chromosome except Y have been selected from a mouse genomic library and mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was selected to contain a genetically mapped polymorphic DNA sequence as close as possible to the centromere or telomere of a chromosome. The genetic distance from the various P1 clones to the most distal genetically mapped polymorphic sequence ranged from 0 for about half of the clones to 6.7 cM for the probe at the telomere of chromosome 14. The average distance to the most distal or proximal chromosome marker was 1.5 cM. The use of FISH with these probes for mouse chromosome identification during comparative genomic hybridization is illustrated. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  18. Dynamic Trans Interactions in Yeast Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Mirkin, Ekaterina V.; Chang, Frederick S.; Kleckner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional organization of the genome is important for regulation of gene expression and maintenance of genomic stability. It also defines, and is defined by, contacts between different chromosomal loci. Interactions between loci positioned on different chromosomes, i.e. “trans” interactions are one type of such contacts. Here, we describe a case of inducible trans interaction in chromosomes of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae. Special DNA sequences, inserted in two ectopic chromosomal loci positioned in trans, pair with one another in an inducible manner. The spatial proximity diagnostic of pairing is observable by both chromosome capture analysis (3C) and epifluorescence microscopy in whole cells. Protein synthesis de novo appears to be required for this process. The three-dimensional organization of the yeast nucleus imposes a constraint on such pairing, presumably by dictating the probability with which the two sequences collide with one another. PMID:24098740

  19. HVAC equipment and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Cerami, V.J.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to define how the selection of HVAC equipment and layout impact the achievable noise criteria (NC) levels in occupied spaces. It will focus on the design of HVAC systems that employ floor-by-floor air handling/air conditioning units and their acoustical ramifications. This is of increasing importance since tenants require incorporation of noise limits in lease agreements.

  20. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  1. 8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT ROOM INTERIOR. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM AT RIGHT AND ENTRANCE AT LEFT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing Control Blockhouse, South of Sled Track at east end, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 78 FR 71535 - Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations on Candidate-Related Political Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ...Guidance for Tax-Exempt Social Welfare Organizations...considered to promote social welfare. The proposed...function activity. a. Interaction With Section 501(c...public comment. c. Interaction With Sections 501...political activity for social welfare...

  4. Coordination and Integration of Welfare and Workforce Development Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindus, Nancy; Koralek, Robin; Martinson, Karin; Trutko, John

    The extent of coordination and integration of welfare and work force development systems was examined in a study that involved site visits to 12 localities in 6 states. The following factors were found to promote coordination: a previous history of coordination; a strong local economy and low unemployment; access to technology; greater financial…

  5. From Welfare to Work: Lessons for ESL Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Elaine

    This lesson plan guide is designed to be used by English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers to help their learners deal with new welfare legislation--Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)--and to prepare them for the world of work. Learners at the high beginner to low intermediate level and above will benefit from this instruction. All…

  6. More than Freud: Clark University's Child Welfare Conference--1909.

    PubMed

    Self, Lauren; Shevell, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The Clarke University conferences were a seminal event in intellectual history most remembered for the lectures given by Freud on psychoanalytic theory and practice. Largely forgotten are the Child Welfare sessions that highlighted the nature/nurture debate that would foreshadow and frame social policy for the 20th century. PMID:22190503

  7. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  8. Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

  9. Children with Problematic Sexualized Behaviors in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Gries, Len; Schneiderman, Mel; Parker, Rob; Archer, Marc; Friedrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the utility of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in a child welfare sample. In this study, 97 children from ages 10 to 12 from either foster boarding homes or a residential treatment center participated. Researchers interviewed foster parents or primary therapists about children's sexual behavior, traumatic events,…

  10. Engaging Families in Child Welfare Services: Worker versus Client Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Julie Cooper

    2008-01-01

    Part of a larger mixed-method study of engagement in neighborhood-based child welfare services, the qualitative data this article reports on highlights the extent to which parents and workers differ in their views of engagement, the best ways to foster engagement in services, and the importance each group places on it as a process. Strategies…

  11. Toward Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Julia H.; Shlonsky, Aron

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' experience in the international Campbell Collaboration, this essay presents a principled and pragmatic approach to evidence-informed decisions about child welfare. This approach takes into account the growing body of empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of various methods of research synthesis. It also…

  12. Child Care Issues Impacting Welfare Reform in the Rural South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazvini, Alisa S.; Mullis, Ann K.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Park, Jennifer J.

    1999-01-01

    Access to affordable, quality child care is a major barrier to successful employment for many families. About one-fifth of families return to welfare within a few months of leaving, with lack of accessible child care and transportation being the most frequently cited reasons. These issues are likely to be compounded in the rural South. Information…

  13. Family welfare programme and population stabilization strategies in India.

    PubMed

    Zodgekar, A V

    1996-03-01

    India is currently the second most populous country in the world. Population is likely to reach 1 billion by the turn of the century at the present rate of growth. This article provides an overview of the present and past demographic context, population program strategies, family welfare program achievements and deficits, program approaches, and fertility determinants. The author suggests that it is time for the family welfare program to shift directions. The emphasis of family welfare programs should focus on improving the quality of people's lives rather than on demographic targets or on birth control in a very narrow sense. Quality of life improvements would entail increased literacy, a higher status for women, reduced infant mortality, and reduced poverty. The responsibility for family planning must be placed on individual families and not government effort. In order to achieve almost replacement level fertility by 2010, contraceptive prevalence must increase from the present 44% to at least 70%. Increased contraceptive prevalence will not occur without the adoption of the small family norm and improvement in socioeconomic conditions. Family planning programs and services must be accessible at the village level. Sustained fertility decline is achieved by sustained effort and not short-term drastic actions. This article reviews the basic philosophy of the family welfare program, evaluates the effectiveness of the program in achieving fertility decline, and assesses the role of development and other fertility determinants, such as women's status, in reducing fertility. PMID:12291554

  14. Child Care Use among Welfare Mothers: A Dynamic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Douglas A.; Sonenstein, Freya L.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed durability of child-care arrangements, using data from 1983-84 longitudinal survey of welfare mothers conducted in three cities. Findings indicated that family day care arrangements were least durable; however, care in a center was not more durable than care provided by a child's relatives. Only convenience, with respect to location and…

  15. Critical Thought within the Social Welfare Policy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Critical thought is a necessary element for proficient practice in social work at both the micro and macro levels. For this reason, social work educators must seek to integrate critical thought in BSW and MSW curricula. This article provides a method for achieving this integration in the social welfare policy course. The method includes the four…

  16. Transportation Center Seminar "Flight Delays, Capacity Investment and Welfare under

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Transportation Center Seminar "Flight Delays, Capacity Investment and Welfare under Air Transport University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Thurs. April 4, 2013 4:00 ­ 5:00 pm Location: Transportation Center in the air transportation system. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and local airport agencies have

  17. Child Welfare Information Gateway Children's Bureau/ACYF/ACF/HHS

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Child Welfare Information Gateway Children's Bureau/ACYF/ACF/HHS 1250 Maryland Avenue, SW Eighth://www.childwelfare.gov FACTSHEET FOR FAMILIES December 2013 ParentingaChild WhoHasExperienced AbuseorNeglect What's Inside;Parenting a Child Who Has Experienced Abuse or Neglect https://www.childwelfare.gov 2 foster

  18. 29 CFR 2510.3-1 - Employee welfare benefit plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee welfare benefit plan. 2510.3-1 Section 2510.3-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DEFINITIONS AND COVERAGE UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 DEFINITIONS...

  19. WHY SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT ANIMAL WELFARE AUDITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market driven demands for verification that animals used to produce food receive humane care, have resulted in welfare audits becoming a reality for beef and chicken products sold to fast food chains. Dairy is targeted for similar audits and the Dairy Quality Assurance Center was approved by the re...

  20. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  1. From the Child Welfare Trap to the Foster Care Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahkonen, Paivi

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed visibility of mother, father/partner, and child(ren) during child welfare placement process in Finland. Found little case-handling information concerning quality of the parent-child relationship. Fathers/partners and children were less visible than mothers, mothers were neglected by social workers after placement, and marital…

  2. Agriculture and Biology Teaching. Biology and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. N.; Pritchard, Alan J.

    This six-chapter document (part of a series on biology and human welfare) focuses on agriculture and the teaching of this subject area. Major topic areas considered in the first five chapters are: (1) the development of agriculture; (2) agricosystems (considering agriculture as an ecosystem, land utilization and soils, soils and food production,…

  3. Serving African American Children: Child Welfare Perspectives Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sondra, Ed.; Brissett-Chapman, Sheryl, Ed.

    This collection brings together articles by African American authors who are committed to research, policies, and programs affecting African American children and families. The articles are grouped into sections on policy, research, and practice issues; clinical techniques and treatment models; and new perspectives in child welfare. The following…

  4. Utilization of the Elderly in Child Welfare Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dannenberg, George; And Others

    A study of the potential of using older people as aides in child welfare services involved interviews with 467 older people and 95 social work professionals in New Jersey. Focus was on relationships among individual differences such as attitudes and beliefs, potential areas of conflict between staff and the elderly volunteer, and what roles and…

  5. CALL FOR PAPERS ON DYNAMICS OF HEALTH AND WELFARE

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    ! CALL FOR PAPERS ON DYNAMICS OF HEALTH AND WELFARE DEADLINE ­ January 2nd, 2015 Hygiea Internationalis is the official journal of the International Network for the History of Public Health efforts for the improvement of the health of populations from antiquity to modernity with particular

  6. Communicating with Employees about Pension and Welfare Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srb, Jozetta H.

    The purpose of this report is to examine some of the problems of communication with employees about pension and welfare benefits. Issues discussed relate to (1) employees' attitudes toward benefits and benefit communication, (2) the structure of private benefit programs, (3) the case for fair labeling, and (4) the trend toward statutory criteria…

  7. The Child Welfare Response to Serious Nonaccidental Head Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2004-01-01

    Serious nonaccidental head trauma (NHT) can leave permanent neurological damage in children who survive abuse. This study reports on child welfare's handling of NHT cases compared with cases of physical abuse and head trauma due to neglect with regard to placement in foster care, reunification with family, and safety issues. The results show that…

  8. Politics, welfare regimes, and population health: controversies and evidence.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Ng, Edwin; Chung, Haejoo; Espelt, Albert; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; O'Campo, Patricia

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, a research area has emerged within social determinants of health that examines the role of politics, expressed as political traditions/parties and welfare state characteristics, on population health. To better understand and synthesise this growing body of evidence, the present literature review, informed by a political economy of health and welfare regimes framework, located 73 empirical and comparative studies on politics and health, meeting our inclusion criteria in three databases: PubMed (1948-), Sociological Abstracts (1953-), and ISI Web of Science (1900-). We identified two major research programmes, welfare regimes and democracy, and two emerging programmes, political tradition and globalisation. Primary findings include: (1) left and egalitarian political traditions on population health are the most salutary, consistent, and substantial; (2) the health impacts of advanced and liberal democracies are also positive and large; (3) welfare regime studies, primarily conducted among wealthy countries, find that social democratic regimes tend to fare best with absolute health outcomes yet consistently in terms of relative health inequalities; and (4) globalisation defined as dependency indicators such as trade, foreign investment, and national debt is negatively associated with population health. We end by discussing epistemological, theoretical, and methodological issues for consideration for future research. PMID:21899562

  9. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  10. Aligning social welfare and agent preferences to alleviate traffic congestion

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    Aligning social welfare and agent preferences to alleviate traffic congestion Kagan Tumer Oregon State University 204 Rogers Hall Corvallis, OR 97331 kagan.tumer@oregonstate.edu Zachary T Welch Oregon traffic congestion, Kagan Tumer, Zachary T Welch and Adrian Agogino, Proc. of 7th Int. Conf. on Autonomous

  11. 2 CFR 200.437 - Employee health and welfare costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employee health and welfare costs. 200.437 Section 200.437 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST...

  12. Education and Welfare during the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, John

    1991-01-01

    Before World War II, British schools provided free meals only to poor, malnourished children. Bombing, evacuation, and food rationing transformed public opinion about child welfare efforts and led to cabinet policies expanding school meals and milk services. Particular outcomes in Scotland and special provisions for small schools are discussed.…

  13. Managing Welfare Reform in Five States: The Challenge of Devolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebschutz, Sarah F., Ed.

    This book analyzes the responses of five states (Florida, Mississippi, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin) to challenges posed by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 to alter state welfare programs and management systems. Using case studies, the book highlights similarities and differences in the states'…

  14. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  15. American Social Welfare Policy and Social Justice for Appalachia's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNutt, John G.

    This paper examines social welfare policy and its impacts on Appalachian children. The discussion is based on a notion that a just society meets basic needs of all its members. Current social policy: (1) does not include a comprehensive family policy; (2) depends on state and local contributions which are limited in rural Appalachia; (3) has…

  16. Work, Income, and Material Hardship after Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra; Corcoran, Mary; Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of women who went off welfare between 1997 and 1998 (n=753, 693) showed that those with the most work involvement over the year had higher levels of financial and subjective well-being. Regardless of work involvement, substantial numbers reported serious economic difficulties and financial strain. Many still needed income supplements and…

  17. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  18. ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE in accordance with the PHS Policy for

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    #12;1 A3414-01 ANIMAL WELFARE ASSURANCE in accordance with the PHS Policy for Humane Care and Use of this document, provide assurance that this Institution will comply with the Public Health Service Policy OF ASSURANCE This Assurance is applicable to all research, research training, experimentation, biological

  19. Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This sixth annual report provides welfare dependence indicators through 2000, reflecting changes since enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act in 1996 and highlighting benefits under Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), now Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); the Food Stamp program; and Supplement…

  20. Disaster Preparedness Resource Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This guide offers best practices for disaster management at child welfare agencies. Its recommendations are firmly rooted in published disaster-related research and the advice of human service and preparedness experts. It is not a reinvention of disaster management--much quality work has been done in this field--but a synthesis of experts'…